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Stroitel`nye Materialy №3

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I.D. TESHEV, General Director (info@vkb-eng.com), G.K. KOROSTELEVA, Chief Engineer of Designs, M.A. POPOVA, Engineer-Technologist, Yu.N. SHCHEDRIN, Deputy General Director OOO «VKB-Engineering» (36 Krasnoarmeyskaya Street, 350000, Krasnodar, Russian Federation)

Modernization of Housing Module Prefabrication Plants It is shown that the modernization of housing module prefabrication plants has some directions: modernization of molding equipment with improving its technical characteristics; enhancement of the production technology due to the optimal layout of equipment, improvement of concrete mixes compositions and conditions of thermal treatment. An example of the project of a housing module prefabrication plant producing 140 thousand m 2 of total square of products of space unit house prefabrication made of light concrete per year is presented.

Keywords: space block house prefabrication,modernization, residential house, molding machine, enterprise capacity, layout of plant.

References
1. Nikolaev S.V. Revival of House Building Factories on the Basis of Domestic Equipment. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 4–9. (In Russian).
2. Nikolaev S.V., Shreiber A.K., Etenko V.P. Panel and frame housing construction – a new stage of development of efficiency. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
3. Baranova L.N. Development of industrial housing con struction and the industry of construction materials in various regions of Russia. Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii estestvennykh nauk (Sankt-Peterburg). 2013. No. 3, pp. 61–63. (In Russian).
4. Antipov D.N. Strategy of development of the enterprises of industrial housing construction. Problemy sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2012. No. 1, pp. 267–270. (In Russian).
5. Melnikova I.B. new means of expressiveness of multysto ried multisection residential buildings. Nauchnoe obozre- nie. 2015. No. 20, pp. 86–89. (In Russian).
6. Zhigulina A.Yu., Ponomarenko A.M. Affordable housing from volume blocks. History and present. Traditions and innovations in construction and architecture. Architecture and design the collection of articles under the editorship of M.I. Balzannikov, K.S. Galitskov, E.A. Akhmedova. Sama ra state architectural and construction university. Samara, 2015, pp. 76–81. (In Russian).
7. Zhigulina A.Yu., Mizyuryaev of S. A. Objemno-block housing construction as version of the solution of housing problem. Traditions and innovations in construction and architecture. Architecture and design the collection of articles under the editorship of M.I. Balzannikov, K.S. Galitskov, E.A. Akhmedova. Samara state architectural and construc tion university. Samara, 2015, pp. 124–128. (In Russian).
8. Harchenko S.G. Development of construction of social housing on the basis of modernization of industrial hous- ing construction. Modern technologies of management – 2014. Collection of materials of the international scientific conference. Moscow, 2014, рр. 1750–1759. (In Russian).
9. Usmanov Sh.I. Formation of economic strategy of devel opment of industrial housing construction in Russia. Politika, gosudarstvo i pravo. 2015. No. 1 (37), pp. 76–79. (In Russian).
10. Alpysbayev M.N., Povyshev Yu.N., Nurbaturov K.A., Zaikin V.A. Seysmichesky a framework in industrial house-building system. Tekhnologii betonov. 2013. No. 10 (87), pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
I.N. LEKAREV1, Director, A.G. SIDOROV2, Candidate of Sciences (Economics), Director, I.N. MOSHKA1, Deputy Director for project preparation
1 OOO «AK BARS Engineering» (1, Meridiannaya Street, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420087, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Kazansky DSK» (118, A. Kutuya Street, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420087, Russian Federation)

Series of ABD Houses – 9000: Introduction of BIM-Technologies at Modern Production The oldest integrated house-building factory of Tatarstan has experienced a rebirth thanks to the modernization. At “Kazansky DSK”, during three years, a unique project of adaptation of the foreign experience to the needs of the domestic prefabrication construction was realized. At present, the first stage of modernization is completed. The result of the second stage will be increasing the potential capacity of the integrated factory up to 250 ths m 2 of housing per year. Construction time is reduced by two times. The experience in creation of the design bureau and introduction of BIM-technologies into operation are presented.

Keywords: precast concrete, reinforced concrete products, Kazansky DSK, large-panel house building, modernization, BIM-technologies, ABD-9000.

References
1. Nikolaev S.V. The possibility or revival of house building factories on the basis of domestic equipment. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
2. Yarmakovskii V.N. Energy-resources-saving under manufacturing at the elements of structural-technological building systems, their rising and exploitation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 4–6. (In Russian).
3. Oparina L.A. Taking into Account the energy intensity of building materials at different stages of the life cycle of buildings. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtruction Materials]. 2014. No. 11, pp. 44–45. (In Russian).
4. Yumasheva E.I., Sapacheva L.V. House-building industry and social order of time. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 10, pp. 3–11. (In Russian).
5. Lekarev I.N., Safin A.M., Sidorov A.G. The concept of construction from precast concrete according to the WHaus standard. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 20–25. (In Russian).

A.G. KOVRIGIN, Engineer, Head of Technical Support Group (anton.kovrigin@bzs.ru), A.V. MASLOV, Engineer «Biysk Factory of Glass-Fibre Reinforced Plastics» LLC (60/1, Leningradskaya Street, Biysk, Altay Region, 659316 Russia)

Composite Flexible Bracing in Large-Panel House Building

To use composite flexible bracing in large-panel house building on the territory of the Russian Federation, it is necessary to confirm the compliance of their characteristics with GOST 54923-2012 “Composite Flexible Bracings for Multilayered Enclosing Structures. Technical Specifications”. Since GOST 54923-2012 has a number of significant drawbacks, more complete technical documentation must be developed for flexible bracing: Technical approval for the system with application of flexible bracing, an analogues standard of organization, technical recommendations, assessment of fire resistance. To guarantee the reliability of wall panels during the full term of their operation with regard to flexible bracing, it is necessary to structurally ensure the permanent character of snatching of bracings from the concrete (with destruction of concrete), determine reducing operational factors, develop the competent methods for calculation and arrangement of bracings for wall panels of different types.

