Stroitel`nye Materialy №5

Stroitel`nye Materialy №5
May, 2016

Table of contents

A.A. VISHNEVSKIY1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (; G.I. GRINFELD2, (, Executive Director, A.S. SMIRNOVA 2, Assistant of Executive Director
1 Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin (19 Mira Street, Ekaterinburg, 620002 Russian Federation)
2 National Association of Autoclaved Aerocrete Manufacturers (40A Oktyabrskaya Embankment, Saint-Petersburg, 193091, Russian Federation)

Manufacture of Autoclaved Aerocrete. Results of 2015. Forecast for 2016
Results of the 2015 in the production of autoclaved aerocrete (AA) are summarized. It is shown that under the conditions of economic recession the industry continues to develop. In 2015 production capacity for the production of AA increased and equals to 18.6 mln m 3. It become possible due to the opening of new production facilities (4 factories) and modernization of oper - ating enterprises. The manufacture of AA exceeded 13 mln m 3 that by 0.97% higher than in 2014. Enterprises started to manufacture lighter, more heat efficient products. The index of aver - age density of all produced in 2015 is 514.1 kg/m 3, a year earlier this index was 516.7 kg/m3 . However, under conditions of the declining demand for building materials the capacity utiliza- tion rate decreased by average 7.1%. Releases prices for autoclaved aerocrete also reduced up to the level of 2013. This led to decrease in the profitability of production. Under the current economic conditions several enterprises were closed. A slight increase in output is predicted in 2016 (13.5 mln m 3) that demonstrates the certain optimism of market participants regarding the existing situation. The realization of these forecasts will depend on the current economic situation, more precise forecasts can be made on the basis of results of the first half of 2016.

Keywords: autoclaved aerocrete, cellular concrete, production capacity, statistics, results of production.

1. Grinfel’d G.I. Production of Autoclave Gas Concrete in Russia: State of Market and Prospects of Development. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 76–78. (In Russian).
2. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfel’d G.I., Kulikova N.O. Analysis of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Market of Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 40–44. (In Russian).
3. Vishnevskij A.A., Grinfel’d G.I., Smirnova A.S. Results of work of the enterprises for production of autoclave cel lular concrete in 2013. Tehnologii betonov. 2014. No. 4, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
4. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfel’d G.I., Smirnova A.S. Production of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 6, pp. 52–54. (In Russian).

D.N. KOROTKIKh1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (; A.E. KOKOSADZE2, Engineer, Yu.I. KULINICh2, Engineer, D.A. PANIKIN2, Engineer
1 Voronezh State University of Architecture and civil Engineering (84, 20-letija Oktjabrja Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)
2 AO «Institut «Orgenergostroi» (7, str. 10, Derbenevskaya Embankment, 115114, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Technology of Concreting of Internal Containment Shell of the Reactor Building of the Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant
A new technology of concreting of the internal containment shell (ICS) and external containment shell (ECS) of the reactor building of NPP developed by the “Orgenergostroy” Institute under the task of the General Contractor, NIAEP – ASE United Company, is presented. It is shown that the use of this technology significantly reduces the construction time of main building structures of containment shells and also considerably improves the quality of reinforced concrete structures of ICS and ECS. Data on the form-factor of the reactor building, requirements for concrete, developed compositions of self-compacting concrete mixes, technological solutions of concreting of ICS of the reactor building of the Belorussian Nuclear Power Plant are presented.

Keywords: atomic power, safety of nuclear power stations, internal containment shell, hydrostatic pressure of concrete mix, self-compacting concrete

1. Gordienko V.A., Brykin S.N., Kuzin R.E., Starkov M.V., Serebryakov I.S., Tairov T.N. Nuclear power pros and cons: A comparative analysis of radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants and thermal power plants. Moscow University Physics Bulletin. 2012. Vol. 67. No. 1, pp. 120–127.
2. Tikhonov M.N., Tsygan V.N. The catastrophic conse quences of the Chernobyl accident. Ekologicheskaya ekspertiza. 2011. No. 5, pp. 22–32. (In Russian).
3. Teroganov N. Russian-Iranian nuclear cooperation: 1992-2006. Central Asia and the Caucasus. 2008. No. 2 (50), pp. 72–84.
4. Onufrienko S.V., Bezlepkin V.V., Molchanov A.V., Svetlov S.V., Solodovnikov A.S., Semashko S.E. Features of the concept of security of AES-2006 at the site of Leningrad NPP-2. Tyazheloe mashinostroenie. 2008. No. 2, pp. 6–10. (In Russian).
5. Shvyryaev Yu.V., Morozov V.B., Tokmachev G.V., Baikova E.V., Chulukhadze V.R., Fedulov M.V. Using probabilistic analysis in justifying security AES-2006, de signed for the site of Novovoronezh NPP. Atomnaya ener giya. 2009. Vol. 106. No. 3, pp. 123–129. (In Russian).
6. Schneider M., Froggatt А. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2015. Paris, London: MSC. 2015. 201 p.
7. Zatsepin E.N., Drobot S.V. Basic principles of the Belarusian nuclear power plant safety. Vestsі Natsyyanal’nai akademіі navuk Belarusі. Seryya fіzіka-tekhnіchnykh na vuk. 2015. No. 1, pp. 118–122. (In Russian).
8. Bazhenov Yu.M., Chernyshov E.M., Korotkikh D.N. Design of modern concrete structures: defining principles and tech nology platforms. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 6–14. (In Russian).
9. Kardumyan G.S., Nesvetaev G.V. About designing the composition of high-strength self-compacting concrete. Beton I Zhelezobeton. 2012. No. 6, pp. 8–11. (In Russian).
10. Kaprielov S.S., Sheinfel’d A.V., Kardumyan G.S. Unique concretes and experience in their implementation in modern construction. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 1, pp. 42–44. (In Russian).
11. Kalashnikov V.I. The terminology of the science of the concrete of the new generation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 103–106. (In Russian).

