Table of contents
About Current Situation in Production of Silicate Wall Materials in Russia
A.A. SEMYONOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Manager (email@example.com)
«GS-Expert», OOO (18, office 207, the 1st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Lane, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)
The situation analysis of production of wall silicate products as of the first half of 2016 is presented. It is noted, as a disturbing trend, not only the significant reduction in production
output but also reduction in the number of operating enterprises of the industry. It is also revealed that in 2015–2016 silicate wall materials show the most serious decrease in produc
tion rates among the single-piece wall materials. The most significant drop in production volumes is recorded in the Northern Caucasus, Ural, and Siberia Federal Districts. In January–
June of 2016 the growth in the output of silicate wall materials was observed only at three factories from 67 really operating.
Keywords: statistics, forecast, silicate brick, silicate wall materials.
1. Semenov A.A. The Analysis of State of the Russian
Silicate Brick Market. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 4–5. (In Russian).
2. Socio-Economic Situation of Russia. 2015”, Federal
State Statistics Service, No. IM-04-1/30-SD, Moscow,
3. Semyonov A.A. Prospects of Development of
Construction Complex and Building Materials Industry
in 2016. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2016. No. 1–2, pp. 4–6. (In Russian).
Development of Optimal Compositions of Silicate Concretes
with the Use of Local Raw Resources
M.A. GONCHAROVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org); A.N. IVASHKIN, Engineer, V.V. SIMBAEV, Engineer
Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, 398600, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)
Results of the optimization of compositions of silicate concrete of autoclave hardening are presented. The effect of adding metallurgical production waste, converter slag, on the mold
ing properties of the silicate mixture, green strength, as well as on the strength and durability of ready-made brick has been studied. The change in color of silicate materials with time
as well as the reduction in surface strength is observed. Methods for strengthening and decorating ready-made products of silicate concrete of autoclave hardening are proposed.
Keywords: silicate concrete, surface coloring, converter slag, surface strengthening.
1. Goncharova M. A., Chernyshov E. M. Forming of systems
of curing of composites on the basis of technogenic
raw materials. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction].
2014. No. 12, pp. 19–22. (In Russian).
2. Chernyshov E. M., Potamoshneva N.D. Materialovedenie
i tekhnologiya avtoklavnykh betonov na osnove
khvostov obogashcheniya zhelezistykh kvartsitov
[Materialovedeniye and technology of autoclave concrete
on the basis of tails of enrichment of ferruterous quartzites].
Voronezh: VGASU, 2004. 160 p.
3. Goncharova M.A., Korvyakov F.N. Identification of the
mechanism of participation of converter slags in structurization
of effective construction composites. Vestnik
Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturnostroitel’nogo
universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura.
2014. No. 36 (55), pp. 54–58. (In Russian).
4. Goncharova M.A., Kashirina N.A. Forecasting of the
knitting properties of converter slags by means of the
analysis of their chemical composition. Actualscience.
2016. V. 2. No. 7, pp. 58–59. (In Russian).
5. Babkov V.V., Samofeev N.S., Chuykin A.E. A silicate brick
in external walls of buildings: analysis of a condition, forecast
of durability and methods of its increase. Inzhenernostroitel’nyi
zhurnal. 2011. No. 8, pp. 35–40. (In Russian).
6. Knatko M.V., Gorshkov A.S., Rymkevich P.P. Laboratory
and natural researches of durability (operational
service life) of a wall design from an autoclave gas concrete
with a facing layer from a silicate brick. Inzhenernostroitel’nyi
zhurnal. 2009. No. 8, pp. 20–26. (In Russian).
7. Goncharova M. A., Ivashkin A. N., Kashirskaya O. A. A quality
evaluation of a front surface of products from multicomponent
decorative concrete. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing
construction]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 19–22. (In Russian).
Lime and Its Influence on Technical Re-Equipment of Silicate Brick Factories
G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer (email@example.com)
Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation)
Due to the increasing competition at the market of wall materials manufactures, the problems of improving the quality of products can’t be solved without re-equipment of factories.
Replacement of operational equipment which don’t provide an adequate level of contemporary technology and selection of the new import equipment widely presented at the mar
ket, raise the problem of compatibility with local materials, one of which is lime. Replacement of the press equipment only which in turn needs the molding mixture of stable com
position can’t be considered as re-equipment. The analysis and results of the study of the influence of quick-slaking lime on the equipment operation in the processing chain are
presented. Data on the influence of lime activity, a binder and their content in the mixture on the quality of molding mixture and conditions of mixing in the course of mixture prepa
ration are presented. The correct placement of modern equipment in the processing chain with due regard for the quality of raw components is the key to successful operation of
the entire production.
Keywords: silicate brick, lime activity, lime-silica binder, mills.
1. Semenov A.A. Silicate Wall Materials Market and
Problems of Providing Industry with Raw Materials.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015.
No. 12, pp. 40–43. (In Russian).
2. Sulima-Grudzinskiy A.V. Some Actual Problems in the
Field of Equipment for Silicate Products Manufacture.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015.
No. 3, pp. 53–62. (In Russian).
3. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Problems of
Replacement of Traditional Technology of Silicate Brick
with Preparation of a Lime-Siliceous Binder by Direct
Technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2013. No. 9, pp. 14–18. (In Russian).
4. Klare M., Ivanov A.K. Application of modular wall elements
for optimization of productions. Stroitel’nye Materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).
5. Kuznetsova G.V. Features of a grinding limy and silicic knitting
in production of silicate materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 14–17. (In Russian).
6. Klare D. Equipment of the AAC-Concept GmbH company
for production of a silicate brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 25. (In Russian).
7. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Influence of Components
of a Lime-Siliceous Binder on Cohesion of Molding
Material for Pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2012. No. 12, pp. 69–72. (In Russian).
8. Khavkin L.M. Tekhnologiya silikatnogo kirpicha [Technology
of a silicate brick]. Moscow: Ekolit. 2011. 384 p.
9. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Influence of a
Corrective Additive on Properties of a Lime-Siliceous
Binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2013. No. 12, pp. 12–14. (In Russian).
10. Kuznetsova G.V. Method for Pressing of Silicate Brick
and Method for Defining Its Raw Strength. Stroitel’nye
Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 12,
pp. 50–54. (In Russian).
Filtering Oil in Presses for the Production of Silicate Bricks
I.A. GALEEV, General Director
OOO «Invest-Tekhnologiya» (20, structure П, Nakhimova Street, 454119, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation)
Main standards (in force and invalid) which regulate the classification of the oil purity – ISO 4406 (1999) and NAS 1638 are considered. Differences of each class of purity are shown.
Principles of the specification of oil purity for hydro-systems of presses depending on the used hydraulic components are described. Recommendations of the leading companies in the
field of hydraulic systems are presented; differences of the oil filtration system of VIKING presses are shown.
Keywords: hydraulic press, oil purity, axial-piston press, hydraulic filter, oil filtration.
1. Sveshnikov V.K. Hidroequipment. Book 3. Auxiliary elements
of the hydraulic drive: nomenclature, characteristics,
sizes, interchangeability. M. Publishing center
«Tekhinform» MAI. 2003. 445 p.
