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Stroitel`nye Materialy №9

Stroitel`nye Materialy №9
September, 2016

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A.A. SEMYONOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Manager (info@gs-expert.ru) «GS-Expert», OOO (18, office 207, the 1st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Lane, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

About Current Situation in Production of Silicate Wall Materials in Russia
The situation analysis of production of wall silicate products as of the first half of 2016 is presented. It is noted, as a disturbing trend, not only the significant reduction in production output but also reduction in the number of operating enterprises of the industry. It is also revealed that in 2015–2016 silicate wall materials show the most serious decrease in produc tion rates among the single-piece wall materials. The most significant drop in production volumes is recorded in the Northern Caucasus, Ural, and Siberia Federal Districts. In January– June of 2016 the growth in the output of silicate wall materials was observed only at three factories from 67 really operating.

Keywords: statistics, forecast, silicate brick, silicate wall materials.

References
1. Semenov A.A. The Analysis of State of the Russian Silicate Brick Market. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 4–5. (In Russian).
2. Socio-Economic Situation of Russia. 2015”, Federal State Statistics Service, No. IM-04-1/30-SD, Moscow, 09.02.2016.
3. Semyonov A.A. Prospects of Development of Construction Complex and Building Materials Industry in 2016. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 1–2, pp. 4–6. (In Russian).

M.A. GONCHAROVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (magoncharova777@yandex.ru); A.N. IVASHKIN, Engineer, V.V. SIMBAEV, Engineer Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, 398600, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)

Development of Optimal Compositions of Silicate Concretes with the Use of Local Raw Resources
Results of the optimization of compositions of silicate concrete of autoclave hardening are presented. The effect of adding metallurgical production waste, converter slag, on the mold ing properties of the silicate mixture, green strength, as well as on the strength and durability of ready-made brick has been studied. The change in color of silicate materials with time as well as the reduction in surface strength is observed. Methods for strengthening and decorating ready-made products of silicate concrete of autoclave hardening are proposed.

Keywords: silicate concrete, surface coloring, converter slag, surface strengthening.

References
1. Goncharova M. A., Chernyshov E. M. Forming of systems of curing of composites on the basis of technogenic raw materials. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 19–22. (In Russian).
2. Chernyshov E. M., Potamoshneva N.D. Materialovedenie i tekhnologiya avtoklavnykh betonov na osnove khvostov obogashcheniya zhelezistykh kvartsitov [Materialovedeniye and technology of autoclave concrete on the basis of tails of enrichment of ferruterous quartzites]. Voronezh: VGASU, 2004. 160 p.
3. Goncharova M.A., Korvyakov F.N. Identification of the mechanism of participation of converter slags in structurization of effective construction composites. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturnostroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2014. No. 36 (55), pp. 54–58. (In Russian).
4. Goncharova M.A., Kashirina N.A. Forecasting of the knitting properties of converter slags by means of the analysis of their chemical composition. Actualscience. 2016. V. 2. No. 7, pp. 58–59. (In Russian).
5. Babkov V.V., Samofeev N.S., Chuykin A.E. A silicate brick in external walls of buildings: analysis of a condition, forecast of durability and methods of its increase. Inzhenernostroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2011. No. 8, pp. 35–40. (In Russian).
6. Knatko M.V., Gorshkov A.S., Rymkevich P.P. Laboratory and natural researches of durability (operational service life) of a wall design from an autoclave gas concrete with a facing layer from a silicate brick. Inzhenernostroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2009. No. 8, pp. 20–26. (In Russian).
7. Goncharova M. A., Ivashkin A. N., Kashirskaya O. A. A quality evaluation of a front surface of products from multicomponent decorative concrete. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 19–22. (In Russian).

G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer (kuznecova.gal@yandex.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation)

Lime and Its Influence on Technical Re-Equipment of Silicate Brick Factories
Due to the increasing competition at the market of wall materials manufactures, the problems of improving the quality of products can’t be solved without re-equipment of factories. Replacement of operational equipment which don’t provide an adequate level of contemporary technology and selection of the new import equipment widely presented at the mar ket, raise the problem of compatibility with local materials, one of which is lime. Replacement of the press equipment only which in turn needs the molding mixture of stable com position can’t be considered as re-equipment. The analysis and results of the study of the influence of quick-slaking lime on the equipment operation in the processing chain are presented. Data on the influence of lime activity, a binder and their content in the mixture on the quality of molding mixture and conditions of mixing in the course of mixture prepa ration are presented. The correct placement of modern equipment in the processing chain with due regard for the quality of raw components is the key to successful operation of the entire production.

Keywords: silicate brick, lime activity, lime-silica binder, mills.

References
1. Semenov A.A. Silicate Wall Materials Market and Problems of Providing Industry with Raw Materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 40–43. (In Russian).
2. Sulima-Grudzinskiy A.V. Some Actual Problems in the Field of Equipment for Silicate Products Manufacture. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 3, pp. 53–62. (In Russian).
3. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Problems of Replacement of Traditional Technology of Silicate Brick with Preparation of a Lime-Siliceous Binder by Direct Technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, pp. 14–18. (In Russian).
4. Klare M., Ivanov A.K. Application of modular wall elements for optimization of productions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).
5. Kuznetsova G.V. Features of a grinding limy and silicic knitting in production of silicate materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 14–17. (In Russian).
6. Klare D. Equipment of the AAC-Concept GmbH company for production of a silicate brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 25. (In Russian).
7. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Influence of Components of a Lime-Siliceous Binder on Cohesion of Molding Material for Pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 12, pp. 69–72. (In Russian).
8. Khavkin L.M. Tekhnologiya silikatnogo kirpicha [Technology of a silicate brick]. Moscow: Ekolit. 2011. 384 p.
9. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Influence of a Corrective Additive on Properties of a Lime-Siliceous Binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 12, pp. 12–14. (In Russian).
10. Kuznetsova G.V. Method for Pressing of Silicate Brick and Method for Defining Its Raw Strength. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 50–54. (In Russian).

