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Stroitel`nye Materialy №1-2

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A.A. SEMYONOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Manager (info@gs-expert.ru) «GS-Expert», OOO (18, office 207, the 1st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Lane, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Prospects of Development of Construction Complex and Building Materials Industry in 2016 The state of the Russian economy and construction complex is analyzed. The trend towards reduction of investments in the fixed capital that entails a reduction in the volume of construction works and new housing supply is noted. It is shown that relatively high indicators of new housing supply in 2014 and the first half of 2015 are explained by the completion of construction of objects started in previous years. By the results of 2015, the new housing supply reduced by 0.5% in comparison with 2014 and was 83.8 mil. m2. The influence of mortgage lending, as a source of financing the housing construction, is considered. As a result of the slowdown in construction, a significant decline in production of basic types of building materials – 92.2% compared to 2014 is fixed that significantly worse than in the whole manufacturing industry (94.6%). In 2016 it is predicted that the decline in production of the building materials industry will be by 5–7%. And in case of realization of the pessimistic scenario of the Russian economy development, it will be by 12–15%.

Keywords: statistics, forecast, investments in fixed capital, housing construction, manufacture of building materials.

References
1. “About Results of Social-Economic Development of the Russian Federation in 2015”, Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation, Moscow, February, 2015.
2. Socio-Economic Situation of Russia. 2015”, Federal State Statistics Service, № ИМ-04-1/30-СД, Moscow, 09.02.2016.
3. http://www.minstroyrf.ru/press/obem-vvoda-zhilyaekonom- klassa-v-2015-godu-vyros-na-18/ (date of application – 17.02.2016/
G.Ya. DUDENKOVA, Head of Scientific Ceramic Center, VNIISTROM, O.N. TOKAEVA, Head of Certification Body, VNIISTROM, Member of TC (Technical Committee) 465, A.A. SHCHERBAKOV, Technical Director, T.A. DOKUCHAEVA, Leading Specialist-Ecologist, A.A. POPOV, Director Ceramic Materials Manufacturers Association (2a, Shchelkovskoe Highway, 105122 Moscow, Russian Federation)

Best Available Technologies – Innovation in Technical Regulation of Building Industry An analysis of the degree of harmonization of the Information-Technical Handbook NDT “Manufacture of Ceramic Products” developed in Russia and approved by Rosstandart (Federal Agency on Technical Regulation and Metrology) in December, 2015 with the analogous handbook of EU is presented. The assessment of necessary changes in the operation of factories producing ceramic brick for short-term and long-term perspectives is made. It is shown that Russian and European handbooks, similar in many ways in descriptive parts, are different on the status, indicators of impact on the environment as well as on consequences of the practical application which could be fatal for many enterprises of the industry which didn’t carry out the reconstruction or are still in the state of stage-by-stage reconstruction of production. The groundlessness of assignment of enterprises of the brick industry as the production of first degree of hazard is proved. It is concluded that it is necessary to make additions and corrections both in the NTD Handbook “Manufacture of Ceramic Products” and in the series of normative documents of various levels which are directly connected with the necessity to meet the requirements laid down in the Handbook.

Keywords: energy saving, resource saving, industrial ecology, contaminants, atmospheric emissions, environment, best affordable technologies.

References
1. Bol’shina E.P. Jekologija metallurgicheskogo proizvodstva [Ecology of metallurgical production]. Novotroick: NITU MISiS, 2012. 155 p.
2. Gorshkov S.P. Konceptual’nye osnovy geojekologii [Conceptual fundamentals of geoecology]. Smolensk: SGU, 1998.288 p.
E.I. YUMASHEVA
About Experience in Reconstruction of Operating Brick Production under Economic Crisis Conditions . . . . . . . 14
G.I. YAKOVLEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gyakov@istu.ru), I.S. POLIANSKICH1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), G.N. PERVUSHIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); G. SKRIPKIUNAS2, Professor (gintautas.skripkiunas@vgtu.lt); I.A.PUDOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), E.A.KARPOVA1, Master Student
1 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)
2 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Saule· tekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius)

Structural Modification of New Formations in Cement Matrix Using Carbon Nanotube Dispersions and Nanosilica Complex nanodispersed systems with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodispersed silica have a significant impact on the processes of hydration, setting and hardening of construction composites predetermining their durability. Show that the main effect of the modification of cement matrix in the case of adding complex nanodispersed systems is provided by the directed influence on the processes of hydration and subsequent crystallization of new formations. It is noted that, carbon nanotube dispersion and nanosized silica being added, the binding matrix is structured forming a prefect dense shell from crystalline hydrate new formations on the surface of solid phases that provides strong binding matrix in cement concrete.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, nanosilica, cement matrix, crystalline hydrate new formations.

References
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7. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Polyanskikh I.S., Senkov S.A., Pudov I.A., Mohamed A.E. Concrete of enhanced durability for production of pillars of power lines. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 92–94. (In Russian).
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11. Parveen S., Rana S., Fangueiro R. A review on nanomaterial dispersion, microstructure, and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube and nanofiber reinforced cementitious composites. Journal of Nanomaterials. Vol. 2013. Article ID 710175, 19 p.
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15. Hunashyall A., Banapurmath N., Jain A., Quadri S., Shettar A. Experimental investigation on the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nano-SiO2 addition on mechanical properties of hardened cement paste // Advances in Materials. 2014. Vol. 3. Is. 5, pp. 45–51.
16. Péter Ludvig, José M. Calixto, Luiz O. Ladeira, Ivan C.P. Gaspar. Using converter dust to produce low cost cementitious composites by in situ carbon nanotube and nanofiber synthesis. Materials. 2011. Vol. 4. Is. 3, pp. 575–584. Doi:10.3390/ma4030575.
17. Sakthieswarana N., Sureshb M. A study on strength properties for cement mortar added with carbon nanotubes and zeolite. International Journal оf Engineering and Computer Science. 2015. Vol. 4. Is. 6, pp. 12402–12406.
18. Jyoti Bharj, Sarabjit Singh, Subhash Chander, Rabinder Singh. Role of dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on compressive strength of cement. International Journal of Mathematical, Computational, Physical, Electrical and Computer Engineering. 2014. Vol. 8. No. 2, pp. 340–343.
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G.D. FEDOROVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (fedorovagd@mail.ru ), G.N. ALEXANDROV, Chemist-analyst, S.A. SMAGULOVA Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics) North-Eastern Federal University of M.K. Ammosova (58, Belinskogo Street, Yakutsk, 677000, Russian Federation)

The Study of Graphene Oxide use in Cement Systems The review of foreign articles connected with research of graphene oxide use possibility as primary nanomodifier of cement composite materials is provided. It is established that introduction of graphene oxide promotes substantial increase of strength properties of cement composites (durability on a bend and on compression) that is caused by creating favorable conditions for formation of a microstructure of a cement stone. Results of preliminary experiments on graphene oxide influence studying on strength properties and microstructure of cement grout on Portland cement of PC 500-D0 of JSC PO «Yakutsement» are presented. The received results indicate prospects of carrying out researches of graphene oxide as modifier of cement matrix in wider scales.

Keywords: cement, nanomodifier, graphene oxide, durability, microstructure.