Keywords: large-panel house building, composite flexible bracing, requirements of regulatory documentation, factors of operating conditions, complex of technical assessment of com posite flexible bracing, methods for calculation of number of bracings.

References
1. Nikolaev S.V. The possibility or revival of house building factories on the basis of domestic equipment. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
2. Usmanov Sh.I. Formation of economic strategy of development of industrial housing construction in Russia. Politika, gosudarstvo i pravo. 2015. No. 1 (37), pp. 76–79. (In Russian).
3. Baranova L.N. Development of industrial housing construction and the industry of construction materials in various regions of Russia. Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii estestvennykh nauk. 2013. No. 3, pp. 61–63. (In Russian).
4. Lugovoy А.N., Kovrigin A.G. Composite Flexible Bracings for Three-Layered Thermal Efficient Panels. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materiаls]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 32–33. (In Russian).
5. Lugovoy А.N. Enhancement of Energy Efficiency of Enclosing Structures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materiаls]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 22–24. (In Russian).
6. Lugovoy А.N., Kovrigin A.G. The accounting of requirements of standard documentation at design of three-layer panels. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materiаls]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 35–38. (In Russian).
7. Blazhko V.P., Granik M.Yu. Flexible bazaltoplastikovy communications for application in three-layer panels of external walls. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materiаls]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 56–57. (In Russian).

G.V. NESVETAEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); G.S. KARDUMYAN2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kardumyan@mail.ru)
1 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)
2 Research, Design and Technological Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete named after A.A. Gvozdev (6/5, Institutskaya Street, Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation)

About Rational Application of Additives to Concrete at Large-panel Prefabrication Plants

Obvious advantages of industrial, in the first place, large-panel housing construction make it an important and highly competitive sector in the construction of social housing in large cit ies. The development of the technology of large-panel housing construction predetermines the need of improving the technology of concretes providing the manufacture of products with high-quality surfaces at minimal cost for molding, steam treatment, finishing products, acceleration of molds reusing, reducing the cost of concrete mix and product, reducing the human factor influence on the production process as a whole that predetermines the need to widely use additives, complex including, for solving technological problems in the field of the technology of concretes for large-panel construction. National manufacturers of additives and foreign companies, which have organized their enterprises on the territory of the Russian Federation, are able to meet the need of enterprises of large-panel housing construction for all necessary additives. Additives to concrete are the most powerful instrument for regulating the properties of concrete mixes; they greatly influence on the whole technological cycle. A key point is providing the stability of the technological process, i.e. guaranteed results at possible fluctuations of technological parameters in a fairly wide range. Keeping this in mind, the assessment of technical-economic efficiency of the use of additives at large- panel prefabrication plants should be made.

Keywords: large-panel housing construction, concrete mixes, additives to concrete, technological cycle, economic efficiency.

References
1. Davidyuk A.N., Nesvetaev G.V. Large-panel house prefabrication is a significant reserve for solution of housing problem in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 24–25. (In Russian).
2. Barinova L.S., Kupriyanov L.I., Mironov V.V. Current state and prospects of development of Russian construc tion complex. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 9, pp. 2–7. (In Russian).
3. Tikhomirov B.I., Korshunov A.N. Formless molding line – plant efficiency with a flexible technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 22–29. (In Russian).
4. Nikolaev S.V., Shrejber А.K., Etenko V.P. Panel and frame house building is a new stage of large-panel construction development. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
5. Kornienko V.D., Chikota S.I. Stages of development of apartment buildings for mass construction of Russian cities. Aktual’nye problemy sovremennoy nauki, tekhniki i obrazovaniya. 2014. Vol. 2. No. 1, pp. 19–23. (In Russian).
6. Semchenkov A.S., Boboshko V.I., Mantsevich A.Yu., Shevtsov D.A. Energy resources concrete columns-panel design-construction system for civil buildings. Vestnik MGSU. 2012. No. 2. Vol. 1, pp. 125–127. (In Russian).
7. Yumasheva E.I., Sapacheva L.V. The house-building industry and the social order of time. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 10, pp. 3–11. (In Russian).
8. Meuser F. Ten parameters for standard houses. Peculiarities and prospects of panel house building in the XXI century. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
9. Nesvetaev G.V., Davidyuk A.N., Khetagurov B.A. Selfconsolidating concretes: some factors determining concrete mix fluidity. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 3, pp. 54–57. (In Russian).
10. Davidyuk A.N., Nesvetaev G.V. Technical and economic aspects of the evaluation of the effectiveness of superplasticizers. Beton. Tsement. Sukhie smesi. 2010. No. 4, 5, pp. 98–103. (In Russian).

