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Stroitel`nye Materialy №10

Stroitel`nye Materialy №10
October, 2016

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Представители профессионального сообщества встретились на VI Международной научно-практической конференции «Развитие крупнопанельного домостроения в России» 18–20 мая 2016 г. в Краснодаре. В конференции приняли участие более 180 руководителей и ведущих специалистов строительно-инвестиционных компаний, домостроительных предприя- тий, проектных организаций, ученых российских вузов и научно-исследовательских институтов из 23 регионов Российской Федерации и пяти зарубежных стран. Организаторами конференции традиционно выступили АО «ЦНИИЭП жилища» и объединенная редакция журналов «Строительные материалы®» и «Жилищное строительство». Спонсор мероприятия – ООО «ВКБ-Инжиниринг» (Краснодар). Партнеры конференции – ЗАО «Патриот-Инжиниринг» (Москва), PROGRESS (Германия), ALLBAU (Германия), BASF (Германия).

A.M. IBRAGIMOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (igasu_alex@mail.ru), A.A. TITUNIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); L.Yu. GNEDINA 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); A.N. LABUTIN3 , Director
1 Kostroma State Technological University (17, Dzerzhinskogo Street, 156005, Kostroma, Russian Federation)
2 Kostroma State Agricultural Academy (34, Uchebny gorodok Street, Karavaevo twp., Kostroma Oblast, 156530, Russian Federation)
3 OOO “POLISTIROLBETON” (bldg. 1, Lykovo Village, Ivanovo District, Ivanovo Oblast, Russian Federation)

Polysterene Concrete in Industrial and Civil Construction
Areas of the use of polysterene concrete depending on the change in requirements for the resistance to heat transfer of bearing and enclosing structures of buildings and facilities are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of polysterene concrete are also analyzed. Ways of improving the design of enclosing and bearing structures made of polysterene concrete are identified. It is shown that the construction of buildings and facilities using this material is possible under the condition of finishing with faced tiles outside and gypsum plaster- boards inside.

Keywords: industrial and civil construction, filling insulant, polysterene concrete.

References
1. Raschet i proektirovanie ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy zdaniya [Calculation and design of the protecting building designs]. Moscow.: Stroyizdat. 1990. 233 p. (In Russian).
2. Butovskiy I.N., Khudoshina O.V. Sovershenstvovanie konstruktivnykh resheniy teplozashchity naruzhnykh sten zdaniy [Improvement of constructive solutions of a heatshielding of external walls of buildings]. Moscow.: VNIINTPI. 1990. 67 p. (In Russian).
3. Programma povysheniya teplovoy zashchity zdaniy v sootvetstvii s izmeneniyami № 3 SNiP II-3–79**. Tekhnicheskie resheniya. Naruzhnye steny [The program of increase of thermal protection of buildings according to changes No. 3 Construction Norms and Regulations of II-3–79**. Technical solutions. External walls]. Al’bom 2. M.: AO TsNIIEP zhilishcha. 1996. 94 p. (In Russian).
4. Gnedina L.Yu. Optimum location of a heater in the multilayered protecting designs. Uchenye zapiski inzhenernostroitel’nogo fakul’teta Ivanovskoy gosudarstvennoy arkhiturno- stroitrlnoy akademii. Ivanovo. 2000, рр. 22. (In Russian).
5. Gnedina L.Yu. Zalivnoy uteplitel’ «LIKO» v trekhsloynykh ograzhdayushchikh panelyakh [Jellied heater of «LIKO» in the three-layer protecting panels. Uchenye zapiski inzhenerno-stroitel’nogo fakul’teta Ivanovskoy gosudarstvennoy arkhiturno-stroitrlnoy akademii. Ivanovo. 2006, pр. 39. (In Russian).
6. Korol’ E.A. Trekhsloynye ograzhdayushchie zhelezobetonnye konstruktsii iz legkikh betonov i osobennosti ikh rascheta [The three-layer protecting ferroconcrete designs from light concrete and feature of their calculation]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo ASV. 2001. 256 p.
7. Fedosov S.V., Ibragimov A.M., Aksakovskaya L.N. Raschet temperaturnykh poley raspredeleniya potentsiala perenosa massy v trekhsloynoy stenovoy paneli [Calculation of temperature fields of distribution of potential of transfer of weight in the three-layer wall panel]. Svidetel’stvo ob otraslevoy registratsii razrabotki № 2867. – Gosudarstvennyy koordinatsionnyy tsentr informatsionnykh tekhnologiy. Otraslevoy fond algoritmov i programm. Moskva. 2003.
8. Fedosov S.V., Ibragimov A.M., Gnedina L.Yu., Ignat’ev S.A. Raschet tolshchiny teploizolyatsionnogo (srednego) sloya trekhsloynykh stenovykh paneley (stena 2) [Calculation of thickness of a heat-insulating (average) layer of three-layer wall panels (wall 2).]. Svidetel’stvo ob otraslevoy registratsii razrabotki № 4977. – Gosudarstvennyy koordinatsionnyy tsentr informatsionnykh tekhnologiy. Otraslevoy fond algoritmov i programm. Moskva. 2005.
9. Patent № 143759 RF. Ograzhdayushchaya stenovaya konstruktsiya [The protecting wall design]. Labutin A.N. Declared 11.03.2014. Published 27.07.2014. (In Russian).
10. Patent № 74142 RF. Stroitel’nyy blok iz legkogo betona [The construction block from light concrete]. Labutin A.N. Declared 15.10.2007. Published 20.06.2008. (In Russian).