LASCO Delivers Individual Manufacturing Equipment for Silicate Bricks and Large-Format Blocks to Partners in Russia
Rod Mixer of SHL Series in Silicate Production
, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Director, G,Ya. SHAEVICH
, Executive Director, A.V. RUKAVITSYN
, Deputy Director,
, Head of Department, A.V. ALBUTOV
, Engineer ASUTP; Yu.M. SHERSTOBITOV
, Chief Engineer
Institute of New Technologies and Automation of Building Materials Industry («INTA-STROY» Ltd.)
(100, 1st Putevaya Street, 644113 Omsk Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Investment Industry» ( 16 Promyshlennaya Street, Stroitel Settlement, Tambov District, Tambov Oblast, Russian Federation)
It is shown that the rod mixers are efficient equipment for the technology of silicate mass preparation. The engineering scheme and principle of operation of the new design of the rod
mixer SHL 506 from the series developed by specialists of OOO “INTA-STORY” are considered. An example of the unit and successful operation of this mixer in the technological line of
the operating enterprise manufacturing the silicate brick is given.
Keywords: silicate brick, volume coloring, silicate mass, rod mixer, energy saving, production ecology, protection of labor.
1. Shlegel’ I.F., Grishin P.G., Miroshnikov V.E. Mixer rod
ShL-313. 1. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2002. No. 7, pp. 32–33. (In Russian).
2. Vahnin M.P., Anishhenko A.A. Proizvodstvo silikatnogo kirpicha
[Production of a silicate brick]. Moscow. 1989, 199 p.
3. Hvostenkov S.I., Vintajkin V.P., Koshlaev V.I.,
Kupershmidt M.Je. The inclined rod mixer for processing
of silicate masses. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 1981. No. 6, pp. 13–14. (In Russian).
Bearing Capacity of Masonry Walls Made of Large-Size Silicate Blocks under Compression
V.N. DERKACH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org), O.G. DEMCHUK, Engineer
Branch office of the RUE «Institute BelNIIS» – Scientific-Technical Center (Republic of Belarus, 224023, Brest, Moskovskaya str., 267/2)
The results of experimental studies of samples of block masonry made of silicate tongue-and-groove blocks with thin mortar seams under compression are presented. On the basis of
experimental studies, features of the deformation and destruction of masonries have been revealed; values of the strength of the block masonry under compression and its deformation
characteristics have been obtained. On the basis of numerical studies, the influence of technology of mortar seams execution on the strength characteristics of the masonry has been
revealed. Features of the operation of bearing masonry walls made of large-size silicate blocks under compression are shown. The results of numerical studies of the wall to hollow-core
overlap node are presented; the values of compliance coefficients of this node depending on the level of compressing deformations in the wall have been established. Proposals for cal-
culation of bearing walls made of large-size tongue-and-groove silicate blocks with thin layer seams are presented.
Keywords: block masonry, silicate blocks, thin layer mortar seams, strength under compression, modulus of deformation, bearing walls
1. Kalksandstein. Planungshandbuch. Planung, Konstruktion,
Ausfurung. Hannover: Bundesverband Kalksteinindustrie.
2014. 368 p.
2. Derkach V.N., Naichuk A.Ya Pilot studies of durability of
a stone laying from tongue-and-groove silicate blocks.
Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 6,
pp. 77–82. (In Russian).
3. Mojsilovi N.A. Discussion of masonry characteristics
derived from compression tests. Proceedings of the 10th
Canadian Masonry Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada.
June 8–12, 2005. Calgary: University of Calgary,
Department of Civil Engineering. 2005. pp. 242–250.
4. Schubert P. Strength properties of masonry. Proc. of the
11th Int. Brick/Block Masonry Conf. Shanghai: Tongij
University. 1997. Vol. 1. pp. 191-202.
5. Drobiec L., Jasinski R., Piekarczuk. Konstrukcje Murowe
wedlug Eurokodu 6 i norm zwiazanych. Warszawa:
Wydawnictwo naukowe PWN. 2013. 692 p.
6. Onishchik L.I. Kamennye konstruktsii [Stone designs].
Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1939. 208 p.
7. Eurocode 6: Bemessung und Konstruktion von
Mauerwerksbauten. Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Regeln für
bewehrtes und unbewehrtes Mauerwerk: ЕN 1996-1-1:2005.
Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Normung. 2005. 127 p.
8. Hendry A.W. Structural masonry. London: MacMillan
Education Ltd. 1990. 289 р.
Perspectives of Expanding Nomenclature of Silicate Materials of Autoclave Hardening
A.N. VOLODCHENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering),
V.S. LESOVIK, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences
Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, 308012 Belgorod, Russian Federation)
The possibility to expand the traditional raw material base of autoclave silicate materials due to clay rocks of unfinished stage of mineralization, which are widespread in the Russian
Federation and in many countries of the world as well as in large quantities get in the zone of mining operations when extracting minerals, has been established. The use of these rocks
makes it possible to control the processes of structure formation of autoclave materials of a new generation. In this case, new formations of different compositions and morphology,
which form cementing compounds of optimal composition that ensures high physical-mechanical properties of products, are synthesized. The nomenclature of efficient autoclave prod
ucts including wall, finishing, structural-heat insulating, heat insulating, and acoustic materials is proposed.
Keywords: clay rocks, raw base, autoclave silicate materials.
1. Bozhenov P.I. Kompleksnoe ispol’zovanie mineral’nogo
syr’ja i jekologija [Complex use of mineral raw materials
and ecology]. Moscow: ACB, 1994. 264 p. (In Russian).
2. Bazhenov Y.M., Alimov L.A., Voronin V.V. Struktura i
svoystva betonov s nanomodifikatorami na osnove tekhnogennykh
otkhodov [Structure and properties of concrete
with nanomodifiers based on man-made waste].
Moscow: MGSU, 2013. 203 p. (In Russian).
3. Lesovik V.S., Frolova M.A., Ayzenshtadt A.M. Surface
Activity of Rocks // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 71–73. (In Russian).
4. Chernyshov E.M., Fedin A.A., Potamoshneva N.D, Kuhtin
Ju.A. Gazosilikata: modern a flexible technology materials
and products // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2007. No. 4, pp. 4–9. (In Russian).
5. Volodchenko A.N., Lesovik V.S. Silicate materials with autoclave
is-use of nanosized materials. Stroitel’nye materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 11, pp. 42–44. (In Russian).
6. Lesovik V.S. Geonika (Geomimetika). Examples of implementation
of the builder-rated materials science: a
monograph. 2nd ed. Belgorod: BDTU, 2016. 287 p.
7. Strokova V.V., Sumin A.V., Nelyubova V.V., Shapovalov
N.A. The modified binder using nanostructured mineral
component. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo
tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2015.
No. 3, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).
8. Volodchenko A.N., Lesovik V.S. The rheological properties
of gas concrete mixture on the basis of non-traditional
raw materials. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo
tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2012.
No. 3, pp. 45–48. (In Russian).
9. Bozhenov P.I. Tekhnologiya avtoklavnykh materialov
[Technology autoclave materials]. Moscow: Stroyizdat,
1978. 368 p. (In Russian)
10. Hvostenkov S.I. About the chemistry of the process of
interaction in the system Ca(OH)2–SiO2–H2O in a hydrothermal
synthesis. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2008. No. 5, pp. 76–81. (In Russian).
11. Strokova V.V., Vezentsev A.I., Kolesnikov D.A.,
Shimanskaya M.S. Properties of synthetic nano-tubular
Hydrosilicates. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo
tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2010.