L.I. KASTORNYKH1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), (likas9@mail.ru), I.V. TRISHCHENKO1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), M.A. GIKALO 2, Engineer, Head of Design Department
1 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotsialisticheskaya Street, 344022, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Scientific-Technical Center «Akademstroy» (144, Off. 34/B, Taganrogskaya Street, 344016, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation)

Efficiency of Recycling System at Ready-Mixed Concrete and Prefabricated Concrete Plants

The issue of energy and resources saving, when recycled materials, fillers and water are used in the course of production of concrete and building mortar, is raised. The relevance of the use of a recycling system is substantiated by the availability of stock-produced technological equipment, practical experience in introduction of these systems, as well as the necessity to obligatory include the list of measures aimed at preventing the possible impact of economic activity on the environment in the documentation during the development of projects for construction of new enterprises or technical re-equipment of operating productions. The efficiency of production of ready-made mixes according to the variant providing the use of the recycling system has been established. A variant of the layout of facilities of the recycling system at the ready-mixed concrete plant is presented.

Keywords: production efficiency, concrete mix, concrete, recycling system, energy and resources saving, indicators of commercial effectiveness.

References
1. Oparina L.A. Taking into Account the energy intensity of building materials at different stages of the life cycle of buildings. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtruction Materials]. 2014. No. 11, pp. 44–45. (In Russian).
2. Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovskye V.N. The main directions of resource efficiency in the construction and operation of buildings. Part 1. Resursoenergysaving at the manufacturing stage of construction materials, building products and building structures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtruction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 12–18. (In Russian).
3. Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovskye V.N. The main directions of resource efficiency in the construction and operation of buildings. Part 1 (continued). Resursoenergysaving at the manufacturing stage of construction materials, building products, cladding and load-bearing structures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtruction Materials]. 2013. No. 8, pp. 65–72. (In Russian).
4. Efimenko A.Z. Concrete waste – raw materials for the production of efficient building materials. Tehnologii betonov. 2014. No. 2, pp. 17–21. (In Russian).
5. Korovkin M.O., Shesternin A.I., Eroshkina N.A. The use of crushed concrete scrap as an aggregate for self compacting concrete. Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona: elektronnyi nauchnyi zhurnal. 2015. No. 3. http://vvww. ivdon.ru/uploads/article/pdf/IVD_31_Korovkin. pdf_26679ca420.pdf (date of access 19.03.14). (In Russian).
6. Sarmiento-Mantilla S., Sidorova A. Experience in the use of recycled concrete aggregate in construction: the approach to mechanical properties and structural characteristics. Concrete and reinforced concrete – glance at future: scientific works of the III all-Russian (II International) conference on concrete and reinforced concrete. Moskovskii Gosudarstvennyi stroitel’nyi universitet. 2014. Vol. 6, pp. 360–372. (In Russian).
7. Volkov Yu.S. Draft of the European standard for concrete EN-206. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtruction Materials]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 26–28. (In Russian).
8. Methodical recommendations according to efficiency of investment projects. Moscow: Economy, 2000. 421 р.
9. Kastornykh L.I., Trischenko I.V., Gikalo M.A. Updating guidance on the development of process maps for manufacturing precast concrete products. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 7–10. (In Russian).
10. Kaklyugin A.V., Trischenko I.V. On the formation of ecological thinking of students in the learning process at the University. Methods of teaching chemical and ecological subjects: Collection of scientific articles of VIII International scientific – methodical conference. Brest: BrGTU, 2015, pp. 302–304. (In Belarus).

E.M. AKSENOV, Doctor of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), Director, N.G. VASILIEV, First Deputy Director for Science, T.Z. LYGINA, Doctor of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), Deputy Director for Science, R.K. SADYKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Geography), Deputy Director for Science (root@geolnerud.com) The Central Research Institute of Geology of Industrial Minerals (TsNIIgeolnerud) (4, Zinina Street, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420097, Russian Federation)

FSUE «TSNIIgeolnerud»: 70 Years. Stages of a Great Way

The history of the formation of the FSUE «TsNIIgeolnerud», which activity is aimed at studying the mineral resources base of non-metallic minerals of different levels, is described. The main stages of the institute activity in different time periods and main scientific-practical results achieved in various areas of non-metals studies are presented; ways of the development are described; the significance of the institute as a multi-profile enterprise of geology and exploration for the development of productive forces in the whole country, regions and constit uent entities of the Russian Federation is demonstrated; its importance for the building materials industry is shown.

Keywords: FSUE «TsNIIgeolnerud», stages of formation, mineral resources base, non-metallic minerals, direction of works, building materials.
ООО «Лингл Сервис» – предлагает следующие услуги:
1. Поставки запасных частей и расходных материалов. Формирование пакетов запасных частей.
2. Переоборудование и модернизация: проверка машин и оборудования на месте конструктивная обработка и изготовление монтаж и пуско-наладка.
3. Сервисные услуги: устранение неисправностей (в том числе через удалённый сервис) проведение технического обслуживания и ремонта лабораторный анализ Вашего сырья анализ процесса для оптимизации работы сушил и печей тренинг/обучение на месте.

I.M. POTRAVNY, Doctor of Sciences (Economics) (ecoaudit@bk.ru), I.B. GENGUT, Candidate of Sciences (Economics) (igengut@gmail.com), DAVAAHUU NYAMDORJ, Engineer (dabuk91@mail.ru) Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (36, Stremyanny Lane, Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation)

The Possibility of Using Resources Man-Made Deposits for the Production of Construction Materials (for Example, the CCW «Enterprise Erdenet»)*

Discusses the possibility and direction of resource use “technogenic deposits” mining enterprises for manufacture of building materials. Under conditions of complete depletion and exhaustion of mineral reserves of the mining company “Erdenet” in the future, 30–40 years of mine closure, it evaluates the use of off-balance ore and waste from the slurry pits in the construction industry and ensuring the sustainable development of the territory as a whole. Work to expand the resource base of the enterprise by involving in the economic turnover “technogenic deposits” should be linked with measures to eliminate accumulated environmental damage. The financing of innovative projects on production of construction materials from tailings of the mining enterprise proposed to be financed out form of sustainable development Fund (liquidation Fund) of the mining enterprise. Production of construction materi als from tailings and overburden the mining company is considered as one of the main ways to reduce the cost of production and sustainable development of the enterprise for the future in terms of depletion of its resource base.