References
1. Korolev E.V. Nanotechnology in material science. Analysis of achievements and current state. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 11, pp. 47–79. (In Russian).
2. Graphene oxide reinforced cement. http://www.monash. edu.au/assets/pdf/industry/graphene-oxide.pdf.
3. Chuah S., Pan Z., Sanjaan J.G., Wang C.M., Duan W.H. Nano reinforced cement and concrete composites and new perspective from grapheme oxide. Construction and Building Materials. 2014. Vol. 73, pp. 113–124.
4. Pan Z., He L., Qiu L., Korayem A.H., Li G., Zu J.W., Hu, Collins F., Li D., Duan W.H., Wang M.C. Mechanical properties and microstructure of a grapheme oxide – cement composit. Cement & Concrete Composites. 2015. Vol. 58, pp. 140–147.
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6. Patent WO 2013096990 A1. Graphene oxide reinforced cement and concrete. Pan Z., Duan W.H., Li D., Collins F. Declared 21.12.2012. Published 04.07.2013.
7. Ahmadreza Sedaghat, Manoj K. Ram, A. Zayed, Rajeev Kamal, Natadia Shanahan. Investigation of Physical Properties of Graphene-Cement Composite for Structural Applications. Open Journal of Composite Materials. 2014. No. 4, pp. 12–21.
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11. Fedorova G.D., Alexandrov G.N., Smagulova S.A. Research of stability of water suspension of graphene oxide. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 15–21. (In Russian).
K.A. SARAYKINA1, Engineer (Ksenya_s2004@mail.ru), V.A. GOLUBEV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (Golubev_va@cems.pstu.ru); G.I. YAKOVLEV2 Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (jakowlew@udm.net), S.V. SYCHUGOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), G.N. PERVUSHIN2 Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolskiy Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 Izhevsk State Technical University named after M.T. Kalashnikov (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)

The Corrosion Resistance Increase of Basalt Fiber Cement Concrete

Protect of basalt fiber by chemical corrosion in cements possible using of ultra-dispersed active modifiers. It can reduce alkaline of environment, in this case, it increase the density of the cement matrix in the contact with basalt fiber by including nano-dispersed additives due to the structural modification of the system. The paper is assessed the combined influence of metakaolin and the dispersion of carbon nanotubes on the basalt fiber concrete structure and properties. conducted researches demonstrate the effectiveness of metakaolin to protect basalt fiber by alkaline degradation of cement concrete due to the formation of calcium hydroaluminosilicates, and the use of carbon nanotubes contributes to compaction the contact zone of the basalt fiber – cement stone, thereby increasing the durability and strength characteristics of basalt fiber concrete in whole.

Keywords: basalt fiber concrete, corrosion, metakaolin, protect, nano-tubes, adgisio

References
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2. Perfilov V.A. Basalt fiber as the main component of the dispersion-fiber reinforcement of concrete Vestnik Donbasskoj nacional’noj akademii stroitel’stva i arhitektury. 2013. Vol. 3 (101), pp. 146–148. (In Russian).
3. Chaohua Jiang, Ke Fan, Fei Wu, Da Chen. Experimental study on the mechanical properties and microstructure of chopped basalt fibre reinforced concrete. Materials and Design. 2014. No. 58, pp. 187–193.
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9. Ponomarev A.N. High-quality concrete. An analysis of the opportunities and the practice of using biotechnology methods. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyj zhurnal. 2009. No. 6, pp. 25–33. (In Russian).
10. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Polyanskikh I.S., Kerene Ya., Machulaitis R., Pudov I.A., Sen’kov S.A., Politaeva A.I., Gordina A.F., Shaibadullina A.V. Nanostrukturirovanie kompozitov v stroitel’nom materialovedenii [Nanostructuring composites in construction materials science]. Izhevsk: Izdatel’stvo IzhGTU. 2014. 196 p.
11. Simone Musso, Jean-Marc Tulliani, Giuseppe Ferro, Alberto Tagliaferro Influence of carbon nanotubes structure on the mechanical behavior of cement composites. Composites Science and Technology. 2009. Vol. 69. Is. 11– 12, pp. 1985–1990.
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14. Urhanova L.A., Lhasaranov S.A., Rozina V.E., Buyantuev S.L. Fine basalt-fibrous-concrete with nanosilica. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 6, pp. 45–48. (In Russian).
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16. Gorshkov V.S., Timashev V.V., Savel’ev V.G. Metody fiziko-himicheskogo analiza vyazhushchih veshchestv [Methods of physicochemical analysis binders]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1981. 335 p.
17. Yakovlev G.I., Galinovskij A.L., Golubev V.A., Sarjakina K.A., Politaeva A.I., Zykova E.S. Nanostructuring as a way to improve the adhesive properties of the “cement stone – basalt fiber reinforcement”. Izvestiya KGASU. 2015. No. 2 (32), pp. 281–288. (In Russian).

L.A. URKHANOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (urkhanova@mail.ru), S.L. BUIANTUEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), S.A. LKHASARANOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (solbon230187@mail.ru), A.Yu. KUZNETSOVA, Master student East Siberia State University of Technology and Management (40V, Klyuchevskaya Street, Ulan-Ude, 670013, Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation)

Using the Fullerene Additive for Improve the Properties of Cement and Concrete*

The article presents the results of the modification of the cement stone and concrete with the fullerene additive produced as a by-product of the plasma gasification of coal. It deals with the problem of even distribution of the fullerene additive in the volume of water by the surface functionalization in the medium of isopropanol. The physical-mechanical and performance properties of the concrete with fullerene additive are determined. The introduction of fullerene additive enhances the physical and mechanical properties of concrete and its performance by accelerating the processes of hydration and improving the microstructure of cement stone.

Keywords: Portland cement, electron microscopic analysis, modified concrete, fullerene additive

References
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5. Patent RU 2488984. Sposob polucheniya uglerodnykh nanomaterialov s pomoshch’yu energii nizkotemperaturnoi plazmy i ustanovka dlya ego osushchestvleniya [A method of obtaining carbon nanomaterials using low-temperature plasma energy and installation for its realization] / Buiantuev S.L., Kondratenko A.S., Damdinov B.B.; Declared 22.02.2011. Published 07.27.2013. Bul. No. 21.
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8. Korolev E.V., Inozemtsev A.S. Efficiency of physical impacts for dispersing nanoscale modifiers. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 76–88. (In Russian).
9. Korolev E.V., Kuvshinova M.I. Ultrasonic parameters for the homogenization of disperse systems with nanoscale modifiers Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 85–88.

A.S. INOZEMTCEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (InozemcevAS@mgsu.ru), E.V. KOROLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Director Research and Education Center «Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology», Advisor RAACS (korolev@nocnt.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Analysis of the Destruction Kinetics of Nanomodified High-Strength Lightweight Concrete by Acoustic Emission

The paper presents the experimental data and analysis of the dependence of energy of acoustic emission on the physical and mechanical properties of high-strength lightweight concrete filled hollow ceramic microspheres. Shown that the kinetics of acoustic emission energy of the studied concrete can be described in three stages with different intensity and duration. The introduction of hollow ceramic microspheres into fine-grained sand concrete up to some limit (not more than 18% by weight) allows the formation of composite structure with longer «safety stage», when acoustic emission energy varies with the lowest intensity at increasing the load. The duration of this stage depends on the mechanical properties of lightweight aggregate, cement-mineral matrix and strength of their mutual coupling. The hardening of the phase boundary between the filler and cement-mineral matrix will reduce the defectiveness of the structure of high-strength lightweight concrete with high content of hollow microspheres. Analysis of the destruction of high-strength lightweight concrete by the acoustic emission method allows to determine the dependences of structure conversion when using nanoscale modifier and identify the limit of the formation the conditions for the smallest defects in material. Shown that the greatest effect of the application of nanomodifier is observes for the compositions with average density less than 1500 kg/m3. It is expressed as an increase in the relative change in the compressive strength and the changing the nature of the recorded parameters of acoustic emission. The acoustic emission method is an effective method to study the influence of nanoscale additives on the structure and properties of construction materials.

