Stroitel`nye Materialy №12

Stroitel`nye Materialy №12
December, 2016

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Table of contents

On October 19-20, 2016 in Lipetsk was held X International scientific-practical conference SILIKATex "Development of silicate brick production in Russia." It organizes magazine "Construction materials» ®.
M.V. KORNEV, Deputy Director for research and development, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), T.P. KORNEVA, Deputy Head of Brick Shop OOO «Silicatstroy» (111, Lenina Avenue, Dzerzhinsk, Nizhegorodskaya Oblast, 606000 Russian Federation)

Resistance of Silicate Materials to Hot Water. Results of Researches of Silicate Products Manufacturers
Some normative documents limit the use of silicate brick for masonry of external walls of basements as well as for walls of premises with wet conditions of operation. Silicate materials have been long and successfully used for construction of foundations, cellars, and WC-and-bathroom units, first of all in low-rise housing construction in Germany, the Netherlands, Swiss, and Austria. The aim of the study conducted is a proof of the sufficient durability of silicate materials in hot water and their ability to maintain the most important qualities (strength, exterior view) for a long time. It is established that in the course of boiling, the strength of silicate brick increases insignificantly. Under the long-time hot water impact, strength parameters of silicate brick demonstrate a more complicated dependence.

Keywords: silicate products, compression strength, durability of silicate brick, resistance coefficient.
G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer (, N.N. MOROZOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Pigments and Volumetric Coloring Volumetric methods for coloring of the molding mix with iron oxide pigments, when manufacturing the silicate brick, have been studied. Issues of the coloring of the mix with slaked lime and quicklime are considered. The time of appearance of the mix color and its intensity was fixed at the stage of coloring. It is established that good coloring of light tones with the pigment is reached at introducing the pigment before the lime slaking. Introduction of the pigment in the slaked mix demands to increase the mixing intensity. Adhesion of the slaked lime impedes the distribution of the pigment in the mix that leads to the loss of products color. Quicklime as an abrasive material contributes to the distribution of the pigment in the volume. When coloring the slaked mix with light pigments, it is necessary to increase the mixing intensity. The intensive mixing leads to the strength growth. The introduction of pig- ments of bright tones with great coloring ability with the purpose to reduce the losses at color transition is recommended in the slaked lime. Physical-mechanical characteristics of pressed samples as a result of introducing the pigment in the slaked lime and quicklime were studied. It is established that the increase in the quantity of the pigment (over 2%) in the slaked lime leads to reducing the raw and autoclaved strength of pressed products.

Keywords: silicate brick, pigments, slaked silicate mass, unslaked silicate mass.
O.I. PONOMAREV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, A.M. GORBUNOV1, Engineer, O.S. CHIGRINA 1, M.A. MUKHIN1 , Engineer, A.V. PESTRITSKY1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); V.V. KOZLOV 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); M.V. KORNEV3 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Research Institute of Building Construction named after A.V. Koucherenko (TSNIISK named after A.V. Koucherenko) (6, 2 nd Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Scientific-Research Institutes of Building Physics of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences (21, Lokomotivny Proezd, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)
3 NP «Association of Manufacturers of Silicate Products» (111, Lenin Avenue, Dzerzhinsk, Nizhegorodskaya Oblast 606000, Russian Federation)

About Development of Guidance Manual for Design of Bearing and Enclosing Structures with the Use Products on the Basis of Modified Silicate Concrete The need for release of the guidance manual for design “Bearing and Enclosing Structures of Buildings with the Use of Masonry Products on the Basis of Modified Silicate Concrete Including Large Blocks with a Tongue-and-Groove Connection” prepared in the development of the code specification SP 15.13330.2012 “Stone and Reinforced Masonry Structures” is substantiated. The main provisions of the document are outlined; a short list of additions to the current SP, which are included in the guidance manual, is presented. In the manual, a new approach to assessing the frost resistance of masonry materials of external walls made of modified silicate concrete is used; the expansion of the field of application of products made of modified silicate concrete including foundations and premises with wet and damp conditions of operation is substantiated. The document includes the data on strength charac- teristics of the masonry of silicate products on adhesive solutions, methods for calculating thin non-bearing walls for horizontal load from the plane, data on the limits of fire resistance of walls made of masonry wall products on the basis of modified silicate concrete as well as main characteristics required for calculating temperature fields for standard decision of butt joints of enclosing structures with due regard for heat-conducting inclusions.