Keywords: mining, mining company, environmental Economics, depletion, closure of the mine, a man-made Deposit, the resource base, production of construction materials, reducing the negative impact on the environment, Mongolia

References
1. Passport of the Federal target program «The Elimination of accumulated environmental damage for 2015–2026 years». Moscow: Ministry of natural resources and environment of the Russian Federation. 2013. 47 p. (In Russian).
2. Belashenko V.V., Rudakova L.V. Evaluation of economic and environmental risk in the development of technogenic mineral formations. Ekonomika prirodopol’zovaniya. 2013. Vol. 5, pp. 63–77. (In Russian).
3. The concept of the Federal target program «The Elimination of accumulated environmental damage for 2015–2026 years». Moscow: Ministry of natural resources and environment of the Russian Federation. 2013. 44 p. (In Russian).
4. Potravny I.M., Motosova E.A. Economic mechanism for implantation for ecological policy in subsoil use. Gornyi zhurnal. 2014. No. 12, pp. 27–30. (In Russian).
5. Potravny I.M., Davaahuu Nyamdorj. The formation of the Fund for sustainable development of the territory at the closure of the mine mining enterprise. Modern problems of management of investment projects in the sphere of construction and environmental management. Proceedings of the V international scientific-practical conference. Moscow. 2015, pp. 208–2013. (In Russian).
6. The resolution of the IV all-Russian Congress on environmental protection http://www.mnr.gov.ru/regulatory/ detail.php?ID=131936 (date of access 12.09.2015). (In Russian).
7. Fomenko A.A. Use of man-made accumulations and ores of non-ferrous metals in the context of environmental economics. Gornyi zhurnal. 2013. No. 2, p. 93–95.
8. Gengut I., Alnykina E., Davaakhuu N., Potravnyy I. Management of environment cost in the project: the experience of Russia and Mongolia. Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management. 2015. Vol. 3, pp. 140–150.
9. Potravny I., Davaahuu Nyamdorj. Financial support for innovative solutions for sustainable development of the mining enterprises in the context of mine closure (for example, CJSC «Company Erdenet»). ICIED 2015: The International Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Development. Proceedings. Ulaanbaatar: Mongolian University of Science and Technology. 2015. pp. 13–15.

Sh.N. VALIYEV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); N.E. KOKODEEVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), S.V. KARPEEV 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Leading Expert of PUITs «Volgodortrans»; A.V. KOCHETKOV 3, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Moscow Automobile and Road State Technical University (MADI) (64, Leningradsky Avenue, 125319, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov (77, Politekhnicheskaya Street, 410054, Saratov, Russian Federation)
3 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29a, Komsomolsky Avenue, 614600, Perm, Russian Federation)

Main Directions of Improvement of Technical Regulations of the Customs Union «Safety of Highways»

Since 2002 the Russian Federation passed to an essentially new innovative approach to the creation and maintenance of products in each sphere of human activity. The so-called sys tem of technical regulations, which is aimed at consumer satisfaction within the frame of safety and admissibility of risk, has been created. Annually, tens of legislative and normative documents of binding and advisory nature by which designers and builders have to be guided further in the field of road economy are developed and accepted. Generally, the standard references of such documents refer to the Federal Law No. 184-FZ «On Technical Regulation». Within implementation of this law, Technical Regulations of the Customs Union 014/2011 «Safety of Highways» has been adopted, but, unfortunately, it doesn’t meet fully the basic principles of the Federal Law No. 184-FZ «On Technical Regulation». The article provides rec ommendations which need to be included in a new edition of Technical Regulations of the Customs Union 014/2011 «Safety of Highways», and also to consider a new version of the standard of quality management systems of ISO 9001:2015 in which the process approach is reflected taking into account risk assessment.

Keywords: quality management, risk, safety, highway, artificial construction, technical regulations.