Keywords: acoustic emission, high-strength lightweight concrete, destruction, hollow microspheres, structural defects.

References
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11. Perfilov V.A. Control of deformation and fracture of concrete methods of fracture mechanics and acoustic emission. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno- stroitel’nogo universiteta, Seriya. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2014. No. 38 (57), pp. 75–84. (In Russian).
12. Aggelisa D.G., Mpalaskasb A.C., Matikasb T.E. Investigation of different fracture modes in cement-based materials by acoustic emission. Cement and Concrete Research. 2013. Vol. 48, pp. 1–8.
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15. Proshin A.P., Bozh’ev N.V., Fokin G.A., Smirnov V.A. Acoustic emission study of the destruction of radiation protection composite materials. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2004. No. 1, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).

L.I. EVEL’SON, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (levelmoscow@mail.ru), N.P. LUKUTTSOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (natluk58@mail.ru), A.A. PYKIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), D.V.ROTAR’, Engineer, S.S. KUZNETSOV, Student, R.A. EFREMOCHKIN, Student Bryansk State Technological University of Engineering (3, Stanke Dimitrova Avenue, Bryansk, 241037, Russian Federation)

Study of Statistical Stability of the Results of Fractal Modeling by the Example of Nano-Modified Concrete Structure The paper describes the study of the effect of electron microscope magnification when photographing nano-modified material microstructure (NM) on the main fractal characteristics. The NM samples with several nano-modifiers (metakaolin, biosiliphycated nanotubes, titanium dioxide) were investigated. The objective of the study is to estimate the main statistical characteristics of the results of fractal modeling when changing the magnification of material microstructure images. The pictures of microstructures with different magnification, representing a wide range of values, were taken for the enumerated nano-modifiers. Then using the computer programme ImageJ and the plugin FracLac, the fractal dimension and lacunarity were determined for each picture. After that the samples were processing in MS EXCEL. The spot means, variances, mean-square deviations and coefficients of variation were detected. The analysis showed the invariance of fractal dimension and lacunarity of high variability regarding the magnification of material microstructure images.

Keywords: nano-modified material, microstructure, fractal characteristics.

References
1. Evelson L., Lukuttsova N. Application of statistical and multi-fractal models for parameter optimization of nanomodified concrete. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2014 . Vol. 10. No. 5 (2015), pp. 12363–12370.
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3. Evelson L.I., Ryzhikova E.G. Numerical method of optimization based on computer experiment planning. Vestnik BSTU. 2015. No. 1, pp. 14–19. (In Russian).
4. Evelson L., Lukuttsova N. Some practical aspects of fractal simulation of structure of nano-modified concrete. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015. Vol. 10. Is. 19, pp. 40454–40456.
5. Evel’son L.I., Lukuttsova N.P., Nikolaenko A.N., Khomyakova E.N., Rivonenko Ya.A. Some practical aspects of fractal simulation of a structure of nano-composite material. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 11, pp. 24–27.
6. Mandelbrot B. Fraktal’naya geometriya prirody [Fractal nature geometry]. M.: Institute of Computer Science. 2002. 656 p.
7. Lukuttsova N., Pykin A. Stability of metakaolin-based nano-dispersed additives. Glass and Ceramics. 2014. No. 11, pp. 7–11.
8. Lukuttsova N., Ustinov A. Additive based on biosiliphycated nanotubes. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015. Vol. 10. No. 19, pp. 40450– 40453.
9. Lukuttsova N., Lesovik V., Postnikova O., Gornostaeva E., Vasunina S., Suglobov A. nano-disperse additive based on titanium dioxide. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2014. Vol. 9. No. 22, pp. 15903–15911.
10. Lukuttsova N., Kolomatskiy A., Pykin A., Nikolaenko A., Kalugin A., Tugicova M. environmentally safe schungite- based nano-dispersion additive to concrete. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2014. Vol. 9. No. 22, pp. 16701–16709.

S.A. KOKSHAROV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (ksa@isc-ras.ru), A.V. BAZANOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); S.V. FEDOSOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS, President, M.V. AKULOVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (m_akulova@mail.ru), Advisor of RAACS, T.E. SLIZNEVA2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Institute of Solution Chemistry named after G.A. Krestov of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1, Akademicheskaya Street, Ivanovo, 153045, Russian Federation)
2 Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (20, 8th Marta Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)

Analysis of the influence of the calcium chloride dispersity in mechanoactivated solution on structure and characteristics of cement stone*

Using the method of dynamic light scattering we investigated the influence of the rotor and pulse impact on a dimensional change of particles in calcium chloride hydrosol used as texturing additives in concrete mixing. Mechanoacoustic processing provides sampling of the disperse phase to the sizes less than 1 nanometer which is maintained for more than 24 hours. The mechanism of reinforcing action of the additive connected with the emergence in cement system the multiple centers of crystallization the number of which increases by 9 decimal orders due to the rotary-pulse impact, is proved by the results of evaluation the parameters of the pore structure of cement stone carried out by the method of low-temperature adsorption and desorption of nitrogen vapors. It has been found that the use of mechanically activated calcium chloride solution for mixing cement pastes decreases defectiveness by reducing the size of the maximum pore diameter in 1.8 times, and by aligning the distribution of specific surface parameters and the volume of pore spaces according to the pore size. Optimizing the pore space enhances the mechanical strength of cement stone by 2.5 times in comparison with a control sample. The greatest effect from mechanoacoustic processing of mixing liquid is obtained in the field of low salt concentrations of about 0.032 mol/l, that is 0.1% of the binder weight.

Keywords: nanotechnology, calcium chloride, mechanical activation, dynamic light scattering method, the pore structure.

