Stroitel`nye Materialy №4

Table of contents

УДК 666.3

T.V. GUSEVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.I. ZAKHAROV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Ya.P. MOLCHANOVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), M.A. VARTANYAN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); A.A. AKBEROV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Dmitry Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (9, Miusskaya Sq., 125047 Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 «LSR Stenovye-M» (12, Aviamotornaya Street, 111024, Moscow, Russian Federation)

The Best Accessible Technologies of Ceramic Building Materials Production as an Instrument of Ecological Regulation of the Industry
The article is devoted to prospects of the transition to the ecological regulation in the field of environment in Russia. Features and results of the process of preparation of the information- technical reference guide of the best accessible technologies (BAT) «Manufacture of Ceramic Products» are described; its contents are considered. Examples of BAT for production of ceramic products applicable in the industry in general, and values of technological parameters set for the production of bricks are presented. A suggestion to revise the criteria of attributing the enterprises for ceramic products manufacture to the objects of the first category is made. Recommendations on the improvement and actualization of the reference guide and conduction of pilot projects at Russian enterprises are proposed.

Keywords: energy saving, resource saving, best accessible technologies, complex environmental permit, technological regulation, information-technical reference guides, ceramic building materials, benchmarking, pilot projects, complex environment permits.

1. BREEAM International New Construction (NC) Scheme. URL:
2. LEED Reference Guide for Building Design and Construction. LEED version: v4. 2013. URL: http:// and-construction.
3. Tsitsin K.G. Energy-efficient technology – the future of housing. Effektivnoe antikrizisnoe upravlenie. 2013. No. 2 (77), pp. 50–51. (In Russian).
4. Remizov A.N. On Stimulation of environmentally sustainable architecture and building. [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 1, pp. 41–43. (In Russian).
5. GOST R 54964-2012 Conformity assessment. Environmental requirements for real estate. Federal Agency on Technical Regulating and Metrology. 36 p. (In Russian).
6. Averochkin E.M., Molchanova Ya.P., Guseva T.V., Vartanyan M.A. National standards for best available techniques as a tool for environmental regulation of enterprises, producing ceramic products. Khimicheskaya promyshlennost’ segodnya. 2013. No. 9, pp. 34–42. (In Russian).
7. Guseva T.V., Begak M.V., Molchanova Ya.P., Averochkin E.M., Vartanyan M.A. Prospects for the introduction of best available technologies and transition to integrated environmental permits in the production of glass and ceramics. Steklo i keramika. 2014. No. 7, pp. 26–36. (In Russian).
8. Skobelev D.O., Mezentseva O.V. NTD - an element of control and to prevent negative impacts on the environment. Kontrol’ kachestva produktsii. 2014. No. 6, pp. 7–12. (In Russian).
9. Guseva T.V., Molchanova Ya.P., Mironov A.V., Malkov A.V. Best available techniques: a new environmental dimension of quality in the building materials industry. Kompetentnost’. 2015. No. 8, pp. 48.
10. Federal Law of July 21, 2014 № 219-FZ “On Amendments to the Federal Law” On Environmental Protection “and Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation”. Rossiiskaya gazeta – Federal’nyi vypusk. 2014. No. 6438 (166). (In Russian).
11. RF Government Resolution of September 28, 2015 № 1029 “On approval of the criteria for classifying objects that have a negative impact on the environment, to the objects I, II, III and IV categories.” http://government. ru/media/files/oHAMAREx1e9uyphc0U8Vq5ikOoy- MOrAo.pdf.
12. The Handbook of Environmental Voluntary Agreements. Design, Implementation and Evaluation Issues. Ed. Croci Edoardo. Netherlands: Springer. 381 p.
13. Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control). Official Journal of the European Union. 17.12.2010, pp. L334/17-L334/119.
14. Begak M.V., Boravskaya T.V., Ruut Yu., Molchanova Ya.P., Zakharov A.I., Sivkov S.P. Nailuchshie dostupnye tekhnologii i kompleksnye ekologicheskie razresheniya: perspektivy primeneniya v Rossii [Best available techniques and integrated environmental permits: prospects of application in Russia] Moscow: YurInfoRPress. 2010. 220 p.
15. Information and technical reference “Production of ceramic products” ITS 4M .: Bureau of BAT. 2015. http://
16. GOST R 55646-2013. Resource. Manufacture of bricks and ceramic stones. Guidance on the application of best available energy efficiency and environmental impact of technology. Moscow: Standartinform. 2014. (In Russian).
17. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in Ceramic Manufacturing Industry. The European IPPC Bureau, 2007. URL: BREF/cer_bref_0807.pdf.
18. Guseva T.V., Begak M.V., Molchanova Ya.P. Principles of creation and perspectives of information and technical manuals BAT.
УДК 691.42 + 552.52 A.V. KOTLYAR1, Engineer (, B.V. TALPA2, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy) (, Ya.V. LAZAREVA1, Engineer
1 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-na-Donu, 344022, Russian Federation)
2 Southern Federal University (105/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-na-Donu, 344006, Russian Federation)

Features of Chemical Com positions of Argillite-like Clays and Argillites
The characteristic of the chemical composition and structural features of stone-like argillous raw material which includes argillite-like clays, argillites, clay-slates, siltstones and transitional varieties of these types of rocks is presented. The substantiation of a specific set of rock-forming elements in the composition of this raw material that determines the suitability of this raw material for manufacturing building ceramics is made. Ceramic and technological properties are presented. It is revealed that the chemical composition of argillite-like clays and argillites favors the obtaining, on their basis, roof tile, facing, wall, and road clinker bricks that makes this raw material enough promising.

Keywords: clay, argillite, minerals, ceramics, brick.