V.N. MORGUN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); L.V. MORGUN2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (konst-lvm@yandex.ru), A.V. VISNAP 2, Master; A.Yu. BOGATINA3 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Southern Federal University (105/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, 344006, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation)
2 Don State Technical University (1, Gagarin Square, 344400, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation)
3 Rostov State Transport University (2, Rostovskogo Strelkovogo Polka Narodnogo Opolcheniya Square, 344038, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation)

About Properties of Materials Which Meeting Requirements Large-Panel House Prefabrication Specific features of operational properties of materials which are used in the Russian Federation as wall materials are considered. Their analysis shows that strength, durability safety, and sanitary-hygienic properties of foam and gas concretes best meet requirement imposed on them. But they have insufficient crack resistance. Disperse reinforcement of foam con- cretes with synthetic fibers radically solve the problem of their crack resistance. It is shown that the walls made of fiber concrete make it possible to move the technology of large-panel house prefabrication to a new qualitative and aesthetic level.

Keywords: large-panel house prefabrication, wall, fiber concrete, crack resistance, disperse reinforcement.

References
1. Fadeev A.V. The standards of the XXI century in the field of thermal insulation. Energy security and conservation. 2010. No. 2 (32), рp. 16–17. (In Russian).
2. Fedin A. A. Scientific and technical bases of production and use of silicate and cellular concrete. Moscow: GASIS, 2002. 264 p. (In Russian).
3. Markevich A.I., Okhota B.G. For those who earned the opportunity to choose. Theory and practice of production and application of aerated concrete in construction. Sevastopol. 2007, pp. 236–248. (In Russian).
4. Morgun L.V. The Mechanism of formation of low permeability in continuous fiber-reinforced concrete and porous structures. Vestnik BGTU. 2003, No. 4, pp. 84–88. (In Russian).
5. Gorelik P.I., Zolotova Yu.S. Modern insulation materials and their application Construction of unique buildings and structures. 2014. No. (18), pp. 93–103. (In Russian).
6. Morgun L.V. Foam Concrete. Rostov-on-don, 2012. 154 p. (In Russian).
7. Morgun L.V., Morgun V.N., Bogatin A.Y., Smirnova P.V. Achievements and problems of modern large-panel. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing construction], 2013. No. 3, pp. 41–45. (In Russian).
8. Morgun L.V., Kurochka P.N., Bogatin A.Y., Kadomtseva E.E., Morgun V.N. To the issue of the clutch rod of rebar from concrete and fiber-reinforced concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials], 2014, No. 8, pp. 56–59. (In Russian).

A.S. ALEKSANDROV, Candidate of Sciences(Engineering) (aleksandrov00@mail.ru) Siberian State Automobile and Highway Academy (5, Mira Avenue, 644080 Omsk, Russian Federation)

Research in Plastic Deformation of Discrete Materials under Influence of Cyclic Loads and Determination of Parameters of Mathematical Models It is established that the dependence of plastic deformation of discrete materials, including treated with a binder on the number of applied repeated load is described with logarithmical or exponential functions. The analysis of experimental data shows that the parameters of logarithmic and exponential models depend on the magnitude of the principal stresses under which the three-axle tests are carried out, as well as on the indicators of physical properties of materials. The article presents the results of experimental studies of plastic deformation of rubble-sand mixture of granite, limestone and sandstone, as well as sand reinforced with bitumen. The methodology of calculation of parameters of logarithmic and exponential math- ematical models is presented; parameters for these materials are determined.

Keywords: automobile road, road construction, pavement base, discrete material, three-axle compression, plastic strain, cyclic loading.

References
1. Aleksandrov A.S. A generalizing model of plastic deformation of discrete materials of road structures under impact of cyclic loads. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 5. pp. 27–30. (In Russian).
2. Rondon H.A. Deformacion permanente de materiales granulares en pavimentos flexibles: estado del conocimiento. Revista Ingenierias Universidad de Medellin. 2009. Vol. 8. No. 14, pp. 71–94.
3. Perez I., Medina L., Gallego J. Plastic deformation behaviour of pavement granular materials under low traffic loading. Granular Matter. 2010. No. 1, pp. 57–68.
4. Margan N.A. et al. 3rd Deformational properties of unbound granular pavement materials. International Conference on Road and Rail Infrastructure–Cetra. 2014, pp. 649–656.
5. Gidel G., Hornych P., Chauvin J., Breysse D., Denis A. A new approach for investigating the permanent deformation behaviour of unbound granular material using the repeated load triaxial apparatus. Bulletin des Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussèes. 2001. No. 14 (233), pp. 5–21.
6. Mirsayapov I.Т., Brechman А.I., Koroleva I.V., Ivanova O.A. Strength and deformation of sandy soils under triaxial cyclic loading. Izvestiya KGASU. 2012. No. 3 (21), pp. 58–63. (In Russian).
7. Werkmeister S., Numrich R., Wellner F. The development of a permanent deformation design model for unbound granular materials with the shakedown concept. Processing of the 6th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields. Lisbon, Portugal. 2002. Vol. 2, pp. 1081–1096.
8. Theyse H.L. The suction pressure, yield strength and effective stress of partially saturated unbound granular pavement layers. 10th International conference on Asphalt Pavements. Canada, Quebec City. 12–17 August 2006, pp. 13.
9. Gallage C., Jayakody S., Ramanujam J. Effects of moisture content on resilient properties of recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs). Proceedings of Fourth International Conference – GEOMATE 2014: Geotechnique, Construction Materials & Environment. Brisbane, Australia. 2014, pp. 394–399.
10. Siripun K., Nikraz H., Jitsangiam P. Mechanical behaviour of hydrated cement treated crushed rock base (hctcrb) under repeated cyclic loads. Australian Geomechanics. 2009. Vol. 44. No. 4, pp. 53–65.
11. Werkmeister S. Permanent deformation behaviour of unbound granular materials in pavement constructions. Ph.D. thesis. University of Technology. Dresden, Germany. 2003. 189 p.
12. Ashtiani R.S. Anisotropic characterization and performance prediction of chemically and hydraulically bounded pavement foundations. Ph.D. thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station. Texas. 2009. 353 p.
13. Buchheister J., Laue J. Two directional cyclic loading experiments in a hollow cylinder apparatus. First European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology. 2006. 10 p.
14. Austin A. Fundamental characterization of unbound base course materials under cyclic loading. MScE Thesis. Louisiana Tech. University. 2009.
15. Anochie-Boatehg J. Advanced testing and characterization of transportation soils and bituminous sands. Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, 2007.