References
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6. Erofeyev V.T., Mitino E.A., Matviyevsky A.A., Osipov A.K., Emel'yanov D.V., Yudin P.V.Composite building materials on the activated mixing water. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 11, pp. 56–57. (In Russian).
7. Loganina V.I., Fokin G.A., Vilkova N.G., Karaseva Ya.A. Increasing water activity cement mixing systems acoustic field. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 8, pp. 14–15. (In Russian).
8. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Kerene Ya., Polyanskikh I.S., Pudov I.A., Khazeev D.R., Sen'kov S.A. Complex additive based on carbon nanotubes and silica fume for modifying autoclaved aerated gas silicate. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 3–6. (In Russian).
9. Berne B.J., Pecora R. Dynamic Light Scattering. New York: Wiley. 1976. 376 p.
10. Koksharov S.A., Kornilov N.L., Meteleva O.V. Solvent preparation techniques for assessing nano-dispersed sites using dynamic light scattering. Izvestiya vuzov. Tekhnologiya tekstil'noi promyshlennosti. 2014. No. 1, pp. 136–140. (In Russian).
11. Avakumov E.G. Mekhanicheskie metody aktivatsii khimicheskikh protsessov [Mechanical methods of activation of chemical processes]. Novosibirsk: Science. 1986. 306 p.
12. Patent RF 2345005. Sostav dlya prigotovleniya betona [Ingredients for making concrete]. Fedosov S.V., Akulova M.V., Kasatkina V.I., Padokhin V.A., Strel'nikov A.N. Declared. 26.03.2007. Published 27.01.2009. (In Russian).
13. Aleksenskiy A.E., Shvidchenko A.V., Eidel'man E.D. The applicability of the method of dynamic light scattering to determine the size of nanoparticles in sols. Pis'ma v zhurnal tekhnicheskoi fiziki. 2012. Vol. 38. No. 23, pp. 1–10. (In Russian).
14. Konyakhin S.V., Sharonova L.V., Eidelman E.D Marking suspensions of detonation nanodiamonds optical methods. Pis'ma v zhurnal tekhnicheskoi fiziki. 2013. Vol. 39. No. 5, pp. 33–40. (In Russian).
15. Mayorov P.M. Betonnye smesi: retsepturnyi spravochnik dlya stroitelei i proizvoditelei stroitel'nykh materialov [Concrete mixture: prescription guide for builders and manufacturers of building materials]. Rostov-on-Don. Feniks. 2009. 461 p.
16. Rabinovich V.A., Havin Z.Ya. Kratkii khimicheskii spravochnik [Short chemical reference book]. Leningrad. Khimiya. 1991. 74 p.
17. Butman M.F., Ovchinnikov I.L., Arbuznikov V.V., Agafonov A.V. Synthesis and Properties of Al-pillared montmorillonite natural origin. Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy. Khimiya i Khimicheskaya Tekhnologiya. 2012. Vol. 55. No. 8, pp. 73–77. (In Russian).
18. Khozin V.G., Abdrakhmanov P.A., Nizamov R.K. Common concentration pattern of effects of construction materials nanomodification. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 25–33. (In Russian).

V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), M.N. SIVALNEVA, Engineer, I.V. ZHERNOVSKY, Doctor Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), V.A. KOBSEV, Engineer, V.V. NELUBOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (nelubova@list.ru) B Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Features of Hardening Mechanism of Nanostructured Binder*

Goal of this paper is more deep understanding of hardening mechanism of silica nanostructured binder. Study of kinetics of structure formation in silica nanostructured binder (NB) is realized. Analysis of chemical processes in the NB system taking place during the time period from 4 hours to 7 days is accomplished on the base of data of X-ray analysis and IR-spectroscopy. The strength development in NB system is studied. Improving of strength values of NB when reducing of amorphous component in the binding system is observed. Mechanism of structure formation in silica based NB, consisting in two stages: polycondensation with involving of water component when assembling of siloxane bands; autoepitaxial crystallization of amorphous component at surface of α-quartz crystals. For this mineral binding system the raw silica component is quartz of first stage of phase formation and a new formation is quartz of second stage of phase formation.

Keywords: nanostructured binder, quartz, stage of phase formation, crystallization, polycondensation

References
1. Zhernovsky I.V., Osadchaya M.S., Cherevatova A.V., Strokova V.V. Aluminosilicate nanostructured binder on the base of granite. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 38–41. (In Russian).
2. Pavlenko N.V., Strokova V.V., Kapusta M.N., Netsvet D.D. About application prospectivity of rocks with different geological and morphological features as basic raw component for free-cement binder production. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014. Vol. 670, pp. 462–465.
3. Nelyubova V.V., Kobzev V.A., Kapusta M.N., Podgornyi I.I., Pal’shina Yu.V. Features of nanostructured binder depending of genesis of raw materials. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2015. No. 3, pp. 7–9. (In Russian).
4. Miroshnikov E.V., Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V. Nanostructured perlite binder and based foam concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 105–106. (In Russian).
5. Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V. Foam concrete on the base of nanostructured binder. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2009. No. 3, pp. 115–119. (In Russian).
6. Nelyubova V.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Strokova V.V., Bezrodnykh M.V. Silicate autoclave materials with nanostructured modifier under high-temperature exposure. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 9. С. 8–9. (In Russian).
7. Nelyubova V.V., Strokova V.V., Pavlenko N.V., Zhernovsky I.V. Construction composites with nanostructured binder on the base of genetically different raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 20–24. (In Russian).
8. Nelyubova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Strokova V.V., Goncharova T.Yu. Features of structure formation of pigmented silicate materials with nanostructured binder. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2010. No. 3, pp. 25–28. (In Russian).
9. Pivinskiy Yu.E. Keramicheskie vyazhushchie i keramobetony [Ceramic binders and ceramic concrete]. Moscow: Metallurgiya. 1990. 270 p. (In Russian).
10. Cherevatova A.V., Strokova V.V., Zhernovsky I.V. Mineral’nye nanostrukturirovannye vyazhushchie. Priroda, tekhnologiya i perspektivy primeneniya: monografiya [Mineral nanostructured binders. Nature, technology and development prospects]. Belgorod: BGTU. 2010. 161 р. (In Russian).
11. Solovyov L.A. Full-profile refinement by derivative difference minimization. Journal of Applied Crystallography. 2004. Vol. 37, pp. 743–749.

A.V. SUMIN, Engineer (artem2054@yandex.ru), V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.V. NELUBOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (nelubova@list.ru), S.A. EREMENKO, Student Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov(46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Foam-Gas Concrete with Nanostructured Modifier*

In this study the opportunity of application of nanostructured binder as modifier when production of heat insulating cellular concretes is theoretically justified and experimentally confirmed. Modifier initiates structuring of all elements of cellular composites such as cement matrix, providing the strength of composite, as well as foam-gas system as source of pore structure in composite. Also the efficiency of an activated aluminum application as gas forming agent as well as its ultrasonic distribution in water environment with nanostructured modifier is established. It leads to acceleration of distribution of disperse components in water as well as system stabilization in time. These methods allow realization of complex pore formation in binding system as well as formation of heteroporous structure of final composite. Totally, it provides a production of cellular composites with good thermal characteristics and required strength properties.

Keywords: nanostructured binder, cellular concrete, foam-gas concrete, gas forming agent, strength, density.

References
1. Nelyubova V.V., Buryachenko V.A., Cherevatova A.V. Autoclave gas concrete with nanostructured modifier. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2010. No. 1, pp. 95–96. (In Russian).
2. Nelyubova V.V., Strokova V.V., Altynnik N.I. Cellular autoclave composites with nanostructured modifier. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
3. Nelyubova V.V., Strokova V.V., Altynnik N.I. Yacheistye avtoklavnye materialy s nanostrukturirovannym modifikatorom. Tekhnologiya, svoistva i osobennosti: monografiya [Cellular autoclave materials with nanostructured modifier. Technology, properties and features: monography]. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG, 2014. 113 p.
4. Nelyubova V.V., Altynnik N.I., Strokova V.V., Podgornyi I.I. Rheological properties of cellular concrete mixture with nanostructured modifier // Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2014. No. 2, pp. 58–61. (In Russian).
5. Nelyubova V.V., Strokova V.V., Pavlenko N.V., Zhernovskiy I.V. Construction composites with nanostructured binder based on genetically different raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 20–24. (In Russian).
6. Strokova V.V., Sumin A.V., Nelyubova V.V., Shapovalov N.A. Modified binder with nanostructured mineral component. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2015. No. 3, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).
7. Deryabin P.P., Kosach A.F. Application of multifactoral experimental design when study of physical and mechanical properties of foam-gas concrete. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2003. No. 8, pp. 55–58. (In Russian).
8. Strokova V.V., Bukhalo A.B. Foam-gas concrete with nanocrystal pore agent. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 1, рр. 38–39. (In Russian).
9. Bukhalo A.B., Nelyubova V.V., Strokova V.V., Sumin A.V. Comparative assessment of gas forming agents for cellular concrete production. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2013. No. 2, pp. 42–45. (In Russian).