Sh. N. Valiyev1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); N. E. Kokodeeva2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Head of “Transport Construction” Department; A.V. Kochetkov 3, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Professor(Soni/; L.V. Yankovsky3 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (MADI) (64 Leningradsky Avenue, 125319, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov (77 Politechnicheskaya Street, 410054, Saratov, Russian Federation)
3 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29a Komsomolsky Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)

Simulation of Risk of Traffic Accidents Occurrence with Due Regard for Variability of Macro-Roughness of Pavements of Traffic Way on Highways and Bridge Constructions
The relevance of the theme of this article is defined, in many respects, by the need to ensure the required level of traffic safety with due regard for road conditions according to Federal Laws “About Highways and Road Activity”, “On Technical Regulation”, “Technical Regulations “About Safety of Buildings and Constructions”, the obligatory list of GOST and Construction Norms and Regulations, concerning the minimal level of risks for highways and bridge constructions, included, as a normative annex, in the last law, and also Technical Regulations “Safety of Highways” of the Customs Union. One of the main ways of increasing the resistance of pavement to sliding of the tire, i.e. ensuring the demanded values of the coupling coefficient, is the creation of a macro-rough surface. Statistical data on traffic safety testify about reducing the number of road accident due to the improvement of coupling qualities of coverings and increase of macro-roughness. Therefore the close scientific attention has to be paid to research in the influence of the geometry of active ledges and depths of hollows of macro-rough paving of highways and decks of bridge constructions on the coupling coefficient. One of approaches for such probabilistic assessment is the use of the proba bility-theoretic method of risk theory.

Keywords: highway, bridge construction, paving, deck, macro-roughness, asphalt concrete, thin layers of wear, rough surface treatments, probability-theoretic approach, risk, coupling coefficient.

1. Federal Law No. 184-FZ of 27.12.2002 (ed. of 11.28.2015) “On technical regulation”. document/cons_doc_LAW_40241/. (In Russian).
2. Stolyarov V.V. Proektirovanie avtomobil’nykh dorog s uchetom teorii riska. [Design of highways taking into ac count the theory of risk]. Saratov: SGTU. 1994. 184 p.
3. Stolyarov V.V. Technical regulations “Design of high ways” (the alternative project). Dorogi. Innovatsii v stroitel’stve. 2011. No. 6, pp. 18–21. (In Russian).
4. Gladkov V.Yu. Kochetkov A.V., Chelpanov I.B. About pithiness of the accounting of risk and aspects of quality management in the Federal law “On technical regula tion”. Dorozhnaya derzhava. 2007. No. 5, 6. (In Russian).
5. Gladkov V.Yu., Kochetkov A.V., Tsymbalov A.A., Kokodeeva N.E. Improvement of quality management system of road economy on the basis of formation and achievement of the demanded system properties. Dorogi i mosty. 2007. No. 4–5, pp. 81–89. (In Russian).
6. Kokodeeva N.E., Talalai V.V., Kochetkov A.V., Yankovsky L.V., Arzhanukhina S.P. Methodological bas es of an assessment of technical risks in road economy. Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo poli tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Prikladnaya ekologiya. Urbanistika. 2011. No. 3, pp. 38–49. (In Russian).
7. Vasilyev Yu.E., Belyakov A.B., Kochetkov A.V., Belyaev D.S. Diagnostics and certification of elements of a street road net work by system of video computer scanning. Naukovedenie Internet Journal. 2013. No. 3 (16), pp. 55. (In Russian).
8. Rapoport P.B., Rapoport N.V., Kochetkov A.V., Vasi lyev Yu.E., Kamenev V.V. Problems of durability of ce ment concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction ma terials]. 2011. No. 5, pp. 38–41. (In Russian).
9. Vasilyev Yu.E., Polyansky V.G., Sokolova E.R., Garibov R.B., Kochetkov A.V., Yankovsky L.V. Statistical methods of quality control by production of a cement concrete and cement-concrete mixes. Sovremennye prob lemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2012. No. 4, pp. 101. (In Russian).
10. Kochetkov A.V., Kokodeeva N.E., Rapoport P.B., Rapoport N.V., Shashkov I.G. Condition of modern me thodical ensuring calculation and designing of road clothes. Transport. Transportnye sooruzheniya. Ekologiya. 2011. No. 1, pp. 65–74. (In Russian).
11. Yankovsky L.V., Kochetkov A.V. Application the geoim plantatnykh of designs for creation of ecoparkings. Ekologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii. 2011. No. 5, pp. 32– 34. (In Russian).
12. Arzhanukhina S.P., Sukhov A.A., Kochetkov A.V., Karpeev S.V. State regulatory support innovative road sector activities. Kachestvo. Innovatsii. Obrazovanie. 2010. No. 9, pp. 40. (In Russian).
13. Arzhanukhina S.P., Kochetkov A.V., Kozin A.S., Strizhevsky D.A. Standard and technological develop ment of innovative activity of road economy. Naukovedenie Internet Journal. 2012. No. 4 (13), pp. 69. (In Russian).
14. Arzhanukhina S.P., Garibov R.B., Kochetkov A.V., Yankovsky L.V., Glukhov T.A., Bobkov A.V. Choice of requirements to deicing materials for the winter mainte- nance of highways megalopolis. Voda: khimiya i ekolo giya. 2013. No. 4 (58), pp. 106–115. (In Russian).
15. Vasilyev Yu.E., Kamenev V.V., Kochetkov A.V., Shlyafer V.L. Adaptive management of mobility by dis crete production of cement-concrete mixes Vestnik Moskovskogo avtomobil’no-dorozhnogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2011. No. 2, pp. 96–100. (In Russian).
16. Kochetkov A.V., Gladkov V.Yu., Nemchinov D.M. Design of the structure of information support the road sector of the quality management system. Naukovedenie Internet Journal. 2013. No. 3 (16), p. 72. (In Russian).
17. Ermakov M.L., Karpeev S.V., Kochetkov A.V., Arzhanukhina S.P. Improvement of branch system of di agnostics of highways. Dorozhnaya derzhava. 2011. No. 30, pp. 38. (In Russian).
18. Kokodeeva N.E., Talalai V.V., Kochetkov A.V., Yankovsky L.V., Arzhanukhina S.P. Methodological bas es of an assessment of technical risks in road economy. Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo poli tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Prikladnaya ekologiya. Urbanistika. 2011. No. 3, pp. 38–49. (In Russian).
19. Kochetkov A.V., Evteeva S.M., Kokodeeva N.E., Arzhanukhina S.P., Glukhov T.A. Principles of formula- tion and control of road-building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 10, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
20. Kochetkov A.V., Kokodeeva N.E., Stepanov M.V., V’yugov M.V., Khizhnyak E.M. Rationing on the basis of risk degree assessment of statistical indicators of the qual ity of production of geosynthetic materials and products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 10, pp. 42–44. (In Russian).
21. Vasil’ev Yu.E., Borisov Yu.V., Kochetkov A.V., Evteeva S.M., Voznyi S.I. Normalizing of macro-roughness of surface of materials, structures and products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 6, pp. 25– 29. (In Russian)

A.S. ALEKSANDROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Docent ( Siberian State Automobile and Highway Academy (5, Mira Avenue, Omsk 644080, Russian Federation)

A Generalizing Model of Plastic Deformation of Discrete Materials of Road Structures under Impact of Cyclic Loads
It is established that under the impact of repeated loads the process of plastic deformation of soils and discrete materials is hereditary. For mathematical simulation of the plastic defor mation, integral equations of the theory of hereditary creep in which the time function is replaced by the function of the number of repeated loads are used. Exponential and logarithmic dependences connecting the plastic deformation with number of repeated loads, material parameters and components of the stress tenser in principal axes have been obtained. It is shown that these dependences generalize a number of models previously proposed abroad and in the Russian Federation. On the basis of the analyze of experimental data obtained during the test of materials in dynamic devices of three-axial compression at different values of the stress deviator, coefficients of the proposed models of deformation have been determined. The sphere of using logarithmic and exponential dependences has been also defined.