References
1. Vasilyev Yu.E., Kamenev V.V., Kochetkov A.V., Shlyafer V.L. Adaptive management of mobility by discrete production of cement-concrete mixes Vestnik Moskovskogo avtomobil’no-dorozhnogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2011. No. 2, pp. 96–100. (In Russian).
2. Arzhanukhina S.P., Garibov R.B., Kochetkov A.V., Yankovsky L.V., Glukhov T.A., Bobkov A.V. Choice of requirements to deicing materials for the winter maintenance of highways megalopolis. Voda: khimiya i ekologiya. 2013. No. 4 (58), pp. 106–115. (In Russian).
3. Gladkov V.Yu. Kochetkov A.V., Chelpanov I.B. About pithiness of the accounting of risk and aspects of quality management in the Federal law “On technical regulation”. Dorozhnaya derzhava. 2007. No. 5, 6. (In Russian).
4. Gladkov V.Yu., Kochetkov A.V., Tsymbalov A.A., Kokodeeva N.E. Improvement of quality management system of road economy on the basis of formation and achievement of the demanded system properties. Dorogi i mosty. 2007. No. 4–5, pp. 81–89. (In Russian).
5. Vasilyev Yu.E., Belyakov A.B., Kochetkov A.V., Belyaev D.S. Diagnostics and certification of elements of a street road network by system of video computer scanning. Naukovedenie Internet Journal. 2013. No. 3, pp. 55. (In Russian).
6. Kokodeeva N.E. Methodological bases of a complex assessment of reliability of highways in system of technical regulation of road economy. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Saint-Petersburg. 2012. 350 p. (In Russian).
7. Kokodeeva N.E., Talalai V.V., Kochetkov A.V., Yankovsky L.V., Arzhanukhina S.P. Methodological bases of an assessment of technical risks in road economy. Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Prikladnaya ekologiya. Urbanistika. 2011. No. 3, pp. 38–49. (In Russian).
8. Arzhanukhina S.P., Kochetkov A.V., Kozin A.S., Strizhevsky D.A. Standard and technological development of innovative activity of road economy. Naukovedenie Internet Journal. 2012. No. 4, pp. 69. (In Russian).
9. Yankovsky L.V., Kochetkov A.V. Application the geoimplantatnykh of designs for creation of ecoparkings. Ekologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii. 2011. No. 5, pp. 32– 34. (In Russian).
10. Rapoport P.B., Rapoport N.V., Kochetkov A.V., Vasilyev Yu.E., Kamenev V.V. Problems of durability of cement concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2011. No. 5, pp. 38–41. (In Russian).
11. Kochetkov A.V., Gladkov V.Yu., Nemchinov D.M. Design of structure of information support of quality management system of road economy. Naukovedeniye Internet Journal. 2013. No. 3, pp. 72. (In Russian).
12. Ermakov M.L., Karpeev S.V., Kochetkov A.V., Arzhanukhina S.P. Improvement of branch system of diagnostics of highways. Dorozhnaya derzhava. 2011. No. 30, pp. 38. (In Russian).
13. Arzhanukhina S.P., Sukhov A.A., Kochetkov A.V., Karpeev S.V. Condition of standard ensuring innovative activity of road economy. Kachestvo. Innovatsii. Obrazovanie. 2010. No. 9, pp. 40. (In Russian).
14. Kochetkov A.V., Kokodeeva N.E., Rapoport P.B., Rapoport N.V., Shashkov I.G. Condition of modern methodical ensuring calculation and designing of road clothes. Transport. Transportnye sooruzheniya. Ekologiya. 2011. No. 1, pp. 65–74. (In Russian).
15. Vasilyev Yu.E., Polyansky V.G., Sokolova E.R., Garibov R.B., Kochetkov A.V., Yankovsky L.V. Statistical methods of quality control by production of a cement concrete and cement-concrete mixes. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2012. No. 4, pp. 101. (In Russian).
16. Stolyarov V.V. Proektirovanie avtomobil’nykh dorog s uchetom teorii riska. [Design of highways taking into account the theory of risk]. Saratov: SGTU, 1994. 1994. 184 p.
17. Stolyarov V.V. Technical regulations “Design of highways” (the alternative project). Dorogi. Innovatsii v stroitel’stve. 2011. No. 6, pp. 18–21. (In Russian).
18. Stolyarov V.V. Technical regulations “Design of highways” (the alternative project). Dorogi. Innovatsii v stroitel’stve. 2010. No. 1, pp. 13–29; No. 2, pp. 19–26; No. 3, pp. 31–36; No. 4, pp. 13–17; No. 5, pp. 28–31.

N.I. KOZHUKHOVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), R.V. CHIZHOV1, Engineer, I.V. ZHERNOVSKY1, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), V.I. LOGANINA 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.V. STROKOVA1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (vvstrokova@gmail.com)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46 Kostyukov Street, 308012, Belgorod, Russian Federation)
2 Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (28 German Titov Street, 440028, Penza, Russian Federation)

Features of Structure Formation of a Geo-polymeric Binding System on the Basis of Perlite with the Use of Different Types of Alkali Activators

In the framework of this work, features of the structure formation of the geo-polymeric binding system when aluminosilicate raw – perlite – is activated with different grinding aggre- gates and alkaline components, providing a high pH value of a medium of mixing are studied. The most effective grinding equipment for perlite is selected. The influence of the type of alkaline activator on the structure formation of a geo-polymeric binder and formation of its physical and mechanical properties is established. Features of hardening kinetics of the geo- polymeric system with the use of different alkali components are determined. Efficiency of the use of NaOH as an alkaline activator in comparison with KOH (caustic potash) is con firmed that can be associated with more favorable conditions for polymerization of aluminosilicate gel with participation of Na + ions than with larger K+ ions as well as an optimum com bination of priority and intensity of chemical reactions in the alkali aluminosilicate system.

Keywords: perlite of Mukhor-Talinsk deposit, geo-polymeric binder, alkaline activation, mechanoactivation, structure formation.