S.V. LEONT’EV1, Engineer (n1306cl@yandex.ru), V.A. GOLUBEV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (Golubev_va@cems.pstu.ru), V.A. SHAMANOV1, Engineer, A.D. KURZANOV1, Engineer; G.I. YaKOVLEV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (jakowlew@udm.net), D.R. KhAZEEV2, Engineer (gism@istu.ru)
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolskiy Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 Izhevsk State Technical University named after M.T. Kalashnikov (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)

Modification of Lightweight Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Structure with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Dispersions

The results of research of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersion influence on improvement of the thermal insulation autoclaved aerated concrete structure and physicomechanical characteristics are presented in this article. The studies found that the carbon nanotubes using contributes to obtaining the optimum viscoplastic properties of aerated concrete massive and stabilization of pore formation with the structuring of a dense uniform hexagonal pore structure. The modified thermal insulation autoclaved aerated concrete composition and structure analysis showed that multi-walled carbon nanotubes act as centers of calcium hydrosilicates directional crystallation, which contributes to the enhancement of aerated concrete physico-mechanical properties. As a result, samples were obtained with strength class B0,5, with an average density grade D200 and thermal conductivity coefficient 0,046 W/m.оС.

Keywords: thermal insulation autoclaved aerated concrete (ААС), multi-walled carbon nanotubes, structure, modification, morphology of neoformations

References
1. Sasnauskas K.I., Shyauchyunas R.V., Volzhenskiy A.V. Thermal insulation materials and products (with density less than 200 kg/m3) on the basis of calcium hydrosilicates. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1987. No. 4, pp. 23–26. (In Russian).
2. Batyanovskiy E.I. Golubev N.M., Sazhnev N.N. Proizvodstvo yacheistobetonnykh izdelii avtoklavnogo tverdeniya [Manufacture of products from cellular concrete of autoclave curing]. Minsk: Publishers Strinko. 2009. 128 p.
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5. Leont’ev S.V., Golubev V.A. Shamanov V.A., Kurzanov A.D. The research of effect of plasticizers on the stabilization process of the cellular structure autoclavedaerated concrete with low density. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2015. No. 11. Vol. 3, pp. 474–480. (In Russian).
6. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Polyanskikh I.S., Kerene Ya., Machulaitis R., Pudov I.A., Sen’kov S.A., Politaeva A.I., Gordina A.F., Shaibadullina A.V. Nanostrukturirovanie kompozitov v stroitel’nom materialovedenii [Nanostructuring composites in construction materials science]. Izhevsk: Izdatel’stvo IzhGTU. 2014. 196 p.
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8. Jа. Keriene et al. The influence of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Additive on Properties of Non-Autoclaved and Autoclaved Aerated Concretes. Construction and Building Materials. 2013. Vol. 49, pp. 527–535.
9. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzhenko A., Bur’yanov A.F., Kerene Ya., Maeva I.S., Khazeev D.R., Pudov I.A., Sen’kov S.A. Applying multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersions in producing autoclaved silicate cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 25–29. (In Russian).
10. Leont’ev S.V., Golubev V.A., Shamanov V.A., Kurzanov A.D. The research of influence of various blowing agents on the structure of autoclaved aerated concrete with low density. Nauchno-tekhnicheskii vestnik Povolzh’ya. 2015. No. 5, pp. 206–208. (In Russian).
11. Gorshkov V.S., Timashev V.V. Metody fiziko-khimicheskogo analiza vyazhushchikh veshchestv [Methods of the physical and chemical analysis of the cementing agents]. Мoscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1963. 258 p.

Yu.V. TOKAREV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (tokarev_01@list.ru), E.О. GINCHITSKY, Master student (umbertu2002@gmail.com), Yu.N. GINCHITSKAYA, Master (yula_yuka@mail.ru), А.F. GORDINA, Master (afspirit@rambler.ru), G.I. YAKOVLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gyakov@istu.ru) Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)

Influence of Additive Complex onto the Properties and Structure of Gypsum Binder

The investigation results of physical and mechanical properties and structure of gypsum samples modified by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SCNT) together with other additives – Portland cement, microsilica and metakaolin (HMK) are given. When analyzing the results of mechanical tests, it was demonstrated that when applying the additive complex containing carbon nanotubes and ultrafine additive the improved mechanical characteristics are observed in opposition to the application of the 1st type of additives. IR analysis of modified samples showed that when applying the additive complex the hydration and crystallization processes become more intensive, especially in the presence of SCNT with Portland cement and microsilica, and when metakaolin with SCNT is introduced – the worst conditions for binder hydration and crystallization are provided. The microstructure analysis of reference and modified samples allowed revealing the availability of new formations in the sample structure and changes in the morphology and sizes of crystalline hydrates.

Keywords: gypsum binder, nanotubes, ultrafine additives, IR analysis, microscopy

References
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13. Yakovlev G.I., Polyanskikh I.S., Tokarev Yu.V., Gordina A.F. Gypsum compositions modified by ultra- and nanodispersed additives. Aktual’nye problemy sovremennoi nauki, tekhniki i obrazovaniya. 2013. Vol. 2. No. 71, pp. 203–206. (In Russian).
14. Burmistrov I.N., Ilinykh I.A., Mazov I.N., Kuznetsov D.V., Yudintseva T.I., Kuskov K.V. Physical and mechanical properties of composite concretes modified by carbon nanotubes. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2013. No. 5, pp. 80. (In Russian).
15. Tokarev Yu.V., Ginchitsky E.O., Yakovlev G.I., Buryanov A.F. Efficiency of gypsum binder modification by carbon nanotubes and additives of different dispersity. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 6, pp. 84–87. (In Russian).

A.F. GORDINA1, Master (afspirit@rambler.ru), G.I. YAKOVLEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gyakov@istu.ru), I.S. POLYANSKIKH1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); J. KERENE2, Ph.D., Prof.; H.-B. FISHER3, Dr. Engineer; N.R. RAKHIMOVA4, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); A.F. BUR’YANOV5, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)
2 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Saul· etekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius)
3 Bauhaus-Universit ät Weimar (8, Geschwister-Scholl-Straβe, Weimar, 99423, Germany)
4 Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)
5 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Gypsum Compositions with Complex Modifiers of Structure

Producing water-resistant gypsum compositions requires the use of finely dispersed additives that foster the formation of slightly soluble compounds coating the calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals, linking them and forming a dense and solid matrix of the material. This study dealt with the influence of the complex fine additive which includes metallurgical dust and multi-walled carbon nanotubes on structure and properties of gypsum binder. The adding additive to gypsum compositions will improve the bending and compressive strength characteristics by 70.5% and 138%, respectively, increase the water resistance of the material due to the synergistic effect of the modifiers. The integrated use of metallurgical dust and carbon nanosystems leads to profound transformation of the matrix structure, i. e. between the primary gypsum crystals the amorphous phase is formed binding the gypsum crystals in large block aggregates and protecting from water.

Keywords: gypsum binder, metallurgical dust, carbon nanotubes, X-ray microanalysis, low-basic calcium hydrosilicates, water-resistance.