1. Kotlyar V.D., Kozlov A.V., Kotlyar A.V., Teriohina U.V. Features the claystone of East Donbass as raw materials for production of wall ceramics. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 10, pp. 95–105. (In Russian).
2. Talpa B.V., Kotlyar A.V. Mineral resources the litifitsirovannykh of clay breeds of the South of Russia for production of construction ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
3. Kara-sal B.K., Kotel’nikov V.I., Sapelkina T.V. Receiving ceramic wall material from overburden breeds of coal preparation. Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki. 2015. No. 2, pp. 160–163. (In Russian).
4. Stolboushkin A.U. Wall ceramic materials of matrix structure on the basis of enrichment of waste of carbonaceous claystone. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 2–3, pp. 28–36. (In Russian).
5. Stolboushkin A.U., Ivanov A.I., Syromyasov V.A., Fomina O.A., Druzhinin M.S., Zlobin V.I. Effect of annealing temperature on the sintering of the ceramic shard from tailings carbonaceous argillite. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 10 (682), pp. 39–48. (In Russian).
6. Ezerskii V. A. Clinker. Technology and properties. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 4, pp. 79–81. (In Russian).
7. Osipov V.I., Sokolov V.N. Gliny i ikh svoistva. Sostav, stroenie i formirovanie svoistv [Clays and their properties. The composition, structure and formation properties]. Moscow: GEOS. 2013. 576 p.
8. Frolov V.T. Litologiya. Kniga 2. [Lithology. Book 2]. Moscow: GEOS.1993. 432 p.
9. Kotel’nikov D.D., Konyukhov A.I. Glinistye mineraly osadochnykh porod [Clay minerals of sedimentary rocks]. Moscow: Nedra. 1986. 247 p.
10. Kotlyar V.D, Teriohina U.V., Kotlyar A.V. Technique of tests of stone raw materials for production of wall products of compression formation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
11. Kotlyar V.D, TerekhinaYu.V., Kotlyar A.V. Technique of tests of stone raw materials for production of wall products of compression formation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
12. Kotlyar A.V., Talpa B.V. Features of claystone of the South of Russia as raw materials for production of clincer. The collection of works of scientific conference of students and young scientists with the international participation «Actual problems of sciences about Earth». Rostov-on-Don: SFU. 2015. pp. 51–53. (In Russian).
13. Avgustinik A.I. Keramika [Ceramics]. Leningrad: Stroiizdat. 1975. 592 p.
14. Logvinenko N.V. Petrografiya osadochnykh porod [Petrography of sedimentary rocks]. Moscow: Vysshaja shkola. 1984. 450 p.
15. The help document on the best available technologies. Complex prevention and control of environmental pollution. Production of pottery. Brussels: Works of institute on research of perspective technologies of the EU. 2007. 272 p.
УДК 691.41 A.M. SALAKHOV1, Candidate of Science (Engineering) (; V.P. MOROZOV2, Doctor of Science (Geology); A.L. BOGDANOVSKIY3, Production Manager; L.R. TAGIROV1, Doctor of Science (Physics and Mathematics)
1 Kazan Federal University. Institute of Physics (18, Kremlevskaya Street, Kazan, 420008, Russian Federation)
2 Kazan Federal University. Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technology (18, Kremlevskaya Street, Kazan, 420008, Russian Federation)
3 ”Lasselsberger-Ufa” OOO (8, Electrozavodskaya Street, Zubovo Village, 450520, Ufa District, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)

Optimization of Brick Production from Clays of the Vlasovo-Timoninskoe Deposit
Different points of view on the behavior of kaolin clays in the process of burning are presented. Thermal characteristics of the clay of the Vlasovo-Timoninskoe deposit have been studied. Mineral phases formed in the process of burning are revealed. The comparison of data obtained with mineral phases of burned clays from other deposits has been made. On the basis of the study results, corrections have been made in the burning regime at the facing brick factory of the LSR Group in the city of Pavlovsky Posad, Moscow oblast.

Keywords: energy saving, ceramics, ceramic brick, kaolinite, kaolinite clays, thermal study, mineral phases, characteristics of material.

1. Timoshenco T.I., Shamshurov V.M., Timoshenco K.V. Issledovanie prozessa fasoobrazovaniy pri termoobrabotke kaolinita. Belgorod. 2010.
2. Sidelnikova M.B., Pogrebencov B.M. Keramichesckie pigmenti na osnove prirodnogo i technogennogo mineralnogo ciria. Tomsk. 2014. 262 p.
3. Schegolev I.F. Elementy statisticheskoy mechaniki, termodinamiki i kinetiki. Dolgoprudniy: «Intellekt». 2008. 208 p.
4. Salakhov A.M., Tagirov L.R. Structuroobrazovanie keramiki iz glin, formiruiushich pri obshige razlichnie mineralnie fazi. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 8, pp. 68–74. (In Russian).
5. Merer Kh. Diffusiya v tverdykh telakh [Diffusion in Solids. Translation from English: Scientific publication]. Dolgoprudniy: «Intellekt». 2011. 536 p.
6. Nicolis G., Prigogine I. Posnanie sloznogo. Vvedenie. [Exploring complexity. An introduction.Translation from English]. Moscow. Mir, 1990. 334 p.
УДК 666.7.022 A.Yu. STOLBOUSHKIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (; G.I. STOROZHENKO2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (; A.I. IVANOV1, Engineer (, V.A. SYROMYASOV1, Engineer, D.V. AKST1, Engineer
1 Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirov Street, Kemerovo Region, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)
2 «Baskey Keramik», OOO (1b, Stepana Razina Street, Chelyabinsk, 454111, Russian Federation)

Rational Methods for Raw Material Preparation in the Wall Ceramics Technology of Compression Molding*
The rational methods for raw material preparation in the wall ceramics technology of compression molding are formulated. It is established that for the low-quality clay raw materials and industrial waste the grinding up to class -0.3 +0 mm is required. The best packaging of the fine-dispersed raw material during the molding is achieved through its preliminary aggregation in the mixer-granulators of intense action. It is found that at optimal molding pressures in the process of adobe compaction before the plastic deformation of granules at their boundaries the concentration of the liquid phase takes place due to the squeezing moisture out of the granules that contributes to sintering of the product during burning. In the industrial conditions the possibility for production of an effective facing ceramic brick by compression molding from low-quality raw material and industrial wastes with an optimal stricture, high mechanical and decorative qualities is confirmed.

