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Stroitel`nye Materialy №11

Stroitel`nye Materialy №11
November, 2016

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A.V. CHEREVATOVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), D.A. ALEKHIN1, Research Engineer, A.F. BUR’YANOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), I.V. ZHERNOVSKY 1, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), N.I. KOZHUKHOVA1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shoukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Features of complex structure formation in composite gypsum-silica binder The mechanism of variation of strength characteristics in composite gypsum-silica binder depending of nanosructured binder (NB)content is determined. The mechanism of mineral phase formation in the composite binder matrix is studied taking into account simultaneous realization of two following processes: polymerizationa-polycondensarion and hydration. It is determined, the heat resistance of composite gypsum-silica binder under high temperature (up to 1000 o C) is connected with crystallization process involving the NB as reactive mineral component. Thermal transformation in system of composite gypsum-silica binder vs. gypsum system is studies by XRD and SEM analysis.

Keywords: nanostruсtured binder, gypsum binder, composite binder, structure formation mechanism, phase formation

References
1. Buldyzhova E.N., Galtseva N.A., Bur’yanov A.F. Structure modification in anhydrite and gypsum binding systems. Proceedings of 16 International Inter-University Research and Practice Conference “Construction – life activity environment”. Moscow: MGSU. 2013, pp. 468–470. (In Russian).
2. Bur’yanov A. F., Petropavlovskaya V.B., Novichenkova T.B., Poleonova Yu.Yu. Modified gypsum nonfired composites. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 5, pp. 76–78. (In Russian).
3. Lesovik V.S., Chulkova I.L. Influens of material composition on structure formation of construction materials. Vestnik Sibirskoy Gosudarstvennoy Avtomobilyno- Dorozhnoy Academii. 2015. No. 4, pp. 69–79. (In Russian).
4. Voytovich E.V., Chulkova I.L., Fomina E.V., Cherevatova A.V. Efficiency enhancement of cement binders with reactive mineral nanodispersed component. Vestnik Sibirskoy Gosudarstvennoy Avtomobilyno-Dorozhnoy Academii. 2015. No. 5, pp. 56–62. (In Russian).
5. Fomina E.V., Strokova V.V., Kudeyarova N.P. Features of application of previously slacked lime in cellular autoclave concrete. Izvestia vysshih uchebnyh zavedeniy. Stroitelstvo. 2013. No. 5, pp. 29–34. (In Russian).
6. Ageeva M.S., Karatsupa S.V., Pomoshnikov D.D. Regulation of properties in slag-cement knitting. Proceedings of International Research-to-Practice Conference “Upgrade tendences in education and science”. Tambov: LLC “Consulting company Yucom”. 2013, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
7. Chizhov R.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Zhernovsky I.V., Korotkih D.N., Fomina E.V., Kozhukhova M.I. Phase formation and properties of aluminosilicate binders of non-hydration hardening using perlite. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 3, pp. 34–36. (In Russian).
8. Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V., Nelubova V.V. Prospects of Application of Zero-Cement Binders of a Nonhydration Hardening Type. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2013. No. 25, pp. 119–123.
9. Cherevatova A.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Osadchaya M.S., Zhernovsky I.V. Features of rheological properties of nanostructured aluminosilicate binder with different complex modifiers. Vestnik Belgorodskogo Gosudarstvennogo Tehnologicheskogo Universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2016. No. 9, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).
10. Strokova V.V., Sival’neva M.M., Zhernovsky I.V., Kobzev V.A., Nelubova V.V. Features of consolidation mechanism of nanostructured binder. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 1–2, pp. 62– 69. (In Russian).
11. Chizhov R.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Strokova V.V., Zhernovsky I.V. Aluminosilicate free of clinker binders and their application areas. Vestnik Belgorodskogo Gosudarstvennogo Tehnologicheskogo Universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2016. No. 4, pp. 6–10. (In Russian).
12. Kozhukhova N.I., Voytovich E.V., Cherevatova A.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Alekhin D.A. Thermal-resistant cellular materials based on composite gypsum-silica binders. Stroitel’nye materialy. 2015. No. 6, pp. 65–69. (In Russian).
13. Solov’yov L.A. Full-profile refinement by derivative difference minimization. Journal of Applied Crystallography. 2004. No. 37, pp. 743–749.

O.M. SMIRNOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (smirnovaolgam@rambler.ru), E.V. ANDREEVA, Engineer, Researcher Emperor Alexander I Petersburg State Transport University (9, Moskovsky Avenue, 190031, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Properties of Heavy Concrete Disperse-Reinforced with Synthetic Micro-Fiber Disperse reinforcement of the concrete with fibrillated synthetic fiber makes it possible to compensate of disadvantages of the concrete: formation of shrinkage cracks, low-tensile strength, and destruction brittleness. As a result of comparative tests, it is established that the introduction of micro-fiber Fibrofor High Grade in the concrete insignificantly improves the compressive strength limit comparing with the control composition but significantly improves the strength limit at bending stress (by 20%). The most acceptable expenditure of the micro-fiber for the concrete studied is 0.9 kg/m 3 .

Keywords: disperse-reinforced concrete, polypropylene fiber, fibrillated micro-fiber, strength characteristics.