Keywords: soil, discrete material, three-axial compression, plastic deformation, cyclic load. A.S. ALEKSANDROV

1. Mirsayapov I.Т., Brechman А.I., Koroleva I.V., Ivano va O.A. Strength and deformation of sandy soils under triaxial cyclic loading. Izvestiya KGASU. 2012. No. 3 (21), pp. 58–63. (In Russian).
2. Chen C., Ge L., Zhang J. Modeling permanent defor mation of unbound granular materials under repeated loads. International journal of geomechanics. 2010. Vol. 10, pp. 236–241.
3. Perez I., Medina L., Gallego J. Plastic deformation behaviour of pavement granular materials under low traffic loading. Granular Matter. 2010. No. 1, pp. 57–68.
4. Rondon H.A. Deformacion permanente de materiales granulares en pavimentos flexibles: estado del conocimiento. Revista Ingenierias Universidad de Medellin. 2009. Vol. 8. No. 14, pp. 71–94.
5. Gidel G., Hornych P., Chauvin J., Breysse D., Denis A.. A new approach for investigating the permanent deformation behaviour of unbound granular material using the repeated load triaxial apparatus. Bulletin des Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussées. 2001. No. 14 (233), pp. 5–21.
6. Barksdale R.D. Laboratory evaluation of rutting in base course materials. Proceedings of the 3-rd Internatio nal Conference on Asphalt Pavements. London. 1972, pp. 161–174.
7. Erlingsson S., Ahmeda A. Performance prediction modelling of flexible pavement structures. Transport Research Arena. Paris. 2014, pp. 1–10.
8. Siripun K., Nikraz H., Jitsangiam P. Mechanical behavior of unbound granular road base materials under repeated cyclic loads. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology. 2011. Vol. 4. No. 1, pp. 56–66.
9. Hornych P., Corte J.-F., Paute J.-L. Étude des déformations permanentes sous chargements répétés de trois graves non traitées. Bulletin de Liaison des Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussées. 1993. No. 184, pp. 77–84.
10. Theyse H.L. The development of mechanistic-empirical permanent deformation design models for unbound pavement materials from laboratory accelerated pavement. Proceedings of the 5-th International symposium on unbound aggregates in road. Nottingham. 2000, pp. 285–293.
11. Wolff H., Visser A. Incorporating elasto-plasticity in granular layer pavement design. Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers Transport. 1994. 105, pp. 259–272.
12. Werkmeister S. Permanent deformation behavior of unbound granular materials in pavement constructions. Ph.D. thesis, University of Technology. Dresden. The Germany. 2003.
13. Aleksandrov A.S., Kiseleva N.Yu. Plastic deformation of the gneisses and diabase materials exposure repeated loads. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 6, pp. 49–59. (In Russian).

D.E. BARABASH, (, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.N. POPOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.N. MASALYKIN, Engineer Russian Air Force Military Educational and Scientific Center of the «N.E. Zhukovskiy and Yu.A. Gagarin Air Force Academy» (54A, Staryh Bolshevikov Street, 394064, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Substantiation of Type of Asphalt Concrete in Escalating Layers of Aerodrome Preсast Pavements
Prerequisites for calculation of the stress-strain state of a layered structure consisting of a pavement concrete slab and an asphalt concrete layer are considered. Leading factors in the development of defects of this structure are marked. Methods for determining tensile stresses in the asphalt concrete layer with due regard for thermal-physical characteristics of the material are proposed. The dependence of the development of deformation of a strengthening layer of aerodrome pavement free from external mechanical impact on the effect of non- stationary temperature field with due regard for thermo-elastic characteristics of the structure material has been established. The dynamics of the change in the stress state of the struc ture in time and along the depth depending on the thickness of asphalt concrete layer is revealed. The use of methods proposed for forecasting the operating time of the escalating layer on the basis of these changes in asphalt concrete properties is substantiated.

Keywords: aerodrome pavement, escalating layer, temperature effect, stress-strain state.

1. Korochkin A.V. Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sos toyanie zhestkoj dorozhnoj odezhdy s asfaltobetonnym pokrytiem [The deformed condition of rigid road clothes with an asphalt concrete covering]. The Monography. Moscow. 2011. 376 p.
2. Besschetnov B.V. Research of the dynamic is intense deformed condition of road designs for an estimation of their working capacity. Izvestya Orel GTU. Seriya Stroitelstvo. Transport. 2008. No. 2/18, pp. 82–87. (In Russian).
3. Krasnoperov A.R. Account of influence of design data of road clothes on the reflected formation of cracks in as phalt concrete layers of strengthening. Dis.… Cand. Of Sciences (Engineering). Moscow. 2000. 152 p. (In Russian).
4. Korochkin A.V. Problem of the reflected fractures in as phalt the coating laid on concrete the establishment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 10, pp. 46–48. (In Russian).
5. Klovanich S.F. Metod konechnyh elementov v mehanike zhelezobetona [Method of final elements in the mechan ic of ferroconcrete]. Odessa: izdatelstvo ONMU. 2007. 110 p.
6. Hatuntsev A.A., Popov А.N., Makarov E.V., Bura kov A.V. Method of final elements as the device for calcu lation of multilayered air field coverings. Problems and technologies of engineering-air field maintenance of armies. The collection of scientific articles on materials of reports of XXIII interuniversity NPC «Prospect-2013». Voronezh: VUNC «VVA». 2013. P. 119–124.
7. Korochkin A.V., Koltsov V.I. Calculation of a thickness asphalt concrete beds of rigid road clothes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 11, pp. 62–69. (In Russian).
8. Sorokina N.V., Fedorov A.V., Samotesov E.D. Klimat Severo-Zapadnogo regiona Rossii. Populyarnyj doklad. [Climate of Northwest region of Russia. The popular re port]. Мoskow. NIA-Priroda. 2004. 104 p.