Keywords: rational raw material preparation, ceramic brick, compression molding, granulation, optimal structure

1. Kramer C. Ceramic Ethnoarchaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology. 1985. No. 14, pp. 77–102.
2. Laefer D. Engineering Properties of Historic Brick: Variability Considerations as a Function of Stationary versus Nonstationary Kiln Types. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation. 2004. No. 3, pp. 255–272.
3. Ashmarin G.D. Status and prospects of development of the production base of ceramic wall materials in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 8, p. 6. (In Russian).
4. Ashmarin G.D., Kurnosov V.V., Belyaev S.E. et al. Substantiation of efficiency of compression molding of ceramic building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 8, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
5. Stolboushkin A.Yu. The theoretical basis for formation of ceramic ma-trix composites based on natural and technogenic raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 10–15. (In Russian).
6. Schlegel I.F. Problems of semidry pressing of bricks. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 2, pp. 18–19. (In Russian).
7. Vylomov F.A. Import substitution of building materials in Russia. Stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 4, pp. 40–42. (http:// a n c b . r u / f i l e s / p d f / p c / O t r a s l e v o y _ z h u r n a l _ Stroitelstvo_-_2015_god_04_2015_pc.pdf). (In Russian).
8. Grubachich B. Company BEDESCHI: the second century among the leaders of mechanical engineering for the ceramic industry Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 4, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).
9. Rogovoy M.I. Tekhnologiya iskusstvennykh poristykh zapolnitelei i keramiki [The technology of artificial porous aggregates and ceramics]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1974. 315 p.
10. Storozhenko G.I., Gurov N.G., Chivelev V.D. et al. [Experimental-industrial testing of the technology of fine-grinded mineral and technogenious and clay carbonized raw materials for the production of wall ceramics]. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 48–50. (In Russian).
11. Spravochnik po proizvodstvu stroitel’noi keramiki. Tom III. Stenovaya i krovel’naya keramika [Guide to the production of building ceramics. Volume III. Wall and roof ceramics. Ed. by Skramtaeva B.G.] Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1962. 608 p.
12. Kaynarsky I.S., Lesnichenko S.L. Ogneupory [Refractories]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1948. 361 p.
13. Ivanov A.I., Stolboushkin A.Yu., Storozhenko G.I. Principles of creat-ing the optimal structure of a semi-dried pressed ceramic brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 65–69. (In Russian).
14. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Ivanov A.I., Zorya V.N. et al. Features of granulation of technogenic and natural raw materials for production of wall ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 85–89. (In Russian).
УДК 666.03
V.A. KLEVAKIN, Engineer (, Executive Director, E.V. KLEVAKINA, Engineer, Chief Technologist «NANO KERAMIKA» OOO (18a-25, 50 Let SSSR Street, Sverdlovsk Region, Pervouralsk, 623103, Russian Federation)

Efficient Solution of Self-Cost Reduction of Ceramic Products Manufactured by Semi-Dry Pressing Method
The necessity of introducing a binder to the charge for producing the clinker brick by the method of semi-dry compression is substantiated. The technological bond «KOMPAS-BR» which is a colloid mix of liquid glass and organic activators is described. Results of the laboratory study of the bond application efficiency conducted at OAO «Sukholozhsky ogneuporny zavod» are presented. It is shown that the introduction of the binder «KOMPAS-BR» in a quantity of 6% makes it possible to improve the strength of samples by 93%.

Keywords: energy saving, resource saving, self-cost reduction, adhesion, wetting, ceramic brick, binder, liquid glass, technical lignosulphonates, solid-phase sintering.

1. Deryabin V.A., Klevakina E.V. Explore the use of inorganic binders for briquetting of powder materials. Novye ogneupory. 2015. No. 3, pp. 39–40. (In Russian).
2. Kiik A.A., Markova S.V., Kormina I.V., Markova Zh.S. The use of polymers in the production of metallurgical briquettes. Novye ogneupory. 2013. No. 3, pp. 29–30. (In Russian).
3. Zemlyanoi K.G. Temporary bonding technology in the industry. Novye ogneupory. 2013. No. 3, pp. 15–17. (In Russian).
4. Ebbrekht T., Veierskhauzen B., Fon Raimon Lipinski T., Shtorm Kh. New high-performance bundle for refractories. Novye ogneupory. 2009. No. 7, pp. 37–39. (In Russian).
УДК 666.3
B.K. KARA-SAL, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, D.H. SAT, Engineer, Sh.V. SEREN, Engineer, D.S. MONGUSh, Engineer Tuva state university (36, Lenina Street, Kyzyl, Respublika Tyva, 667000, Russian Federation)

Wall Ceramics from Non-Traditional Raw Materials
A possibility to obtain wall ceramic materials of porous dense ceramic body on the basis of non-traditional materials, as quartz-feldspar-zeolite rocks and sandstones, is shown. It is proved that quartz-feldspar-zeolite rock is suitable for manufacturing porous ceramic wall products at the burning temperature of 900–1000оC and for formation of the dense sintered structure and moderate fire shrinkage of the mass, the introduction of 20% of sandstone is required.

Keywords: energy saving, resource saving, expansion of raw material base, ceramic brick, quartz-feldspar-zeolite rock, sandstones, properties, porous and dense ceramic stone.