References
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2. Klyuev A.V. Steelfiberconcrete for precast-monolithic construction. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2011. No. 2, pp. 60–63. (In Russian).
3. Lukashev D.V., Smirnova O.M. On the question of the strain-hardened cement composites. Resursoenergoeffektivnye tekhnologii v stroitel’nom komplekse regiona. 2014. No. 4, pp. 410–412. (In Russian).
4. Shangina N.N., Kharitonov A.M. Experience of glassfiber reinforced for the restoration of the decorated ceiling subway station. Proceedings of the seminar “Problems of restoration and preservation of cultural and historical monuments”. 2012, pp. 18–27. (In Russian).
5. Saraykina K.A., Golubev V.A., Yakovlev G.I., Sychugov S.V., Pervushin G.N. The corrosion resistance increase of basalt fiber cement concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 1–2, pp. 27–31.
6. Patent RU 2548303. Vysokoprochnyi legkiyfibrobeton [Highstrength lightweight fiber concrete]. Inozemtsev A.S., Korolev E.V. Published 20.04.2015. Bulletin No. 11. (In Russian).
7. Patent RU 2570215. Drevesno-mramorno-tsementnaya smes’ [The wood-marble-cement mix]. Andreev A.V., Chalkin A.A., Andreev A.A., Kolesnikov G.N. Declared 06.17.2014. Published 12.10.2015. Bulletin No. 34. (In Russian).
8. Patent RU2528774. Sukhaya stroitel’naya smes’ [Dry mortar]. Vasil’ev S.M., Shchedrin Yu.N., Budarin V.K. Declared 19.06.2012. Published 20.09.2014. Bulletin No. 26. (In Russian).
9. Patent RU 2458962. Fibroarmirovannyi tamponazhnyi material dlya tsementirovaniya produktivnykh intervalov, podverzhennykh perforatsii v protsesse osvoeniya skvazhin [Fiber reinforced backfill material to cement production intervals, subject to the perforations in the course of development wells]. Druzhinin M.A., Sazhina E.M., Zueva N.A., Kudimov I.A., Kuznetsova O.G. i dr. Published 20.08.2012. Bulletin No. 23. (In Russian).
10. Smirnova O.M. High-quality concrete for prestressed concrete under-rail designs. Cand.Diss. (Engineering). Sankt-Petersburg. 2013. 186 p. (In Russian).
11. Smirnova O.M. Vysokokachestvennye betony dlya sbornykh predvaritel’no napryazhennykh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsii [High-quality concrete for precast prestressed concrete structures]. RGPU im. A.I. Gertsena. 2014. 67 p.
12. Smirnova O.M. The use of mineral micro-filler for increasing the activity of Portland-cement. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 3, pp. 30–33. (In Russian).
13. Smirnova O.M., Makarevich O.E. Selection of water-reducing additives and their costs for high-strength concrete prefabricated. Resursoenergoeffektivnye tekhnologii v stroitel’nom komplekse regiona. 2014. No. 4, pp. 74–77. (In Russian).
14. Komokhov P.G., Kharitonov A.M. The influence of internal and external factors on the humid shrinkage of cement systems. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2009. No. 2, pp. 95–97. (In Russian).
15. Angel M. López-Buendíaa, María Dolores Romero- Sánchezb, Verónica Climentc, Celia Guillemb. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete. Cement and Concrete Research. 2013. Vol. 54, pp. 29–35.
16. Saeid Kakooeia, Hazizan Md Akilb, Morteza Jamshidic, Jalal Rouhid. The effects of polypropylene fibers on the properties of reinforced concrete structures. Construction and Building Materials. 2012. Vol. 27. Iss. 1, pp. 73–77.

L.Ya. KRAMAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (kramar-l@mail.ru), B.Ya. TROFIMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), T.N. CHERNYKH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (chernyh_tn@mail.ru), A.A. ORLOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), K.V. SHULDYAKOV, Engineer (kirill-shuld@ya.ru) South Ural State University (National Research University) (76, Lenina Avenue, Chelyabinsk, 454080, Russian Federation)

Modern Superplasticizers for Concretes, Features of Their Application and Effectiveness
In connection with the change in building technologies in Russia and over the world as well as with the increasing need of the construction complex for high-functional and self-com pacting concretes, superplasticizers are widely used for their production. If superplasticizers of the first generation and the influence of components of concrete on their effectiveness are researched well enough, the use of superplasticizers on the basis of polycarboxylates demands the attentive study of their properties, features of their interaction with the compo nents of concrete and their influence on the structure and properties of materials obtained. The article presents analyses of the effect of cement compositions on the efficiency of poly carboxylate superplasticizers, especially the presence of aluminates and sulfates as well as clay and silt admixtures in the fillers. At that, the efficiency of superplasticizers is analyzes both separately and in complex with other additives. The role of these factors is also clarified in the hydration processes of cements and the formation of the structure and properties of concretes obtained. For reliable evaluating the efficiency of polycaboxylate additives, it is necessary to test them according to the methods of EN 1015 and GOST 30459–2008.

Keywords: superplasticizers, polycaboxylates, concrete, additives, efficiency.

References
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6. Falikman V.V., Vovk A.I. Features of interaction polymethylene polynaphthalenesulfonates different molecular weight with Portland cement clinker monominerals. Khimicheskie dobavki dlya betonov [In book Chemical additives for concrete]. Moscow: NIIZhB. 1987, pp. 17–30. (In Russian).
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29. Plank J., Schröfl C., Gruber M., Lesti M., Sieber R., Adv J. Effectiveness of polycarboxylate superplasticizers in ultra-high strength concrete: the importance of PCE compatibility with silica fume. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology.2009. Vol. 7. No. 1, pp. 5–12.
30. Schrofl Ch., Gruber M., Plank J. Preferential adsorption of polycarboxylate superplasticizers on cement and silica fume in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Cement and Concrete Research. 2012. No. 42, pp. 1401–1408.
31. Lei L., Plank J. A study on the impact of different clay minerals on the dispersing force of conventional and modified vinyl ether based polycarboxylate superplasticizers. Cement and Concrete Research. 2014. No. 60, pp. 1–10.
32. Ng S., Plank J. Interaction mechanisms between Na montmorillonite clay and MPEG-based polycarboxylate superplasticizers. Cement and concrete research. 2012. No. 42, pp. 847–854.
33. Lei L., Plank J. A concept for a polycarboxylate superplasticizer possessing enhancedclay tolerance. Cement and concrete research. 2012. No. 42, pp. 118–123.
34. Schuldyakov K., Kramar L., Trofimov B., Ivanov I. Superplasticizer Effect on Cement Paste Structure and Concrete Freeze-Thaw Resistance. Advanced Materials in Technology and Construction (AMTC-2015). – AIP Conf. Proc. 2016. doi 10.1063/1.4937881.
35. Gamaliy E.A., Trofimov B.Ya., Kramar L.Ya. Structure and properties of cement paste with the addition of silica fume and polycarboxylate plasticizer. VestnikYuUrGU. Stroitel’stvo I arkhitektura. 2009. Vol. 8. No. 16, pp. 29–35. (In Russian).
36. Fan-rong Kong, Li-sha Pan, Chen-man Wang. Effects of polycarboxylate superplasticizers with different molecular structure on the hydration behavior of cement paste. Construction and Building Materials. 2016. Vol. 105, pp. 545–553.