A.A. NAUMOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) ( Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-na-Donu, 344022, Russian Federation)

Elimination of Efflorescence on Ceramic Brick
Presents the results of investigations on elimination of efflorescence on the front faces of ceramic products arising in the production process the clay raw materials containing soluble salts. Developed solutions based on phosphoric acid, which is necessary to cover the verge of the nascent samples. It is determined that the value of pH of acid solution should be reduced with increasing the content of water-soluble salts in the clay raw material. In addition to eliminating whitish strikes the proposed solution helps to ensure a more saturated col oring of the front surface. It is shown that the proposed method will contribute to the expansion of the resource base through involvement in the production of clay raw materials with high content of soluble salts and increase in the production of high quality facial products.

Keywords: clay raw materials, water-soluble salts, facing ceramic brick, efflorescence, phosphoric acid solution.

1. Al’perovich I.A. Ways of prevention of elfflorescence on a ceramic brick. Survey information of VNIIESM. Moscow, 1993. Vol. 1, 71 p. (In Russian).
2. Bessonov I.V., Baranov V.S. Baranov V.V., Knyazeva V.P., El’chishcheva T.F. Reasons of occur rence and ways of elimination of efflorescence on brick walls of buildings. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Constructions]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 39–43. (In Russian).
3. Naumov A.A. About possibility of manufacturing facing bricks from kagalnitsky clay raw materials. Nauchnoe obozrenie. 2014. No. 10-2. pp. 388–391. (In Russian).
4. Al’perovich I.A., Lebedeva E.P. Use of barium com pounds for the production of face clay brick / Vniistrom’s Works. Moscow, 1974. Vol. 29 (57), 71 p. (In Russian).
5. Patent RF 2161596. Sposob ustraneniya sul’fatnykh vyso lov na poverkhnosti keramicheskikh oblitsovochnykh iz delii. [Way of elimination of sulphat elfflorescence on a surface of ceramic facing products]. Chumachenko N.G., Evsteev S.N. Declared 08.02.1999. Published 10.01.2001. Bulletin No. 1. (In Russian).
6. Inchik V.V. Vysoly i solevaya korroziya kirpichnykh sten. [Efflorescence and salt corrosion of brick walls]. St. Petersburg: SPbGASU. 1998. 324 p.
7. Patent RF 2092465. Sposob izgotovleniya litsevogo kirpi cha. [Method of manufacturing facing bricks]. Zverev V.A., Arkhangel’skii I.N., Anufriev A.I., Nedzel’skii V.E., Bezrodnyi V.G. Declared 23.03.1995. Published 10.10.1997. (In Russian).
8. Vakalova T.V., Pogrebenkov V.M., Revva I.B. Causes of formation and ways of elimination of efflorescence in the technology of ceramic bricks. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constructions Materials]. 2004. No. 2, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).
9. Shlegel’ I.F., Shaevich G.Ya., Grishin P.G., Karabut L.A., Bulgakov A.N., Titov G.V., Kotelin P.L., Korovitskii N.L. Effective way to improve the quality of bricks – moisture curing coating compositions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constructions Materials]. 2004. No. 2, pp. 22–23. (In Russian).

V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, K.A. LAPUNOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-na-Donu, 344022, Russian Federation)

Features of Physical-Chemical Transformations during Opoka-Like Raw Material Burning
Features of physical-chemical transformations connected with the burning of opoka-like raw materials are considered as applied to the manufacture of wall ceramic products. Six stages with characteristic physical-chemical features are highlighted within the temperature interval of 20 оC – 1100–1200о C: a free-water removal stage, stage of removal of opal silica water and oxidation of organic admixtures, stage of dehydration of clayey materials; stage of solid-phase sintering; stage of liquid-phase sintering, and stage of fusion. The mechanism of decrystallization of opal silica of opokas into cristobalite was determined. Basic driving factors of this process are revealed; main of them are temperature and the presence of alkaline oxides. On the basis of works conducted, recommendations on the optimal regime of burning, when manufacturing wall ceramic products on the basis of opoka-like raw materials, and on purposeful formation of the ceramic stone structure, are made.

Keywords: ceramic brick, opoka-like raw materials, opal, cristobalite, burning, transformations

1. Kotlyar V.D., Talpa B.V. Opoka – perspective raw mate rials for wall ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 2, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
2. Ashmarin G.D., Iluhina L.G., Iluhin V.V., Kyrno sov V.V., Sinianskii V.I. Innovative projects of produc tion of constructive and heateffective ceramic materials from local raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 57–59. (In Russian).
3. Kotlyar V.D. Classification siliceous the opoks of breeds as raw materials for production of wall ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 3, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).
4. Ashmarin G.D., Lastochkin V.G., Iluhin V.V., Minakov A.G., Tat’ianchikov A.V. Innovative technolo gies of highly effective ceramic construction products on the basis of siliceous breeds. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 7, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).
5. Kotlyar V.D., Lapunova K.A. Technological features of a opoka as raw materials for wall ceramics. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2011. No. 11–12. pp. 25–31. (In Russian).
6. Kotlyar V.D., Ustinov A.V., Kovalev V.Yu., Terekhi naYu.V., Kotlyar A.V. Ceramic stones of compression formation on the basis of opoka and waste of coal prepa ration. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 44–48. (In Russian).
7. Ivanyuta G.N., Kotlyar V.D., Kozlov G.N., Lapuno va K.A. Phase transformations at heat treatment of sili ceous breeds. Sbornik nauchnikh trudov RGSU. Rostov- on-Don: RGSU. 2005, pp. 37–42. (In Russian).
8. Plyusnina I.I., Maliaev M.N., Efremov G.A. Research of cryptocrystalline kinds of silicon dioxide by an IK- spectroscopy method. Izvestiya AK SSSR. Seriya Geologicheskaya. 1970. No. 9, pp. 78–83. (In Russian).
9. Salakhov A.M., Salakhova R.A., Il’icheva O.M., Morozov V.P., Hacrinov A.I., Nefed’ev E.S. Influence of structure of materials on properties of ceramics. Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2010. No. 8, pp. 343–349. (In Russian).

E.V. KOROLEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, Director Research and Education Center «Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology», A.N. GRISHINA 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, M.I. VDOVIN1 , Engineer; A.I. AL’BAKASOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
2 Orenburg State University (13, Avenue Pobedi, Orenburg, 460018, Russian Federation)

Method for Analysis of Absorption Kinetics. Part 1. Theoretical Basis
The article is one of a series of works devoted to the theoretical and experimental analysis of the process of liquid absorption by building materials. Theoretical problems of the descrip tion of the medium absorption by the porous-capillary body are considered; issues devoted to the selection of a model of porous-capillary body, the influence of geometric parameters of the pore space, surface phenomena, geometric sizes and forms of a sample etc. are highlighted.

Keywords: absorption kinetics, model of porous-capillary body.