1. Kotlyar V.D., Ustinov A.V., Kovalev V.Yu., Terekhina Yu.V., Kotlyar A.V. Ceramic stones of compression moulding on the basis of gaizes and coal preparation waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 44–48. (In Russian).
2. Stolboushkin A.Ju., Stolboushkina O.A., Ivanov A.I., Syromjasov V.A., Pljas M.A. Wall ceramic materials of matrix structure from cleaning rejects of coaly argillites. Izvestija vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 2–3 (650–651), pp. 28–36. (In Russian).
3. Gurieva V.A., Dubinetsky V.V., Vdovin K.M. Drilling Slurry in Production of Building Ceramic Products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 75–77. (In Russian).
4. Ovcharenko G.I., Sviridov V.L., Kazanceva L.K. Ceolity v stroitel’nyh materialah [Zeolites in construction materials]. Barnaul: AltGTU. 2000. 320 p.
5. Yatsenko N.D., Zubekhin A.P. Scientific bases of innovative technologies of ceramic bricks and the management of its properties depending on chemical and mineralogical composition of materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
6. Vakalova T.V., Pogrebenkov V.M., Revva I.B. Technological ways of regulation of behavior of ceramic masses to drying. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 2, pp. 56–58. (In Russian).
УДК 691.42 V.V. KURNOSOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics) (, A.A. DOROZhKIN2, Engineer (, N.N. KALININA2, Engineer, V.R. TIHONOVA1, Engineer, A.V. FILATOV1, Master
1 OOO «KOMAS» (8A, Martovskaja Street, Aprelevka, Moscow Region, 143362, Russian Federation)
2 OOO NPP «Teploograzhdenie» (1, Parkovaja Street, Aprelevka, Moscow Region, 143360, Russian Federation)

Energy Efficient Technologies of Ceramic Products Burning in Chamber Kilns
Technical solutions, which make it possible to manufacture chamber kilns of periodical action for ceramic products burning meeting the complex of technological and energy-environmental requirements, are considered. It is shown that the manufacture of chamber kilns for small enterprises which produce from 5 to 15 million pieces of equivalent brick per year and especially use the method of compression molding is very actual one. It is possible to execute the reducing firing in gas-tight chamber kilns. The design of the chamber kiln with recirculation contours makes it possible, with the use of high-speed recuperative burners, to obtain the high uniformity of the temperature field on the surface of heated products and for the whole volume of kiln space as well as to reduce the fuel consumption by up to 40%.

Keywords: energy efficiency, chamber kilns, recuperative burners, burning, ceramic fiber, ceramic products, compression molding, fuel saving.

1. Kurnosov V.V., Shakhov I.I. Technology fast firing ceramic products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2001. No. 2, p. 7. (In Russian).
2. Shakhov I.I., Kurnosov V.V. Two-chamber furnace for firing ceramic products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2003. No. 2, p. 24. (In Russian).
3. Ashmarin G.D., Kurnosov V.V., Lastochkin V.G. Energy and resources saving technology of ceramic wall materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 4, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
4. Ashmarin G.D., Lastochkin V.G., Sinyansky V.I., Ilyukhin V.V., Kurnosov V.V. Reduction of a cycle of thermal treatment in technology of ceramic brick compression moulding. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 43–44. (In Russian).
5. Grishin I.E., Gorshkov A.S., Gubin B.P. On increasing the energy efficiency of thermal units due to the prospects of the use of modern fire-resistant and heat-insulating materials. Novye ogneupory. 2007. No. 12, pp. 6–9. (In Russian).
6. Shakhov I.I., Dorozhkin A.A., Kalinina N.N., Kurnosov V.V. Construction linings of thermal and heating furnaces based fibrous refractory materials. Proceedings of the III International scientific-practical conference: Metallurgical heat engineering: history, current status and future. On the centenary of the birth of Glinkova M.A. 2006. (In Russian).
7. Nevgen P., Richardson D. Unique anchor design produces improved refractory performance (Vhi – Gmbh). The Refractories Engineer. 2003. p. 38.
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9. Dorokhina O.G., Kurnosov V.V., Levitskii I.A. Mathematical modeling of gas dynamics and heat transfer in the workspace precision heating furnace at various modes of burners. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Sword. 2012. Vol. 10. (In Russian).
10. Spirin N.A., Lavrov V.V., Rybolovlev V.Yu., Krasnobaev A.V., Onorin O.P., Kosachenko I.E. Model’nye sistemy podderzhki prinyatiya reshenii v ASUTP domennoi plavki [Model decision support system in an automated blast furnace control system]. Ekaterinburg: UrFU. 2011. 462 p
УДК 666.3.022
I.F. SHLEGEL, Candidate of Sciences, General Director (, V.G. IVANOV, Engineer, Head of Heat Engineering Department, D.L. SHAPOVALOV, Engineer-Designer Institute of New Technologies and Automation of the Industry of Construction Materials (OOO “INTA-Stroy”) (100, 1-ja Putevaja Street, Omsk, 644113, Russian Federation)

Optimization of Tunnel Kilns
Optimization of brick burning in tunnel kilns by means of organizing the zones of heat carrier recirculation with the use of flame blower of a new type is proposed. Overheating of the ventilator shaft and motor is provided by the simple and reliable clutch. The design of clutch has spokes made in the form of blades which rotate in surrounding air and are cooled by it. Introduction of this method can increase the productivity of the kiln by up to 10% or improve the quality of ready-made products.

Keywords: energy saving, ceramic brick, tunnel kiln, heat carrier recirculation, flame blower.