M.V. NOVIKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (novikov-2005@mail.ru), E.M. CHERNYSHOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (chem@vgasu.vrn.ru), G.S. SLAVCHEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gslavcheva@yandex.ru) Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Mechanical Properties of Cement Porous Concrete at Uniaxial Compression with Due Regard for Regularities of Its Creep Results of the experimental studies of the force resistance and deformation of compressed elements from porous concrete of 1200–1600 kg/m3 density of various structural modifica tions (fine grain and micro grain) are presented. On the basis of research date, mechanical properties are complexly characterized; a criterion number of strength and deformation char acteristics of porous concretes with due regard for the influence of long-time processes due to concrete hardening and external force factors is proposed. On the basis of data on the long-term resistance of porous concrete and change in its strength in time, calculation characteristics and coefficients of operation conditions of porous concrete are established for cal culation and design of structures. It is shown that according to structural indicators, porous concretes meet normative requirements and occupy the intermediate place between cellular and light concretes of equal strength with porous fillers.

Keywords: porous concrete, mechanical properties, measure of creep, long-term strength, force resistance

References
1. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G. S. Management of operational deformability and crack resistance of macroporous (cellular) concrete. Part 1. Context of a problem and questions of the theory. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 105–112. (In Russian).
2. Slavcheva G.S., Kotova K.S. Questions of increase of efficiency of use of not autoclave cellular concrete (foam concretes) in construction // Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 8, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
3. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G. S., Potamoshnev N. D., Makeev A.I. Porizovannye concrete for designs of low buildings. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii 21 veka. 2006. No. 5, pp. 16–19. (In Russian).
4. Lesovik V.S., Suleymanova L.A., Kara K.A. Power effective gas concretes on the composite higher educational institutions knitting for monolithic construction. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 3, pp. 10–20. (In Russian).
5. Chubin I.L., Umnyakova N.P., Yarmakovsky V.N. Especially light concrete of new modifications – for the solution of problems of energy saving. In protection of domestic technologies. Tekhnologii stroitel’stva. 2012. No. 4, pp. 42–46. (In Russian).
6. Ukhova T.A., Fiskind E.S. Complex application of not autoclave porobeton and porofibrobeton in construction of low houses. Tekhnologii Betonov. 2012. No. 5–6, pp. 71–72. (In Russian).
7. Krylov B.A., Kirichenko V.V. Power effective production technology of foam-concrete products. Tekhnologii betonov. 2013. No. 12(89), pp. 47–49. (In Russian).
8. Slavcheva G.S., Novikov M.V., Chernyshov E.M. Change of mechanical properties of porizovanny concrete in time. Vestnik VolgGASU. Stroitel’stvo i arhitektura. Volgograd. 2008. No. 10(29), pp. 224–229. (In Russian).
9. Novikov M.V., Samorodsry N.I. Influence of the previous long loading on mechanical properties of porizovanny concrete. Nauchnyj vestnik Voronezhskogo GASU. High technologies. Ecology. Voronezh. 2015. No. 1, pp. 106–111. (In Russian).
10. Novikov M.V., Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S. Assessment of power resistance of porizovanny concrete in the conditions of the homogeneous stressed state. Safety of structural fund of Russia. Problems and decisions: Materials of the international academic readings. Kursk. 2012, pp. 36–45. (In Russian).
11. Aleksandrovsky S.V. Raschet betonnykh i zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsii na izmeneniya temperatury i vlazhnosti s uchetom polzhuchesti [Calculation of concrete and reinforced concrete designs on changes of temperature and humidity taking into account creep]. Мoscow: Stroyizdat. 1973. 432 p.
12. Bondarenko V.M., Kolchunov Vl.I. Raschetnye modeli silovogo soprotivleniya zhelezobetona: monografiya [Settlement models of power resistance of reinforced concrete] Мoscow: ASV. 2004. 472 p.
13. Bondarenko V.M., Karpenko N.I. Uroven napryazhennogo sostoyaniya kak faktor strukturnyh izmenenij i reologicheskogo silovogo soprotivleniya betona. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2007. No. 4, pp. 56–60. (In Russian).
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G.R. BUTKEVICH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (georgybutkevich@gmail.com) Research and Design Institute for Extraction, Transportation and Processing of Mineral Raw Materials in Building Materials Industry (1, Volokolamskoe Highway, Moscow, 125080, Russian Federation)

The State of Mineral Raw Materials Industry for Building Materials in the USA in 2015 The state of the mining sector of the USA building materials industry in 2015 is presented. Data on the change in production volume, number of enterprises, labor productivity, prices for mineral products, import and export of products are given. The conclusion about the trend aimed at enlarging the business-units in the industry, as well as improving the efficiency of production at small and average quarries due to the use of self-propelled and modular processing complexes is made.