1. Sheikin A.E., Chekhovskiy Yu.V., Brusser M.I. Struktura i svoistva tsementnykh betonov [Structure and properties of cement concrete]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1979. 344 p.
2. Solomatov V.I., Selyaev V.P. Khimicheskoe soprotivle nie kompozitsionnykh stroitel’nykh materialov [Chemical resistance of composite construction materials]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1987. 260 p.
3. Selyaev V.P., Solomatov V.I., Oshkina L.M. Khimicheskoe soprotivlenie napolnennykh tsementnykh kompozitov [Chemical resistance of the filled cement composites]. Saransk: Izdatel’stvo Mordivskogo universiteta. 2001. 152 p.
4. Babkov V.V, Mokhov V.N., Kapitanov S.M., Komokhov P.G. Strukturoobrazovanie i razrushenie tsementnykh bet onov [Structurization and destruction of cement concrete]. Ufa: GUP «Ufimskiy poligrafkombinat». 2002. 376 p.
5. Knorre D.G., Krylova L.F., Muzykantov V.S. Fizicheskaya khimiya [Physical chemistry]. M.: Vysshaya shkola. 1990. 416 p.
6. Aivazov B.V. Praktikum po khimii poverkhnostnykh yavlenii i adsorbtsii [Workshop on chemistry of the superficial phe- nomena and adsorption]. M.: Vysshaya shkola. 1973. 208 p.
7. Povyshenie stoikosti betona i zhelezobetona pri vozdeist vii agressivnykh sred [Increase of firmness of concrete and reinforced concrete at influence of hostile environment]. Ed. by V.M. Moskvin and Yu.A. Savvina. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1975. 236 p.
8. Alekseev S.N., Ivanov F.M., Modry S., Shissl’ P. Dolgovechnost’ zhelezobetona v agressivnykh sredakh [Durability of reinforced concrete in hostile environ ment]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1990. 320 p.

S.V. FEDOSOV1, Doctor of Science (Engineering), Academician of RAACS, President (; V.G. KOTLOV 2, Candidate of Science (Engineering), Counsellor of RAACS, Director (; M.A. IVANOVA 2, Engineer (
1 Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (20, Mart 8th Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)
2 Volga State University of Technology (3, Lenin Square, Yoshkar-Ola, Republic of Mari El, 424000, Russian Federation)

Some Peculiarities of the Calculation Methods of Roof Structures with Connections on Metal Clamping Plates with Account of the Phenomena of Heat and Mass Transfer
Peculiarities of the work of dowel connections on metal clamping plates in the roof structures of wood are considered. It is shown that a significant factor affecting the strength charac teristics and consequently the durability of structures is the cyclicality of changes of temperature and humidity parameters in the environment of exploitation. Boundary problems of heat and substance mass transfer in the case of moisture condensation on a dowel and its diffusion into the layers of wood in the two-dimensional setting are formulated and solved. The results of problems solutions are illustrated by specific examples.

Keywords: wood, connections, metal clamping plates, heat and mass transfer.