1. Khimicheskaya tekhnologiya keramiki / Pod red. prof. I.Ya. Guzmana [Chemical ceramic technology. Ed. by I.Ya. Guzman.]. Moscow: OOO RIF «Stroimaterialy». 2003. 496 p.
2. Barenboim A.M., Galieva T.M., Ginzburg D.B., Grissik A.M., Zimin V.N., Kuzyak V.A., Rutman E.M., Khodorov E.I., Chizhskiy A.F. Teplovye raschety pechei i sushilok silikatnoi promyshlennosti [Thermal calculations furnaces and dried silicate industry]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1964. 496 p.
3. Nokhratyan K.A. Sushka i obzhig v promyshlennosti stroitel’noy keramiki [The drying and firing of ceramics in the construction industry]. Moscow: Gosstroyizdat. 1962. 195 p.
4. Gnezdov E.N., Gnezdov N.E., Marchenko Yu.I., Perezhigin E.A., Lopatina M.V., Tsvetkova M.S. Technological energy audit of a tunnel kiln for ceramic products burning. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 54–57. (In Russian).
5. Patent RU 2541076. MPK: F04D29/00. Ventilyator dlya peremeshcheniya goryachikh gazov [Ventilator for moving hot gases]. Shlegel’ I.F. Published 10.02.2015. Bulletin No. 4. (In Russian).
УДК 666.712
Je.G. SAENKO, Commercial Director, V.F. KOREPANOVA, Chief Technologist of Nikolsky Brick-Works, G.I. GRINFEL’D, Engineer OOO «LSR. Stenovye» (40, lit. A, Oktjabr’skaja Embankment, 193091, Sankt-Peterburg, Russian Federation)

Capabilities of Façade Clinker Brick of «LSR» Brand to Substitute Import
The development of production of clinker products in Russia is analyzed. It is shown that after reaching the design capacity by the clinker line of the Nikolsky brick factory of LRS Group, the confident import substitution of this production type has started. On the example of the Housing Cooperative «ZILART», possibilities to use the clinker ceramics for façade finishing are demonstrated. New structural decisions and new options of masonries are presented.

Keywords: import substitution, energy saving, clinker brick, suspended façade, Nikolsky brick factory, HC «ZILART».

1. Gavrilov A.V., Grinfeld G.I. A Brief Review of History, Conditions and Prospects of Clinker Brick Market in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 20–22. (In Russian).
2. Korepanova V.F., Grinfeld G.I. Production of clinker brick at Nikol’sky Brick Factory of LSR Group. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
3. Ishhuk M.K. Requirements to multilayered walls with flexible communications. Zhilishnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
4. Ishhuk M.K. Otechestvennyj opyt vozvedenija zdanij s naruzhnymi stenami iz oblegchennoj kladki [Domestic experience of construction of buildings with external walls from the facilitated laying]. Moscow. RIF «Strojmaterialy», 2009. 360 p.
УДК 624:692.231.2
E.I. KIREEVA, Candidate of Science (Engineering) (, V.S. BELYAEV, Candidate of Science (Engineering) AO «TSNIIEP zhilishcha» – institute for complex design of residential and public buildings» (AO «TSNIIEP zhilishcha») (9/3, Dmitrovskoe Highway, Moscow, 127434, Russian Federation)

Design of Non-Bearing Three-Layered External Walls with Brick Facing in Civil Buildings with Increased Number of Storeys
On the example of the Moscow climatic region, three types of non-bearing external walls of three-layered design from small piece materials with a brick facing layer, ventilated air gap, efficient heat insulation and variants of the internal later – from cellular concrete blocks (type 1), brick masonry (type 2) and masonry made of ceramic stones of 140 mm height (type 3) to use in frame buildings of 50, 75, and 100 m height are considered. Requirements for calculation and design of three-layered external walls, fulfilling of which makes it possible to ensure the reliability of solutions considered at the stage of project development, are presented. As an example, results of the calculation of fragments of walls with one and two openings located in the pitch of bearing structures of 4.4 and 6 m respectively are also presented. The dependence of the facing layer on the height of the building, length of calculated fragments and conditions of fastening to bearing structures is determined.

Keywords: three-layered external walls, ventilated air gap, reliability and safety, vertical temperature-deformation joint.

1. Ishchuk M.K. Causes of defects in the external walls with facing layer of masonry. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
2. Voznyuk A.B, Kireeva E.I. Facades of large-panel buildings made of small-piece elements. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 63–65. (In Russian).
3. Ishchuk M.K. Requirements for multi-layer walls with flexible connections. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2008. No. 5, pp. 15–19. (In Russian).
4. Malakhova A.N. Defects in the outer walls of the building in a multi-layer masonry. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 10, pp. 87–94. (In Russian).
5. Obozov V.I., Davidyuk A.A. Analysis of the damage of a brick facade of multi-storey frame buildings. Seysmostoikoe stroitel’stvo. Bezopasnost’ sooruzheniy. 2010. No. 3, pp. 51–56. (In Russian).
6. Umnyakova N.P. The durability of sandwich walls with facing brick with a high level of thermal protection. Vestnik MGSU. 2013. No. 1, pp. 94–100. (In Russian).
7. Kireeva E.I., Val’ E.G. To the problem of calculation of three layered non bearing external walls with brick facing for wind loads. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 4, pp. 40–43. (In Russian).
УДК 693.22 G.I. YAKOVLEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, G.N. PERVUSHIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); O. KIZIEVICH2, Doctor-Engineer (; Yu.N. GINCHITSKAYA1, Engineer, P.A. TAIBAKHTINA1, Student
1 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)
2 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (11, Saule tekio al., LT–10223, Vilnius, Lithuania)

Influence of Efflorescence in Masonry on The Destruction of the Polymer Coating
This article discusses the causes of salt appearance on the brick building facades and their influence the destruction of the ceramic bricks polymer coating in the operation of buildings. One of the reasons for the formation of efflorescence is brick’s humidity that occurs when unobstructed exposure of atmospheric moisture on masonry because of violations of construction technology of curtain walls. The absence of air gaps in the masonry, between brickwork and insulation, leads to additional moistening of walls at their operation. Discovered that mechanism of efflorescence is initiated by the mortar components. Infrared spectral analysis showed that the reason of efflorescence is sodium sulfate and calcium carbonate, which is formed from sodium oxide and calcium hydroxide. Thus, in accordance with the technical specifications for mortars sodium oxide content, for example, is limited to 0.6%.

Keywords: efflorescence, ceramic bricks, sodium sulfate, calcium carbonate.