Keywords: stone and reinforced masonry structures, large blocks of modified silicate brick, tongue-and-groove connection.
V.S. LESOVIK1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), L.Kh. ZAGORODNYUK1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (; A.A. KUPRINA 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Head of the Test Laboratory (; M.Yu. ELISTRATKIN 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.N. VOLODChENKO1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhova (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «VNIISTROM-NV» (117, Karla Marksa Street, Kraskovo Village, Lyubertsy District, Moscow Region, 140050, Russian Federation)

Efficient Masonry Mortars for Autoclaved Wall Materials Taking into account the use of the law affinity structures, efficient masonry mortars for autoclaved wall materials on the basis of composite binders obtained as a result of cement and different mineral fillers, gas silicate, silicate brick and quartz sand, grinding in the vibrating mill have been developed. Complex studies of stones on the basis of synthesized composite binders, ceramic brick, silicate brick, cement concrete, have been conducted on different bases. Adhesion properties of masonry mortars have been studied on different bases. The study of shrinking deformations and indexes of heat expansion of masonry mortars of different compositions has been conducted. The compression strength of developed masonry mortars is 3–3.5 times higher than conventional mortars, their adhesion is 2 times higher, they are cheaper than dry building mixes of analogues purposes.

Keywords: masonry mortars, adhesion, law affinity structures, shrinking deformations, heat expansion.
On September 26-30,2016 in the Italian Rimini took place 25 th International Exhibition of technologies and equipment for the ceramics brick industry Tecnargilla. This comprehensive exhibition event, comprising present actual exhibition, an extensive business program, as well as a contest of design works in the use of ceramic materials is the largest event in the first all in a thin and sanitary ceramics.
I.F. SHLEGEL, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Director, G.Ya. SHAEVICH, Executive Director, A.V. ANDRIANOV, Head of Department, D.A. PERMENEV, Engineer-Technologist Institute of New Technologies and Automation of the Industry of Construction Materials, OOO «INTA-STORY» (100, Putevaya Street, 644113, Omsk, Russian Federation)

Efficient Mixing with Innovative Mixer «TORS» The method for determining the mixture quality is described. The patented design of a toroidal mixer and principles of its operation, which completely exclude stagnation zones, are considered. The analysis of test results for mixing of various materials with the new mixer is presented. It is shown that the toroidal mixer efficiently mixes dry building materials at smaller energy expenditures comparing with traditional mixing equipment. The mixer «TORS» can be used in different fields of the industry where it is necessary to obtain qualitative dry mixes as well as it can be efficiently used for producing the clay slurry.

Keywords: efficient mixing, dry mixes mixer.
M.V. LOPATINA, Engineer, S.V. ANTONYCHEV, (, Director OOO «Energopromservis» (14, Academic Bakulev Street, 117513 Moscow, Russian Federation)

Complex Heat-Technological Inspection of a Tunnel Kiln for Brick Burning Results of the experiment on inspecting the tunnel kiln for brick burning at the operating brick factory are presented. For experimental measuring of the parameters of process units, present-day devices which make it possible to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the technical state of the kiln, uniformity of heating of brick setting during the burning, quality of regulation of draught equipment, causes of defects in brick, heat losses, to identify ways of search of reserves of power consumption economy, were used. Taking into account the cost of natural gas for brick burning, it is actual to conduct these investigations within the frame of the mandatory Energy inspection (RF Government Resolution of 16 August, 2014, № 818 “On Establishing the Volume of Energy Resources in Monetary Terms for the Purpose of Carrying Out Obligatory Energy Inspections”). These problems are an individual case for brick production but they are available in other industries that use the thermal units in the technology. Methods of the inspection and devices described in this article will help to identify the problems in the heat treatment and find ways for their elimination in all heat-technical units.

Keywords: power supply, equipment diagnostics, thermo-metering, gas analysis, vibration-based diagnostics, thermal balance.
A.Yu. STOLBOUSHKIN1,2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, O.A. FOMINA2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), D.V. AKST 2, Engineer, A.I. IVANOV2 , Engineer; M.S. DRUZHININ3, Student (
1 Institute of Thermophysics named after S.S. Kutateladze SB RAS (1, Lavrentev Lane, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation)
2 Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirov Street, Kemerovo Region, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)
3 Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (4, 2-nd Krasnoarmeyskaya Street, Saint Petersburg 190005, Russian Federation)

Production of Decorative Wall Ceramics from Argillous Raw Material and Wastes of Manganese Ore Mining *
The results of studies on the effect of the manganese containing wastes on the volumetric colouring of wall ceramics depending on the method of product manufacturing. The palette of resulting colour codes is defined (by the additive RGB color system) for ceramic samples from clay raw materials at various additive contents of manganese ore mining wastes in the mixture composition. A substantial coloring enhancement of ceramic products with matrix structure occurres due to the introduction of powdering additive of wastes containing MnO2 in the amount of 5–10 wt. %, compared with the samples produced by plastic moulding. It is established that the formation of a ceramic matrix composite provides a concentration of the coloring component in the matrix and prevents its negative influence on the sintering of clay granules during firing.