L.N. LOMAKINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (lomakinaln@mail.ru), N.B. KHABABUTDINOVA2, Master; L.Ya. KRAMAR 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) (1, Kosmonavtov Street, 450062, Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)
2 South Ural State University (National Research University) (76, Lenin Avenue, 454080, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation)

Laboratory of Nano-Technologies of Cement Systems Named after Professors A.F. Polak and N.Kh. Karimov of USPTU: Some of the Results and Prospects of Development At present, it is impossible to conduct studies in the field of building materials without using the special research equipment. Physical-chemical studies of structures and properties of building materials are a necessary element of any material science work including the process of producing materials with set and special properties, assessing the durability of differ- ent building materials, identifying the reasons for their corrosion etc. Since 2011, within the framework of the grant of the RF Ministry of Education and Science “Program of improve- ment and development of the innovative infrastructure of USPTU”, the high-precision analytical complex of research in structures and properties of building materials, binding ones in the first place, functions at the “Building Structures” Chair. The wide use of this complex makes it possible to significantly improve the efficiency of research works, expands their themes as well as to provide the state-of-the art training of specialists of a construction profile.

Keywords: physical and chemical methods, innovation center, scanning electronic microscope, synchronous thermal analysis, x-ray diffractometer.

References
1. Lomakina L.N., Latypov V.M., Agzamov F.A., Babkov V.V. The development of laboratory base USPTU for binding research in the field of grouting and construction. International scientific seminar “Development the innovation infrastructure of the University”. Ufa. USPTU. 2012. (In Russian).
2. Lomakina L.N., Latypov V.M., Agzamov F.A., Babkov V.V.. Laboratory of nanotechnology cement systems professors A.F. Polak and N.H. Karimov – perspective directions of research binders for grouting and construction. International scientific seminar “Development the innovation infrastructure of the University”. Ufa. USPTU. 2011. (In Russian).
3. Latypov V.M., Lomakina L.N., Lutsyk E.V., Akhmadullin R.R., Fedorov P.A., Anwarov A.R., Avrenyuk A.N. Research lecturers and staffs of the department “Building construction” USPTU towards “Improving the durability of concrete and reinforced concrete”. Construction. From science to innovation. Materials of Russian scientific-practical conference. Ufa. 2013, pp. 21–30. (In Russian).
4. Lomakina L.N., Garankov I.N., Khababutdinova N.B., Nikitin I.S. Research the possibility of obtaining a dry mortar for plastering work with dolomite. III International scientific-practical conference “Problems of modern engineering science: a fresh look and new solutions.” Section №10. Construction and architecture. Ekaterinburg. 2016, pp.73–75. (In Russian).
5. Lomakina L.N., Khababutdinova N.B., Batyrshina D.S., Kinzibaeva E.A. Physico-chemical research of the thermal decomposition of dolomite. Materials XX International Scientific and Technical conference “Problems of the building complex of Russia” Abstracts. Ufa. 2016. (In Russian).
6. Agzamov F.A., Lomakina L.N., Khababutdinova N.B., Davletshin R.F., Kriga A.K., Tokunov T.V. Processes cement stone corrosion by the acidic components of formation fluids. Neftegazovoe delo. 2015. No. 4, pp. 10–28. (In Russian).
7. Lomakina L.N., Galiakbarov R.R., Kozin A.V., Gnedov S.M., Vetrov N.I. Research of durability of lining concrete industrial chimneys. Promyshlennost’ i bezopasnost’. 2015. No. 9, pp. 34–36. (In Russian).
8. Agzamov F.A., Lomakina L.N., Gafurova E.A., Bikmeeva (Khababutdinova) N.B. Investigation of concrete structure formation in the conditions of winter concreting. The electronic scientific magazine Neftegazovoe delo. 2013. No. 6, pp. 384–400. URL: http://www.ogbus.ru/authors/ Agzamov/Agzamov_2.pdf. (In Russian).
9. Lomakina L.N., Bikmeeva (Khababutdinova) N.B., Ahmadieva L.R. About the role of physico-chemical methods for the study of the mechanism and kinetics of structure and fiber reinforced expanding oil-well cements. Materials XVII International Scientific and Technical conference “Problems of the building complex of Russia: Architecture. Building. Communal services”. Abstracts. Ufa. 2013. (In Russian).
10. Babkov V.V., Gafurova E.A., Rezvov O.A., Lomakina L.N., Asyanova V.S. The composition of the products salt stains of exterior walls on the basis of vibro-pressed concrete products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2013. No. 11. pp. 74–77. (In Russian).
11. Bedov A.I., Babkov V.V., Gabitov G.I., Sakhibgareev R.R., Salov A.S. Precast concrete construction in the Republic of Bashkortostan: from theory to practice. Vestnik MGSU. 2013. No 10, pp. 110–121. (In Russian).
12. Latypov V.M., Timeryaev D.V., Kornilov D.K., Ivlev M.A. Laboratory tests of liquid soil RSS. Materials XVI International scientific-practical conference “Problems of the building complex of Russia.” Abstracts. Ufa. 2012. (In Russian).
13. Lomakina L.N. New possibilities laboratory base USPTU. Materials XX International scientific-practical conference “Problems of the building complex of Russia.” Abstracts. Ufa. 2016. (In Russian).