References
1. Hozin V.G., Hohryakov O.V., Sibgatullin I.R., Gizzatullin A.R., Harchenko I.Y. Low water demand calcite cement – green alternative of Russian cement industry // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2014. № 5, рр. 76–82. (In Russian).
2. Gryizlov V.S., Fomenko A.I., Fedorchuk N.M., Busyigin N.S., Turgumbaeva H.H. Beisekova T.I., Lapshina I.Z. Phosphoric slags as base of binding composites // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2014. № 10, рр. 66–69. (In Russian).
3. Alfimova N.I., Vishnivskaya Y. Y., Trunov P.V. Influence of volcanic raw materials and curing conditions on composite binders activity // Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova [Bulletin of Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shoukhov]. 2011. № 1, рр. 10–14. (In Russian).
4. Lesovik V.S., Zhernovoy F.E., Glagolev E.S. Utilization of natural perlite in blended cement // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2009. № 6, рр. 84–87. (In Russian).
5. Kozhuhova N.I., Zhernovskiy I.V., Osadchaya M.S., Strokova V.V., Tchizhov R.V. On the Question of the Choice of Natural and Man-Made Materials for Geo- Polymer Binders // Research Journal of Applied Science. 2014. Vol. 9 (12), рр. 1034–1039.
6. Fomina E.V., Kozhukhova M.I., Kozhukhova N.I. Estimation of efficiency of aluminosilicate rocks application in composite binders // Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova [Bulletin of Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shoukhov]. 2013. № 5, рр. 31–35. (In Russian).
7. Gordienko I.V., Zhamoitsina L.G. Mukhotalinskoe perlittseolitovoe mestorozhdenie [Mukhotalinsk perlite-zeolite deposite]. Transbaikalia Moscow. 1995, рр. 226–233.
8. Chizhov R.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Zhernovsky I.V., Korotkih D.N., Fomina E.V., Kozhukhova M.I. Phase formation and properties of perlite based aluminosilicate binders with non-hydration hardening type // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2015. № 3, рр. 34–36. (In Russian).
9. Glukhovsky V.D. Schelochnye i schelochno-zemelnye gidravlicheskie vyazhuschie I betonyi [Alkaline and alkaliearth hydraulic binders and concretes]. Kiev. 1979. 232 p.

V.N. KORNOPOL’TSEV, Candidate of Science (Engineering) (kompo@mail.ru) D.M. MOGNONOV, Doctor of Science (Chemistry) (dmog@binm.bscnet.ru) O. Zh. AYUROVA, Candidate of Science (Engineering) (chem88@mail.ru) Baikal Institute of Nature Management Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (6, Sakhyanovoy street, Republic of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russian Federation)

Antifriction Metal-Polymer Materials for Construction Equipment, Machinery and Transport Operated in the Conditions of the Russian North and the Arctic*

The possibility of increasing of the operating parameters of sheet antifriction materials at change of composition of composites based on polytetrafluoroethylene and enhance of the adhesive bond of the polymer composites to a metal substrate are considered. Analysis of the tribological characteristics ensures reliable screening of the dates of operation of con struction machinery and transport in different climatic conditions, including the Russian North and the Arctic.

Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, particulate fillers, composites, friction, wear.

References
1. Akhverdiyev K.S., Vorontsov P.A., Semenov A.P. Raschet i konstruirovanie gidrodinamicheskikh podshipnikov skol’zheniya s metallopolimernymi vkladyshami [Calculation and design of hydrodynamic plain bearings with metal-polymer liners]. Rostov on Don: Publishing office of the Rostov state transport university. 1999. 205 p.
2. Patent RF #1418999. Sposob polucheniya bimetallicheskogo metalloftoroplastovogo materiala [The method of producing of bimetallic metal-fluoroplastic material] Kornopol’tsev N.V. 20.10.1993. (In Russian).
3. Patent RF #2277997. Sposob polucheniya kombinirovannogo metalloftoroplastovogo materiala [The method of producing of combined metal-fluoroplastic material] Buznik V.M., Kornopol’tsev V.N., Kornopol’tsev N.V., Mognonov D.M., Rogov V.E. Declared 21.10.2004. Published 20.06.2006. Bulletin No. 17. (In Russian).
4. Pogosyan A.K. Trenie i iznos napolnennykh polimernykh materialov [Friction and wear of filled polymer materials]. Moscow: Nauka. 1977. 137 p.
5. Istomin N.P., Semenov A.P. Antifriktsionnye svoistva kompozitsionnykh materialov na osnove ftorpolimerov [Anti-friction properties of composite materials based on fluoropolymers]. Moscow: Nauka. 1981. 131 p.
6. Voroshnin L.G., Abacharaev M.M., Khusid B.M. Kavitatsionnostoikie pokrytiya na zhelezouglerodistykh splavakh [Cavitation resistant coating on iron-carbon alloys]. Minsk: Nauka i technika. 1987. 248 p.
7. Patent of Australia № 582577. Bearing material and method of making PTFE based tape suitable for impregnation into a porous metal matrix of the bearing material / Pratt G.C., Montpetit M.C., Lytwynec M.D. AU-B-41845/85. 1985.
8. Pratt G.C. Plastic-Based Bearing – Lubrication and Lubricants. Ed. E.R. Braithwaite. Amsterdam; London; New York: Elsevier Publ. Co. 1967, pp. 377–426.
9. Kornopol’tsev V.N., Kornopol’tsev N.V., Mognonov D.M. et al. Optimization of the composition of metalfluoroplastic material on the steel substrate. Khimiya v interesakh ustoichivogo razvitiya. 2005. No. 13, pp. 757–765. (In Russian).
10. Kornopol’tsev V.N., Kornopol’tsev N.V., Mognonov D.M. Tests of metal-fluoroplastic sheet anti-friction materials at sliding speeds up to 3 m/s. Trenie i iznos. 2009. Vol.30. No. 4, pp. 385–389. (In Russian).
11. Kornopol’tsev V.N., Mognonov D.M. Lead dioxide as a modifier of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene. Voprosy materialovedeniya. 2010. No. 1, pp. 72–77. (In Russian).
12. Basin V.E. Adgezionnaya prochnost’ [The adhesion strength]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1981. 208 p.
13. Kinlock E. Adgeziya i adgezivy [Adhesion and Adhesives]. Moscow: Mir. 1991. 485 p.
14. Wu S. Interfacial energy, surface structure and adhesion between the polymers. Polymer blends. Under red. D. Paul and S. Newman. Vol. 1. Moscow: Mir. 1981, pp. 282–336.
15. Ayurova O.Zh., Kornopol’tsev V.N., Mognonov D.M., Maksanova L.A. Adhesion of PTFE-film to metal surfaces. Voprosy materialovedeniya. 2011. No. 3 (67), pp. 96–100. (In Russian).
16. Patent RF #2490371. Sposob polucheniya ftoroplastovogo antiadgezionnogo pokrytiya na metallicheskikh poverkhnostyakh [A method of producing of fluoroplastic antiadhesive coating on the metal surfaces]. Kornopol’tsev V.N., Mognonov D.M., Ayurova O.Zh., Burdukovskiy V.F., Kholhoev B.Ch. Declared 19.04.2012. Published 20.08.2013. Bulletin No. 23. (In Russian).
17. Paul D. Interfacial additives to promote compatibility in polymer blends. Polymer blends. Under red. D. Paul and S. Newman. Vol. 2. Moscow: Mir. 1981, pp. 39–67.
18. Freidin A.S. Prochnost’ i dolgovechnost’ kleevykh soedineniy [The strength and durability of adhesive joints]. Moscow: Chemistry. 1971. 256 p.
P.Y. MATAR 1 , Ph.D. (pmatar@ul.edu.l); V.B. PETROPAVLOVSKAYA 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (victoriapetrop@gmail.com), T.R. BARKAYA 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); M.F. BAYSSARY 1 , M.Sc., L.S. EL-HASSANIEH 1 , B.Eng.
1 Lebanese University (P.O. Box 399, Jounieh, Badaro, Museum, Beirut - Lebanon)
2 Tver State Technical University (170026, Tver, A. Nikitina Embankment, 22, Russian Federation)