1. Yakovlev G.I., Gailyus A. Salt corrosion of ceramic bricks. Steklo i keramika. 2005. No. 10, pp. 20–22. (In Russian).
2. Politaeva A.I., Eliseeva N.I., Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Havránek Jií, Mikhailova O.Yu. Role of silica fume in formation of cement matrix structure and efflorescence in vibrocompressed products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 49–55. (In Russian).
3. Orientlikher L.P., Loganina V.I. Zashchitno-dekorativnye pokrytiya betonnykh i kamennykh sten: Sprav. posobie [Protective and decorative coatings of concrete and stone walls: Ref. benefit]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1993. 120 p.
4. Inchik V.V. Salt corrosion brickwork. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2001. No. 8, pp. 35–37. (In Russian).
5. Gorshkov V.S., Savel’ev V.G., Abakumov A.V. Vyazhushchie, keramika i steklokristalicheskie materialy: Struktura i svoistva: Spravochnoe posobie [Cementing, ceramics and glass-crystalline materials: Structure and properties: A Reference Guide]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1994. 584 p.
6. Flatt R.J. Salt damage in porous materials: how high supersaturations are generated. Journal Crystal Growth. 2002. Vol. 242 (3–4), pp. 435–454.
7. Bassuoni M.T., Rahman M.M. Response of concrete to accelerated physical salt attack exposure. Cement and Concrete Research. 2016. Vol. 79, pp. 395–408.
8. Maciulaitis R., Malaiskiene J. Statybynes keramikos charakteristiku ir technologiniu parametru reguliavimo galimybes: monografija. Vilnius: Technika 2012. 184 p.
УДК 691.327.332:539.2
V.V. NELUBOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, I.I. PODGORNIY, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, Y.V. PALSHINA, Engineer ( Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Autoclave Gas Concrete with Nanostructured Aluminosilicate Modifier*
The efficiency of application of aluminosilicate modifier based on magmatic acid rock – granite is demonstrated. Enhancement of physical, mechanical and performance characteristics of modified composites associated with optimization of rheological properties of binding mixture, acceleration of structure formation process as well as formation of rational composition with heterosize new phases under hydrothermal conditions is shown. Pore space of the developed composites is characterized by heteroporous structure with impact interpore partition explaining the reducing of final product density when their strength is constant. Results of the study allow proposing autoclave gas concrete compositions with nanostructured modifier using for cement in molding mixtures. It allows production the heat-insulating and structural-heat-insulating materials with high isolation and strength at reduced cost.

Keywords: gas concrete, autoclave curing, modifier, aluminosilicate raw materials, granite, microstructure

1. Nelyubova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Strokova V.V., Goncharova T.Yu. Features of structure formation in colored silicate materials with nanostructured binder. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2010. No. 3, pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
2. Nelyubova V.V., Zhernovskiy I.V., Strokova V.V., Bezrodnykh M.V. Autoclave silicate materials with nanostructured modifier under high-temperature service. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 9, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
3. Nelyubova V.V., Altynnik N.I., Strokova V.V., Podgorniy I.I. Rheological properties of cellular concrete mixture with nanostructured modifier. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2014. No. 2, pp. 58–61. (In Russian).
4. Nelyubova V.V., Strokova V.V., Altynnik N.I. Cellular autoclave composites with nanostructured modifier. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
5. Strokova V.V., Nelyubova V.V., Altynnik N.I., Zhernovskiy I.V., Osadchiy E.G. Phase formation in the system «cement – lime – silica» under hydrothermal conditions with using of nanostructured modifier. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, pp. 30–33. (In Russian).
6. Vishnevskiy A.A., Grinfel’d G.I., Kulikova N.O. Review of Russian market of autoclave gas concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 40–44. (In Russian).
7. Alfimova N.I., Cherkasov V.S. Prospective of application of wastes from keramzit production in construction material science. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2010. No. 3, pp. 21–24. (In Russian).
8. Alfimova N.I., Shapovalov N.N. Autoclave materials with industrial aluminosilicate raw materials. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2013. No. 6-3, pp. 525–529. (In Russian).
9. Strokova V.V., Alfimova N.I., Cherkasov V.S., Shapovalov N.N. Pressed autoclave materials with wastes from haydite production. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 3, pp. 14–15. (In Russian).
10. Volodchenko A.N., Lesovik V.S. Silicate autoclave materials on the base of aluminosilicate raw materials as optimization factor of the system «Human – material – environment». Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 3, pp. 27–33. (In Russian).
11. Volodchenko A.N. Study of products of clay and lime interaction under autoclave curing. Innovatsii v nauke. 2014. No. 30-1, pp. 89–95. (In Russian).
12. Volodchenko A.N., Lesovik V.S. Rheological characteristics of gas concrete mixture on the base of non-conventional raw materials. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2012. No. 3, pp. 45–48. (In Russian).
13. Zhernovskiy I.V., Nelyubova V.V., Strokova V.V., Osadchiy E.G. Phase formation of binders in the system «lime – granite nanostructured binder». Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 10, pp. 49–53. (In Russian).
УДК 666.973.6
G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer (; N.N. MOROZOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); V.V. KLOKOV, Student; S.R. ZIGANGARAEVA, Student Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan 420043, Russian Federation)

Silicate Brick and Autoclaved Gas Concrete with the Use of Waste of Own Production
The mineralogical composition of brick and gas concrete waste is presented by calcium hydro-silicates which are, while seemingly the same nature, substantially different. In the proposed studies, results of the use of additives produced from waste of gas concrete and silicate brick are given. The technology of brick production makes it possible to utilize large volumes of gas concrete waste without expense of quality of products and reduce the consumption of raw materials by 5–10%.

Keywords: autoclaved gas concrete, silicate brick, sand, green strength, autoclaved strength, resource saving.