No. 4, pp. 30–34. (In Russian).
12. Zhernovsky I.V., Nelyubova V.V., Cherevatova A.V.,
Strokova V.V. Features of the phase formation in the system
CaO–SiO2–H2O in the presence of nanostructured
modifier. Stroitel’nye materially [Construction Materials].
2009. No. 11, pр. 100–102. (In Russian).
Concepts and Substantiations of Nano-Modification Technology of Building Com-posites Structures.
Part 5. Efficient Micro-, Nano-Modification of Hydrothermal-Synthesis Hardening Systems
and Structure of Silicate Stone (Criteria and Conditions)
E.M. CHERNYSHEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAAСS (email@example.com),
V.A. POPOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), O.V. ARTAMONOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)
Problems of the efficiency of micro-, nano-modification of the hydrothermal-synthesis hardening system and the structure of silicate stone are considered. The interconnected and joint
regular manifestation of actions of nano-technological principles “top – down” and “bottom – up” during the structure formation of silicate autoclaved materials is shown. Kinetic char
acteristics of the heterogenic process of formation of the hydrothermal-synthesis hardening depending on technological factors are studied and quantitative assessed. The comparative
analysis of the efficiency of micro- and nano-modifying process of structure formation, when regulating main technological factors, shows that at rational combinations and values of
factors related to the principle “top – down” and “bottom – up”, the synthesis of cementing substances can be accelerated by two-three times. The systematics of means from the
“nano” arsenal for possible improving the efficiency of processes of silicate stone structure formation according to criteria Е, τ, R is presented.
Keywords: hydrothermal-synthesis system of hardening, micro- and nano-modification, efficiency of structure modification.
1. Chernyshov E.M. Laws of development of the autoclave
structure of materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 1992. No. 1, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
2. Chernyshov E.M., Popov V.A. Autoclave curing silicate
materials synthesis: development of spatial and
geometric concepts of structure. Dostizheniya stroitel’nogo
materialovedeniya [Construction Materials
Achievements]. SPb.: OOO «Izd-vo OM-Press». 2004.
3. Popov V.A., Chernyshov E.M. Features nanomodifitsirovaniya
hydrothermal structures of fusion hardening
systems in resistance management problems destruction
autoclave concrete. Fracture mechanics of concrete, reinforced
concrete and other construction materials: A collection
of articles based on VII International scientific conference.
Voronezh: Voronezhskiy GASU. 2013. Vol. 1,
pp. 246–251. (In Russian).
4. Chernyshov E.M. Nanotechnology research building
composites: general judgment, the main directions and
results. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: nauchnyi Internetzhurnal.
2009. No. 1, pp. 45–59. http://www.nanobuild.
ru/magazine/nb/Nanobuild_1_2009.pdf. (In Russian).
5. Artamonova O.V., Chernyshov E.M. Concepts and bases
of technologies of nanomodification of building composite
structures. Part 1. General problems of fundamentality,
main direction of investigations and developments.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013.
No. 7, pp. 82–95. (In Russian).
6. Chernyshov E.M., Artamonova O.V., Slavcheva G.S.
Conceptions and bases of nano-modification technologies
of building composites structures. Part 2: On the
problem of conceptual models of nano-modifying the
structure. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2014. No. 4, pp. 73–84. (In Russian).
7. Chernyshov E.M., Artamonovа O.V., Slavcheva G.S.
Concepts and technology base nanomodification of structures
of building composites. Part 3. Effective nanomodification of
systems and structures of cement hardening cement stone
(criteria and conditions). Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2015. No. 10, pp. 54–64. (In Russian).
8. Chernyshov E.M., Potamoshneva N.D., Artamonovа
O.V. Concepts and substantiations of nano-modification
technology of building com-posites structures.
Part 4. Sol-gel technology of nano-, micro-disperse crystals
of portlandite for contact-condensation compaction
of structures of portlandite stone and composites on its
base Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2015. No. 11, pp. 65–74. (In Russian).
9. Melihov I.V. Fiziko-khimicheskaya evolyutsiya tverdogo
veshchestva [Physico-chemical evolution of the solid].
Moscow: BINOM. Laboratorija znanij. 2009. 309 p.
10. Tretyakov Y.D., Oleynikov N.N., Gudilin E.A.,
Vertegel A.A., Baranov A.N. Self-organization in physical
and chemical systems to the creation of new materials.
Neorganicheskie materialy. 1994. Vol. 30. No. 3,
pp. 277–290. (In Russian).
11. Tretyakov Y.D., Putlyaev V.I. Vvedenie v khimiyu
tverdofaznykh materialov [Introduction to the chemistry
of solid-phase materials]. Moscow: MGU. 2006. 400 p.
12. Hodakov G.S. Fizika izmel’cheniya [Grinding physics].
Moscow: Nauka. 1972. 308 p.
13. Avvakumov E.G. Mekhanokhimicheskie metody aktivatsii
khimicheskikh protsessov [Mechanochemical methods
of activation of chemical processes]. Moscow: Nauka.
1991. 263 p.
14. Bokiy G.B. Kristallokhimiya [Crystal chemistry].
Moscow: Nauka. 1971. 400 p.
15. Belov N.V. Ocherki po strukturnoi mineralogii [Essays on
structural mineralogy]. Moscow: Nedra. 1976. 344 p.
16. Oleynikov N.N. Effect topochemical memory: the nature
and role in the synthesis of solid-phase compounds and
materials. Rossiyskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal. 1995. Vol. 39.
No. 2, pp. 85–94. (In Russian).
17. Radushkevich L.V. Attempts statistical description of
porous media. The main problems of the theory of physical
adsorption: Proceedings of the First All-Union Conference
on theoretical issues adsorption. Moscow: Nauka.1970,
Accounting of Influence of Carbonization when Calculating Long-Term Deformability of Cellular Concrete Bending Structures
V.P. VYLEGZHANIN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com);
2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Director (firstname.lastname@example.org);
3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com);
4, Engineer, Executive Director(firstname.lastname@example.org)
1 Center of Cellular Concretes (1/3, Off. 308 Zodchego Rossi Street, 191023 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)
2 Complex Institute named after Kh.I. Ibragimov of the Russian Academy of Sciences (21a, Staropromyslovskoye Shosse, Grozny,
Chechen Republic, Russian Federation)
3 Grozny State Oil Technical University named after acad. M.D. Millionshchikov (100 Ordzhonikidze Square, Grozny, Chechen Republic
364051, Russian Federation)
4 National Association of Autoclave Gas Concrete Manufactures (40a, Oktyabrskaya Embankment, 193091 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)
Theoretical and experimental studies for revealing the factor of influence of natural carbonization (under the impact of atmospheric carbon dioxide) on the long-term deformability of
bending reinforced concrete elements made of gas-ash concrete of autoclave hardening are presented. It is established that the main reason for increasing long-term deflections of car
bonized bending elements comparing with non-carbonized ones is a significant influence of the carbonization factor on the value of concrete creep in the compressed zone. It is shown
that in the case of the long-term loading the method of Professor I.I. Ulitsky based on the theory of aging can be used for determining deflections of cellular concrete bending elements
at any moment of time and predicting their maximum values with due regard for carbonization, if the values of creep characteristics obtained on concrete prisms are known. It is recom
mended to take into account the influence of natural carbonization when calculating the long-term deformability of cellular concrete bending elements by adopting the value of the fac
tor ν, characterizing the concrete creep in the compressed zone, as equal to 0.1 instead of 0.2 at relative humidity of the environment of 40–75%.