I.A. GALEEV, General Director OOO «Invest-Tekhnologiya» (20, structure П, Nakhimova Street, 454119, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation)

Filtering Oil in Presses for the Production of Silicate Bricks
Main standards (in force and invalid) which regulate the classification of the oil purity – ISO 4406 (1999) and NAS 1638 are considered. Differences of each class of purity are shown. Principles of the specification of oil purity for hydro-systems of presses depending on the used hydraulic components are described. Recommendations of the leading companies in the field of hydraulic systems are presented; differences of the oil filtration system of VIKING presses are shown.

Keywords: hydraulic press, oil purity, axial-piston press, hydraulic filter, oil filtration.

References
1. Sveshnikov V.K. Hidroequipment. Book 3. Auxiliary elements of the hydraulic drive: nomenclature, characteristics, sizes, interchangeability. M. Publishing center «Tekhinform» MAI. 2003. 445 p.

LASCO Delivers Individual Manufacturing Equipment for Silicate Bricks and Large-Format Blocks to Partners in Russia

I.F. SHLEGEL 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Director, G,Ya. SHAEVICH 1 , Executive Director, A.V. RUKAVITSYN 1 , Deputy Director, A.V. ANDRIANOV 1 , Head of Department, A.V. ALBUTOV 1 , Engineer ASUTP; Yu.M. SHERSTOBITOV 2 , Chief Engineer
1 Institute of New Technologies and Automation of Building Materials Industry («INTA-STROY» Ltd.) (100, 1st Putevaya Street, 644113 Omsk Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Investment Industry» ( 16 Promyshlennaya Street, Stroitel Settlement, Tambov District, Tambov Oblast, Russian Federation)

Rod Mixer of SHL Series in Silicate Production
It is shown that the rod mixers are efficient equipment for the technology of silicate mass preparation. The engineering scheme and principle of operation of the new design of the rod mixer SHL 506 from the series developed by specialists of OOO “INTA-STORY” are considered. An example of the unit and successful operation of this mixer in the technological line of the operating enterprise manufacturing the silicate brick is given.

Keywords: silicate brick, volume coloring, silicate mass, rod mixer, energy saving, production ecology, protection of labor.

References
1. Shlegel’ I.F., Grishin P.G., Miroshnikov V.E. Mixer rod ShL-313. 1. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2002. No. 7, pp. 32–33. (In Russian).
2. Vahnin M.P., Anishhenko A.A. Proizvodstvo silikatnogo kirpicha [Production of a silicate brick]. Moscow. 1989, 199 p.
3. Hvostenkov S.I., Vintajkin V.P., Koshlaev V.I., Kupershmidt M.Je. The inclined rod mixer for processing of silicate masses. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1981. No. 6, pp. 13–14. (In Russian).

V.N. DERKACH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (v-derkatch@yandex.ru), O.G. DEMCHUK, Engineer Branch office of the RUE «Institute BelNIIS» – Scientific-Technical Center (Republic of Belarus, 224023, Brest, Moskovskaya str., 267/2)

Bearing Capacity of Masonry Walls Made of Large-Size Silicate Blocks under Compression
The results of experimental studies of samples of block masonry made of silicate tongue-and-groove blocks with thin mortar seams under compression are presented. On the basis of experimental studies, features of the deformation and destruction of masonries have been revealed; values of the strength of the block masonry under compression and its deformation characteristics have been obtained. On the basis of numerical studies, the influence of technology of mortar seams execution on the strength characteristics of the masonry has been revealed. Features of the operation of bearing masonry walls made of large-size silicate blocks under compression are shown. The results of numerical studies of the wall to hollow-core overlap node are presented; the values of compliance coefficients of this node depending on the level of compressing deformations in the wall have been established. Proposals for cal- culation of bearing walls made of large-size tongue-and-groove silicate blocks with thin layer seams are presented.

Keywords: block masonry, silicate blocks, thin layer mortar seams, strength under compression, modulus of deformation, bearing walls

References
1. Kalksandstein. Planungshandbuch. Planung, Konstruktion, Ausfurung. Hannover: Bundesverband Kalksteinindustrie. 2014. 368 p.
2. Derkach V.N., Naichuk A.Ya Pilot studies of durability of a stone laying from tongue-and-groove silicate blocks. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 6, pp. 77–82. (In Russian).
3. Mojsilovi N.A. Discussion of masonry characteristics derived from compression tests. Proceedings of the 10th Canadian Masonry Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada. June 8–12, 2005. Calgary: University of Calgary, Department of Civil Engineering. 2005. pp. 242–250.
4. Schubert P. Strength properties of masonry. Proc. of the 11th Int. Brick/Block Masonry Conf. Shanghai: Tongij University. 1997. Vol. 1. pp. 191-202.
5. Drobiec L., Jasinski R., Piekarczuk. Konstrukcje Murowe wedlug Eurokodu 6 i norm zwiazanych. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo naukowe PWN. 2013. 692 p.
6. Onishchik L.I. Kamennye konstruktsii [Stone designs]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1939. 208 p.
7. Eurocode 6: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Mauerwerksbauten. Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Regeln für bewehrtes und unbewehrtes Mauerwerk: ЕN 1996-1-1:2005. Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Normung. 2005. 127 p.
8. Hendry A.W. Structural masonry. London: MacMillan Education Ltd. 1990. 289 р.