References
1. Belov V.V., Buryanov A.F., Yakovlev G.I., Petropavlovskaya V.B., Fischer H.-B., Mayeva I.S., Novichenkova T.B. Modifikatsiya struktury i svoistv stroitel’nykh kompozitov na osnove sul’fata kal’tsiya: monografiya [Modifying structure and properties of construction composites based on calcium sulfate: monograph]. Edited by A.F. Buryanov. Moscow: De Nova. 2012. 196 p.
2. Korovyakov V.F. Latest advances in creating water-resistant gypsum binders. Collection of scientific papers. Moscow: NIIMOSSTROY. 2006. 149 p.
3. Volzhensky A.V., Ferronskaya A.V., Kreimer Ya.E., Matveeva L.G. Experience of using products based on gypsum-cement-pozzolanic binders in livestock buildings of Kirghiz SSR. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1969. No. 10, pp. 26–27. (In Russian).
4. Future of Internationa Economy. Reports of the UN Expert Group headed by V. Leontyev / edited by V. Leontyev. Moscow: Foreign Affairs. 1979. 216 p.
5. Khaliullin M.I., Gaifullin A.R. Plaster dry mixtures based on composition gypsum binder of increased water resistance. Izvestiya of KazSUAE. 2010. No. 2, pp. 292–296. (In Russian).
6. Rakhimov R.Z., Khaliullin M.I., Gaifullin A.R. Composition gypsym binders with ceramsite dust and blast furnace slag. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 13–15. (In Russian).
7. Sokolova Yu. A., Moreva I.V. Using domestic modifiers for regulating the properties of low-grade plaster. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi. 2011. No. 3, pp. 16–17. (In Russian).
8. Gordina A.F., Tokarev Ju.V., Jakovlev G.I., Kerene Ja., Sychugov S.V., Ali El Sayed Mohamed. Evaluation of the influence of ultradisperse dust and carbon nanostructures on the structure and properties of gypsum binders. Procedia Engineering Procedia. 2013. Vol. 57, pp. 334–342.
9. Jakovlev G.I., Chasejew D.R., Pervuschin G.N., Galinovski A.L., Pudov I.A., Politaeva A.I., Abaltussova T.A. Mit ultra- und nanodisperzusatzmitteln modifizierte zellengassilikate. Proceedings 19.Ibausil Internationale Baustofftagung. Weimar. 16–18 September 2015. Band 2, pp. 1321–1328.
10. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Polyanskikh I.S., Kerene Ya., Machulaitis R., Pudov I.A., Sen’kov S.A., Politaeva A.I., Gordina A.F., Shaibadullina A.V. Nanostrukturirovanie kompozitov v stroitel’nom materialovedenii [Nanostructuring composites in construction materials science]. Izhevsk: Izdatel’stvo IzhGTU. 2014. 196 p.
11. Zvironaite Ja., Pundiene I., Gaiduchis S., Kizinievich V. Effect of different pozzolana on hardening process and properties of hydraulic binder based on natural anhydrite. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management. 2012. Vol. 18. No. 4, pp. 530–536.

V.A. KALASHNIKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering ( 28 Germana Titova Street, 440028, Penza, Russian Federation)

Evolution of Development of Concretes Compositions and Change in Concrete Strength. Concretes of Present and Future Part 1. Change in Compositions and Strength of Concretes

The evolution of development of concrete compositions from four-component of the old generation of the last century up to seven-eight components, the most efficient with traditional strength of up to 50–60 MPa, high-strength and ultra-strength with the strength of up to 150 MPa and higher is analyzed. Relatively short-term revolution stages of the long evolutionary development, as a result of which the strength increased by 2–4 times and more, are presented. It is shown that this increase in strength is obliged not so much to addition of micro-silica to the plasticized concrete mix, but to the obligatory addition of disperse grinded rocks of significantly larger amount than 20–30% of cement mass and fine natural or grinded sand. On the basis of high values of concrete strength obtained (120–140 MPa), including self-compacting without highly reactive pozzolana additives of micro-silica, dehydrated kaolin etc and their industrial realization, it is concluded that the XXI century will be the century of micro-techologies with a possible combination (if necessary) of real, not falsified, nano-technologies.

Keywords: component composition of concrete, superplasticizer, micro-silica, rheological-active stone flour, micro-technology, suspensions, self-compacting concretes

References
1. Richard P., Cheyrezy M., Reactive Powder Concrete with High Ductility and 200-800 MРа Compressive Strength. SP-144: Concrete Technology: Past, Present, and Future (ACI). 1994, pp. 507–518.
2. Richard P., Cheyrezy M.H. Composition of reactive powder concrete. Cement and Concrete Research. 2001. Vol. 25. Is. 7, pp. 1501–1511.
3. Aitcin P-C., Lachemi M., Adeline R., Richard P. The Sherbooke Reactive Powder Concrete Footbridge. Journal of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE). 1998. No. 2. Vol 8, pp. 140–147.
4. World premiere in Austria – arch bridge of high-strength fiber-reinforced concrete. SPI. Mezhdunarodnoe betonnoe proizvodstvo. 2011. No. 11, pp. 132–134. (In Russian).
5. Schutter G.D. Self-compacting concrete: the way of the future. SPI. Mezhdunarodnoe betonnoe proizvodstvo. 2013. No. 5, pp. 40–45. (In Russian).
6. Russell K.G., Georged. Application of High-strength Concrete in North America. Hoff Simposium on High- Performance concrete and concrete for marine environment. Las Vegas. USA. May. 2004. pp. 1–16.
7. Schmidt M. Einsatz von UMPC bcim Bau der Geartnerplatzbruecke in Kassel. G-2007, pp. 72–80.
8. Borneman O., Schmidt M., Fehling E., Middendorf B. Ultra-Hoclleistungsbeton UHPC-Hersctellung, Eigenschaften und Anwendungsmoglichkeiten. Sonderdruck aus: Beton und stalbetondau 96. 2001. H. 7, S. 458–467.
9. Muller C., Sahroder P., Shlissl P. Hochleistungbeton mit Stlinkohlenflugasche. Essen VGB Fechmische Vereinigung Bundesverband Kraftwerksnelen produkte. Flugasche in Beton. 1998. Vortag 4. 25 seiten.
10. Kalashnikov V.I. High-strength concretes and Ultra High-strength concretes - the main principles of their creation. Collected papers of scientific-technical conference «Composite construction materials. Theory and practice». Penza. 2008, pp. 61–71. (In Russian).
11. Kalashnikov V.I., Marucencev V.I., Cherkasov V.D., Kalashnikov D.V. Rheological criteria to evaluate aggregate stability of highly concentrated disperse systems. Modern problems in building materials: Materials of International scientific-technical conference. Voronezh. 1999, pp. 176–180. (In Russian).
12. Kalashnikov V.I., Ananyev S.V. High-strength concretes and ultra-high-strength concretes with dispersed reinforcement. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 6, pp. 59–61. (In Russian).
13. Kalashnikov V.I., Ananyev S.V. Ensuring optimal topology of self-compacting concrete mixes for high strength concrete. «The scientific potential of the world – 2008»/ Materials of IV international scientific-practical conference. 2008. Vol. 9. pp. 65–68. (http://www. rusnauka.com/18_NPM_2008/Stroitelstvo/34516.doc. htm). (In Russian).
14. Kalashnikov V.I., Kuznetsov Yu.S., Ananyev S.V. Concretes of the new-generation with low specific consumption of cement per unit of strength. 1. Concretes with a low cement content with optimised milled, very fine and medium sands in rheological matrix. Bulletin of the Department of construction science. Moscow-Ivanovo. 2010. Is. 14. Vol. 2, pp. 27–29. (In Russian).
15. Kalashnikov V.I., Arkhipov V.P., Ananyev S.V. The optimal topology self-compacting concrete mixes for high strength concrete. New saving energy-high technologies in production of construction materials. Materials of international scientific-technical conference. Penza. 2009, pp. 46–51. (In Russian).
16. Kalashnikov V.I., Gulyaeva E.V., Valiev D.M., Volodin V.M., Khastunov A.V. High-efficient powderactivated concretes of different functional purpose with use of superplasticizers. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 11, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
17. Kalashnikov V.I., Belyakova E.A., Tarakanov O.V., Moskvin R.N. High-efficiency composite cement using fly ash. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 1, pp. 24–29. (In Russian).
18. Kalashnikov V. I. Using rational rheology of concrete in the future. Part 1. Types of rheological matrices in the concrete mixes, the strategy of increasing the strength of the concrete and saving it in the construction; Part 2. Fine rheology of the matrix and powder concretes of new generation; Part 3. From highstrength concretes and ultra-high-strength concretes of the future to superplasticising concrete general purpose of the present. Tekhnologiya betonov. 2007. No. 5, pp. 8–10; 2007. No. 6, pp. 8–11; 2008. No. 1, pp. 22–26. (In Russian).
19. Kalashnikov V.I. What is a powder-activated concretes of new generation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 2, pp. 10–12. (In Russian).
20. Kalashnikov V.I., Erofeev V.T., Moroz M.N., Trojanov I.Yu., Volodin V.M., Suzdaltsev O.V. Nanohydsilicate technology in production of concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 88–91. (In Russian).