Keywords: decorative wall materials, manganese containing wastes, compression moulding, ceramic matrix composites.
A.M.SALAKHOV 1,4 ,Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (; V.P. MOROZOV 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy); O.N. LIS 1,3 , Student, M.V. PASYNKOV 1,3 , Student
1 Kazan Federal University. Institute of Physics (18, Kremlyovskaya Street, 420008, Kazan, Russian Federation)
2 Kazan Federal University. Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies
3 Kazan Federal University. Quantum Technologies Center
4 OAO «Alekseevskaya Keramika» (10, Kirpichnozavodskaya Street, town settlement Alekseevskoye, Republic of Tatarstan, 422900, Russina Federation)

Ceramic Materials of Low-Melting Clays Modified with Industrial Waste of Petrochemical Complex Enterprises The possibility to produce wall ceramic materials with high strength characteristics by means of modification of low-melting clays is shown. The waste of petrochemical enterprises of the Republic of Tatarstan is used as modifiers. The structure and mineral composition of the materials produced have been studied. A pilot batch of brick was manufactured at one of the brick factories. A comparison of characteristics of ceramic stone of clinker from the pilot party with the foreign clinker supplied by import is made. It is shown that structures, material, mineralogical compositions and physical-technical characteristics of both materials are very similar that opens the possibility of import substitution. It is shown that the use of modifiers on the basis of co-products of petrochemical plants can significantly and positively influences on reducing the energy consumption of wall ceramic production and improving its competitiveness.

Keywords: ceramics, phase analysis, anthropogenic modifiers, clinker, burning temperature, competitiveness of domestic materials.
I.A. ZHENZHURIST, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) ( Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Prospects of Ultra-High Frequency Heat Treatment in Technology of Producing Sintered Ceramic on the Basis of Diatomite and an Aluminum-Sodium Modifier Results of the treatment of compositions on the basis of diatomite and the aluminum-sodium modifier with the UHF field, influence of the UHF field on the structure and physical- mechanical characteristics of the ceramic material produced on their bases are considered. With the help of optical and scanning microscopy, differential-thermal and X-ray phase anal- yses, the influence of complex additives (aluminum oxide hydrosol stabilized with the salt acid, and sodium chloride) and treatment of masses with the UHF field, additives of marl on the processes when heating water suspensions of silicates and on physical-mechanical characteristics of the ceramic material on their base has been studied. Differences in behavior when heating masses treated in the UHF field has been analyzed. The composition with a marl additive shows the greatest strength which increases when treating the masses with the UHF field. The X-ray phase analysis shows the presence of a nano-size phase of aluminum silicate.

Keywords: diatomite, modifier, UHF field, structure, properties of material.
V.A. GURIEVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (; V.V.DUBINETSKIY2, Engineer; K.M. VDOVIN 1, Engineer; N.V. BUTRIMOVA2 , Magister
1 Orenburg State University (13, Pobedy Avenue, 460048, Orenburg, Russian Federation)
2 Buzuluk Humanitarian-Technological Institute (branch of OSU) (35, Rabochaya Street, Buzuluk, 461040, Orenburg Oblast, Russian Federation)

Wall Ceramic on the Basis of Highly Calcined Raw Materials of Orenburzhye A possibility to utilize the anthropogenic product obtained in the process of oil drilling at objects of PAO “Orenburgneft” in the manufacture of building ceramic products which are char- acterized by a higher content of carbonate compounds is considered. Compositions of two- and three-component charges (clay-drilling cuttings-crushed glass) for producing the ceram- ic brick from local raw materials have been developed. The study is focused on the utilization, decontamination and secondary use of the drilling cuttings that can contribute to improvement of the ecological situation and creation of reserves of cheap raw materials for producing ceramic building materials.

Keywords: drilling cuttings, building ceramic, utilization and processing, industrial waste, crushed glass.
Yu.E. VASIL’EV, Doctor of Science (Engineering) (, G.A. PONARIN, Engineer Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (MADI) (64, Leningradskoe Avenue, Moscow, 125319, Russian Federation)

Interaction of Studded Tires with Road Pavement A numerical study of the dynamic fracture of the roadbed as a result of the effect of an anti-skid stud under the low temperature has been conducted. The fracture of a binding material, bitumen of BND 60/90 mark, was assumed. The simulation was conducted with the help of the finite element method with the use of the fracture criterion on the basis of the incubation time. Dynamic properties of the material were experimentally obtained. The universal complex for testing road pavements and automobile tires «Carousel» was used in the experiment.