Keywords: quarry, crushed stone, sand-gravel mix, price, labour productivity.

References
1. Supplement to Pit & Quarry, 2016, pp. 10–12.
2. Butkevich G.R. Development of Non-Metallic Building Materials Industry of Russia and the USA. Past and Prospects. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 10, pp. 4–9. (In Russian).
3. Supplement to Pit & Quarry, 2016, pp. 4–8.
4. Pit & Quarry, 2016, February, pp. 70–75.
5. Supplement to Pit & Quarry, 2016, NSHA Statistics, p. 15.

S.V. VAVRENIUK, Corresponding Member of RAACS, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.A. AVRAMENKO, Corresponding Member of RAS, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry), V.G. VAVRENIUK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.G. KRASITSKAYA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry), A.E. FARAFONOV, Engineer Branch of FGBU «TSNNIP Minstroya Rossii», Far Eastern Construction Scientific-Research, Design and Technological Institute (DalNIIS) (14, Borodinskaya Street, 690033 Vladivostok, Russian Federation)

Solid Phase Mechanical-Chemical Modification of Portland Cements A principal possibility to improve the resistance of cement stone to tensile stresses due to the solid phase mechanical-chemical modification of Portland cements at the stage of grind ing of clinker with silica organic compounds – polyorganylsilsesquioxanes is shown. The introduction of polyorganylsilsesquioxanes during the process of clinker grinding significantly improves (by 2-3 times) the resistance of cement stone to tensile stresses under the cyclic effect of freeze-thaw temperatures in salt solutions.

Keywords: portland cement, mechanical-chemical modification, clinker, silica organic compounds, road concretes, freezeresistance, crack resistance, tensile stresses.

References
1. Alekseev S.N., Ivanov F.M., Modry S., Shissl’ P. Dolgovechnost’ zhelezobetona v agressivnykh sredakh [Dolgovechnost of reinforced concrete in severe atmospheres]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1990. 317 p. (In Russian).
2. Dobrolyubov G.A., Ratinov V.B., Rozenberg T.I. Prognozirovanie dolgovechnosti betona s dobavkami [Prediction of a longevity of concrete with additives]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1983. 212 p. (In Russian).
3. Batrakov V.G. Povyshenie dolgovechnosti betona dobavkami kremniiorganicheskikh polimerov [Increase in a longevity of concrete additives of organosilicone polymers]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1968. 135 p. (In Russian).
4. Vavrenyuk S.V., Alikovskii A.V. Mekhanokhimicheskoe modifitsirovanie tsementno-mineral’nykh sistem nefunktsional’nymi kremniiorganicheskimi soedineniyami. Tekhnologiya silikatnykh i tugoplavkikh nemetallicheskikh materialov. 2005. No. 6, pp. 19–22. (In Russian).
5. Vavrenyuk S.V., Efimenko Yu.V. Osobennosti karbonizatsii tsementnykh sistem v prisutstvii organicheskikh dobavok. Vestnik VolgGASU. 2013. Vypusk 31 (50). Part 2. Stroitel’nye nauki, pp. 56–58. (In Russian).
6. Khigerovich M.I., Baier V.E. Gidrofobno–plastifitsiruyushchie dobavki dlya tsementov, rastvorov, betonov [Hydrophobic and plasticizing additives for cements, solutions, concrete]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1979. 126 p. (In Russian).
7. Batrakov V.G. Modifitsirovannye betony. Teoriya i praktika [The modified concrete. The theory and practice]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1998. 768 p. (In Russian).
8. Voronkov M.G., Maletina E.A., Rollan A.K. Geterosiloksany [Heterosilocsany]. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1984. 270 p. (In Russian).

A.N. GRISHINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (GrishinaAN@mgsu.ru), E.V. KOROLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (KorolevEV@mgsu.ru) National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Features of Chemical Composition of Subsidence Products of Sodium Hydrosilicates* Data on the analysis of crystalline products of the subsidence of sodium hydrosilicate solutions with the solutions of salts of various metals are presented. Features of the chemical composition of subsidence crystalline products are shown: when using the salts of alkali-earth metals, the formation of a metal carbonate is observed that’s why in the course of the synthesis of hydrosilicates of alkali metals, it is reasonable to avoid the intensive agitation of the mix and air-entrainment ; when using amphoteric metals, the carbonization is not observed and the chemical composition of products is determined by the type of the metal used. The pH value of the synthesis medium when using amphoteric metals don’t influence on the degree of crystalliness of hydrosilicates obtained, but crystalline products with different content of combination water are formed. Conducting the synthesis at acid values of pH makes it possible to obtain a large amount of the product and synthesize the substance not containing sodium.

Keywords: modifiers, concretes, crystalline products, X-ray phase analysis.