1. Stroitel’nye kompozitsionnye materialy kollektivnaya nauchnaya monografiya. Pod red. R.M. Akhmednabieva. [Construction composite materials. Ed. by R.M. Akhmed nabiev]. Novosibirsk: «SibAK». 2014. 232 p.
2. Korolev E.V., Bazhenov Yu.M., Smirnov V.A. Stroi tel’nye materialy variatropno-karkasnoi struktury: mono grafiya. [Constructional materials of variable-framed structure] Moscow: MGSU. 2011. 316 p.
3. Barinova L.S. Tendencies of development of building materials industry abroad. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 11, pp. 2–7. (In Russian).
4. Sovremennoe vysotnoe stroitel’stvo. Monografiya. [Modern high-rise construction]. Moscow: GUP «ITTs Moskomarkhitektury». 2007. 440 p.
5. Bode A.B. Derevyannoe zodchestvo Russkogo Severa: Arkhitekturnaya sokrovishchnitsa Poonezh’ya [Wooden architecture of the Russian North: Architectural treasure of Poonezhya]. Moscow: KomKniga. 2010. 208 p.
6. Ryb’ev I.A. Stroitel’noe materialovedenie [Construction materials science]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 2004. 701 p.
7. Pilyavskiy V.I., Tits A.A., Ushakov Yu. S. Istoriya russkoi arkhitektury: uchebnik dlya vuzov. [The history of Russian architecture]. Moscow: Arkhitectura-S. 2003. 512 p.
8. Razykov Sh.B., Zadvernyuk L.V. Traditional dwelling in central Asia. The new ideas of new century – 2015: The Fifteenth International Scientific Conference Proceedings. Khabarovsk. 2015. Vol. 1, pp. 269–274. (In Russian).
9. Avrorin A.V. Ekologicheskoe domostroenie. Stroitel’nye materialy: analit. obzor. [Ecological house construction. Constructional materials]. Novosibirsk: Gosudarstven naya publichnaya nauchno-tekhnicheskaya biblioteka SO RAN. 1999. 72 p.
10. Martynenko A.S. Ways of language translation in tradi tional Japanese architecture in the creative works of Kengo Kum. Izvestiya vuzov. Investitsii. Stroitel’stvo. Nedvizhimost’. 2015. No. 3, pp. 174–186. (In Russian).
11. Radina M.A., Ivanova A.P. «New wooden». Russian ar chitectural trends in contemporary interpretation. The new ideas of new century – 2015: The Fifteenth International Scientific Conference Proceedings. Khabarovsk. 2015. Vol. 2, pp. 208–214. (In Russian).
12. Samolkina E.G. The reflection of wood architecture tra ditions in modern wood architecture. Privolzhskii nauch- nyi zhurnal. 2014. No. 1, pp. 123–126. (In Russian).
13. Nemirovsky Yu.V., Boltaev A.I. Method of calculation of wooden rafter coverings of buildings. Message 1. Modelling and general regularities. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh za vedeniy. Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 3, pp. 5–13. (In Russian).
14. Savel’ev A.A. Konstruktsii krysh. Stropil’nye sistemy [Roof structures. Rafter systems]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Adelant. 2009. 120 p.
15. Purtov V.V., Pavlik A.V. Wood construction with joints on metal plates and expansion bolts. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo. 2007. No. 4, pp. 13–20. (In Russian).
16. Ariskin M.V., Pavlenko V.V. Long-span bearing wood structures. Noviy universitet. Seriya: Tekhnicheskie nauki. 2015. No. 5–6, pp. 65–68. (In Russian).
17. Charleson A.W., Perez N. Long-span Timber Buildings – a Review of Recent International Projects. New Zealand Timber Design Journal. 2009. Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 19–28. URL: http:// Buildings__Review_Intl.pdf (date of access 5.02.2016).
18. Cousin A., Salenikovich A. Rate of loading and moisture effects on dowel bearing strength. Proceedings of the 12 th World Conference on Timber Engineering. 2012 July 16- 19. Auckland. New Zealand, pp. 473–481. URL: http:// Salenikovich.pdf (дата обращения: 31.01.2016).
19. Stolpovskiy G.A., Zhadanov V.I., Rudnev I.V. Connection for elements of wooden structures of rapidly erected buildings and facilities with screw cruciate pegs. Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2010. No. 5, pp. 150–154. (In Russian).
20. Selyutina L.F., Kornilov V.V. The truss-plates with joint connections research. Uchenye zapiski Petrozavodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Estestvennye i tekh nicheskie nauki. 2009. No. 7, pp. 26–30. (In Russian).
21. Kolobov M.V. Use of the reserve of durability at the esti mation of reliability of compressed-bent components of the top belt of board farms of the covering with connec tions on metal nail plates. Izvestiya Kazanskogo gosudarst vennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2011. No. 1, pp. 82–87. (In Russian).
22. Shmidt A.B., Pavlenko M.N. Some features of designing wood trusses with toothed metal plates with optimization of joint connections. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavede nii. Lesnoi zhurnal. 2013. No. 3, pp. 108–113. (In Russian).
23. Mironov V.G. Experience of calculation and design of wooden constructions with units on metal connector plates. Privolzhskiy nauchnyi zhurnal. 2015. No. 4, pp. 45–54. (In Russian).
24. Fedosov S.V., Kotlov V.G., Ivanova M.A. Exploitation of wooden constructions with dowel connections taking into account cyclic changes of temperature and humidity. Inspection of buildings and structures: problems and ways of their solution: materials of the V International scientific and practical conference. Saint Petersburg. 2014, pp. 14–22. (In Russian).
25. Fedosov S.V., Kotlov V.G., Aloyan R.M., Yasinski F.N., Bochkov M.V. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in gas-solid system at nailed connection of timber structures elements. Part 1. General physical-mathematical state ment of problem. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 86–91. (In Russian).
26. Fedosov S.V., Kotlov V.G., Aloyan R.M., Yasinski F.N., Bochkov M.V. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in the gas-solid system at dowel joints of timber structures elements. Part 2. Dynamics of temperature fields at arbi trary law of changes of air environment temperature. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 73–79. (In Russian).
27. Fedosov S.V., Kotlov V.G., Aloyan R.M., Yasinski F.N., Bochkov M.V. Simulation of heat and mass transfer inthe gas-solid system at dowel joints of timber structures elements. Part 3. Dynamics and kinetics of moisture transfer during moisture condensation and evaporation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 9, pp. 63–69. (In Russian).
28. Fedosov S.V., Kotlov V.G., Aloyan R.M., Yasinski F.N., Bochkov M.V. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in the gas-solid system at dowel joints of timber structures elements. Part 4. Simulation and numerical realization of processes of condensation, evaporation and mass con ductivity of moisture. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 10, pp. 44–50. (In Russian).
29. Fedosov S.V., Kotlov V.G., Ivanova M.A. Heat and mass transfer in the wood of roof framework with a dowel shaped as a metal clamping plate. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2015. No. 3, pp. 179–185. (In Russian).
30. Fedosov S.V., Kotlov V.G., Ivanova M.A. The influence of heat and mass transfer dynamics on characteristics of exploitation of dowel connection. Actual problems of dry ing and hydrothermal treatment of materials in various branches of industry and agricultural complex: collection of scientific articles of the First International Lykovskih scien tific readings. Kursk. 2015. pp. 262–270. (In Russian).
31. Ditkin V.A., Prudnikov A.P. Integral’nye preobrazovaniya i operatsionnoe ischislenie [Integral transformations and operational calculus]. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo fiziko-matematicheskoi literatury. 1961. 524 p.
32. Rekomendatsii po proektirovaniyu i izgotovleniyu dosh chatykh konstruktsii s soedineniyami na metallicheskikh zubchatykh plastinakh [Recommendations for the design and manufacture of wooden structures with connections on metal clamping plates]. M.: TsNIISK im. V.A. Ku cherenko. 1983. 40 p.
33. Lykov A.V., Mikhailov Yu.A. Teoriya tepo- i masso perenosa [The theory of heat and mass transfer]. Moscow- Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoe energeticheskoe izdatel’stvo. 1963. 536 p.
34. Rudobashta S.P. Massoperenos v sistemakh s tverdoi fazoi [Mass transfer in systems with solid phase]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1980. 248 p.

S.N. TOLMACHEV, Doctor of Sciences(Engineering) (, E.A. BELICHENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, A.V. BRAZHNIK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering),( Kharkov National Automobile and Highway University (25, Petrovskogo Street, 61002, Kharkov, Ukraine)

Development of Technological Criteria of Compatibility of Superplasticizers with Cements
Results of the study of properties of a cement paste with different additives are presented. It is shown that the same additive works differently with different cements. The study of prop erties of mortar and cement mixes on the basis of different cements and with different additives is also presented. Preservation of mobility of mortar and concrete mixes has been investigated on the example of different cements. The results of physical and mechanical tests of mortars and concretes show that superplasticizers of a polycarboxylate type have the best compatibility with cements, and superplasticizers on the basis of clear lignosulphonates have the worst compatibility.

Keywords: cement, cement paste, superplasticizer, mortar mix, concrete.

1. Usherov-Marshak A.V., Tsiak M. Compatibility is a theme of concrete science and resource of concrete tech- nology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constructions Materials]. 2009. No. 10, pp. 12–15. (In Russian).
2. Usherov-Marshak A.V., Kabus’ A.V. Physical-chemical evaluation of additives in concrete according calorimetry. Days of modern concrete – Khortytsya 2012: Proceedings of the conference. Ukraine. Zaporozhye. 2012, pp. 12–18. (In Russian).
3. Usherov-Marshak A.V., Zlatkovskiy O.A., Pershina L.A., Tsiak M. To assess the compatibility of chemical addi- tives to cement in concrete technology. Stroitel’nyeMaterialy [Constructions Materials]. 2003. No. 4, pp. 11–15. (In Russian).
4. Usherov-Marshak A.V. Additives in concrete: progress and problems. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constructions Materials]. 2006. No. 10, pp. 8–12. (In Russian).
5. Bondyra-Orach G., Kurdovski V. Compatibility cement – superplasticizer. Modern concrete: a collection of reports of the IX International scientific-practical conference. Ukraine. Zaporozhye. 2007, pp. 77–80.
6. Tsiak M. Criterion assessment of compatibility of addi tives and cements calorimetry methods. Days of modern concrete: a collection of papers XI International scientific- practical conference “Slavic Forum”. Ukraine. Zaporozhye. 2010, pp. 134–142.
7. Pilipenko A.S., Pashina L.D., Shcherbina S.P., Runova R.F. Concretes with superplasticizer: viability and early strength. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constructions Materials]. 2003. No. 4, pp. 15–17. (In Russian).
8. Runova R.F., Rudenko I.I., Troyan V.V., Ivzhenko I.O., Kamenotrus S.V. To a question about the durability of plasticized concrete on the basis of slag cement. Budіvel’nі materіali, virobi ta sanіtarna tekhnіka. 2011. No. 39, pp. 82–89.
9. Tolmachev S.N., Sopov V.P., Tolmachev D.S. On the question of the compatibility of cement concrete compo nents with chemical additives. Innovative Materials and Technologies (XX Scientific Readings): Proceedings of the International scientific-practical conference. Belgorod. 2011. Part 4, pp. 254–260. (In Russian).
10. Ses’kin I.E., Baranov A.S. Influence of superplasticizer S-3 on formation of strength of pressed concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constructions Materials]. 2013. No. 1, pp. 32–33. (In Russian).