P.A. FEDOROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (stexpert@mail.ru), T.Z. GIL’MUTDINOV, Master (gilmutdinov_tz@mail.ru), A.A. ASTAFUROV, Master, V.M. LATYPOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)

Improving Laboratory Methods for Research in Durability of Concrete in Aggressive Gas and Liquid Environments Concrete and reinforced concrete structures, as a rule, are subjected, during their operation, to processes of physical-chemical transformation with deterioration of their operational properties; this means that they are subjected to corrosion processes. This is because over time, concrete loses its protective properties due to the impact of aggressive environments. That’s why the study of these processes for the subsequent forecast and development of measures for the primary and secondary protection is a very actual task. The retrospective review of methods for studying corrosion processes occurring in concrete and reinforced concrete in liquid and gaseous environments is presented. Recommendations on designs of units which make it possible to significantly improve the accuracy of simulation of the impact of aggressive environments without distortion of real temperature-humidity conditions are made.

Keywords: durability, concrete, reinforced concrete, aggressive environment, unit, accelerated testing.

References
1. Moskvin V.M. To a question about the durability of building structures. Proceedings Research institute ferroconcrete «Corrosion protection of building structures and increase their durability». Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1969, pp. 3–9 (In Russian).
2. Polak A.F. Modeling of ferroconcrete corrosion and forecasting its durability. The results of science and technology «Corrosion and Corrosion Protection». Moscow: VINITI, 1989. Vol. 12. pp. 136–184. (In Russian).
3. Polak A.F. Method for determining the aggressiveness of liquid acid environments in relation to the concrete. Collection NIIPromstroy works. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1971. Vol. 10, pp. 213–223. (In Russian).
4. Dement’ev G. K. Korroziya betona Baku-Shollarskogo vodovoda: po dannym issledovanija Azerbajdzhanskogo filiala ZIS’a za 1931-1934 gg. [Corrosion of concrete of Baku-Shollarskogo water pipeline: According to the Azerbaijan branch of study for ZIS’a 1931–1934]. Baku. 1934. 133 p.
5. Baikov A.A. On the action of sea water on the construction of the hydraulic fluids. Collected Works. Moscow: Publishing USSR Academy of Sciences. 1948. Vol. V. 210 p. (In Russian).
6. Fedorov P.A., Fattakhov M.M., Abdullin M.M. The contribution of Louis Joseph Wick to study the durability of cement stone. Istorija nauki i tehniki. 2012. No. 6. Special vol. 2, pp. 10–15. (In Russian).
7. Latypov V.M., Latypova T.V., Lucyk E.V., Fedorov P.A. Dolgovechnost’ betona i zhelezobetona v prirodnyh agressivnyh sredah [Concrete and reinforced concrete in the natural aggressive media]. Ufa. USPTU. 2014. 288 p.
8. A. s. SSSR 280968. Sposob opredelenija korrozionnoj stojkosti betona [A method of determining corrosion resistance of concrete] / Polak A.F.; Declared 07.09.68. Published 03.09.1970. Bulletin No 28. (In Russian).
9. Guidelines for predicting the depth of corrosion damage of concrete in liquid acidic environments. Ufa. Research Institute, Industrial construction (NIIPromstroy). 1973. 41 p. (In Russian).
10. Guidelines for determining the speed of corrosion of cement stone, mortar and concrete in corrosive liquids: NIIZhB. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1975. 28 p. (In Russian).
11. Astafurov A.A., Latypov V.M. Justification of geometrical parameter setting for the study of corrosion rate of concrete in aggressive liquids. Problems of building complex of Russia. Proceedings XX International Scientific and Technical Conference. Ufa. 2016, pp. 82–85. (In Russian).
12. Ordynskaya G.S., Petin N.N., Higerovich M.I. Kinetics of carbonization process of lime-sand autoclave materials. Zhurnal prikladnoj himii. 1937. Vol. X. No. 2, pp. 290–299. (In Russian).
13. A. s. SSSR 303567. Ustanovka dlja opredelenija kinetiki korrozii betona v gazovyh sredah [Setting to determine the kinetics of concrete corrosion in gas environments] / P.V. Jazev, N.K. Rozental’, S.N. Alekseev. Declared 23.04.1969. Published 13.05.1971. Bulletin No. 16. (In Russian).
14. A. s. SSSR 388227. Ustanovka dlja opredelenija kinetiki karbonizacii betona [Apparatus for determining the kinetics of concrete carbonation] / N.K. Rozental’, P.V. Jazev. Declared 25.11.1972. Published 22.06.1973. Bulletin No. 28. (In Russian).
15. Alekseev S.N., Rozental’ N.K. Korrozionnaja stojkost’ zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij v agressivnoj promyshlennoj srede [The corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures in aggressive industrial environments]. M.: Stroyizdat. 1976. 205 p.
16. Rosenthal N.K. The study of protective properties of heavy concrete with respect to the steel reinforcement. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Moscow. 1969. 140 p. (In Russian).
17. Fedorov P.A., Anvarov B.R., Latypova T.V., Anvarov A.R., Latypov V.M. About mathematical relationship describing concrete neutralization process. Vestnik Juzhno-Ural’skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Serija: Stroitel’stvo i arhitektura. 2010. No. 15 (191), pp. 13–15. (In Russian).
18. Patent RF 2502711. Ustanovka dlya opredeleniya kinetiki karbonizacii betona [Apparatus for determining the kinetics of concrete carbonation] / Latypov V.M., Fedorov P.A., Anvarov B.R. Declared 05.07.2012. Published 27.12.2013. Bulletin No. 36. (In Russian).
19. Patent RF 137728. Ustanovka dlja opredelenija kinetiki karbonizacii betona s besprovodnoj sistemoj upravlenija [Setting to determine the kinetics of the carbonation of concrete with a wireless control system] / Latypov V.M., Fedorov P.A., Gil’mutdinov T.Z. Declared 18.10.2013. Published 27.02.2014. Bulletin No. 6. (In Russian).