References
1. Usherov-Marshak A.V. Modern concrete and its technologies. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2009. No. 2, pp. 20–25. (In Russian).
2. Arkhipov V.P., Vernigorova V.N., Gakshteter G.V., Gorshkova L.V., Elesin M.A., Ermakov D.A. and all. Effektivnye vysokoprochnye i obychnye betony [Effective high-strength and usual concrete] / Edited by V.I. Kalashnikov. Penza: Privolzhskii Dom znanii. 2015. 148 p.
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4. Bazhenov Yu.M., Alimov L.A., Voronin V.V. Ctruktura i svoistva betonov s nanomodifikatorami na osnove tekhnogennykh otkhodov [Structure and properties of concrete with nanomodifiers on the basis of technogenic waste]. Moscow: MGSU. 2013. 204 p.
5. Lesovik V.S., Zagorodnyuk L.Kh., Shakhova L.D. Tekhnogennye produkty v proizvodstve sukhikh stroitel’nykh smesei [Technological products in production of dry construction mixes]. Belgorod: BGTU. 2010. 168 p.
6. Satyukov A. B. The nanomodified composite astringent for special construction solutions. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Moscow. 2015. 228 p. (In Russian).
7. Loganina V.I., Makarova L.V., Sergeeva K.A. Use of additive on the basis of calcium hydrosilicates in dry construction mixes. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi. 2012. No. 1, pp. 16–17. (In Russian).
8. Loganina V.I., Kislitsyna S.N., Zhernovskiy I.V., Sadovnikova M.A. Structure and properties of synthesised alumosilicates. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 87–89.
9. Gordienko P.S., Yarusova C.B., Suponina A.P., Krysenko G.F., Bulanova S.B., Kolzunov V.A., Barinov N.N. Hydrochemical synthesis of hydrosilicates of calcium in the systems CaCl2–Na2SiO3–H2O, CaSO4•2H2O– Na2SiO3–H2O, CaSO4•2H2O–SiO2–H2O–KOH. Structure, structure, properties. Vestnik DVO RAN. 2009. No. 2, pp. 30–33. (In Russian).
10. Loganina V.I., Pyshkina I.S. Limy composite binder with use of the synthesized calcium hydrosilicates. Bestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2014. No. 6, pp. 29–32. (In Russian).
11. Sadovnikova M.A., Zhegera K.V. Use of synthetic zeolites as the modifying additive in a compounding of cement and limy dry construction mixes. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 1, pp. 68–73. (In Russian).
12. Loganina V.I., Kislitsyna S.N., Makarova L.V., Sadovnikova M.A. Rheological properties limy composite with use of synthetic zeolites. Izvestiya VUZov. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 4, pp. 37–42. (In Russian).
13. Ilyasov A.G., Medvedeva I.N., Korneev V.I. Hydration of a cement in the presence of additive of amorphous hydroxide of aluminum. Zhurnal prikladnoi khimii. 2006. Vol. 79. No. 2, pp. 347–348. (In Russian).
A.A. KUSTOV, Engineer (AlexeyKustov@outlook.com), A.M. IBRAGIMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (Igasu_alex@mail.ru) National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Procedures and Results of Full-Scale Tests of Technical Fabrics with Coating. Part 1. Review of Conducted Studies
Modern procedures and results of tests of technical fabrics with coating are presented. Russian and foreign standard, which regulate and describe the full-scale tests of the material are considered. Results of the study of the material behavior at various field tests in different countries are shown. For some tests of the fabric a comparison of procedures among the for eign standards is presented. The work consists of two parts. The first part presents the following types of test: uniaxial, biaxial, and non-axial tension, impact of cyclic and temperature loads as well as consideration of creep and relaxation in the fabric. Data on the investigation of tensometry of the technical fabric with coating are given.

Keywords: technical fabric with coating, procedures of field tests.

References
1. Lecompte D. et al. Mixed numerical-experimental technique for orthotropic parameter identification using biaxial tensile tests on cruciform specimens. International Journal of Solids and Structures. 2007. Vol. 44. No. 5, pp. 1643–1656.
2. Ishanova V.I., Udler Е.М. The use of electronic photography and computer graphics in AutoCAD in strain measurement of awning materials. Izvestiya Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo arhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2014. Vol. 4. No. 30, pp. 153–157. (In Russian).
3. Ambroziak A. Mechanical properties of polyester coated fabric subjected to biaxial loading. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 2015. Vol. 27. Iss. 11, pp. 1–8.
4. Forster B., Marijke M. European design guide for tensile surface structures. TensiNews. 2001. 332 p.
5. Jorg Uhlemann, Natalie Stranghoner K.S. Different determination procedures for stiffness parameters of woven fabrics and their impact in the membrane structure analysis. 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM V). 2014. http://www.wccm-eccmecfd2014. org/admin/files/filePaper/p2100.pdf
6. Ambroziak A., Klosowski P. Mechanical properties for preliminary design of structures made from PVC coated fabric. Construction and Building Materials. 2014. Vol. 50, pp. 74–81.
7. Ambroziak A., Klosowski P. Mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride-coated fabric under cyclic tests. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 2014. Vol. 33. No. 3, pp. 225–234.
8. Craenenbroeck M. Van et al. Biaxial testing of fabric materials and deriving their material properties – A quantitative study. Proceedings of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS). 17–20 August 2015 Amsterdam. http://www.novelstructuralskins.eu/wpcontent/ uploads/documents/Guimaraes2015/150909_ Guimaraes_WG4_VanCraenenbroeck_paper.pdf.
9. Zhang L. Off-Axial Tensile properties of precontraint PVDF coated polyester fabrics under different tensile rates. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016. Vol. 2016, pp. 1–12.
10. Chen S., Ding X., Yi H. On the anisotropic tensile behaviors of flexible polyvinyl chloride-coated fabrics. Textile Research Journal. 2007. Vol. 77. No. 6, pp. 369– 374. doi: 10.1177/0040517507078791.
11. Komeili M., Milani A.S. Finite element modeling of woven fabric composites at meso-level under combined loading modes. «Advances in Modern Woven Fabrics Technology» book edited by Savvas Vassiliadis. Published: July 27, 2011 under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license. DOI: 10.5772/17333.
12. Zhang Y., Zhang Q., Lv H. Mechanical properties of polyvinylchloride-coated fabrics processed with Precontraint (R) technology. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 2012. Vol. 31. No. 23, pp. 1670– 1684. DOI: 10.1177/0731684412459898.
13. Ambroziak A., Klosowski P. Influence of thermal effects on mechanical properties of PVDF-coated fabric. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 2014. Vol. 33. No. 7, pp. 663–673.
14. Zhang Y.Y., Zhang Q.L., Zhou C.Z. The visco-elastic behaviors of PVC coated fabrics under different stress and temperatures. Advanced Materials Research. 2010. Vol. 168–170. P. 1476–1479. DOI: 10.4028/www. scientific.net/AMR.168-170.1476.
15. Ermolov V.V., Bird W.W., Bubner E. at al. Pnevmaticheskie stroitel’nye konstruktsii [Pneumatic building structures]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1983. 439 p.
16. Zhou C.Z., Zhang Q.L., Zhang Y.Y. Experiment Study on Uniaxial Properties of PVC Membrane Material. Advanced Materials Research. 2010. Vol. 168–170, pp. 963–968. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/ AMR.168-170.963.
17. Suleymanov A.M. Experimental and theoretical foundations of forecasting and enhance the durability of materials soft shells of building purpose. Doct. Dis (Engineering). Kazan. 2006. 352 p. (In Russian).