1. Semenov A.A. Silicate Wall Materials Market and Problems of Providing Industry with Raw Materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 40–43. (In Russian).
2. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N., Khozin V.G. Facing Layer and Hydrophobizator in Manufacture of Aerated Concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 8, pp. 8–10. (In Russian).
3. Bоzhenov P.I. Tekhnologiya avtoklavnykh materialov [Technology of autoclave materials]. Leningrad: Stroiizdat. 1978. 368 p.
4. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Problems of Replacement of Traditional Technology of Silicate Brick with Preparation of a Lime- Siliceous Binder by Direct Technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, pp. 14–17. (In Russian).
5. Kuznetsova G.V. A Lime Binder for Wall Silicate Products from Chippings of Rock Crushing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 34–37. (In Russian).
6. Sazhnev. N.P., Sazhnev N.N., Sazhneva N.N., Golubev N.M. Proizvodstvo yacheistobetonnykh izdelii. Teoriya i praktika [Production Aerated Concrete of products. Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2010. 464 p.
7. Morozova N.N., Kuznetsova G.V., Golosov A.K. Influence of Cements from Different Producers on Properties of Cellular-Concrete Mix of Autoclaved Gas Concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 49–51. (In Russian).
8. Kuznetsova G.V. Optimization of Calculations of Lime- Sand Mix Compositions for Moulding of Silicate Brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 20–24. (In Russian).
УДК 666.973.6 S.A. ANTIPINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); S.V. ZMANOVSKIY2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Director
1 National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation)
2 Branch «Innovation Center» OOO «SUAL-PM» (2, Yuzhnaya Street, Shelekhov, 666034, Irkutsk region, Russian Federation)

Research in Influence of Powder and Granular Aluminum Gas-Forming Agent on Properties of Cellular Concrete
The phase composition and properties of cellular concrete produced with the use of a powder and granular gas-forming agent on the basis of aluminum powder of RA20–RA60 brands has been studied. The granular aluminum gas-forming agent has a high content of active aluminum, 88-90%. Granules possess a low degree of dusting and delay of gas emission in the first minutes in comparison with a powder gas-forming agent. Cellular concrete, produced with the use of granules of aluminum powder, has elevated, by 6–10%, values of compressive strength.

Keywords: cellular concrete, aluminum powder, granular gas-forming agent.

1. Pehlivanli Z.O., Uzun I., Demir I. Mechanical and microstructural features of autoclaved aerated concrete reinforced with autoclaved polypropylene, carbon, basalt and glass fiber. Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 96, pp. 428–433
2. Sanjayan J.G., Nazari A., Chen L., Nguyen G.H. Physical and mechanical properties of lightweight aerated geopolymer. Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 79, pp. 236–244.
3. Semerikov I.S., Vishnevskiy A.A., Zapol’skaya A.A. Comparative assessment of new gas developing agents for manufacture of autoclave gas concrete. Stroitel’- nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 1, pp. 47–49. (In Russian).
4. Prokhorov S.B. Specialized blowing for cellular concrete autoclaved. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, p. 48. (In Russian).
5. Pshenichnyi G.N. Stadiinost’ tverdeniya tsementa: teoreticheskiy i prakticheskiy aspekty [Stages of cement hardening: theoretical and practical aspects]. Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. 2012. 388 p.
6. Lotov V.A. Changing the phase composition of cement– water during hydration and hardening. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2012. Vol. 321. No. 3, pp. 42–45. (In Russian).
7. Dvorkin L., Dvorkin O. Spetsial’nye betony [Special concrete]. Moscow: Infra-Inzheneriya. 2012. 368 p.
8. Abdulkareem O.A., Mustafa Al Bakri, Kamarudin A.M., Khairul Nizar H., Saif A.A. Effects of elevated temperatures on the thermal behavior and mechanical performance of fly ash geopolymer paste, mortar and lightweight concrete. Construction and Building Materials. 2014. Vol. 50, pp. 377–387.
УДК 691.327.332 V.P. VYLEGZРANIN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, Director, V.A. PINSKER1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Research Manager; G.I. GRINFELD2, Executive Director (
1 The Cellular Concrete Center (1/3, Zodchego Rossi Street, Saint-Petersburg, 191023, Russian Federation)
2 National Association of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Manufacturers (40, Oktyabr’skaya Embankment, 193091, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Theoretical and Experimental Substantiations of Calculation of Forces for Pull-out of Anchors from Gas Concrete
Methods for calculation of forces required to pull-out profiled anchors from gas concrete are presented with theoretical and experimental substantiations. It is theoretically substantiated that the growth of limit value of the force required to pull-out an anchor is close to the directly proportional dependence on the depth of its anchoring. A limit force of anchor pull-out from gas concrete is the total resistance of forces preventing it because the shear stress diagram is close to the rectangular one. Presented formulae of calculation of forces required for anchor pull-out make it possible to calculate the forces of anchor pull-out from gas concrete with due regard for its density grade and cubic strength or the class B of compressive strength, characteristic of their profile (thread). When calculating forces, it is necessary to take into account the destruction of gas concrete under the profile picks in the form of shear or cutoff as well as its compaction by fractured particles of cement-sand stone formed in the process of screwing of the anchor. Forces of anchors pull-out obtained by calculation or experimentally are compared.

Keywords: anchors, gas concrete, force of anchor pull-out, cement-sand stone.