N.M. KRASINIKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, R.R. KASHAPOV, Engineer (, N.M. MOROZOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Structure Formation of Cement Stone with a Polyfunctional Additive *

To increase strength during initial stages of hardening, a polyfunctional additive, including a superplasticizer and salt – accelerators of hardening, has been developed. The highest value of cement concrete strength is observed at the combined use of a soda-sulfate mixture and sodium nitrite. The kinetics of concrete hardening with a complex additive has been studied, an increase in the strength was determined not only at the first but at the subsequent stages of hardening. Changes in the structure of the modified complex additive of cement stone are well visible on X-ray photographs at all the stages of hardening and in good agreement with the data about its strength.

Keywords: polyfunctional additive, superplasticizer, accelerator, concrete, strength.

1. Batrakov V.G. Modifitsirovannye betony. Teoriya i prak tika [Modified concrete. Theory and practice]. Moscow: “Technoprojekt”. 1998. 768 p.
2. Khozin V.G., Morozova N.N., Sibgatullin I.R., Sal’nikov A.V. Modification of cement concrete by small alloying additions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 10, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).
3. Rakhimov R.Z., Rakhimova N.R., Gaifullin A.R. Properties of cement stone with glinite additives. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 24–26. (In Russian).
4. Fedorova G.D., Vinokurov A.T., Timofeev A.M. Experimental study of strength of concrete with the com plex additive. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 70–71. (In Russian).
5. Tarakanov O.V., Tarakanova E.O. Influence of curing accelerators for the formation of the initial structure of cement materials. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2009. No. 2, pp. 56–64. (In Russian).
6. Vovk A.I., Zamuruev O.V., Androsov P.D., Mikheev S.V., Dubyakov T.V. The new accelerator for energy-saving technologies. Tsement i ego primenenie. 2015. No. 1, pp. 94–97 (In Russian).
7. Мagarotto R., Zeminian N., Roncero J. An innovative accelerator for precast concrete. Crystal seeding to master the current challenges of precast industry. BFT. 2010. No. 1, pp. 4–9.
8. Krasinikova N.M., Eruslanova E.V., Khozin V.G. Claydite foam concrete of the dry mixture for foam. Izvestiya KazGASU. 2012. No. 4, pp. 302–306. (In Russian).
9. Kashapov R.R., Krasinikova N.M., Morozov N.M., Khozin V.G. Influence of a complex additive on cement stone hardening. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 27–31. (In Russian).
10. Kashapov R.R., Krasinikova N.M., Khozin V.G., Shamsin D.R., Galeev A.F Complex additive based on a mixture of soda-sulfate. Izvestiya KazGASU. 2015. No. 2, pp. 239–243 (In Russian).
11. Gorshkov V.S., Timashev V.V., Savel’ev V.G. Metody fiziko-khimicheskogo analiza vyazhushchikh veshchestv [Methods of physical and chemical analysis of binders]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola.1981. 335 p. (In Russian).

K.B. SAFAROV1, Engineer (; V.F. STEPANOVA2, Doctor of Science (Engineering) (
1 Moscow state university of civil engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
2 Research, Design and Technological Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete named after A.A. Gvozdev (6/5, Institutskaya Street, Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation)

Regulation of Reaction Capacity of Fillers and Increasing Sulfate Resistance of Concretes by Combined Use of Low-Calcium Fly Ash and High-Active Metakaolin
Finding new effective ways for simultaneous regulation of the reaction capacity of fillers and increasing the sulfate resistance of concretes is one of the most important research and prac tical problems which need to be addressed to ensure durability of hydraulic structures. The article presents one of options of this problem solution due to introduction of several types of mineral additives. The degree of low-calcium fly ash activation and its impact on the strength of cement stone have been also studied with the help of high-active metakaolin use.

Keywords: alkaline and sulfate corrosion, low-calcium fly ash, metakaolin.

1. Safarov K.B. The use alkali-silica aggregates for produc ing corrosion resistant concretes. Stroitelniye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 7, pp. 17–21. (In Russian).
2. Safarov K.B., Stepanova V.F. Problems of increasing the corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures in hydraulic engineering structures Rogun HPP. The collec tion of materials of scientific-technical conference “Poisk-2015”. 2015. Part. 2, pp. 230–231. (In Russian).
3. Lindg rd Jan, Thomas Michael D.A., Sellevold Erik J., Pedersen B rd, Andi - ak r zge , Justnes Harald, F. Ronning Terje. Alkali–silica reaction (ASR)—perfor mance testing: Influence of specimen pre-treatment, ex posure conditions and prism size on alkali leaching and prism expansion. Cement and Concrete Research. 2013. Vol. 53, pp. 68–90.
4. Pignatelli Rossella, Comi Claudia, Monteiro Paulo J.M. A coupled mechanical and chemical damage model for concrete affected by alkali–silica. Cement and Concrete Research. 2013. Vol. 53, pp. 196–210.
5. Pan J.W., Feng Y.T., Wang J.T., Sun Q.C., Zhang C.H., Owen D.R.J. Modeling of alkali-silica reaction in con crete: a review. Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering. 2012. Vol. 6. Iss. 1, pp. 1–18.
6. Eroshkina N.A., Korovkin M.O., Timchuk E.I. Risk as sessment of alkaline corrosion of geopolymer concrete. Sovromenniye nauchniye issledovaniya i innovacii. 2015. No. 3. URL: (In Russian).
7. Brykov A.S., Voronkov M.E. Alkali-silica reaction, alkali corrosion of Portland cement concrete and pozzolanic additives – corrosion inhibitors. Tsement i ego primenenie. 2014. No. 5, pp. 87–94.
8. Rozental’ N.K, Rozental’ А.Н., Lyubarskaya G.V. Corrosion of concrete by reacting alkalis with silica ag gregates. Beton i Zhelezobeton. 2012. No. 1, pp. 50–60. (In Russian).
9. Zakharov S.A., Kalachik B.S. Highly active metakaolin – modern active mineral modifier cement systems. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 5, pp. 56–57. (In Russian).
10. Thomas Michael. The effect of supplementary cementing materials on alkali-silica reaction: A review. Cement and Concrete Research. 2011. Vol. 41. Iss. 12, pp. 1224–1231.
11. Nesvetayev G.V., Ta Van Fan. Effect of white carbon and metakaolin in the strength and deformation properties of cement stone. Injenerniy vestnik Dona. 2012. No. 4, Part 1, p. 139. (In Russian).