N.V. KILYUSHEVA, Engineer, V.E. DANILOV, Engineer, A.M. AIZENSHTADT, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry) (a.isenshtadt@narfu.ru) Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (17, Severnay Dvina Emb., 163002, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation)

Heat Insulation Material Produced from Pine Bark and Its Extract An analysis of literature data shows that the bark of conifers is the most suitable for wooden building materials as its composition has a significantly low content of easy hydrolysable substances (hemicellulose, non-cellulose polysaccharides). The article presents the data on the composition of the material with the use of pine bark and its water extract, principal technology for producing the composite without using mineral binders, and possibilities of its application. Experimental studies of the process of extraction of extractive substances from vegetal resources on the example of pine bark have been conducted; experimental samples of a composite material have been obtained; tests of obtained experimental samples for strength, heat conductivity, water absorption, and swelling have been carried out. The material is characterized by sufficient mechanical strength, a satisfactory value of heat conductivity factor, high ecological purity. The value of water-physical, heat insulation, and mechanical characteristics makes it possible to recommend it to use as non-structural heat insulation.

Keywords: pine bark, water extract, water-physical and mechanical characteristics, heat conductivity, heat insulation.

References
1. Tatsyun M.V. The modern state LPK of Russia and ways of its development. Moscow. OOO “RIA news”, 2006. 24 р. (In Russian).
2. Stepen R.A., Khramova L.N., Sobolev S.V. Problemy ispol’zovaniya otkhodov derevoobrabatyvayushchikh predpriyatii Angaro-Eniseiskogo regeon [Problems of use of wastes of woodworking enterprises of the Angara- Yenisei]. Lesosibirsk, 2003. 87 р. (In Russian).
3. Timonin A.A. Ekologo-ekonomicheskie aspekty bezotkhodnykh tekhnologii pererabotki lesnykh resursov. Moscow. Novye tekhnologii, 2007. 48 p. (In Russian).
4. Lukash A.A., Dyachkov C.A. Building products of chopped wood. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 1, pp. 54–55. (In Russian).
5. Zhuravleva L.N. The main directions of use of wood waste. Actual problems of forestry complex: collection of scientific works. papers based on the results of the Intern. scientific-technical Conf. Vol. 18. Bryansk: BGITA, 2007, pp. 96–99. (In Russian).
6. Lukutsova N. Influence of micro- and nanodispersed additions on qualities of wood-and cement compositions. SITA journal Israel, 2012. No. 3. Vol. 14, pp. 70–75.
7. Ayzenshtadt A., Valery Lesovik V., Frolova M., Tutygin A., Danilov V. Nanostructured Wood Mineral Composite. Procedia Engineering, 2015. Vol. 117, pp. 45–51.
8. Lucash A.A., Lukutsova N.P. The prospect of the production of building materials from wood to rot sound. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 9, pp. 85–88. (In Russian).
9. Danilov V.E., Ayzenshtadt A.M., Frolova M.A., Turobova M.A., Karelsky A.M. Preparation of organic filler based on wood’s crust and basalt for the development of composite materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 7, pp. 72–75. (In Russian).
10. Dvorkin L.I. Stroitel’nye materialy iz otkhodov promyshlennosti [Building materials from waste industry]. Rostov: Feniks, 2007. 368 pp. (In Russian).
11. Tuturin S.V. Mekhanicheskaya prochnost’ drevesiny [The mechanical strength of wood]. Moscow. Sputnik Company+, 2007. (In Russian).
12. Lukash A.A., Plotnikov V.V., Botagovski M.V. Mesh wall panels of wood-based materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 2, рp. 72–73. (In Russian).
13. Levdansky V.A., Polezhaeva N.I., Levdansky A.V., Kuznetsov B.N. The isolation and study of the extractives of birch bark: Proceedings of the Russian scientificpractice. Conf. Forest and chemical complexes: problems and solutions. Krasnoyarsk. 2003. pp. 422–426. (In Russian).
14. Gierlinger N., Jacques N., Schwanninger M., Wimmer R., Hin-terstoisser B., Paques L.E. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 2003. No. 33, рp. 1727–1736.

G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer (Kuznetzowa.gal@yandex.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Granulometric Composition of Fine-Disperse Ash Waste and Its Influence on Properties of Pressed Products Fly ashes and ash-slag mixes are large-tonnage waste of many industrial branches and the need for using them for producing wall material is an important problem. The production of silica brick and other pressed wall materials on the scale of raw material usage refers to large-tonnage production and is able to use ash waste as raw materials. In the technology of pressing, there is a need for more dense packing of raw materials from sand of different fractions, rocks or production waste of different sizes. For using micropowders of ash waste, it is necessary to know a granulometric composition of ash powders. On this basis, it is possible to determine the composition of the mix and a frame-formation grain. A program of inspection of fine-disperse powders of ash waste on the granulometric composition and determination of the frame-formation grain size in the composition is presented. On the basis of this study, a series of enlarging additives on the example of ash and ash-slag waste has been investigated. The results obtained make it possible to conduct the mathematic simulation by the example of sand mixes for providing the density of packing of pressed samples and selection of a binder.