A.N. VOLODCHENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.S. LESOVIK, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, 308012 Belgorod, Russian Federation)

Perspectives of Expanding Nomenclature of Silicate Materials of Autoclave Hardening
The possibility to expand the traditional raw material base of autoclave silicate materials due to clay rocks of unfinished stage of mineralization, which are widespread in the Russian Federation and in many countries of the world as well as in large quantities get in the zone of mining operations when extracting minerals, has been established. The use of these rocks makes it possible to control the processes of structure formation of autoclave materials of a new generation. In this case, new formations of different compositions and morphology, which form cementing compounds of optimal composition that ensures high physical-mechanical properties of products, are synthesized. The nomenclature of efficient autoclave prod ucts including wall, finishing, structural-heat insulating, heat insulating, and acoustic materials is proposed.

Keywords: clay rocks, raw base, autoclave silicate materials.

References
1. Bozhenov P.I. Kompleksnoe ispol’zovanie mineral’nogo syr’ja i jekologija [Complex use of mineral raw materials and ecology]. Moscow: ACB, 1994. 264 p. (In Russian).
2. Bazhenov Y.M., Alimov L.A., Voronin V.V. Struktura i svoystva betonov s nanomodifikatorami na osnove tekhnogennykh otkhodov [Structure and properties of concrete with nanomodifiers based on man-made waste]. Moscow: MGSU, 2013. 203 p. (In Russian).
3. Lesovik V.S., Frolova M.A., Ayzenshtadt A.M. Surface Activity of Rocks // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 71–73. (In Russian).
4. Chernyshov E.M., Fedin A.A., Potamoshneva N.D, Kuhtin Ju.A. Gazosilikata: modern a flexible technology materials and products // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 4, pp. 4–9. (In Russian).
5. Volodchenko A.N., Lesovik V.S. Silicate materials with autoclave is-use of nanosized materials. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 11, pp. 42–44. (In Russian).
6. Lesovik V.S. Geonika (Geomimetika). Examples of implementation of the builder-rated materials science: a monograph. 2nd ed. Belgorod: BDTU, 2016. 287 p.
7. Strokova V.V., Sumin A.V., Nelyubova V.V., Shapovalov N.A. The modified binder using nanostructured mineral component. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2015. No. 3, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).
8. Volodchenko A.N., Lesovik V.S. The rheological properties of gas concrete mixture on the basis of non-traditional raw materials. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2012. No. 3, pp. 45–48. (In Russian).
9. Bozhenov P.I. Tekhnologiya avtoklavnykh materialov [Technology autoclave materials]. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1978. 368 p. (In Russian)
10. Hvostenkov S.I. About the chemistry of the process of interaction in the system Ca(OH)2–SiO2–H2O in a hydrothermal synthesis. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 5, pp. 76–81. (In Russian).
11. Strokova V.V., Vezentsev A.I., Kolesnikov D.A., Shimanskaya M.S. Properties of synthetic nano-tubular Hydrosilicates. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2010. No. 4, pp. 30–34. (In Russian).
12. Zhernovsky I.V., Nelyubova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Strokova V.V. Features of the phase formation in the system CaO–SiO2–H2O in the presence of nanostructured modifier. Stroitel’nye materially [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 11, pр. 100–102. (In Russian).

E.M. CHERNYSHEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAAСS (chem@vgasu.vrn.ru), V.A. POPOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), O.V. ARTAMONOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) (ol_artam@rambler.ru) Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Concepts and Substantiations of Nano-Modification Technology of Building Com-posites Structures. Part 5. Efficient Micro-, Nano-Modification of Hydrothermal-Synthesis Hardening Systems and Structure of Silicate Stone (Criteria and Conditions)
Problems of the efficiency of micro-, nano-modification of the hydrothermal-synthesis hardening system and the structure of silicate stone are considered. The interconnected and joint regular manifestation of actions of nano-technological principles “top – down” and “bottom – up” during the structure formation of silicate autoclaved materials is shown. Kinetic char acteristics of the heterogenic process of formation of the hydrothermal-synthesis hardening depending on technological factors are studied and quantitative assessed. The comparative analysis of the efficiency of micro- and nano-modifying process of structure formation, when regulating main technological factors, shows that at rational combinations and values of factors related to the principle “top – down” and “bottom – up”, the synthesis of cementing substances can be accelerated by two-three times. The systematics of means from the “nano” arsenal for possible improving the efficiency of processes of silicate stone structure formation according to criteria Е, τ, R is presented.

Keywords: hydrothermal-synthesis system of hardening, micro- and nano-modification, efficiency of structure modification.