Keywords: autoclave cellular concrete, carbon dioxide, carbonization, creep, bending elements, long-term deformability.
1. Makarichev V.V., Mileikovskaya K.M. Issledovanie
armirovannykh konstruktsii iz yacheistykh betonov [The
study reinforced structures of cellular concrete]. Moscow:
Gosstroyizdat. 1963. 99 p.
2. Silaenkov E.S. Dolgovechnost’ izdelii iz yacheistykh
betonov [Durability of products from cellular concrete].
Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1986. 176 p.
3. Silaenkov E.S., Bataev D.K.-S., Mazhiev Kh.N.,
Gaziev M.A. Povyshenie dolgovechnosti konstruktsii i
izdelii iz melkozernistykh yacheistykh betonov pri
ekspluatatsionnykh vozdeistviyakh [Increasing the
durability of structures and products from fine-grained
porous concrete with performance impacts]. Grozniy.
2015. 355 p.
4. Gaziev M.A., Kleshchev F.I. Opyt dlitel’noi ekspluatatsii
sovmeshchennykh pokrytii iz yacheistobetonnykh plit v
gorode Sverdlovske. V kn.: Proizvodstvo i primenenie
yacheistykh betonov v zhilishchno-grazhdanskom
stroitel’stve [Experience of prolonged use of combined
coatings of porous concrete slabs in the city of Sverdlovsk.
In the book: The production and use of cellular concrete
in housing and civil construction]. Leningrad. 1986,
5. Gaziev M.A. Metodika opredeleniya deformatsii
polzuchesti avtoklavnykh yacheistykh betonov s uchetom
ikh stareniya ot deistviya uglekislogo gaza. V kn.:
Dolgovechnost’ konstruktsii iz avtoklavnykh betonov
[Method for determining creep strain autoclaved aerated
concrete in view of their aging from the effects of carbon
dioxide. In the book: The durability of structures made of
autoclaved concrete]. Tallin. 1984. Part I, pp. 167–169.
6. Prokopovich I.E., Zedgenidze V.A. Prikladnaya teoriya
polzuchesti [Applied theory of creep]. Moscow:
Stroyizdat. 1980. 210 p.
7. Ulitskiy I.I. Teoriya i raschet zhelezobetonnykh
sterzhnevykh konstruktsii s uchetom dlitel’nykh
protsessov [Theory and calculation of reinforced concrete
beam structures, taking into account long-term processes].
Kiev: Budivel’nik. 1967. 346 p.
8. Vishnevetskii G.D. Osnovy rascheta elementov
konstruktsii na polzuchest’ [Bases for design of structural
elements creep]. Leningrad: LISI. 1980. 82 p.
9. Kalnais A.A., Teters G.A., Shkerbelis K.K. Issledovanie
prochnosti i deformativnosti konstruktivnogo gazobetona.
V kn.: Issledovaniya po betonu i zhelezobetonu
[Investigation of strength and deformability constructive
aerated. In the book: Studies on concrete and reinforced
concrete]. Riga. 1959. Vol. 4, pp. 243–261.
10. Makarichev V.V., Trambovetskii V.P. K voprosu o
prochnosti yacheistogo betona. V kn.: Yacheistye betony
[On the issue of cellular concrete strength. In the book:
Cellular concrete]. Leningrad. 1968. Vol. 1, pp. 43–52.
11. Konev Yu.S., Pinsker V.A. Deformativnye osobennosti
gazobetonnykh izgibaemykh elementov pri kratkovremennom
nagruzhenii. V kn.: Yacheistye betony
[Deformability especially aerated concrete bent elements
with short-term loading. In the book: Cellular concrete].
Leningrad. 1971. Vol. 4, pp. 46–49.
12. Konev Yu.S. The study of deformation properties of
flexible structures made of aerated concrete. Cand. Diss.
(Engineering). Leningrad. 1972. 23 p.
13. Aleksandrovskiy S.V. Normirovanie polzuchesti
yacheistykh betonov. V kn.: Industrial’nye konstruktsii iz
yacheistykh betonov i tekhnologiya ikh izgotovleniya
[Rationing creep of cellular concrete. In the book: The
industrial structure of cellular concrete and the
technology of their production]. Moscow: NIIZhB.
1979, pp. 130–141.
Foaming Agents from Proteins of Microbial Synthesis for Manufacturing Cellular Concretes
V.D. CHERKASOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding member of RAACS (email@example.com),
1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); Yu.M. BAZhENOV2
, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (firstname.lastname@example.org)
1 N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University (68, Bolshevistskaya Street, Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
The problem of receiving the key component of foam concretes production – a foaming agent – is considered. Two approaches to its solution are proposed. The first one is the use of
mycelial waste of the bio-chemical industry containing large amounts of proteins of a microbic synthesis. Waste of antibiotics production is used as mycelia waste. The second one is a
synthesis of proteins with the help of microorganisms on the food industry waste. These wastes are curd and cheese whey, distillery stillage. For enrichment of these wastes with pro
teins, microorganisms were selected and conditions of their cultivation on wastes were developed. The base of the foaming agent is a protein hydrolysate of microbic synthesis.
Conditions of the protein hydrolysis are shown. Properties of foaming agents have been studied. Foam expansion ratio of these foaming agents is 18–23, water segregation per an hour
– 0%, the foam stability factor in the cement mortar – 0.9–0.92. The quality of the developed foaming agents is not inferior to the existing analogues, but cheaper. Compositions of
foam concretes on the basis of these foaming agents have been developed, and their properties have been investigated. It is established that qualities of foam concretes on the basis of
foaming agents obtained are not inferior to foam concretes produced on the basis of the foaming agent “Penostrom”.
Keywords: foaming agent, microbic protein, hydrolysis, foam concrete.
1. Tikhomirov V.K. Peny. Teoriya i praktika ikh polucheniya
i razrusheniya [Foams. Theory and practice of their receiving
and destruction]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1983. 263 p.
2. Bekker Z.E. Fiziologiya i biokhimiya [Physiology and
biochemistry]. Moscow: Publ. of Moscow state University
M.V. Lomonosov. 1986. 227 p.
3. Buzulukov V.I., Cherkasov V.D., Emel’yanov A.I.,
Syrkina N.P., Gartseva S.O. The proteinaceous converter
for foam concretes. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2013.
No 7, pp. 23–27. (In Russian).
4. Zalashko M.V. Biotekhnologiya pererabotki molochnoi
syvorotki [Bio-technology of processing of whey].
Moscow: Agropromizdat. 1990. 192 p.
5. Yarovenko V.L. Tekhnologiya spirta [Technology of alcohol].
Moscow: Kolos. 2002. 465 p.
6. Patent RF 2141930. Sposob prigotovleniya belkovogo penoobra-
zovatelya [Way of preparation of proteinaceous
frother]. Solomatov V.I., Cherkasov V.D., Buzulukov
V.I. Declared 21.04.1998. Published 27.11.1999.
Bulletin No. 21. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2162070. Penoobrazovatel’ [Foamer] Cherkasov
V.D., Buzulukov V.I., Kiselev E.V., Groshev V.M.
Declared 18.08.1999. Published 20.01.2001. Bulletin
No. 2. (In Russian).