T.V. LATYPOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (stexpert@mail.ru), L.N. LOMAKINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (lomakinaln@mail.ru), R.R. AKHMADULLIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), B.R. ANVAROV, Engineer (anvarov@mail.ru), V.M. LATYPOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)

About Operational Reliability of Reinforced Concrete in Water Supply and Water Disposal Systems of Residential Areas
Water supply and water disposal systems are objects of increased ecological danger because their breakdowns lead to the negative consequences of various scales: from minor acci- dents to average, to anthropogenic catastrophes, consequences of which are felt for many decades. More often the accidents take place in collectors, stilling chambers, then at sewage pumping stations and reservoirs of urban sewage treatment works. Reservoirs of water supply are also objects of increased ecological danger because accidents at them lead to the interruption of continuous supply of the city with potable water. The article presents main reasons for accelerated wear-corrosion of reinforced concrete structures in water supply and water disposal systems, as well as measures for improving their operational reliability.

Keywords: water supply system, water disposal system, reinforced concrete, corrosion, durability, operational reliability.

References
1. Anvarov B.R., Latypov T.V., Latypov V.M., Kramar L.Y. On the mechanism of reinforced concrete damaged by corrosion leaching. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 2, pp. 12–26. (In Russian).
2. Akhmadullin R.R. Increased concrete durability in a hydrogen sulfide corrosion. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Ufa. 2006. 154 p. (In Russian).
3. Kantor P.L. Increased durability of reinforced concrete drainage collectors. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Ufa. 2012. 143 p. (In Russian).
4. Latypov V.M., Latypova T.V., Lutsyk E.V., Fedorov P.A. Dolgovechnost’ betona i zhelezobetona v prirodnykh agressivnykh sredakh [The durability of concrete and reinforced concrete in the natural aggressive media]. Ufa: USPTU. 2014. 288 p.
5. Komokhov P.G., Latypov V.M., Latypova T.V., Vagapov R.F. Dolgovechnost’ betona i zhelezobetona. Prilozheniya metodov matematicheskogo modelirovaniya s uchetom ingibiruyushchikh svoistv tsementnoi matritsy [The durability of concrete and reinforced concrete. Application of methods of mathematical modeling based on the inhibitory properties of the cement matrix]. Ufa: Belaya reka. 1988. 216 p.
6. Stark J., Wicht B. Долговечность бетона [Concrete Durability]. Kiev: Oranta, 2004. 295 p.
7. Lutsyk E.V., Latypova T.V., Latypov V.M., Fedorov P.A., Avrenyuk A.N., Toyhert L.A. The use of nanomaterials based on cement for the repair of reinforced concrete. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2010. No. 2, pp. 20–25. (In Russian).
8. Latypov V.M., Lomakina L.N., Latypova T.V., Lutsyk E.V. Sovremennye materialy dlya antikorrozionnoi zashchity i gidroizolyatsii stroitel’nykh konstruktsii. Spravochnoe posobie [Modern materials for corrosion protection and waterproofing of building structures. Handbook]. Ufa: USPTU. 2007. 213 p.
9. Latypov V.M., Lomakina L.N., Lutsyk E.V., Akhmadullin R.R., Fedorov P.A., Anwarov A.R., Avrenyuk A.N. Research lecturers and staffs of the department “Building construction” USPTU towards “Improving the durability of concrete and reinforced concrete”. “Construction. From science to innovation”. Materials of Russian scientific-practical conference. Ufa. 2013. pp. 21–30. (In Russian).
10. Latypov V.M., Lomakina L.N. Durability of concrete in water treatment plants capacitive. The Problems of strength and durability of concrete and reinforced concrete. Materials of scientific-technical conference devoted to the 100th anniversary of the birth of professor A.F. Polak. Ufa. 2011. pp. 251–253. (In Russian).
11. Lomakina L.N., Latypova T.V. The operational reliability of building structures of capacitive structures purification. Materials XIV International Scientific and Technical conference. Exhibition “Building. Utilities. Energy Saving–2010”. Ufa 2010. (In Russian).
12. Latypov V.M., Latypova T.V., Valishina L.N., Lutsyk E.V., Akhmadullin R.R., Anvarov A.R. Durability of concrete and reinforced concrete in water treatment plants capacitive. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2003. No. 10, pp. 36–37. (In Russian).
13. Valishina L.N. Durability of concrete and reinforced concrete in water treatment plants capacitive. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Ufa. 2003. 207 p. (In Russian).
14. Avrenyuk A.N. Restoration of concrete and reinforced concrete after the destructive impact of sulfur-containing compounds based on cement materials. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Ufa. 2009. 179 p. (In Russian).