References
1. Chernyshov E.M. Laws of development of the autoclave structure of materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1992. No. 1, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
2. Chernyshov E.M., Popov V.A. Autoclave curing silicate materials synthesis: development of spatial and geometric concepts of structure. Dostizheniya stroitel’nogo materialovedeniya [Construction Materials Achievements]. SPb.: OOO «Izd-vo OM-Press». 2004. pp. 32–39.
3. Popov V.A., Chernyshov E.M. Features nanomodifitsirovaniya hydrothermal structures of fusion hardening systems in resistance management problems destruction autoclave concrete. Fracture mechanics of concrete, reinforced concrete and other construction materials: A collection of articles based on VII International scientific conference. Voronezh: Voronezhskiy GASU. 2013. Vol. 1, pp. 246–251. (In Russian).
4. Chernyshov E.M. Nanotechnology research building composites: general judgment, the main directions and results. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: nauchnyi Internetzhurnal. 2009. No. 1, pp. 45–59. http://www.nanobuild. ru/magazine/nb/Nanobuild_1_2009.pdf. (In Russian).
5. Artamonova O.V., Chernyshov E.M. Concepts and bases of technologies of nanomodification of building composite structures. Part 1. General problems of fundamentality, main direction of investigations and developments. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 82–95. (In Russian).
6. Chernyshov E.M., Artamonova O.V., Slavcheva G.S. Conceptions and bases of nano-modification technologies of building composites structures. Part 2: On the problem of conceptual models of nano-modifying the structure. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 73–84. (In Russian).
7. Chernyshov E.M., Artamonovа O.V., Slavcheva G.S. Concepts and technology base nanomodification of structures of building composites. Part 3. Effective nanomodification of systems and structures of cement hardening cement stone (criteria and conditions). Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 10, pp. 54–64. (In Russian).
8. Chernyshov E.M., Potamoshneva N.D., Artamonovа O.V. Concepts and substantiations of nano-modification technology of building com-posites structures. Part 4. Sol-gel technology of nano-, micro-disperse crystals of portlandite for contact-condensation compaction of structures of portlandite stone and composites on its base Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 11, pp. 65–74. (In Russian).
9. Melihov I.V. Fiziko-khimicheskaya evolyutsiya tverdogo veshchestva [Physico-chemical evolution of the solid]. Moscow: BINOM. Laboratorija znanij. 2009. 309 p.
10. Tretyakov Y.D., Oleynikov N.N., Gudilin E.A., Vertegel A.A., Baranov A.N. Self-organization in physical and chemical systems to the creation of new materials. Neorganicheskie materialy. 1994. Vol. 30. No. 3, pp. 277–290. (In Russian).
11. Tretyakov Y.D., Putlyaev V.I. Vvedenie v khimiyu tverdofaznykh materialov [Introduction to the chemistry of solid-phase materials]. Moscow: MGU. 2006. 400 p.
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17. Radushkevich L.V. Attempts statistical description of porous media. The main problems of the theory of physical adsorption: Proceedings of the First All-Union Conference on theoretical issues adsorption. Moscow: Nauka.1970, pp. 270–286.

V.P. VYLEGZHANIN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (info@stroypalata.ru); D.K-S. BATAEV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Director (kniiran@mail.ru); M.A. GAZIEV 3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (mgaziev56@mail.ru); G.I. GRINFELD 4, Engineer, Executive Director(greenfeld@mail.ru)
1 Center of Cellular Concretes (1/3, Off. 308 Zodchego Rossi Street, 191023 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)
2 Complex Institute named after Kh.I. Ibragimov of the Russian Academy of Sciences (21a, Staropromyslovskoye Shosse, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation)
3 Grozny State Oil Technical University named after acad. M.D. Millionshchikov (100 Ordzhonikidze Square, Grozny, Chechen Republic 364051, Russian Federation)
4 National Association of Autoclave Gas Concrete Manufactures (40a, Oktyabrskaya Embankment, 193091 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Accounting of Influence of Carbonization when Calculating Long-Term Deformability of Cellular Concrete Bending Structures
Theoretical and experimental studies for revealing the factor of influence of natural carbonization (under the impact of atmospheric carbon dioxide) on the long-term deformability of bending reinforced concrete elements made of gas-ash concrete of autoclave hardening are presented. It is established that the main reason for increasing long-term deflections of car bonized bending elements comparing with non-carbonized ones is a significant influence of the carbonization factor on the value of concrete creep in the compressed zone. It is shown that in the case of the long-term loading the method of Professor I.I. Ulitsky based on the theory of aging can be used for determining deflections of cellular concrete bending elements at any moment of time and predicting their maximum values with due regard for carbonization, if the values of creep characteristics obtained on concrete prisms are known. It is recom mended to take into account the influence of natural carbonization when calculating the long-term deformability of cellular concrete bending elements by adopting the value of the fac tor ν, characterizing the concrete creep in the compressed zone, as equal to 0.1 instead of 0.2 at relative humidity of the environment of 40–75%.

Keywords: autoclave cellular concrete, carbon dioxide, carbonization, creep, bending elements, long-term deformability.

References
1. Makarichev V.V., Mileikovskaya K.M. Issledovanie armirovannykh konstruktsii iz yacheistykh betonov [The study reinforced structures of cellular concrete]. Moscow: Gosstroyizdat. 1963. 99 p.
2. Silaenkov E.S. Dolgovechnost’ izdelii iz yacheistykh betonov [Durability of products from cellular concrete]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1986. 176 p.
3. Silaenkov E.S., Bataev D.K.-S., Mazhiev Kh.N., Gaziev M.A. Povyshenie dolgovechnosti konstruktsii i izdelii iz melkozernistykh yacheistykh betonov pri ekspluatatsionnykh vozdeistviyakh [Increasing the durability of structures and products from fine-grained porous concrete with performance impacts]. Grozniy. 2015. 355 p.
4. Gaziev M.A., Kleshchev F.I. Opyt dlitel’noi ekspluatatsii sovmeshchennykh pokrytii iz yacheistobetonnykh plit v gorode Sverdlovske. V kn.: Proizvodstvo i primenenie yacheistykh betonov v zhilishchno-grazhdanskom stroitel’stve [Experience of prolonged use of combined coatings of porous concrete slabs in the city of Sverdlovsk. In the book: The production and use of cellular concrete in housing and civil construction]. Leningrad. 1986, pp. 56–59.
5. Gaziev M.A. Metodika opredeleniya deformatsii polzuchesti avtoklavnykh yacheistykh betonov s uchetom ikh stareniya ot deistviya uglekislogo gaza. V kn.: Dolgovechnost’ konstruktsii iz avtoklavnykh betonov [Method for determining creep strain autoclaved aerated concrete in view of their aging from the effects of carbon dioxide. In the book: The durability of structures made of autoclaved concrete]. Tallin. 1984. Part I, pp. 167–169.
6. Prokopovich I.E., Zedgenidze V.A. Prikladnaya teoriya polzuchesti [Applied theory of creep]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1980. 210 p.
7. Ulitskiy I.I. Teoriya i raschet zhelezobetonnykh sterzhnevykh konstruktsii s uchetom dlitel’nykh protsessov [Theory and calculation of reinforced concrete beam structures, taking into account long-term processes]. Kiev: Budivel’nik. 1967. 346 p.
8. Vishnevetskii G.D. Osnovy rascheta elementov konstruktsii na polzuchest’ [Bases for design of structural elements creep]. Leningrad: LISI. 1980. 82 p.
9. Kalnais A.A., Teters G.A., Shkerbelis K.K. Issledovanie prochnosti i deformativnosti konstruktivnogo gazobetona. V kn.: Issledovaniya po betonu i zhelezobetonu [Investigation of strength and deformability constructive aerated. In the book: Studies on concrete and reinforced concrete]. Riga. 1959. Vol. 4, pp. 243–261.
10. Makarichev V.V., Trambovetskii V.P. K voprosu o prochnosti yacheistogo betona. V kn.: Yacheistye betony [On the issue of cellular concrete strength. In the book: Cellular concrete]. Leningrad. 1968. Vol. 1, pp. 43–52.
11. Konev Yu.S., Pinsker V.A. Deformativnye osobennosti gazobetonnykh izgibaemykh elementov pri kratkovremennom nagruzhenii. V kn.: Yacheistye betony [Deformability especially aerated concrete bent elements with short-term loading. In the book: Cellular concrete]. Leningrad. 1971. Vol. 4, pp. 46–49.
12. Konev Yu.S. The study of deformation properties of flexible structures made of aerated concrete. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Leningrad. 1972. 23 p.
13. Aleksandrovskiy S.V. Normirovanie polzuchesti yacheistykh betonov. V kn.: Industrial’nye konstruktsii iz yacheistykh betonov i tekhnologiya ikh izgotovleniya [Rationing creep of cellular concrete. In the book: The industrial structure of cellular concrete and the technology of their production]. Moscow: NIIZhB. 1979, pp. 130–141.