8. Komarov V.I., Lebedev E.I., Manuilova T.A. Problem of use
of secondary resources of branches of food and processing
industry and their influence on environment. Pishchevaya
promyshlennost’. 1998. No. 2, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
9. Nenaidenko G.A., Zhurba O.S., Shereverov V.D. Distillery
grains as organic fertilizer. Likerovodochnoe proizvodstvo i
vinodelie. 2008. No. 7, pp. 12–15. (In Russian).
An Algorithm of Designing of Cement Foam Concretes Structure According to the Complex of Preset Properties
G.S. SLAVCHEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com),
E.M. CHERNYSHOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)
A procedure of designing of the structure of foam concretes which is based on the classical methodology of setting and solution of optimization problems is proposed. The purpose of
the design is to form the foam concrete structure providing the formation of the set level of structural properties in the technological cycle and maximally efficient their realization
under operational impacts. Examples of the algorithms developed for solving the task of foam concrete designing for structural (1200–1600 kg/m
3) and structural heat-insulating
3) foam concretes of minimal deformability with normalized characteristics of density, strength in the dry and wet states at preset values of characteristics of initial
components are presented. The use of developed algorithms makes it possible to substantiate the decisions on parameters of the composition and structure of various foam con
cretes on the basis of natural and anthropogenic raw components.
Keywords: foam concrete, structure design, anthropogenic raw material, natural raw material.
1. Slavcheva G.S., Kotova K.S. Questions of increase of efficiency
application foam concrete in the building.
Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015.
No. 8, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
2. Petukhov O.A., Morozov A.V., Petukhova E.O.
Modelirovanie: sistemnoe, imitatsionnoe, analiticheskoe
[Modeling: system, imitating, analytical]. Saint-
Petersburg: SZTU. 2008. 288 p.
3. Nogin V.D., Protod’yakonov I.O., Evlampiev I.I. Osnovy
teorii optimizatsii [Fundamentals of optimization theory]
Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1986. 384 p.
4. Trusov P.V. Vvedenie v matematicheskoe modelirovanie
[Introduction to mathematical modeling]. Moscow:
Logos. 2005. 440 p.
5. Bazhenov Yu.M., Vorob’ev V.A., Ilyukhin A.V., Kivrin
V.K., Popov V.P. Komp’yuternoe materialovedenie
stroitel’nykh kompozitnykh materialov [Computer building
materials composite materials]. M.: Izd-vo Rossiiskoi
inzhenernoi akademii. 2006. 256 p.
6. Voznesenskiy V.A., Lyashenko T.V. Prescription and
technological fields in the material properties of building
materials science computer Stroitel’nye Materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 7, pp. 8–11.
7. Danilov A.M., Gar’kina I.A. Teoriya sistem:
matematicheskie metody stroitel’nogo materialovedeniya
[Systems theory: mathematical methods of building materials].
Penza: PGUAS. 2008. 239 p.
8. Vorob’ev V.A., Vasil’ev Yu.E., Marsov V.I., Bokarev E.I.
Opportunities and prospects of computer modeling of
building composite materials. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe
stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 3, pp. 62–63. (In Russian).
9. Shinkevich E.S., Chernyshov E.M., Lutskin E.S.,
Tymnyak A.B. Multi-criteria optimization of the compo-
sition and properties of activated lime-siliceous composites.
Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi. 2013. No. 2, pp. 33–37.
10. Belov V.V., Bobryshev A.N., Erofeev V.T., Obraztsov I.V.,
Bobryshev A.A. Komp’yuternoe modelirovanie i optimizirovanie
sostavov kompozitsionnykh stroitel’nykh
materialov [Computer modeling and optimization of
formulations of composite building materials] Moscow:
ACB. 2015. 263 p.
11. Volchenko E.Yu. Using mathematical methods and computer
models for optimize the formulation of composite
materials. Vestnik Volzhskogo instituta ekonomiki, pedagogiki
i prava. 2015. No. 1, pp. 11–16. (In Russian).
12. Slavcheva G.S., Novikov M.V., Chernyshov E.M.
Changing the mechanical properties of porous concrete
in time. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-
stroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i
arkhitektura. 2008. No. 10, pp. 224–230. (In Russian).
13. Slavcheva G.S. Operating deformability and radiometric
characteristics of porous cement concrete as a function of
their structure. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo
Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2008. No. 1, pp. 81–87.
14. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S Control over operational
deformability and crack resistance of macro-porous
(cellular) concretes: context of problem and issues of
theory. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2014. No. 1–2, pp. 105–112. (In Russian).
15. Slavcheva G.S. Structural factors provide frost cement
foam concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2015. No. 9, pp. 52–56. (In Russian).
The Use of Micro-Disperse Additives for Accelerating Cement Hardening
Yu.R. KRIVOBORODOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering),
A.A. ELENOVA, Specialist (email@example.com)
Dmitry Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (20, Geroev Panfilovtsev Street, 125480 Moscow, Russian Federation)
Results of the influence of artificially synthesized micro-disperse additives of crystalline hydrates on the basis of calcium sulfoaluminetes on the properties of cement stone are present
ed. The efficiency of using the rotary-pulsation apparatus (RPA) as an activator-homogenizer for obtaining micro-disperse additives is revealed. The possibility of accelerating the hard
ening of cement stone by means of introducing micro-disperse additives in its composition is shown. It is established that in the presence of micro-disperse additives of crystalline
hydrates in cement stone, the phase composition of hydrate new formations changes in the direction of increasing the amount of calcium hydro-silicates. This fact is confirmed by
increasing the degree of cement hydration, the amount of bound water in all periods of stone hardening. It is proposed to use micro-disperse additives, which play the role of seeds for
crystallization of ettringite and calcium hydro-silicates, for increasing the strength of cement stone at early stages of hardening.
Keywords: cement, hydration, hardening, additives, strength.
1. Patent RF 2332388. Vysokoprochnyi beton [Highstrength
concrete]. Svatovskaya L.B., Solov’eva V.A.,
Stepanova I.V., Sycheva A.N., Korobov N.V., Starchukov
D.S.; Declared 11.12.2006. Published 27.08.08.
Bulletin No. 24. (In Russian).
2. Usherov-Marshak A.V. Evaluation of the effect of chemical
and mineral admixtures on the early stages of cement
hydration. Neorganicheskie materialy. 2004. No. 8 (40),
pp. 1014–1019. (In Russian).
3. Kramar L.Ya., Trofimov B.Ya., Gamalii E.A., Chernykh
T.N., Zimich V.V. Modifikatory tsementnykh betonov
i rastvorov (tekhnicheskie kharakteristiki i mekhanizm
deistviya) [Modifiers cement concrete and grout
(technical characteristics and mechanism of action]
Chelyabinsk: Iskra Profi, 2012. 202 p.
4. Kurdovskii V.S. Khimiya сementa i betona [Cement and
concrete chemistry] Krakov: Assotsiatsiya Proizvoditelei
Tsementa. 2010. 728 р. (In Russian).
5. Lyudvig Kh.-M., Dressel’ D. Synthetic calcium hydrosilicates
in precast concrete structures. Mezhdunarodnoe betonnoe
proizvodstvo. 2011. No. 5, pp. 42–46. (In Russian).
6. Talero R., Rahhal V. Influence of «aluminic» pozzolans,
quartz and gypsum additives on Portland cement hydration.
Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on
the Chemistry of Cement. Montreal. 2007, pp. 22–35.
7. Scrivener K.L., Nonat A. Hydration of cementitious materials
– present and future. Cement and Concrete
Research. 2011. V.41. No. 7, pp. 641–650.
8. Dmitriev A.M., Kuznetsova T.V., Yudovich B.E.,
Zapol’skii A.K. Alloying hydration of cement. Сement.
1983. No. 11, pp. 4–6. (In Russian).
9. Kouznetsova T.V., Krivoborodov Y.R., Samchenko S.V.,
Burlov I.Y. Special cements on base sulphoaluminate
clinker. 13th International Congress on the Chemistry of
Cement (ICCC). Madrid, Spain, 2011, pp. 198.1–198.6.
10. Samchenko S.V., Zorin D.A., Borisenkova I.V. Influence
of dispersion aluminous slag and sulfoaluminate clinker
the formation of structure cement stone. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya
silikatov. 2011. No. 2 (8), pp. 12–14. (In Russian).
11. Guvalov A.A., Abbasova S.I., Kuznetsova T.V. Improved
high-strength concrete structure using modifiers.
Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015.
No. 12, pp. 78–81. (In Russian).
Fine Disperse-Reinforced Concretes on the Basis of Complex Modifying Additives
T.A. NIZINA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org),
2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com), A.S. BALYKOV1
1 National Research Mordovia State University (68, Bolshevistskaya Street, Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University (29, Polytechnicheskaya Street, Saint Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation)
Results of the study of physical-mechanical characteristics of disperse-reinforced fine concretes with poly-functional modifying additives are presented. Methods for complex disperse
reinforcement of fine concretes with non-metallic fiber of different types are proposed; they make it possible to directionally form the structure of such composites at various scale lev
els. The influence of fibers of three types has been studied. They are polypropylene multifilament and polyacrylonitrile synthetic specially processed fibers with the cutting length of
12 mm, as well as basalt microfiber modified with astralenes with the length of 100–500 microns. As modifying additives, micro-silica condensed and compacted, high active metaka
olin, and a hydro-isolating additive in the concrete mix are used. An analysis of the study of the saturated D-optimal plan is made with the help of three-angle diagrams of Gibbs-
Rosebom built according to polynomial models of “mix I, mix II, technology-properties” types which make it possible to trace the influence of 6 variable factors in the two-dimensional
space The feasibility of the complex use of modifying additives and disperse fibers, including nano-modified, for improving the properties of fine concretes is substantiated.
Compositions with the best complex of elastic-strength characteristics are identified.
Keywords: disperse-reinforced fine concrete, polyfunctional additive, disperse fiber, synthetic fibers.
1. Artamonova O.V. Building nanomaterials: trends and
prospects. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo
arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Fizikokhimicheskie
problemy i vysokie tekhnologii stroitel’nogo
mate-rialovedeniya. 2013. Vol. 6, pp. 13–23. (In Russian).
2. Figovsky O.L., Beilin D.A., Ponomarev A.N. Successful
implementation of nanotechnologies in building materials.
Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve. 2012. No. 3, pp. 6–21.
3. Pukharenko Yu.V., Aubakirova I.U., Nikitin V.A.,
Staroverov V.D. Structure and properties of nano-modified
cement systems. International Con-gress «Science and
Innovation in Construction «SIB-2008». Modern problems
of building materials and technologies. Voronezh. 2008.
Vol. 1. Book. 2, pp. 424–429. (In Russian).
4. Shames A.I., Katz E.A., Panich A.M., Mogilyansky D.,
Mogilko E., Grinblat J., Belousov V.P, Belousova I.M.,
Ponomarev A.N. Structural and magnetic resonance
study of astralen nanoparticles. Diamond & Related
Materials. 2008. Vol. 18. Iss. 2-3, pp. 505–510.
5. Ponomarev A.N. Nanoconcrete: Conception and problems.
Synergism of nanostructuring cement binders and
reinforcing fibers. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2007. No. 6, pp. 69–71. (In Russian).
6. Ponomarev A.N., Yudovich M.E., Gruzdev M.V.,
Yudovich V.M. Non-metal nanoparticle in the outer
electromagnetic field. Topological factors of mesostructures
interaction. Voprosy materialovedeniya. 2009.
No. 4 (60), pp. 59–64. (In Russian).
7. Ponomarev A.N., Yudovich M.E., Yudovich V.M.
Possibilities of nano-technology in the modern world.
Nanotekhnologii. Ekologiya. Proizvodstvo. 2010. No. 5,
pp. 112–113. (In Russian).
8. Patent RF 2196731. Poliedral’nye mnogosloinye uglerodnye
nanos-truktury fulleroidnogo tipa [Polyhedral multilayer
carbon nanostructures of ful-leroid type].
Ponomarev A.N., Nikitin V.A. Declared 21.09.2000.
Published 20.01.2003. Bulletin No. 2. (In Russian).
9. Patent RF 2397950. Mnogosloinye uglerodnye nanochastitsy
ful-leroidnogo tipa toroidal’noi formy [Multilayered
carbon nanoparticles of fulleroid type of toroidal shape].
Ponomarev A.N., Yudovich M.E. Declared 23.04.2008.
Published 27.08.2010. Bulletin No. 24. (In Russian).
10. Rabinovich F.N. Dispersno armirovannye betony [Disperse
reinforced concretes]. Мoscow: Stroyizdat. 1989. 176 p.
11. Rabinovich F.N. Kompozity na osnove dispersno
armirovannykh betonov. Voprosy teorii i proektirovaniya,
tekhnologiya, konstruktsii: Monografiya [Composites
based on disperse reinforced concretes. Questions of
theory and design, technology, constructions:
Monograph]. Мoscow: ASV. 2004. 560 p.
12. Zagorodnyuk L.Kh., Shakarna M., Shchekina A.Yu.
Classification of additives for the reinforcement of particulate
composites. GISAP (Global Interna-tional
Scientific Analytical Project). Access mode: http://gisap.
eu/ru/node/23874 (In Russian).
13. Nizina Т.А., Balykov А.S. Analysis of the combined effect
of the modifier additives and particulate reinforcement
on the physico-mechanical characteris-tics of
fine-grained concretes. Regional’naya arkhitektura i
stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 4, pp. 25–33. (In Russian).
14. Patrikeyev L.N. Nanobetony. Nanoindustriya. 2008.
No. 2, pp. 14–15. (In Russian).
15. Nizina T.A., Balbalin A.V. Influence of mineral additives on the
rheological and strength characteristics of cement composites.
Vestnik Tomskogo gosu-darstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo
universiteta. 2012. No. 2, pp. 148–153. (In Russian).
16. Nizina T.A., Balbalin A.V. Mechanical activation of cement
mixtures with polyfunctional additives.
Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 2,
pp. 36–42. (In Russian).
17. Selyaev V.P., Nizina T.A., Balbalin A.V. Multifunctional
modifiers of cement composites based on mineral admixtures
and polycarboxylate plasticizers. Vestnik Volgogradskogo
univer-siteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2013.
Vol. 2. No. 31 (50), pp. 156–163. (In Russian).
18. Nizina T.A., Balykov A.S., Saraikin A.S. Experimental
studies disperse-reinforced fine-grained concretes with
the polyfunctional modifiers. UralNIIproekt RAASN.