A.M. GAYSIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (askargaisin@yandex.ru), V.V. BABKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, 450062 Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)

Analysis of Bearing External Walls of Multistory Residential Buildings in the Republic of Bashkortostan from the Position of Specific Thermal Protection Characteristic
The analysis of structural solutions of external bearing three-layer walls of multistory buildings designed in the Republic of Bashkortostan according to SNiP 23-02-2003 “Thermal Protection of Buildings” before updating from the point of view of their influence on the specific heat protection characteristic of the building as a whole is made. Some discrepancy of buildings consid- ered to current norms in terms of specific heat-protecting characteristic due to the low coefficient of thermal uniformity of multilayered external walls are revealed and the fragments of facades with maximal heat losses are selected. The required level of external walls resistance to heat transfer along “the surface” at existing structural decisions of the façade parts with thermal non-uniformities is shown; ways of improving the design solutions from the position of requirements of SP 50.13330.2012 “Thermal Protection of Buildings” are proposed.

Keywords: multistory residential, reduced resistance to heat transfer, heat protection shell of building, specific heat losses, coefficient of thermal uniformity.

References
1. Babkov V.V., Khusnutdinov R.F., Chuikin A.E., Gaisin A.M., Gareev R.R. Teploeffektivnye naruzhnye steny v praktike sovremennogo stroitel’stva zhilykh domov i zdanii drugogo naznacheniya [Heat efficient exterior walls in the practice of modern construction of residential buildings and buildings for other purposes]. Saint-Petersburg: Nedra. 2011. 180 p.
2. Babkov V.V., Kuznetsov D.V., Gaisin A.M., Rezvov O.A., Morozova E.V., Arslanbaeva L.S. Problems of reliability of external walls of buildings made of autoclave gas concrete blocks and possibilities of their protection against wetting. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 55–58. (In Russian).
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4. Gaysin A.M., Gareev R.R., Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Samohodova S.Ju. Twenty year experience in application of high-hollow vibro-pressed concrete blocks in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 82–85. (In Russian).
5. Gagarin V.G. Macroeconomic aspects of substantiation of power saving measures aimed at improving the heat protection of buildings enclosing structures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 3, pp. 8–16. (In Russian).
6. Samarin O.D. Substantiation of reducing the heat protection of enclosures with the use of an actualized version of SNiP 23-02–2003. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 46–48. (In Russian).
7. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Requirements for thermal protection and energy efficiency in the draft of the updated SNiP “Thermal Protection of Buildings”. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 8, pp. 2–7. (In Russian).
8. Gaisins A.M., Samokhodova S.Yu., Paimet’kina A.Yu., Nedoseko I.V. Comparative assessment of specific heat losses through elements of external walls of residential buildings determined by different methods. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 5, pp. 36–40. (In Russian).
9. Umnyakova N.P., Egorova T.S., Cherkas V.E., Belogurov P.B., Andreytseva K.S. Enhancement of energy efficiency of buildings due to improvement of thermotechnical homogeneity of external walls in the zone of connection with balcony slabs. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 17–19. (In Russian).
10. Gagarin V.G., Dmitriev K.A. Accounting heat engineering heterogeneities when assessing the thermal protection of enveloping structures in Russia and European countries. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 14–16. (In Russian).

E.M. VLADIMIRTSEV1, General Director; V.M. YAKIMOV2, Master, T.A. RAMAZANOV2, Master, E.Yu. KOCHANOVA2, Master, D.R. NUGUMANOV 2, Master’s Student, V.N. KLIMIN2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.I. KRIVTSOV3, Engineer-Builder, Deputy Head; V.M. LATYPOV 2
, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 OOO “Integrated Plant of Energy Saving Materials “Wallsaving” (ldg. 4/1, III-2 Street, 423602 Elabuga, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)
2 Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)
3 SSP UGNTU KHNIL “Ufa City Center ‘Stroytechexpertise” (195 Mendeleeva Street, 450080 Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)

Experience in Application and Ways of Improving Sound Insulation Characteristics of Innovative Panels «Wallsaving»
Energy saving wall panels “Wallsaving” are classical three-layer panels of “sandwich” type, in which non-standard innovation solutions are used: for external claddings – thin (thick- ness of up to 6 mm) glass-magnesium sheets, for a middle layer – polystyren concrete (PSC). Panels “Wallsaving” are manufactured according to the cassette technology. This makes it possible, due to the realization of thrust effect and the use of the mono-fractional filler from foamed granules of polystyrene, to obtain the homogeneous, dense, strength, and durable structure of the middle layer in contrast to PSC of site precasting, which has low strength and durability. The low weight of panels makes it possible to carry out their manual installation, and smooth and even surface is ready for fine finishing just after structure installation. One of the main differences of “Wallsaving” from the panels with metallic external layer is the high adhesion of the core to sheathings which is unobtainable, in principle, in sandwich-panels with sheathings of metal profiled sheeting and the middle layer from mineral wool slabs.