V.D. CHERKASOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding member of RAACS (vd-cherkasov@yandex.ru), V.I. BUZULUKOV 1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); Yu.M. BAZhENOV2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (tvvib@mgsu.ru)
1 N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University (68, Bolshevistskaya Street, Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Foaming Agents from Proteins of Microbial Synthesis for Manufacturing Cellular Concretes
The problem of receiving the key component of foam concretes production – a foaming agent – is considered. Two approaches to its solution are proposed. The first one is the use of mycelial waste of the bio-chemical industry containing large amounts of proteins of a microbic synthesis. Waste of antibiotics production is used as mycelia waste. The second one is a synthesis of proteins with the help of microorganisms on the food industry waste. These wastes are curd and cheese whey, distillery stillage. For enrichment of these wastes with pro teins, microorganisms were selected and conditions of their cultivation on wastes were developed. The base of the foaming agent is a protein hydrolysate of microbic synthesis. Conditions of the protein hydrolysis are shown. Properties of foaming agents have been studied. Foam expansion ratio of these foaming agents is 18–23, water segregation per an hour – 0%, the foam stability factor in the cement mortar – 0.9–0.92. The quality of the developed foaming agents is not inferior to the existing analogues, but cheaper. Compositions of foam concretes on the basis of these foaming agents have been developed, and their properties have been investigated. It is established that qualities of foam concretes on the basis of foaming agents obtained are not inferior to foam concretes produced on the basis of the foaming agent “Penostrom”.

Keywords: foaming agent, microbic protein, hydrolysis, foam concrete.

References
1. Tikhomirov V.K. Peny. Teoriya i praktika ikh polucheniya i razrusheniya [Foams. Theory and practice of their receiving and destruction]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1983. 263 p.
2. Bekker Z.E. Fiziologiya i biokhimiya [Physiology and biochemistry]. Moscow: Publ. of Moscow state University M.V. Lomonosov. 1986. 227 p.
3. Buzulukov V.I., Cherkasov V.D., Emel’yanov A.I., Syrkina N.P., Gartseva S.O. The proteinaceous converter for foam concretes. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No 7, pp. 23–27. (In Russian).
4. Zalashko M.V. Biotekhnologiya pererabotki molochnoi syvorotki [Bio-technology of processing of whey]. Moscow: Agropromizdat. 1990. 192 p.
5. Yarovenko V.L. Tekhnologiya spirta [Technology of alcohol]. Moscow: Kolos. 2002. 465 p.
6. Patent RF 2141930. Sposob prigotovleniya belkovogo penoobra- zovatelya [Way of preparation of proteinaceous frother]. Solomatov V.I., Cherkasov V.D., Buzulukov V.I. Declared 21.04.1998. Published 27.11.1999. Bulletin No. 21. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2162070. Penoobrazovatel’ [Foamer] Cherkasov V.D., Buzulukov V.I., Kiselev E.V., Groshev V.M. Declared 18.08.1999. Published 20.01.2001. Bulletin No. 2. (In Russian).
8. Komarov V.I., Lebedev E.I., Manuilova T.A. Problem of use of secondary resources of branches of food and processing industry and their influence on environment. Pishchevaya promyshlennost’. 1998. No. 2, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
9. Nenaidenko G.A., Zhurba O.S., Shereverov V.D. Distillery grains as organic fertilizer. Likerovodochnoe proizvodstvo i vinodelie. 2008. No. 7, pp. 12–15. (In Russian).