Keywords: road pavement, studs, universal complex «Carousel».
I.V. KARAKOZOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Head of Department of Methodology, Development and Actualization of Normative-Methodical Documents in Construction ( State Autonomous Institution of Moscow «Scientific Research Center» (GAU «NIATS») (27, 1 st Brestskaya Street, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Classification and Coding of Elements for Needs of Construction Industry Theoretical issues of creating the information system for construction industry as related to the development of classification of various elements, for example, objects, types of works, structural solutions, products, semi-finished products, building machines, mechanisms etc. are considered. Brief information on the classification systems and approaches to coding which are currently used in construction is presented. It is noted that it is better to use the facet-hierarchical method of classification and the successive method of coding. The order of the code formation with the use of a classifier OKPD 2 for an individual element of the classification is presented on the example of an educational object. The formation of the classifier of structural solutions of buildings and structures as well as the creation of the code of some elements on the basis of the classifier OKPD 2 is shown on the example of an aboveground part of the building.

Keywords: capital construction object, information system, facet-hierarchical system of classification, coding systems.
On Octobe r25-27 ,2016 was held International Scientific-Technical Conference "High cement concrete: technology, design, economy ka " in Kazan.
V.P. SELYAEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS, P.V. SELYAEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, E.L. KECHUTKINA, Engineer National Research N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University (68, Bolshevistskaya Street, Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation)

Evolution of the Theory of Concrete Strength. From Simple to Complex A model of the structure of cement composites based on the principles of the fractal geometry according to which the complex systems of nature consist of parts (fractals), which at each scale level is like the whole, is proposed. It is shown that the classical theory of strength does not reflect the real picture of the resistance of fractal structures to destruction. It is experimentally and theoretically proved that the destruction of cement composites is a multi-level, multi-stage process; under the action of compressive loads, the concrete structure can be destroyed both by cleavage and by cutting; a fractal model more exactly describes the relation between compression and tension, scale effect, dependence of compression strength on the friction coefficient. Deformation diagrams obtained with the use of the software complex “Welle Geotechnik” confirm the discrete-continuous character of the destruction of cement composites under compression.

Keywords: concretes, fractal, scale level, composite, destruction, quantum nature.
A.Yu. FOMIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

New Sulfur-Containing Materials for Road Construction The relevance of the work is determined both by the problem of efficient utilization of increasing sulfur industrial discharges and the possibility of using local weak stone materials which are not widely used. It is established that the impregnation of sulfur melts into the pores of crushed stone facilitates the formation of a durable gradient layer with changed properties that resulting in increasing the hardness of grain surfaces and manifestation of hydrophobicity and that in its turn affect the change in operational-technical properties of crushed stone. This, the index of crushability of processed crushed stone reaches the value of 1200, and the water saturation index reduces. The produced material can be used in the bases of road pavement structures as well as in compositions of hot asphalt concrete mixes. Thus, asphalt concretes with processed crushed stone regarding the values of compressive strength and resistance to fatigue exceed the minimal requirements of GOST 9128–2013 set for B type by 1.5–2 times on the average.

Keywords: sulfur, crushed stone, impregnation, asphalt concrete, auto road.
S.V. FEDOSOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS, President (; V.G. KOTLOV 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Counsellor of RAACS (; R.M. ALOYAN 1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAACS, Rector, M.V. BOCHKOV 1, Engineer, R.A. MAKAROV1 , Post-graduate student (
1 Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (20, Mart 8th Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)
2 Volga State University of Technology (3, Lenin Square, Yoshkar-Ola, Republic of Mari El, 424000, Russian Federation)

Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Processes in a Bolt Dowel Joints Methods for the study of heat transfer processes in dowel joints of roof frameworks, which is based on the monitoring of the dynamic of thermal fields in timber with the help of a ther- movisor, are outlined. Results of experimental research in heating and cooling processes of a dowel in the form of bolt junction are presented. The color array of temperature fields illus- trates and confirms outlined earlier physical representations about features of the heat transfer mechanism in the system “metallic dowel – timber” when changing temperature-humidity parameters of the operation environment. The mathematical model in the form of an end problem of heat conductivity is presented; results of the calculation, which testify the adequacy of the mathematical model to the experimental data, are shown.

Keywords: dowel, timber, heat and mass transfer, micro-processes method, end problem of heat conductivity.
A.A. KUSTOV, Engineer (, A.M. IBRAGIMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Procedures and Results of Full Scale Tests of Technical Fabrics with Coating. Part 2. Review of Conducted Studies

The previously started description of procedures and results of tests of a technical fabric with coating is continued. As in the first part, national and foreign regulation documents about material testing are presented. The following tests are presented: test for rip load, resistance to low temperature and repeated flexing, joints strength, damageability, wearability and tightness of material, for natural and accelerated aging of technical fabric with coating, adhesion strength of connection of material layers, tests connected with evaluating the fire safety of technical fabrics with coating, as well as an example of a special type of material testing is presented. General conclusions are presented.

Keywords: technical fabric with coating, procedures of full-scale tests.
Index of Articles Published in the Journal «Construction Materials» in 2016 . . . . 91
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX interConPan_2021