Keywords: sandwich-panels, foam polystyrene, energy efficiency of building product, low-rise and high-rise construction, heat and sound proofing.

References
1. Vladimirtsev E.M., Stupalov D.Yu., Yakimov V.M., Krivtsov S.I., Latypov V.M., Klimin V.N. Application «Wallsaving» panels in the building envelope. Inzhenernye sistemy v stroitel’stve i kommunal’nom khozyaistve. 2015. No. 2, pp. 16–18. (In Russian).
2. Rahmatullin T.R., Latypov V.M. The advantage of sandwich panels. Problems of building complex of Russia: Conference Proceedings. Ufa. 2011, pp. 51–52. (In Russian).
3. Nugumanov D.R., Yakimov V.M., Derbinyan G.K., Latypov V.M. Investigation the composition and structure of the middle layer of composite panels subtle methods of analysis. Aktual’nye problemy tekhnicheskikh, estestvennykh i gumanitarnykh nauk. 2015, pp. 96–98. (In Russian).
4. Latypov V.M., Anvarov A.R., Lutsyk E.V., Fedorov P.A., Latypova T.V. Primary protection of reinforced concrete against impact of carbon dioxide. Oriental Journal and Chemistry. 2015. Vol. 31. No. 1, pp. 285–291. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.13005/ojc/310132.
5. Album of technical solutions for the application Wallsaving panels in the interior partitions of residential, public and industrial buildings. Materials for Design (published the first official). Ufa: USPTU. 2015. 61 p. (In Russian).
6. Album of technical solutions for the application Wallsaving panels in the construction of external and internal walls, partitions and ceilings in low-rise construction of residential, public and industrial buildings. Materials for Design (Second Edition) Ufa: USPTU. 2016. 41 p. (In Russian).
7. Krivtsov S.I. Ramazanov Т.А., Latypov V.M. On the question of the calculation of acoustic separate massive wall constructions Protection from excessive noise and vibration: Proceedings of the conference. Saint Petersburg. 2015, pp. 294–299. (In Russian).
8. Krivtsov S.I., Ramazanov T.A., Latypov V.M. Conditions for the use of wall panels Wallking on the criterion of sound insulation in housing construction Russian. Noise Theory and Practice. Vol. 1. No. 1, pp. 64–69. (In Russian).
9. Bogolepov I.I. Stroitel’naya akustika [Building acoustics]. Saint Petersburg: Publisher Polytechnic University. 2006. 323 p.

T.Z. GIL’MUTDINOV, Master (gilmutdinov_tz@mail.ru), P.A. FEDOROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (stexpert@mail.ru) Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)

Influence of Cracks on Kinetics of Concrete Carbonization
In the course of operation, reinforced concrete structures are subjected to the impact of various aggressive media, carbon dioxide is the most common among them. As a result of this physical-chemical impact, the concrete loses protective properties with regard to reinforcement. The situation is aggravated by the presence of cracks through which the access of car bon dioxide to the zone of reinforcement location is accelerated. Main provisions for calculating the depth of concrete neutralization under the impact of carbon dioxide, without cracks as well as in case of their formation, are considered. Accounting methods for the presence of cracks in reinforced concrete structures when determining the speed of concrete neutral ization are proposed.

Keywords: concrete, reinforced concrete, carbonization, cracks, durability

References
1. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. URL: http:// www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/global.html (date of access 01.07.2016)
2. Pukhonto L.M. Dolgovechnost’ zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsii inzhenernykh sooruzhenii: (silosov, bunkerov, rezervuarov, vodonapornykh bashen, podpornykh sten) [Durability of reinforced concrete designs of engineering constructions (silos, bunkers, tanks, water towers, retaining walls)]. Мoscow: ASV. 2004. 424 p.
3. Latypov V.M., Latypova T.V., Lutsyk E.V., Fedorov P.A. Dolgovechnost’ betona i zhelezobetona v prirodnyh agressivnyh sredah [The durability of concrete and reinforced concrete in the natural aggressive environments] Ufa: USPTU. 2014. 288 p.
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8. Migunov V.N. Eksperimental’no-teoreticheskoe issledovanie korrozii i dolgovechnosti zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy s treshchinami. Chast’ 2 [Experimental and theoretical study of corrosion and durability of reinforced concrete structures with cracks. Part 2]. Penza: PGUAS. 2013. 304 p.
9. Fedorov P.A., Anvarov B.R., Latypova T.V., Anvarov A.R., Latypov V.M. About the mathematical dependence describing process of neutralization of concrete. Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural’skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2010. No. 15 (191), pp. 13–15. (In Russian).
10. Novgorodskiy V.I., Ostrovskiy A.B., Migunov V.N. Metod opredeleniya effektivnosti ingibitorov korrozii stali v treshchinakh betona. [The method of determining the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors of steel in concrete cracks]. Guidelines for the study of corrosion inhibitors in the concrete reinforcement. Moscow: NIIZhB. 1980. 37 p.
11. Moskvin V.M. Podval’niy A.M., Ptitsyn O.A. Methods of field studies on the stand in the Kola Bay. Corrosion of reinforced concrete and methods of protection. Proceedings NIIZhB Institute. Vol. 28. 1962, pp. 178–187. (In Russian).