Сoncrete Wall Hollow Blocks with Recycled Aggregates and Recycled Glass

The concrete scrap is a main type of waste of construction and demolition of shabby buildings. Filler is received as a result of crushing of concrete scrap. It can be repeatedly used in production of concrete mix. One more valuable withdrawal of construction and demolition is glass. It as filler in concrete can be also used. The purpose of this work is influence study ing the retsiklirovannykh of fillers and glass on characteristics of hollow wall concrete blocks. Tests were carried out on four groups of concrete blocks. They contained a portlandtse ment, retsiklirovanny filler, retsiklirovanny glass and supersoftener. One group of blocks didn’t contain retsiklirovanny materials. In work properties of the concrete mixes and blocks received on their basis were investigated.

Keywords: wall concrete blocks, recycling, filler, glass, properties.

References
1. Nassar R., Soroushian P. Strength and durability of recycled aggregate concrete containing milled glass as partial replacement for cement. Construction and Building Materials. 2012. No. 29, pp. 368–377.
2. Проблема утилизации строительных отходов в России // Экопрогресс. Электронный журнал. http:// ecoprogress.pro/econews/latest-issue/actual/ actual_409.html (дата обращения 06.11.2015). Problem of recycling of construction waste in Russia. Ekoprogress. Electronic journal. http://ecoprogress.pro/ econews/latest-issue/actual/actual_409.html (date of access 06.11.2015). (In Russian).
3. Leshchinsky A., Lesinskij M. Concrete aggregate from construction and demolition waste. BFT International. 2003. No. 8, pp. 14–22.
4. Hendricks C.F., Pietersen H.S. Concrete: Durable, but also sustainable? Proceedings of the International Symposium “Sustainable Construction: Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregate”. London. 11–12 November 1998, pp. 1–18.
5. Roos F., Zilch K. Verification of the dimensioning values for concrete with recycled concrete aggregate. Proceedings of the International Symposium “Sustainable Construction: Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregate”. London. 11–12 November 1998, pp. 309–319.
6. RILEM TC 121-DRG: Guidance for demolition and reuse of concrete and masonry – Specifications for concrete with recycled aggregates – RILEM recommendation. Materials and Structures. 1994. No. 27, pp. 557–559.
7. El Dalati R., Matar P. On the road to get structural recycled concrete. Materials Science and Engineering Technology (Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik). 2011. Vol. 42. No. 5, pp. 398–402.
8. Poon C.S., Lam C.S. The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on the properties of precast concrete blocks. Cement and Concrete Composites. 2008. No. 30, pp. 283–289.
9. Chakradhara Rao M., Bhattacharyya S.K., Barai S.V. Behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete under drop weight impact load. Construction and Building Materials. 2011. No. 25, pp. 69–80.
10. Rao A., Jha K.N., Misra S. Use of aggregates from recycled construction and demolition waste in concrete. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2007. No. 50, pp. 71–81.
11. Nealen A., Schenk S. The influence of recycled aggregate core moisture on freshly mixed and hardened concrete properties. Darmstadt Concrete – Annual Journal. 1998. Vol. 13, pp. 322–336.
12. Pimienta P., Tran T., Delmotte P., Colombard-Prout M. Recycled aggregate used for making building blocks. Proceedings of the International Symposium “Sustainable Construction – Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregate”. London. 11–12 November 1998, pp. 297–307.
13. Poon C.S., Kou S.C., Wan H.W., Etxeberria M. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates. Waste Management. 2009. No. 29, pp. 2369–2377.
14. Xiao Z., Ling T.C., Kou S.C., Wang Q., Poon C.S. Use of wastes derived from earthquakes for the production of concrete masonry partition wall blocks. Waste Management. 2011. No. 31, pp. 1859–1866.
15. Kou S.C., Zhan B.J., Poon C.S. Properties of partition wall blocks prepared with fresh concrete wastes. Construction and Building Materials. 2012. No. 36, pp. 566–571.
16. Matar P., El Dalati R. Strength of masonry blocks made with recycled concrete aggregates. Physics Procedia. 2011. No. 21. pp. 180–186.
17. Shao Y., Lefort T., Moras S., Rodriguez D. Studies on concrete containing ground waste glass. Cement and Concrete Research. 2000. Vol. 30. No. 1, pp. 91–100.
18. Liang H., Zhu H., Byars E.A. Use of waste glass as aggregate in concrete. 7th UK Care Annual General Meeting. UK Chinese Association of Resources and Environment. 2007. Greenwich. 15 September 2007, pp. 1–7.
19. Ucol-Ganiron T.Jr. Recycled window glass for non-load bearing walls. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology. 2012. Vol. 3. No. 6, pp. 725–730.
20. Clean Washington Center (CWC). Best practices in glass recycling: Recycled glass in Portland cement concrete. November 1996, pp. 1–2.
21. Meyer C., Egosi N., Andela C. Concrete with waste glass as aggregate. Proceedings of the International Symposium Concrete Technology Unit of ASCE and University of Dundee “Recycling and Re-use of Glass Cullet”. 19–20 March 2001. 9 p.
22. Lee J. Utilization of solid wastes as aggregates in concrete. Journal of Waste Glass and Rubber Particles. 2003. Vol. 3, pp. 123–134.
23. Somayaji S. Civil Engineering Materials. New York: Pearson Education. 2001. 351 p.