G.S. SLAVCHEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gslavcheva@yandex.ru), E.M. CHERNYSHOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (chem@vgasu.vrn.ru) Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

An Algorithm of Designing of Cement Foam Concretes Structure According to the Complex of Preset Properties
A procedure of designing of the structure of foam concretes which is based on the classical methodology of setting and solution of optimization problems is proposed. The purpose of the design is to form the foam concrete structure providing the formation of the set level of structural properties in the technological cycle and maximally efficient their realization under operational impacts. Examples of the algorithms developed for solving the task of foam concrete designing for structural (1200–1600 kg/m 3) and structural heat-insulating (800–1200 kg/m 3) foam concretes of minimal deformability with normalized characteristics of density, strength in the dry and wet states at preset values of characteristics of initial components are presented. The use of developed algorithms makes it possible to substantiate the decisions on parameters of the composition and structure of various foam con cretes on the basis of natural and anthropogenic raw components.

Keywords: foam concrete, structure design, anthropogenic raw material, natural raw material.

References
1. Slavcheva G.S., Kotova K.S. Questions of increase of efficiency application foam concrete in the building. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 8, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
2. Petukhov O.A., Morozov A.V., Petukhova E.O. Modelirovanie: sistemnoe, imitatsionnoe, analiticheskoe [Modeling: system, imitating, analytical]. Saint- Petersburg: SZTU. 2008. 288 p.
3. Nogin V.D., Protod’yakonov I.O., Evlampiev I.I. Osnovy teorii optimizatsii [Fundamentals of optimization theory] Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1986. 384 p.
4. Trusov P.V. Vvedenie v matematicheskoe modelirovanie [Introduction to mathematical modeling]. Moscow: Logos. 2005. 440 p.
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9. Shinkevich E.S., Chernyshov E.M., Lutskin E.S., Tymnyak A.B. Multi-criteria optimization of the compo- sition and properties of activated lime-siliceous composites. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi. 2013. No. 2, pp. 33–37. (In Russian).
10. Belov V.V., Bobryshev A.N., Erofeev V.T., Obraztsov I.V., Bobryshev A.A. Komp’yuternoe modelirovanie i optimizirovanie sostavov kompozitsionnykh stroitel’nykh materialov [Computer modeling and optimization of formulations of composite building materials] Moscow: ACB. 2015. 263 p.
11. Volchenko E.Yu. Using mathematical methods and computer models for optimize the formulation of composite materials. Vestnik Volzhskogo instituta ekonomiki, pedagogiki i prava. 2015. No. 1, pp. 11–16. (In Russian).
12. Slavcheva G.S., Novikov M.V., Chernyshov E.M. Changing the mechanical properties of porous concrete in time. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno- stroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2008. No. 10, pp. 224–230. (In Russian).
13. Slavcheva G.S. Operating deformability and radiometric characteristics of porous cement concrete as a function of their structure. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2008. No. 1, pp. 81–87. (In Russian).
14. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S Control over operational deformability and crack resistance of macro-porous (cellular) concretes: context of problem and issues of theory. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 105–112. (In Russian).
15. Slavcheva G.S. Structural factors provide frost cement foam concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 9, pp. 52–56. (In Russian).

Yu.R. KRIVOBORODOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.A. ELENOVA, Specialist (aurika-zolotko@mail.ru) Dmitry Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (20, Geroev Panfilovtsev Street, 125480 Moscow, Russian Federation)

The Use of Micro-Disperse Additives for Accelerating Cement Hardening
Results of the influence of artificially synthesized micro-disperse additives of crystalline hydrates on the basis of calcium sulfoaluminetes on the properties of cement stone are present ed. The efficiency of using the rotary-pulsation apparatus (RPA) as an activator-homogenizer for obtaining micro-disperse additives is revealed. The possibility of accelerating the hard ening of cement stone by means of introducing micro-disperse additives in its composition is shown. It is established that in the presence of micro-disperse additives of crystalline hydrates in cement stone, the phase composition of hydrate new formations changes in the direction of increasing the amount of calcium hydro-silicates. This fact is confirmed by increasing the degree of cement hydration, the amount of bound water in all periods of stone hardening. It is proposed to use micro-disperse additives, which play the role of seeds for crystallization of ettringite and calcium hydro-silicates, for increasing the strength of cement stone at early stages of hardening.

Keywords: cement, hydration, hardening, additives, strength.

References
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11. Guvalov A.A., Abbasova S.I., Kuznetsova T.V. Improved high-strength concrete structure using modifiers. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 78–81. (In Russian).

T.A. NIZINA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (nizinata@yandex.ru), A.N. PONOMAREV 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (9293522@gmail.com), A.S. BALYKOV1 , Engineer
1 National Research Mordovia State University (68, Bolshevistskaya Street, Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University (29, Polytechnicheskaya Street, Saint Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation)

Fine Disperse-Reinforced Concretes on the Basis of Complex Modifying Additives
Results of the study of physical-mechanical characteristics of disperse-reinforced fine concretes with poly-functional modifying additives are presented. Methods for complex disperse reinforcement of fine concretes with non-metallic fiber of different types are proposed; they make it possible to directionally form the structure of such composites at various scale lev els. The influence of fibers of three types has been studied. They are polypropylene multifilament and polyacrylonitrile synthetic specially processed fibers with the cutting length of 12 mm, as well as basalt microfiber modified with astralenes with the length of 100–500 microns. As modifying additives, micro-silica condensed and compacted, high active metaka olin, and a hydro-isolating additive in the concrete mix are used. An analysis of the study of the saturated D-optimal plan is made with the help of three-angle diagrams of Gibbs- Rosebom built according to polynomial models of “mix I, mix II, technology-properties” types which make it possible to trace the influence of 6 variable factors in the two-dimensional space The feasibility of the complex use of modifying additives and disperse fibers, including nano-modified, for improving the properties of fine concretes is substantiated. Compositions with the best complex of elastic-strength characteristics are identified.

Keywords: disperse-reinforced fine concrete, polyfunctional additive, disperse fiber, synthetic fibers.