2015. No. 4, pp. 91–96. (In Russian).
Nano-Concrete in Construction
V.A. VOYTOVICH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.N. KHRYAPCHENKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (65 Ilyinskaya Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation)
The review of methods for manufacturing nano-concretes in the nowadays building industry is presented. The first method is a finish grinding of traditional Portland cements until nano
size values and producing nano-cements. The technology of producing this nano-cement is based on the combination of mechanical-chemical activation of Portland cement grains in
the presence of modifiers with the grinding of materials until the nano-size state. The second method is introducing nano-particles in Portland cement. Micro-silica is produced as a by
product in the course of producing the elemental silicon and silicon-containing alloys and provides the creation of super-strong and durable concretes. Introduction of the carbon nano
tube dispersion accelerates the hydration process, regulates the porous structure of nano-concrete. The presence of nano-particles suitable for modification of concretes is detected in
some natural minerals and industrial waste. The third method is the synthesis of nano-particles directly in concrete mixes with the use of initial substances – precursors. Nano-particles
of the silicon dioxide obtained by the so-called sol-gel technology show high efficiency.
Keywords: nano-concrete, nano-cement, nano-particles, precursor, sol-gel technology.
1. Chernik G., Fokina E., Budim N., Khyuller M., Kochnev
V. Grinding and mechanical alloying in a planetary
mill. Nanoindustriya. 2007. No. 5, pp. 32–35. (In Russian).
2. Bikbau M.Ya. The discovery of nano encapsulation particulate
matter. Vestnik Rossiiskoy akademii estestvennykh
nauk. Seriya Fizika. 2012. No. 3, pp. 27–35. (In Russian).
3. Ponomarev A.N. Development of applied nanotechnology in
Russia. Nanoindustriya. 2012. No. 8, pp. 6–10. (In Russian).
4. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzhenko A.N.,
Bur’yanov A.F., Pudov I.A., Lushnikova A.A. Modification
of Cement Concretes with Multilayer Carbon
Nanotubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 47–51. (In Russian).
5. Shah S.P., Hou P., Konsta-Gdoutos M.S. Nanomodification
of cementitious material: toward a stronger
and durable concrete. Journal of Sustainable Cement-
Based Materials. 2015. Vol. 2. Iss. 5, pp. 67–78. (https://
stronger_and_durable_concrete, date of access 07.08.2016).
6. Gusev B.V., Petrunin S.Yu. Cavitation dispersion of carbon
nanotubes and modifying cement systems.
Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: nauchnyi internet-zhurnal.
Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 50–57. (http://nanobuild.ru/ru_RU/
nanobuild-6-2014-pages-15–19/, date of access
07.08.2016). (In Russian).
7. Kodolov V.I., Trineeva V.V., Vasil’chenko Yu.M., Zakharov
A.A. The production and use of carbon-metal nanocomposites.
Nanoindustriya. 2011. No. 3, pp. 24–26. (In Russian).
8. Koren’kova S.F., Sidorenko Yu.V. The carbonate-siliceous
man-made raw materials in general construction
purposes. Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya. 2014.
No. 3, pp. 172–176. (In Russian).
9. Komokhov P.G., Aleksandrov N.I. Nanostructured radiation-
resistant concrete and its universality. Stroitel’nye
materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka. 2008.
No. 5, pp. 38–40. (In Russian).
10. Khozin V.G., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Nizamov R.K. Common
Concentration Pattern of Effects of Construction Materials
Nanomodification. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 25–28. (In Russian).
11. Gusev B.V., Minsandrov I.N., Miroevskii P.V. Research
nanostructuring processes in the fine-grained concrete
with the addition of silica nanoparticles. Nanotekhnologii
v stroitel’stve: nauchnyi internet-zhurnal. Vol. 1,
No. 3, pp. 34–37. (http://nanobuild.ru/ru_RU/journal/
Nanobuild_3_2009_RUS.pdf, date of access
07.08.2016). (In Russian).
12. Voitovich V.A., Khryapchenkova I.N. The Role of Nano-
Technologies in Improving the Quality and Durability of
Brick Masonry. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 54–56. (In Russian).
Assessment of Activity of a Mineral Binder on the Basis of Saponite-Containing Material
T.A. DROZDYUK, Engineer (firstname.lastname@example.org), A.M. AIZENSHTADT, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry) (email@example.com),
M.A. FROLOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry), A.A. NOSULYA, Student
Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (17, Severnaya Dvina Embankment, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation)
A binding capacity of environment friendly high-disperse saponite-containig waste (SCW) of enrichment of kimberlite ores of the diamond-mining industry (the Lomonosov diamond
mine, Arkhangelsk Oblast) as a binding substance for mineral wool heat insulating materials is analyzed. An express-method for determining the activity of a binder (A) with the help
of the functional dependence of the binder activity on the value of heat effect of the hydration reaction is proposed. The rectilinear functional dependence of А=f(∆H) type obtained has
a high coefficient of the approximation validity (R
2=0,96) that testifies the interrelation of these values with practical applicability of the dependence obtained for assessing the binding
materials quality. Results of the study of the binding capacity of high-disperse SCW samples preliminary obtained by grinding with a planetary ball mill show that the maximum value
of the activity is reached when the specific surface of SCW not less than 800 sm
Keywords: saponite-contaning waste, mineral wool heat insulation, binder activity, heat effect of hydration reaction.
1. Drozdyuk T.A., Ayzenshtadt A.M., Tutygin A.S.,
Frolova M.A. Inorganic binding agents for mineral wool
heat insulation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 86–89. (In Russian).
2. Tutygin A.S., Aisenstadt M.A., Aisenstadt A.M.,
Makhova T.A. Influence of the nature of the electrolyte in
the coagulation process saponite-containing slurry.
Geoekologiya. 2012. No. 5, pp. 379–383. (In Russian).
3. Lesovik V.S. Povysheniye effektivnosti proizvodstva
stroitel’nykh materialov s uchetom genezisa [Improving
the efficiency of the production of building materials with
regard to the genesis]. Moscow: Publishing House of the
Association building universities. 2006. 526 p.
4. Glaser A.M. Amorphous and nanocrystalline structures:
similarities, differences, mutual transitions. Rossiyskiy
Khimicheskiy Zhurnal. 2002. No. 5, pp. 57–63.
5. Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Zhernovskiy I.V.,
Voitovych E.V. Features of phase formation in the composite
nanostructured gypsum binder. Stroitel’nye
Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 7,
pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
6. Veshnyakova L.A., A.M. Ayzenshtadt. Optimizing the
particle size distribution of the mixture to obtain finegrained
concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe
stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 10, pp. 19–22. (In Russian).
7. V.S. Lesovik, I. Sh. Rakhimbaev. Calculation and clarifying
the thermodynamic properties of highly basic calcium
silicate. Vestnik BGTU. 2011. No. 3, pp. 108–110.
8. Usherov-Marshak A.V., Kabus A.V. Calorimetric monitoring
the early stages of hardening of cements in the
presence of additives. Neorganicheskie materialy. 2013.
Vol. 49. No. 4, pp. 449–452. (In Russian).
9. Drozdyuk T.A., Ayzenshtadt A.M., Tutygin A.S. Waste
of mining industry as a binder for the mineral insulation.
Materials of international scientific E-symposiums
“Technical and science: theory and practice”. Moscow.
2015, pp. 203–214. (In Russian).