1. Vylegzhanin V.P. Opredelenie deformatsii elementov konstruktsii iz stalefibrobetona pri rastyazhenii i izgibe na razlichnykh stadiyakh zagruzheniya [Determination of deformation of structural elements of steel-fibroconcrete tensile and bending at different stages of loading loading. In book Spatial design in civil engineering] Leningrad: LenZNIIEP. 1982, pp. 53–60.
2. Reshetov D.N., Kirsanova V.N Tangent contact details of the compliance. The rigidity in mechanical engineering: Processing of scientific papers. Bryansk: BITM. 1971, pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
3. Karpenko N.I., Sudakov G.N., Leites E.S., Zolotov A.B. Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sostoyanie betona v zone kontakta s armaturoi do i posle obrazovaniya kontaktnykh treshchin [Stress-strain state of concrete in the zone of contact with the valve before and after the formation of the contact cracking]. Moscow: NIIZhB. 1979.
4. Shreiner L.A., Pavlova N.N., Yakushev V.P., Baidlyuk B.V. Application of the method to determine the indentation resistance to the destruction of rocks during drilling and qualitative assessment of the plasticity of rocks. Collection of articles: Experimental studies on the development of deep oil fields. Moscow. 1964. (In Russian).
5. Kholmyanskiy M.M., Erin N.N. Issledovanie mekhanizma stsepleniya armatury periodicheskogo profilya s betonom pri pomoshchi ispytaniy betona na mestnoe smyatie. V kn. Ankerovka armatury v betone [Research fittings periodic profile of the clutch mechanism with the concrete using a concrete test on local bearing. In book: Anchoring reinforcement in concrete]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1969.
6. Kholmyanskiy M.M. Kontakt armatury s betonom [Contact reinforcement with concrete]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1981.
7. Benefit for the design of concrete and reinforced concrete structures from cellular concrete. Moscow. 1986. ( 6f6a2387f1279238.pdf) (In Russian).
8. GOST R 53231-2008 Betony. Pravila kontrolya i otsenki prochnosti [Concrete. Rules for monitoring and evaluation of safety]. Moscow: Standartinform. 2009. (In Russian).
УДК 622
G.R. BUTKEVICH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, O.E. HARO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) FGUP VNIPIIstromsyrie (1, off. 311, Volokolamskoe Highway, A-80, 125080, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Problems of Conveyerisation of Mining Works
World experience of application of conveyor transport on pits of nonmetallic construction materials, since the middle of the 20th century is described. Conditions of application of line and cyclic and line technologies are analyzed. Characteristics of different types of the equipment used in these technologies are provided. The calculation method of parameters of bunkers feeders is stated.

Keywords: nonmetallic construction materials, tape conveyor, line and cyclic and line technologies, bunker feeder.

1. Buyanov Yu.D. Potochnaya i tsiklichno-potochnaya tekhnologiya na kar’erakh po dobyche nerudnykh stroitel’nykh materialov [Flow and cyclic-flow technology in the quarries for the extraction of non-metallic building materials]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1973. 149 p.
2. Buyanov Yu.D., Butkevich G.R., Kharo O.E. Konveiernyi transport na kar’erakh nerudnykh stroitel’nykh materialov [Conveying the quarries of nonmetallic building materials]. Moscow: VNIIESM. 1970.
3. Butkevich G.R. From the history of pipelining mining operations. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 4, pp. 10–11. (In Russian).
4. Pit & Quarry. 2015. June, рр. 56–59.
5. Pit & Quarry. 2015. July, рр. 24–41.
6. Butkevich G.R. Self-propelled crushing-riddling complexes. Experience and prospects of application. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 1, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
7. Bunker-pitatel’ samokhodnyi SMD-159 [Hopper-feeder propelled SMD-159]. Moscow: TsNIITEstroimash. 1987.
УДК 667.631.3
A.F. BUR’YANOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (; V.V. KRIVENKO, Engineer; A.D. ZHUKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), K.S. MOISEENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), M.O. ASAMATDINOV, Engineer Moscow state university of civil engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Marble Imitations
Imitations of marble are materials obtained by the modification of air binders (gypsum and lime). The development of technology of modified gypsum and lime is aimed at achieving the final strength of products comparable with natural stone and at improving their water resistance. Domestic developments on the basis of the technology of artificial water resistant «stone» for façade works became the base of new methods. For example, a group of materials on the basis of gypsum has been created – polymer-gypsum finishing materials. These materials are manufactured either by molding or by press technology.

Keywords: marble, structure, decorativeness, carbonic calcium gypsum, artificial marble, lime, gypsum.

1. Krivenko V.V., Ovchinskii D.V., Vainshtein M.M., Bur’yanov A.F., Goncharov Yu.A. Physical-Chemical Nature of Marble Decorativeness. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 8, pp. 16–18. (In Russian).
2. Bur’yanov A.F., Krivenko V.V., Zhukov A.D. Marble world. Tekhnologii intellektual’nogo stroitel’stva. 2014. No. 4, pp. 54–59. (In Russian).
3. Oreshkin D.V., Semenov V.S. Modern Materials And Sistems In The Construction Are Perspective Direction Of Teaching Of Construction Specialties. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 92–94. (In Russian).
4. Zhukov A.D. Korovyakov V.F., Naumova T.A., Asamatdinov M.O. Plaster mixes on the basis of clay gypsum. Nauchnoe obozrenie. 2015. No. 10, pp. 98–101. (In Russian).
5. Korovyakov V.F. Prospects of application waterproof plaster knitting in modern construction. Materials of the All-Russian seminar “Increase of production efficiency and use of plaster materials and products”. Moscow. 2002, pp. 51–56. (In Russian).
6. Rumyantsev B.M., Zhukov A.D. Principles of creation of new construction materials. Internet-Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya Politematicheskaya. Iss. 3. http://vestnik.vgasu. ru/attachments/RumyantsevZhukov-2012_3(23).pdf. (date of access 06.04.2016). (In Russian).
7. Sokov V.N., Beglyarov A.E., Zhabin D.V., Zemlyanushnov D.Yu. About opportunities of creation of effective heat-insulating materials by method of complex impact on active mobile masses hydroheatforce field. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 9, pp. 17–19. (In Russian).
8. Bessonov I.V. Plaster materials of new generation for finishing of facades of buildings. Materials of the All- Russian seminar “Increase of production efficiency and use of plaster materials and products”. Moscow: RAASN.2002, pp. 82–87. (In Russian).
9. Zhukov A.D., Orlova A.M., Naumova T.A., Nikushkina T.P., Maiorova A.A. Ecological aspects of formation of an insulating cover of buildings. Nauchnoe obozrenie. 2015. No. 7, pp. 209–212. (In Russian).
10. Bur’yanov A.F., Krivenko V.V., Zhukov A.D. Physical-Chemical Nature of Marble Decorativeness. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 11, pp. 78–81. (In Russian).
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX interConPan_2021