Keywords: ash, granulometric composition, pressing, density, frame formation grain.

References
1. Rakhimov R.Z., Magdeev U.Kh., Yarmakovskiy V.N. Ecology, Scientific Achievements and Innovations in the Manufacture of Building Materials on the Basis and with the Use of Technogenic Raw Materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 12, pp. 7–11. (In Russian).
2. Kalashnikov V.I. Concrete: macro-, nano- and pikomasshtabny input products. Real nanotechnologies of concrete. Days of modern concrete. From the theory to practice: collection of reports of conference. Zaporozh’e. 2012, pp. 38–50. (In Russian).
3. Kuznetsova G.V. A Lime Binder for Wall Silicate Products from Chippings of Rock Crushing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 34–37. (In Russian).
4. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Problems of Replacement of Traditional Technology of Silicate Brick with Preparation of a Lime- Siliceous Binder by Direct Technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, pp. 14–18. (In Russian).
5. Kalashnikov V.I. What is the Powder-Activated Concrete of New Generation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 10, pp. 70–71. (In Russian).
6. Bozhenov P.I. Tekhnologiya avtoklavnykh materialov [Technology of autoclave materials]. Leningrad: Stroyizdat. 1978. 368 p.

G.Yu. SHAGIGALIN, Bachelor, A.V. GATAULLIN, Bachelor, N.B. KHABABUTDINOVA, Master (narkeska_bik@mail.ru), L.N. LOMAKINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (lomakinaln@mail.ru) Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)

Assessment of the Use of Drilling Cuttings of the Republic of Bashkortostan in Construction Drilling cuttings are waste of well boring at oil extraction. That’s why the problem of its processing always sharply faces the oil workers. There are various methods of drilling waste pro- cessing. An issue of their useful application in different branches of the industry including constructing is especially relevant. Authors conducted studies of drilling cuttings of Zguritskoye and Chermasanskoye oil deposits for assessing the possibility of their use in the composition of a composite road-building material for road beds, oilfields and other similar structures. The content of drilling cuttings in the developed composition is not less than 50 mass %. Results of the study show that this material does not contain ecologically danger- ous elements and can be used for beds and pavements of the IV category roads.

Keywords: waste processing, drilling cuttings, road building composite material.

References
1. Krashanovskiy S.Е., Vinogradov Е.V. Impact drilling fluid environment. Young Creativity – step into a successful future: proceedings of the VII All-Russian Scientific Student Conference with elements of scientific school named after professor М.K. Korovina. Tomsk. 10–14 November 2014. (http://www.lib.tpu.ru/fulltext/c/2015/C66/134.pdf date of access 28.03.2016) (In Russian).
2. Budnikov V.F., Bulatov A.I., Makarenko P.P. Okhrana okruzhayushchei sredy v neftegazovoi promyshlennosti [Environmental protection in the oil and gas industry]. Moscow: Nedra. 1997. 483 p.
3. Yagafarova G.G., Barakhnina V.B. Disposal of environmentally hazardous drilling waste. Elektronnyi nauchnyi zhurnal Neftegazovoe delo. 2006. No. 1. ( http://ogbus.ru/ authors/Yagafarova/Yagafarova_2.pdf date of access 28.03.2016). (In Russian).
4. Korol’ V.V., Pozdnyshev G.N., Manyrin V.N. Disposal of drilling waste. Ekologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii. 2005. No. 1, pp. 40–42. (In Russian).
5. Shagigalin G.U., Gataullin A.V., Lomakina L.N., Bikmeeva N.B. The applicability of drilling waste in the production of building materials. Thesis report 66 student scientific conference. Ufa. 2015. (In Russian).
6. Shagigalin G.U., Gataullin A.V., Lomakina L.N. Soilcement building material on the basis of drill cuttings. Thesis report VI scientific and technical conferences LLC “BashNIPIneft”. Ufa. 2016. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2426708. Stroitel’nyi material Burolit [Building material Burolit]. Andreev О.P., Akhmedsafin S.К., Petrov G.F., Arabskiy А.К., Chesnov I.P., Utkina N.N. Declared 11.10.2006. Published 20.07.2007. (In Russian).
8. Patent RF 2541009 Grunt ukreplennyi dorozhno-stroitel’nyi [Soil fortified road-building]. Zabolotskiy S.S. Declared 11.10.2006; Published 20.07.2007. (In Russian).

Yu.V. TONEVITSKII1, Candidate of Science (Chemistry) (svtonev@gmail.com); D.M. MOGNONOV1,2, Doctor of Science (Chemistry) (dmog@binm.bscnet.ru); O.Zh. AYUROVA 1,2, Candidate of Science (Engineering) (chem88@mail.ru); Yu.N. KUZNETSOV1 , Postgraduate (yuriy_kuznetsov1.9.8.9@mail.ru)
1 Buryat State University (24a Smolin Street, 670000, Ulan-Ude, Russian Federation)
2 Baikal Institute of Nature Management of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (6, Sakhyanovoy Street, 670047, Ulan-Ude, Russian Federation)

Modification of Road Bitumen by Production Waste* The possibility of modifying the road bitumen by the waste of Selenginsky Cellulose and Cardboard Plant as a component that improves its rheological performance is considered. The most effective way of improving the properties of bitumens is modification by polymers. The chemical interaction of components in the compositions of bitumen-polymer materi als provides their homogeneity and stability, and reduces the probability of separation of the composition due to the density difference of bitumens and modifiers. The experimental data confirm the presence of positive technical effect of application of lignin-containing waste to improve rheological properties of road bitumen. The obtained bitumen-polymer material with concentrations of lignin wt%: 2, 5 and 10, and 10 wt% of sulfolignin, makes it possible to adjust the rheological properties of the asphalt binder when used in road con struction.