Techniques of Determination of Heat-Physical Properties of Road-Building Materials and Soils
A.V. KOCHETKOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); Sh.N. VALIYEV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering);
3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); D.A. KLIMOV4
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolsky Avenue, 614990, Perm, Russian Federation).
2 Moscow Automobile and Road State Technical University (MADI) (64, Leningradsky Avenue, 125319, Moscow, Russian Federation)
3 Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov (77, Politekhnicheskaya Street, 410054, Saratov, Russian Federation)
4 Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs (87, Gorkogo Street, 600000, Vladimir, Russian Federation)
A draft industry road methodical document has been developed by the Federal Autonomous Institution ROSDORNII. The draft sets recommendations for determining heat-physical prop-
erties of road-building materials and soils when studying the possible range of changes in humidity, density, and temperature of materials and soils located in road constructions in
areas of seasonal freezing (thawing) of motor roads and artificial structures on them, selection of measuring methods and instruments ensuring reliable and reproducible results of
determination of heat-physical characteristics of road pavement materials and soils of the motorway subgrade.
Keywords: heat-physical properties, volumetric heat capacity, heat conductivity coefficient, heat diffusivity coefficient, heat comprehensibility, disperse materials, soils.
1. Rekomendatsii po kompleksnomu opredeleniyu teplofizicheskikh
kharakteristik stroitel’nykh materialov
[Recommendations for a comprehensive definition of
thermal performance of building materials.]. Moscow:
Stroyizdat. 1987. 30 p.
2. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po oprobovaniyu i inzhenernoy
otsenke melovykh i mergelistykh gruntov
[Guidelines for testing and evaluation of engineering and
chalk marl soils]. Moscow. 1985. 76 p.
3. Rukovodstvo po opredeleniyu fizicheskikh, teplofizicheskikh
i mekhanicheskikh kharakteristik merzlykh
gruntov [Guidelines for the determination of physical,
thermal and mechanical characteristics of frozen soil].
Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1973. 191 p.
4. Boikov G.P., Vidin Yu.V., Fokin V.M. Opredelenie teplofizicheskikh
svoistv stroitel’nyh materialov
[Determination of thermal properties of building materials].
Krasnoyarsk: Publishing House of the University of
Krasnoyarsk. 1992. 172 p.
5. Vlasov V.V. Avtomaticheskie ustroistva dlya opredeleniya
teplofizicheskikh kharakteristik tverdykh materialov
[Automatic device for determining the thermal characteristics
of solid materials]. Moscow: Mashinostroenie.
1977. 168 p.
6. Chernyshova T.I., Chernyshov V.N. Metody i sredstva
nerazrushayushchego kontrolya teplofizicheskikh svoistv
materialov [Methods and tools for non-destructive testing
of thermal properties of materials]. Moscow:
Mashinostroenie. 2001. 240 p.
7. Metody opredeleniya teploprovodnosti i temperaturoprovodnosti
[Methods for determination of thermal conductivity
and thermal diffusivity.]. Ed. by Lykov A.V.
Moscow: Energiya. 1973. 336 p.
8. Fokin V.M., Chernyshov V.N. Theoretical basis of determining
the thermal diffusivity of building materials by
non-destructive testing. Vestnik Tambovskogo gosudarstvennogo
tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2004. Iss. 4–1.
Vol. 10, pp. 936–945. (In Russian).
9. Kondrat’ev G.M. Regulyarnyi teplovoi rezhim [Regular
thermal conditions]. Moscow: Gostekhizdat. 1954. 408 p.
10. Barats Ya.I., Maslyakova I.A., Barats F.Ya. Matematicheskie
modeli tekhnologicheskoy teplofiziki i fizicheskikh
vzaimodeistviy [Mathematical models of thermal
physics and technology of physical interactions].
Saratov: Saratov State Technical University. 2002. 92 p.
11. Ovchinnikov I.G., Arzhanukhina S.P., Kochetkov A.V.
Theoretical and legal basis for the use of net-icing materials
based on calcium and sodium chlorides. Dorozhnaya
derzhava. 2009. No. 16, pp. 58–63. (In Russian).
Perspectivity of Producing Building Materials from Wood with Heart Rot
A.A. LUKASH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), N.P. LUKUTTSOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
Bryansk State Engineering-Technological University (3, St. Dimitrova Avenue, 241037, Bryansk, Russian Federation)
The perspectivity of processing of wood containing the heart rot in building materials is substantiated. The subject of the study is methods for processing of wood with heart rot. The
shortage of hardwood and softwood demands to treat the unmerchantable wood. Most often, wood with heart rot is sawn for firewood and sold the population as fuel. Differentiated
approach to the choice of the method for processing of wood with heart rot is the substantiation of the type of the obtained materials and products of various functional purposes
depending on the size of heart rot. To ensure the competitiveness, products made of wood with heart rot must have higher performance characteristics in comparison with existing
materials and products. Therefore, the methods of producing need to be connected with specific materials or products. Wood with heart rot of a diameter of up to 50 mm is the most
appropriate to use for the production of rounded logs. For processing of wood with heart rot of diameter of 50–100 mm, the best method is a rotary cut of healthy wood for subsequent
bonding of plywood products. From wood with heart rot of a diameter of 50 mm and more, square-edged sawn timber of small sizes (pallets) can be obtained.
Keywords: wood, heart rot, processing, plywood, rounded logs, defects.
1. Lukash A.A, Lukutsova N.P. Novye stroitel’nye materialy
i izdeliya iz drevesiny [New building materials and
wood products: monograph]. Moscow: ASV. 2015. 288 p.
2. Lukash A.A., Grishina E.S. Houses from round logs: production
prospects, shortcomings and ways of their elimination.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2013. No. 4, pp. 109–110. (In Russian).
3. Lukash A.A. The study of deformations in laminated
wood with its different thicknesses compression mold.
Izvestiya vuzov. Lesnoi zhurnal. 2014. No. 3. pp. 94–105.
4. Lukash A.A., Lukutsova N.P. The method of calculation
of the thermal conductivity of enclosing structures of
variable cross section round logs. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo
[Housing construction]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 34–37.
5. Lukash A.A. The concept of creation of new building
materials of wood. Materials of the X International scientific
and practical conference “Scientific horizons”. 2014.
Vol. 11, p. 96.
6. Lukash A.A., Glotov G.V., Glotova T.I. Ensuring the
stability of sizes and forms of relief plywood in the course
of its operation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2013. No. 10, pp. 42–43. (In Russian).
7. Serpik I.N., Alekseytsev A.V., Lukash A.A. Methods of
analysis of deformations during the fabrication of relief
plywood. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2012. No. 12, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
8. Klyuev V.S. The factors of destabilization of the state of
spruce forests and improving their sustainable forest management
activities on an example of Bryansk area. Cand.
Diss. (Agricultural). Bryansk. 2013. 177 p.
9. Shelukho V.P. Status of ripe and overripe spruce in areas
technogenesis. Izvestiya vuzov. Lesnoi zhurnal. 2011.
No. 2, pp. 23–29.
10. Lukash A.A., Rudnitsky V.N., Semenov A.N.
Improvement of technological process of manufacture of
pellets at OOO “Klimovolesprom”. Actual problems of
forestry complex: Collection of scientific papers on the results
of the VIII International Scientific Conference “Forest
2008”. Bryansk. 2008, pp. 245–248.