I.N. TIHOMIROVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.V.MAKAROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) ( Dmitry Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (9, Miusskaya Square, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Dynamics of Strength Gain of Silica Concrete During Hydrothermal Treatment
The article is devoted to the study of hardening processes of a corrosion resistant, cementless building material on the basis of tridymite-cristobalite binder in the process of thermal treatment. The presence of a very narrow temporal optimum is shown; processes proceeding at various temporal stages of hardening are described; a description of all the curve knees of strength gain is made. The negative impact of cations Al +3 on the hardening process due to a significant reduction in the silica solubility and a significant increase in the duration of hydrothermal treatment on the strength characteristics of the finished material is also revealed.

Keywords: tridymite-cristobalite binder, silica concrete, cementless binder, hydrothermal synthesis.

1. Anikanova T.V., Rakhimbayev Sh.M., Kaftayeva M.F. To a question of the mechanism of carbon dioxide corrosion of construction materials. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2015. No. 1, рр. 19–26. (In Russian).
2. Anvarov B.R., Latypova T.V., Latypov V.M., Kramar L.Ya. To a question of the mechanism of damage of reinforced concrete at leaching corrosion. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 2 (674), рр. 12–26. (In Russian).
3. Kirilishin V.P. Kremnebeton [Kremnebeton]. Kiev: Budivelnik, 1975. 125 p.
4. Belousov V.I., Rychagov S.N., Filippov Yu.A., Habuyeva O.R. Technogenic formation of minerals on hydrothermal fields: environmental problems of operation and prospect of modeling of industrial ores. Mineralogy of a tekhnogenez. Scientific publication. Miass. URO RAN. 2009, pp. 48–60. (In Russian).
5. Mitsyuk B.M. Vzaimodeistvie kremnezema s vodoi v gidrotermal’nykh usloviyakh [Interaction of silicon dioxide with water in hydrothermal conditions]. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 1974, рр. 32–37. (In Russian).
6. Okamoto G., Okura T., Gotha To. Svoistva kremnezema v vode. Geokhimiya litogeneza [Properties of silicon dioxide in water. Geochemistry of a litogenez]. M.: Inostrannaya literatura. 1963. 459 p.
7. Ayler R. Khimiya kremnezema [Silicon dioxide chemistry] M.: Mir, 1982. P. 1, рр. 82–84.
8. Kaftayeva M.V., Rakhimbayev I.Sh., Sharapov O.N. Termodinamichesky calculation of comparative gidratatsinny activity of silicate components of gas concretes of autoclave curing. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2014. No. 1, pp. 194. (In Russian).
9. Rakhimbayev I.Sh., Tolypin N.M. Termodinamichesky calculation of activity in the alkaline environment of the minerals which are a part of fillers of concrete. Scientific and engineering problems stroitelno – technological utilization of technogenic waste: Collection of works. Belgorod. BGTU of V.G. Shukhov. 2014, pp. 174–178. (In Russian).

A.A. KETOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (; P.A. KETOV1, Engineer-ecologist; M.P. KRASNOVSKIKH2, Master
1Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29 Komsomolsky Avenue, 29614990, Perm, Russian Federation)
2Perm State National Research University ( 15 Bukireva Street, 614990, Perm, Russian Federation)

Research in Ecological Danger of Heat Insulating Material “Ecowool”
Consequences of the use of ammonium sulfate as a fire retardant when producing the ecowool are considered. In the course of the study, the pyrolysis of selected insulation was con ducted with the help of the device of synchronous thermal analysis with the simultaneous analysis of gas products by the mass-spectrometer. The availability of ammonia and sulfur oxide (IV) in gaseous products of the pyrolysis makes it possible to assume that the initial sample contains ions of ammonium and ions of sulfate and sulfite in its composition. The most probable source of these components in the initial material can be ammonium sulfate. The quantitative analysis for ammonium ion was conducted by spectrophotometric method. The amount of ammonia released in the atmosphere of premises greatly exceeds the permissible limits of SanPiN.

Keywords: energy saving, ecowool, ammonium sulfate, mass-spectrometry.

1. Ivanov G.V. New environmentally friendly heat-insulating material – ecocotton wool. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1995. No. 1, pp. 21. (In Russian).
2. Gnip I.Ya., Kershulis V.I., Veyalis S.A. Heattechnical prop erties of ecocotton wool. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2000. No. 11, pp. 25–27. (In Russian).
3. Maysuradze N.V., Trofimova N.A., Petukhova A.G. Research of heatphysical properties of ecocotton wool in the protecting designs. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 8, pp. 48–49. (In Russian).
4. Frishter V. Ecocotton wool – effective thermal insulation for comfortable and affordable housing. Stroitel’nye mate rialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka. 2008. No. 1, pp. 28. (In Russian).
5. Patent RF 2501761. Teploizolyatsionnyi material i sposob ego izgotovleniya [Heat-insulating material and way of its production]. Vasil’ev V.V., Bagaev A.A., Bystrova V.V., Markova N.P., Petukhov N.I. Declared 13.04.2012. Published 20.12.2013. (In Russian).
6. Patent RF 2083524. Syr’evaya smes’ «Ekovata-2» [Raw mix «Ekovata-2»]. Dankovtsev V.T., Okunev Yu.P. Declared 25.09.1995. Published 10.07.1997. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2149148. Teploizolyatsionnyi material [Thermal insulation material]. Biryukov V.I., Danilov V.V., Pashkov N.M. Declared. 06.03.1998. Published 20.05.2000. (In Russian).
8. Moshkova E.A., Tueva T.V. Research of dependence of heat conductivity of ecocotton wool on density. Arkhitektura. Stroitel’stvo. Obrazovanie. 2015. No. 2, pp. 180–183. (In Russian).
СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2020 osm21