References
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3. Pukharenko Yu.V., Aubakirova I.U., Nikitin V.A., Staroverov V.D. Structure and properties of nano-modified cement systems. International Con-gress «Science and Innovation in Construction «SIB-2008». Modern problems of building materials and technologies. Voronezh. 2008. Vol. 1. Book. 2, pp. 424–429. (In Russian).
4. Shames A.I., Katz E.A., Panich A.M., Mogilyansky D., Mogilko E., Grinblat J., Belousov V.P, Belousova I.M., Ponomarev A.N. Structural and magnetic resonance study of astralen nanoparticles. Diamond & Related Materials. 2008. Vol. 18. Iss. 2-3, pp. 505–510.
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8. Patent RF 2196731. Poliedral’nye mnogosloinye uglerodnye nanos-truktury fulleroidnogo tipa [Polyhedral multilayer carbon nanostructures of ful-leroid type]. Ponomarev A.N., Nikitin V.A. Declared 21.09.2000. Published 20.01.2003. Bulletin No. 2. (In Russian).
9. Patent RF 2397950. Mnogosloinye uglerodnye nanochastitsy ful-leroidnogo tipa toroidal’noi formy [Multilayered carbon nanoparticles of fulleroid type of toroidal shape]. Ponomarev A.N., Yudovich M.E. Declared 23.04.2008. Published 27.08.2010. Bulletin No. 24. (In Russian).
10. Rabinovich F.N. Dispersno armirovannye betony [Disperse reinforced concretes]. Мoscow: Stroyizdat. 1989. 176 p.
11. Rabinovich F.N. Kompozity na osnove dispersno armirovannykh betonov. Voprosy teorii i proektirovaniya, tekhnologiya, konstruktsii: Monografiya [Composites based on disperse reinforced concretes. Questions of theory and design, technology, constructions: Monograph]. Мoscow: ASV. 2004. 560 p.
12. Zagorodnyuk L.Kh., Shakarna M., Shchekina A.Yu. Classification of additives for the reinforcement of particulate composites. GISAP (Global Interna-tional Scientific Analytical Project). Access mode: http://gisap. eu/ru/node/23874 (In Russian).
13. Nizina Т.А., Balykov А.S. Analysis of the combined effect of the modifier additives and particulate reinforcement on the physico-mechanical characteris-tics of fine-grained concretes. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 4, pp. 25–33. (In Russian).
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15. Nizina T.A., Balbalin A.V. Influence of mineral additives on the rheological and strength characteristics of cement composites. Vestnik Tomskogo gosu-darstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2012. No. 2, pp. 148–153. (In Russian).
16. Nizina T.A., Balbalin A.V. Mechanical activation of cement mixtures with polyfunctional additives. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 2, pp. 36–42. (In Russian).
17. Selyaev V.P., Nizina T.A., Balbalin A.V. Multifunctional modifiers of cement composites based on mineral admixtures and polycarboxylate plasticizers. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo univer-siteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2013. Vol. 2. No. 31 (50), pp. 156–163. (In Russian).
18. Nizina T.A., Balykov A.S., Saraikin A.S. Experimental studies disperse-reinforced fine-grained concretes with the polyfunctional modifiers. UralNIIproekt RAASN. 2015. No. 4, pp. 91–96. (In Russian).

V.A. VOYTOVICH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.N. KHRYAPCHENKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (65 Ilyinskaya Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation)

Nano-Concrete in Construction
The review of methods for manufacturing nano-concretes in the nowadays building industry is presented. The first method is a finish grinding of traditional Portland cements until nano size values and producing nano-cements. The technology of producing this nano-cement is based on the combination of mechanical-chemical activation of Portland cement grains in the presence of modifiers with the grinding of materials until the nano-size state. The second method is introducing nano-particles in Portland cement. Micro-silica is produced as a by product in the course of producing the elemental silicon and silicon-containing alloys and provides the creation of super-strong and durable concretes. Introduction of the carbon nano tube dispersion accelerates the hydration process, regulates the porous structure of nano-concrete. The presence of nano-particles suitable for modification of concretes is detected in some natural minerals and industrial waste. The third method is the synthesis of nano-particles directly in concrete mixes with the use of initial substances – precursors. Nano-particles of the silicon dioxide obtained by the so-called sol-gel technology show high efficiency.

Keywords: nano-concrete, nano-cement, nano-particles, precursor, sol-gel technology.

References
1. Chernik G., Fokina E., Budim N., Khyuller M., Kochnev V. Grinding and mechanical alloying in a planetary mill. Nanoindustriya. 2007. No. 5, pp. 32–35. (In Russian).
2. Bikbau M.Ya. The discovery of nano encapsulation particulate matter. Vestnik Rossiiskoy akademii estestvennykh nauk. Seriya Fizika. 2012. No. 3, pp. 27–35. (In Russian).
3. Ponomarev A.N. Development of applied nanotechnology in Russia. Nanoindustriya. 2012. No. 8, pp. 6–10. (In Russian).
4. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzhenko A.N., Bur’yanov A.F., Pudov I.A., Lushnikova A.A. Modification of Cement Concretes with Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 47–51. (In Russian).
5. Shah S.P., Hou P., Konsta-Gdoutos M.S. Nanomodification of cementitious material: toward a stronger and durable concrete. Journal of Sustainable Cement- Based Materials. 2015. Vol. 2. Iss. 5, pp. 67–78. (https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/283913691_ Nanomodification_of_cementitious_material_toward_a_ stronger_and_durable_concrete, date of access 07.08.2016).
6. Gusev B.V., Petrunin S.Yu. Cavitation dispersion of carbon nanotubes and modifying cement systems. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: nauchnyi internet-zhurnal. Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 50–57. (http://nanobuild.ru/ru_RU/ nanobuild-6-2014-pages-15–19/, date of access 07.08.2016). (In Russian).
7. Kodolov V.I., Trineeva V.V., Vasil’chenko Yu.M., Zakharov A.A. The production and use of carbon-metal nanocomposites. Nanoindustriya. 2011. No. 3, pp. 24–26. (In Russian).
8. Koren’kova S.F., Sidorenko Yu.V. The carbonate-siliceous man-made raw materials in general construction purposes. Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya. 2014. No. 3, pp. 172–176. (In Russian).
9. Komokhov P.G., Aleksandrov N.I. Nanostructured radiation- resistant concrete and its universality. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka. 2008. No. 5, pp. 38–40. (In Russian).
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T.A. DROZDYUK, Engineer (t.drozdyuk@narfu.ru), A.M. AIZENSHTADT, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry) (a.isenshtadt@narfu.ru), M.A. FROLOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry), A.A. NOSULYA, Student Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (17, Severnaya Dvina Embankment, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation)