V.A. GURIEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), T.K. BELOVA, Engineer (belova_tatyana_90@mail.ru) Orenburg State University (13 Pobedy Avenue, Orenburg, 460018, Russian Federation)

Influence of Dispersed Reinforcement with Modified Basalt Micro-Fiber on Dusting of Cement Mortars for Flooring

In modern construction when constructing the monolithic flooring, mortars on the basis of Portland cement are widely used. A system shortcoming, which predetermines the loss in operating properties, is low resistance to the abrasion of cement-sand composite. Results of the experimental study of the influence of dispersed reinforcement with modified basalt microfiber (MBM) on the dusting of cement mortars used for monolithic flooring are presented. It is shown that the increase in the content of MBM in the composite by 0.5% of the weight of the binder leads to the reduction in the abradability value of the mortar by 46.9% on average. The increase in the content of MBM in the composition of mortar leads to the reduction in the abradability of the cement mortar. The established result makes it possible to predict the use of the dispersed reinforced mortar for the little dusty floor covering to which high requirements for abradability are set.

Keywords: resource saving, durability, cement mortars, monolithic floors, dispersed reinforcement, basalt microfiber, abradability, dusting.

References
1. Kaprielov S.S., Sheinfel’d A.V., Kardumyan G.S. Novye modifitsirovannye betony [The new modified concrete]. Moscow: Tipografiya Paradiz. 2010. 258 p.
2. Batrakov V.G. Modifitsirovannye betony [The modified concrete]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1990. 400 p.
3. Gorb A.M., Voilokov I.A. Questions of ensuring durability and operational reliability of floors of production buildings. Sklad i tekhnika. 2010. No. 4, pp. 38–43. (In Russian).
4. Rabinovich F.N. Kompozity na osnove dispersno armirovannykh betonov. Voprosy teorii i proektirovaniya, tekhnologiya, konstruktsii [Composites on the basis of dispersno the reinforced concrete. Questions of the theory and design, technology, designs]. Moscow: ASV. 2004. 560 p.
5. Ambroise J., Rols S., Pera J. Propertiesofself-leveling concrete reinforced by steelfibers. Proceedings of the 3-d International RILEM Workshop on Reinforced Cement Composites. HPFRCC3. Mainz. 1999, pp. 9–17. (In Russian).
6. Kolchedantsev L.M., Voilokov I.A., Gorb A.M. Influence of technology factors on quality of coverings of floors from a fiber concrete. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 8, pp. 34-37. (In Russian).
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8. Falikman V.R. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in modern concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 1, pp. 31–34. (In Russian).
9. Saraikina K.A., Golubev V.A., Yakovlev G.I., Sen’kov S.A., Politaeva A.I. Nanostructuring a cement stone at disperse reinforcing by basalt fiber. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 34–38. (In Russian).
10. Kondakov A.I., Mikhaleva Z.A., Tkachev A.G., Popov A.I., Gorskii S.Yu. Modification of a matrix of a construction composite funktsionalizirovanny carbon nanotubes. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: scientific Internet-journal. No. 4, pp. 31–44.http://www.nanobuild.ru/magazine/ nb/Nanobuild_4_2014.pdf (data of access 25.11.2015). (In Russian).
11. Qiaohuan Cheng Beng Meng. Dispersion of singlewalled carbon nanotubes in organic solvents. Dublin. 2010. 176 p

G.I. BERDOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.N. MASHKIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.A. VINOGRADOV, Engineer (semenvinogradov@yandex.ru) Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Sibstrin) (113 Leningradskaya Street, 630008, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation)

High Frequency Dielcometric Control over the Process of Cement Materials Hardening

The change in dielectric properties of cement stone (dielectric permeability and dielectric losses) at the frequency of 1.5 MHz in the course of hardening under normal conditions and after thermal treatment has been determined. In the process of hydration hardening of the cement stone, along with improving its mechanical strength, the reduction in dielectric permeability and dielectric losses, which are determined by the crystallinity and level of energy ties of water polar molecules in it, takes place. The samples that underwent steam treatment, the dielectric permeability and dielectric losses are higher than that of samples hardened under normal conditions. The temperature of steam treatment has the biggest influence on dielectric properties of the cement stone. The dielcometric analysis can be successfully used for determining optimal regimes of concrete treatment.

Keywords: portland cement, hydration hardening, dielcometry, dielectric permeability.