Keywords: modified bitumen, polymer-bitumen materials, lignin, sulfolignin, rheological properties, penetration, ductility, brittleness temperature, softening temperature.

References
1. Gokhman L.M., Gurarii E.M., Davydov A.R., Davydova K.I. Polimerno-bitumnye vyazhushchie materialy na osnove SBS dlya dorozhnogo stroitel’stva. [Polymer-bitumen binders on the basis of SBS for road construction]. Moscow: Informavtodor. 2002. Vol. 4. 112 p.
2. Kalinin V.V., Masyuk A.F., Khudyakova T.S. Structure and properties of bitumen modified with polymers. Road building machinery. Annual Business Directory. 2003, pp. 174–181. (In Russian).
3. Epstein Ya.V., Akhmina E.I., Raskin M.N. Rational direction of use of a hydrolytic lignin. Khimiya drevesiny. 1977. No. 6, pp. 24–44. (In Russian).
4. Kiselev V.P., Bugayenko E.V., Yefremov A.A., Tolstikhin K.A. Physical and mechanical properties of asphalt compositions with additives of plant polymers. Proceedings of the II International Scientific Conference “Experimental methods in physics of heterogeneous condensed matter”. Barnaul. 2001, pp. 107–114. (In Russian).
5. Smirnov N.S. New life of the “squeezed-out” bitumens. The knitting materials BITREK on the basis of chemically processed oxidized bitumens and a fine rubber crumb. Dorogi Rossii XXI veka. 2002. No. 6, pp. 70–78. (In Russian).
6. Surmeli D.D. Influence of a kind of rubber on the production parameters and quality of rubber materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1976. No. 5, pp. 21–22. (In Russian).
7. Ayupov D.A., Murafa A.V., Khakimullin Yu.N., Khozin V.G. Modified bituminous binders for construction application. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 8, pp. 50–51. (In Russian).
8. Ayupov D.A., Potapova L.I., Murafa A.V., Fakhrutdinova V.H., Khakimullin Yu.N., Khozin V.G. Research of features of interaction of bitumens with polymers. Izvestiya Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturnostroitel’nogo universiteta. 2011. No. 1, pp. 140–146. (In Russian).

A.I. NIZHEGORODOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Irkutsk National Research State Technical University (83, Lermontov street, Irkutsk, 664074, Russian Federation)

Experimental Determination of Friction Coefficient of Some Potential Thermosetting Minerals In view of a new concept of an electric kiln with movable hearths with energy density of vermiculite burning 50-60 MJ/m3 and meant for thermal activation of other minerals the problem appeared to determine their coefficient of kinetic friction during the movement. It is caused by the need of movement modelling of one-layered flows of heat-treated minerals on the vibrating surface of hearths. The experimental results are presented to find friction coefficient of some potential thermosetting minerals.

Keywords: vermiculite, electric kiln with movable hearths, thermal activation of minerals, coefficient of kinetic friction.

References
1. Afanas’ev B.V. Mineral’nye resursy shchelochnoul’traosnovnykh massivov Kol’skogo poluostrova [Mineral Resources of the Ultrabasic-Alkaline Massifs of the Kola Peninsula]. St. Petersburg: Roza Vetrov, 2011. 224 p.
2. Akhtyamov R.Ya. Vermiculite Is a Raw Material to Produce Fireproof and Heat-Insulating Material. Ogneupory i tekhnicheskaya keramika. 2009. No. 1–2, рр. 59–64.(In Russian).
3. Popov N.A. Proizvodstvo i primenenie vermikulita [ Production and Applications of Vermiculite]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1964. 128 p.
4. Nizhegorodov A.I. Tekhnologii i oborudovanie dlya pererabotki vermikulita: optimal’noe fraktsionirovanie, elektricheskii obzhig, doobogashchenie.[Technologies and Equipment for Processing Vermiculite: Optimum Granulation, Electric Firing, Additional Enrichment]. Irkutsk: ISTU. 2011. 172 p.
5. Kremenetskaya I.P., Belyaevskii A.T. Amorphization of Serpentines Used to Produce Magnesia Silicate Agent for High-Density Metal Immobilization. Khimiya v interesakh ustoichivogo razvitiya. 2010. No. 1, pp. 41–49. (In Russian).
6. Tereshchenko S.V. Napravleniya kompleksnogo ispol’zovaniya otkhodov dobychi flogopita [Tendency of Multipurpose Use of Phlogopite Extraction Waste. Materials of All-Russian scientific and technical conference]. Miming institute of Kola Science Center of Russian Academy of Sciences. – Apatity. St. Petersburg: Renome. 2014, pp. 272–279.
7. Akhtyamov Ya.A., Bobrov V.S. Obzhig vermikulita [Technology of Vermiculite Calcination]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1973. 54 p.
8. Vibrations in Engineering. Handbook in 6 Volumes. Moscow: Engineering. 4 V. Vibration Processes and Machine, Lavendelis, E.E., Ed., 1981. 509 p.
9. Nizhegorodov A.I. The Third Generation of Electric Kilns with Module Release Used to Burn Vermiculite Concentrates a Series of RAW. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 11, pp. 84–85. (In Russian).
10. Generalov M.B. Mekhanika tverdykh dispersnykh sred v protsessakh khimicheskoi tekhnologii [Mechanics of Solid Dispersive Mediums in the Chemical Process Engineering]. Kaluga: Bochkarev publishing house. 2002. 592 p.
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