V.M. LATUPOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.R. ANVAROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), P.A. FEDOROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), E.V. LUTSYK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), G.K. DERBINYAN, postgraduate student Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)

Mathematical Simulation of Corrosion Processes as a Basis for Reforming Norms of Aggressiveness of Operational Environment with Regard to Concrete and Reinforced Concrete
The durability of a reinforced concrete structure according to SP 28.13330.2012 “Protection of Building Structures” can be provided with two methods: at the stage of producing the structure – by increasing the density and thickness of the protective concrete layer; in the course of operation – by treating the structure surface with special protective coatings and impregnations which, as a rule, require renewal after a certain period of time. A wide range of materials for the secondary protection of reinforced concrete, the cost of which sometimes exceeds the cost of the structure itself, can’t insure the design durability of reinforced concrete structures including the inaccessibility of the structure surface for renewing the protec- tive coating among others. Thus, an actual problem of the development of contemporary normative-legal base f construction in the field of the durability of concrete is the absence, until the present, of standard normative practice for the design justification of parameters of the concrete protective layer, namely its thickness and density, for ensuring the trouble-free operation of the structure for the whole period of operation and reliable predicting the durability of structure. The solution of this problem is impossible without mathematical simulation of the concrete corrosion process with due regard for the nature of external aggressive impact. The article presents a review of mathematical models of concrete and reinforced concrete corrosion with different kinetics of the process as well as the development of professor A.F. Polak theory for the refinement of estimated dependence of the depth of corrosion damage of the concrete on the time of the structure operation.

Keywords: corrosion, durability, concrete, reinforced concrete.

References
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13. Alekseev S.N., Rozental’ N.K. Korrozionnaya stoikost’ zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsii v agressivnoi promyshlennoi srede. [Corrosion resistance of reinforced structures in aggressive industrial medium]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1976. 205 p.
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A.E. CHUIKIN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (an2100@yandex.ru), V.V. BABKOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); I.A. MASSALIMOV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (ismail_mass@mail.ru)
1 Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)
2 Bashkir State University (32, Validy Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450076, Russian Federation)

Modification of Cement Concrete with Impregnating Sulphur-Containing Solutions Modification of cement concretes with impregnating solutions makes it possible to significantly reduce water sorption and enhance durability.
A new type of impregnating composition, a water sulphur-containing solution on the basis of calcium polysulfide with spirits and surfactants, has been developed. A feature of concrete impregnation with calcium polysulfide is that sulphur atoms in the solution composition penetrate into capillary pores of cement stone to a certain depth. When the material is drying, molecules of calcium polysulfide are disin tegrating with the formation of a hydrophobic layer of element sulphur insoluble in water on the pore surfaces. Unlike impregnating materials and hydrophobizators on the organic base, the impregnation of products and structures with calcium polysulfide gives the concrete surface water repellency for a long time, retreatment is not needed.

Keywords: sulphur, impregnation, concrete, cement stone, porosity.

References
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V.I. VINNICHENKO1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (vvinnichenko@ukr.net); A.N. RYAZANOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (aryazanov@hotmail.com); N.Yu. VITSENKO 3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (vitsenko.n@ukr.net)
1 Kharkiv National University of Construction and Architecture (40, Sumskaya Street, Kharkov, 61002, Ukraine)
2 Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)
3 Prydniprovs’ka State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (24a, Chernyshevskogo Street, Dnipropetrovsk, 49600, Ukraine)

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Formation Conditions of Primary Clinker Minerals When Burning Dolomite-Containing Charge
On the basis of the analysis of literature sources, advantages and disadvantages of magnesium binders in comparison with Portland cement are presented. Among advantages are a low temperature of burning, better grindability, high strength, fast hardening, reducing the energy cost for heat treatment. The cost of magnesium cement production is approximately two times lower than the cost of Portland cement. The main disadvantage is a need for mixing not with water but with water solutions of salts. Scientific studies which conducted in the last years are devoted to the creation and improvement in properties of magnesium cements mixed with salt solutions. The theoretical analysis of possibility to obtain clinker minerals which are able to gain strength in interaction with water has been made. Changes in the enthalpy of chemical reactions of the formation of minerals are considered. It is established that reac tions, products of which are belit, tricalcium aluminate, and calcium monoaluminate, are characterized by the greatest thermodynamic probability. The comparative analysis of proceed ing of reactions among mineral components and at addition of an organic component in the raw mixture is made. It is shown that the presence of organics in the raw mixture contrib utes to increasing the thermodynamic probability of proceeding of chemical reactions.

Keywords: dolomite cement, clinker burning, thermodynamic probability, chemical reactions, heat energy, energy efficiency, enthalpy, belit, dolomite screenings, waste of coal beneficia tion, burning, reducing heat input.

References
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M.A. GONCHAROVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (magoncharova777@yandex.ru), I.A. TKACHEVA, Engineer Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, 398600, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)

Practical Experience in Applying the Crushed Stone-Mastic Asphalt Concrete with the Use of Activated Mineral Powder
The article presents the experience in using the activated mineral powder in the composition of crushed stone-mastic asphalt concrete (CMA). Results of the laboratory tests of various composition of CMA are presented and shown. In conclusion, main advantages of asphalt concrete indentified in the process of concrete mix placing and operation of the asphalt con crete pavement are described; they are good physical-mechanical properties of the mix, absence of rutting and other pavement distresses.

Keywords: crushed stone-mastic asphalt concrete, activated mineral powder, experience in making.

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