References
1. Zarinskiy V.A. Diel’kometriya. Khimicheskaya entsiklopediya [Dielkometriya. Chemical Encyclopedia]. Vol. 2. Moscow: Sovetskaya entsiklopediya. 1990. 210 p.
2. Zarinskiy V.A., Ermakov V.I. Vysokochastotniy khimicheskiy analiz [The high frequency chemical analysis]. Moscow: Nauka. 1970. 200 p.
3. Lianzhen Xiao, Xiastes Wel. Early age compressive strength of pastes by electrical resistivity method and maturity method. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology – Materials Science Edition. 2011. Vol. 22. Is. 5, pp. 983–989.
4. Topci I.B., Ugunoglu T., Hocaoglu I. Electrical conductivity of setting cement paste with different mineral admixtures. Construction and Building Materials. 2012. Vol. 28. No. 1, pp. 414–420.
5. Wei Xiaosheng, Li Zongjin, Xiao Lianzhen, Thong Wangfai. Influence of calcium sulfate state and fineness of cement on hydration of Portland cements using ectrical measurement. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology – Materials Science Edition. 2006. Vol. 21. Is. 4, pp. 141–145.
6. Heikal M., Helmy I., El-Didamony H., El-Raoof F.A. Electrical conductivity, physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics of fly ash pozzolanic cement. Ceramics- Silikáty. 2004. Vol. 48. Is. 2, pp. 49–58.
7. Salem Th. M. Electrical conductivity and rheological properties of ordinary Portland cement–silica fume and calcium hydroxide–silica fume pastes. Cement and Concrete Research. 2002. Vol. 32, Is. 9, pp. 1473–1481.
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11. Haddad R.H., Al-Qadi I.L. Characterization of Portland cement concrete using electromagnetic waves over the microwave frequencies. Cement and Concrete Research.1998. Vol. 28. Is. 10, pp. 1379–1391.
12. Водопьянов К.А. Температурно-частотная зависи мость для диэлькетрических потерь в кристаллах с полярными молекулами // Доклады АН СССР. 1952. Т. 94. № 5. С. 919–921.
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N.I. GORBUNOV1 (nik.iv.gorbunov@mail.ru), Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), T.P. SIRINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), E.G. GONCHARENKO2, General Director, V.V. VIKTOROV1, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry), V.V. SHATSILLO3, General Director, L.N. DRYUCHEVSKAYA4, Teacher
1 Chelyabinsk State University (129, Brat’yev Kashirinych Street, Chelyabinsk, 454001, Russian Federation)
2 South-Ural Center of Road Tests and Research (18, Komsomolskaya Street, Chelyabinsk, 454091, Russian Federation)
3 R&D and manufacturing regional organization «Ural» (43, Muzrukova Street, the town of Ozersk, Chelyabinsk Region, 456790, Russian Federation)
4 Secondary Comprehensive School № 21 (33A, Likhacheva Street, the City of Miass, Chelyabinsk Region, 456300, Russian Federation)

The Use of Anthropogenic Solutions from the Processing of Vanadium- Manganese-Containing Raw Materials in Production of Building Materials

The use of anthropogenic solutions (discharge) with a high salt-content (50–150 g/l) generated in the course of the processing of vanadium- and manganese-containing raw materials in construction industry when producing concrete and building mixes has been studied. The influence of salt content in anthropogenic discharges in case of water change on the strength characteristics of concrete was studied with the use of the method of mathematical planning of experiments with the subsequent processing of data by computer. The results obtained show the efficiency of using concretes produced with the use of anthropogenic discharges: without steam treatment they are suitable, when hardening without heating in road construction for example, for preparation of structural solutions and other variants of their application.

Keywords: anthropogenic solutions, processing of vanadium- and manganese-containing raw materials, liquid effluents, building materials production, water consumption.

References
1. Siren T.P., Mizin V. G., Rabinovich E.M., Slobodin B.V., Krasnenko T.I. Izvlechenie vanadija i nikelja iz othodov teplojelektrostancij [Extraction of vanadium and nickel from waste of thermal power plants]. Yekaterinburg: UrO RAN. 2001. 238 p. (In Russian).
2. Mizin V. G., Rabinovich E.M., Siren T.P., Dobosh V.G., Rabinovich M.E., Krasnenko T.I. Kompleksnaja pererabotka vanadievogo syr’ja [Complex processing of vanadic raw materials]. Yekaterinburg: UrO RAN. 2005. 416 p. (In Russian).
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4. Patent RF 2138571. Sposob pererabotki margancevyh rud i koncentratov [Way of processing of manganese ores and Concentrates]. Sirina T.P., Mizin V. G., Batyushev E.S., Gaydt D.D., Utkin Yu.V., Hansa N. A., Kotrekhov V.A., Pervushin A.V., Losinsky A.F. Declared 21.04.1998. Published 27.09.1999. Bulletin No. 27. (In Russian).
5. Chernobrovin V.P., Mizin V. G, Sirina T.P., Dashevsky V. Ya. Kompleksnaja pererabotka karbonatnogo margancevogo syr’ja [Complex processing of carbonate manganese raw materials]. Cheljabinsk: Izdatel’skij centr JuUrGU. 2009. 294 p. (In Russian).
6. Buchmann A.W. About application of the generalized polynoms for creation of algorithms of recognition of properties of the To-unit functions set by polynoms. Diskretnaja matematika. 2012. T. 24:4, pp. 66–69. (In Russian).
7. Grigoriev YU.D. Metody optimal’nogo planirovanija jeksperimenta: linejnye modeli [Methods of optimum planning of experiment: linear models]. Moscow: Lan’. 2015. 320 p. (In Russian).
8. Suchkov A. P. Formation of system is more whole for situational management. Sistemy i sredstva informatiki. 2013. Vol. 23. No. 2. C. 2–4. (In Russian).
9. Sinitsyn I. N., Sinitsyn V. I. Analytical modeling of normal processes in stochastic systems with difficult not linearities. Informatika i ee primeneniyе. 2014. Vol. 8. No. 3, pp. 2–4. (In Russian).
10. Sidnyaev N.I. Teorija planirovanija jeksperimenta i analiz statisticheskih dannyh [Theory of planning of experiment and analysis of statistical data]. Moscow: Jurajt. 2012. 339 p. (In Russian).
11. Ryzhkov I.B. Osnovy nauchnyh issledovanij i izobretatel’stva [Bases of scientific researches and invention]. Moscow: Lan’. 2012. 224 p. (In Russian).
12. Starchukov D. S. High-branded concrete of the accelerated curing on the basis of liquid waste of the organic nature. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2011. No. 5, pp. 17–19. (In Russian).
13. Murtazayev S-A.Yu., Islamova Z.Kh. Effective finegrained concrete with use the zoloshlakovykh of mixes. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2008. No. 3, pp. 27–29. (In Russian).

B.P. KHASEN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (dir@ipkon.kz), Zh.P. VAREKHA,Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (prgum@ipkon.kz), S.N. LIS, Engineer,(snlis@yandex.kz) TOO Institute of Problems of Complex Development of Mineral Resources (5, Ippodromnaya Street, 100019, Karaganda, Kazakhstan)

Silicate Anchor Fixer

Results of the development of a new anchor fixer which is used in the mining industry as bonding material for fixing rod stud in the hole when the mine support is executed. On the basis of the study of strength properties of the cement stone depending on the hardening time and temperature, microscopic and X-ray microanalysis the silicate anchor fixer effectively operating at low temperatures (up to 10оC) has been developed. The fixer composition includes an expansion agent facilitating the increase in the volume of mixture up to 5% that, under conditions of the closed space, compacts the structure of silicate stone and thereby increases its strength. Unlike organic anchor fixer the developed composition is non-toxic and non-flammable. Industrial testing of the silicate fixer started.

Keywords: anchor fixer, expansion agent, X-ray microanalysis, ettringite

References
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3. Mijia Yang, Yiming Zhao, Nong Zhang. Creep behavior of epoxy-bonded anchor system. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences. 2014. Vol. 67, pp. 96–103.
4. Martirosov G.M., Lazarev A.D., Kudryashov A.G., Leipunskii B.F. Anchoring of smooth cores solution on the straining cement. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2001. No. 4, pp. 27–29. (In Russian).
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8. Khasen B.P., Lis S.N., Varekha Zh.P. Development and improvement anchor fix. Kompleksnoe ispol’zovanie mineral’nogo syr’ya. 2012. No. 2, pp. 13–23. (In Russian).
9. Laura Blanco Martín, Michel Tijani, Faouzi Hadj- Hassen, Aurílien Noiret. Assessment of the bolt-grout interface behaviour of fully grouted rockbolts from laboratory experiments under axial loads. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2013. Vol. 63, pp. 50–61.
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El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2020 osm21