Assessment of Activity of a Mineral Binder on the Basis of Saponite-Containing Material
A binding capacity of environment friendly high-disperse saponite-containig waste (SCW) of enrichment of kimberlite ores of the diamond-mining industry (the Lomonosov diamond mine, Arkhangelsk Oblast) as a binding substance for mineral wool heat insulating materials is analyzed. An express-method for determining the activity of a binder (A) with the help of the functional dependence of the binder activity on the value of heat effect of the hydration reaction is proposed. The rectilinear functional dependence of А=f(∆H) type obtained has a high coefficient of the approximation validity (R 2=0,96) that testifies the interrelation of these values with practical applicability of the dependence obtained for assessing the binding materials quality. Results of the study of the binding capacity of high-disperse SCW samples preliminary obtained by grinding with a planetary ball mill show that the maximum value of the activity is reached when the specific surface of SCW not less than 800 sm 2/g.

Keywords: saponite-contaning waste, mineral wool heat insulation, binder activity, heat effect of hydration reaction.

References
1. Drozdyuk T.A., Ayzenshtadt A.M., Tutygin A.S., Frolova M.A. Inorganic binding agents for mineral wool heat insulation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 86–89. (In Russian).
2. Tutygin A.S., Aisenstadt M.A., Aisenstadt A.M., Makhova T.A. Influence of the nature of the electrolyte in the coagulation process saponite-containing slurry. Geoekologiya. 2012. No. 5, pp. 379–383. (In Russian).
3. Lesovik V.S. Povysheniye effektivnosti proizvodstva stroitel’nykh materialov s uchetom genezisa [Improving the efficiency of the production of building materials with regard to the genesis]. Moscow: Publishing House of the Association building universities. 2006. 526 p.
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6. Veshnyakova L.A., A.M. Ayzenshtadt. Optimizing the particle size distribution of the mixture to obtain finegrained concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 10, pp. 19–22. (In Russian).
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8. Usherov-Marshak A.V., Kabus A.V. Calorimetric monitoring the early stages of hardening of cements in the presence of additives. Neorganicheskie materialy. 2013. Vol. 49. No. 4, pp. 449–452. (In Russian).
9. Drozdyuk T.A., Ayzenshtadt A.M., Tutygin A.S. Waste of mining industry as a binder for the mineral insulation. Materials of international scientific E-symposiums “Technical and science: theory and practice”. Moscow. 2015, pp. 203–214. (In Russian).

A.V. KOCHETKOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); Sh.N. VALIYEV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); S.Yu. ANDRONOV 3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); D.A. KLIMOV4 , Engineer
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolsky Avenue, 614990, Perm, Russian Federation).
2 Moscow Automobile and Road State Technical University (MADI) (64, Leningradsky Avenue, 125319, Moscow, Russian Federation)
3 Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov (77, Politekhnicheskaya Street, 410054, Saratov, Russian Federation)
4 Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs (87, Gorkogo Street, 600000, Vladimir, Russian Federation)

Techniques of Determination of Heat-Physical Properties of Road-Building Materials and Soils
A draft industry road methodical document has been developed by the Federal Autonomous Institution ROSDORNII. The draft sets recommendations for determining heat-physical prop- erties of road-building materials and soils when studying the possible range of changes in humidity, density, and temperature of materials and soils located in road constructions in areas of seasonal freezing (thawing) of motor roads and artificial structures on them, selection of measuring methods and instruments ensuring reliable and reproducible results of determination of heat-physical characteristics of road pavement materials and soils of the motorway subgrade.

Keywords: heat-physical properties, volumetric heat capacity, heat conductivity coefficient, heat diffusivity coefficient, heat comprehensibility, disperse materials, soils.

References
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A.A. LUKASH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), N.P. LUKUTTSOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Bryansk State Engineering-Technological University (3, St. Dimitrova Avenue, 241037, Bryansk, Russian Federation)

Perspectivity of Producing Building Materials from Wood with Heart Rot
The perspectivity of processing of wood containing the heart rot in building materials is substantiated. The subject of the study is methods for processing of wood with heart rot. The shortage of hardwood and softwood demands to treat the unmerchantable wood. Most often, wood with heart rot is sawn for firewood and sold the population as fuel. Differentiated approach to the choice of the method for processing of wood with heart rot is the substantiation of the type of the obtained materials and products of various functional purposes depending on the size of heart rot. To ensure the competitiveness, products made of wood with heart rot must have higher performance characteristics in comparison with existing materials and products. Therefore, the methods of producing need to be connected with specific materials or products. Wood with heart rot of a diameter of up to 50 mm is the most appropriate to use for the production of rounded logs. For processing of wood with heart rot of diameter of 50–100 mm, the best method is a rotary cut of healthy wood for subsequent bonding of plywood products. From wood with heart rot of a diameter of 50 mm and more, square-edged sawn timber of small sizes (pallets) can be obtained.

Keywords: wood, heart rot, processing, plywood, rounded logs, defects.

References
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