V.V. FIRSOV1, Engineer (labmineral@mail.ru); O.S. TATARINTSEVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (е-mail: olga@frpc.secna.ru); A.N. BLAZNOV 1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (labmineral@mail.ru)
1 Institute for Problems of Chemical & Energetic Technologies of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1, Socialisticheskaya Street, Biysk, Altai krai, 659322, Russian Federation)
2 AO «Federal Scientific and Production Center «Altai» (1, Socialisticheskaya Street, Biysk, Altai krai, 659322, Russian Federation)

Efficiency of Application of Basalt Fiber Heat Insulation in Hollow Wall Blocks

Issues of the thermal-technical efficiency of fibrous heat insulation in wall blocks with hollows, which are used in low-rise and individual construction, are considered. The theoretical and experimental assessment of the application efficiency of basalt wool as a heat insulation material in hollow-core concrete blocks is made. Values of specific heat flows passing through the hollow and concrete partition are calculated with the use of well-known heat exchange equations. It is shown that the heat resistance of concrete blocks filled with wool exceeds this parameter of block with unfilled hollows by 24%.

Keywords: concrete hollow-core block, heat insulation, basalt wool, heat exchange, convection, heat conductivity.

References
1. Patent RF 2459052. Pustotelyi stroitel’nyi blok [Hollow building block]. Pelyanskiy I.V., Pelyanskiy M.I. Declared 26.04.2010. Published 20.08.2012. (In Russian).
2. Chernykh V.F., Makarets O.N., Shchibrya A.Yu., Shestakova E.V., Makarets A.V. Hollow building blocks for low-rise buildings. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 6, pp. 52–53. (In Russian).
3. Leonovich S.N., Poleiko N.L., Zhuravskiy S.V., Temnikov Yu.N. Operational characteristics of concrete building structures with the use of “Kalmatron” system. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 11, pp. 64–66. (In Russian).
4. Abyzov A.N., Rytvin V.M., Abyzov V.A., Perepelitsyn V.A., Grigor’ev V.G. Heat-resistant and refractory concrete on the basis of bonding agents and fillers from ferroalloy production slag. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 11, pp. 67–69. (In Russian).
5. Pichugin A.L., Denisov A.S., Khritankov V.F., Bareev V.I. Progressive conception of molding of light concrete wall blocks on roasting bond. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 22–24. (In Russian).
6. Gaisin A.M., Gareev R.R., Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Samokhodova S.Yu. Twenty year experience in application of high-hollow vibro-pressed concrete blocks in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Problems and prospects. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4. pp. 82–86. (In Russian).
7. Samoilenko V.V., Firsov V.V. Basalt-fiber temperature resistance. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 58–59. (In Russian).
8. Tatarintseva O.S., Uglova T.K., Igonin G.S., Igonina T.N., Bychin N.V. Determining the service life of basalt fiber-reinforced heat-insulating materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 11, pp. 14–15. (In Russian).
9. Ivanov O.G. Application of fiber-reinforced heat insulation in multilayer structures of building walls. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 2, pp. 31–32. (In Russian).
10. Il’diyarov E.V., Kholopov I.S. Determination of physicalmechanical characteristics of sandwich panel elements with a basalt-wool central layer. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 2, pp. 25–28. (In Russian).
11. Grigor’ev V.A., Zorin V.M. Spravochnik. Teplo- i massoobmen. Teplotekhnicheskii eksperiment. [Reference book. Warm and mass exchange. Heattechnical experiment]. Moscow: Energoatomizdat. 1982. 512 p.
12. Kutateladze S.S. Osnovy teorii teploobmena [Bases of the theory of heat exchange]. Moscow-Leningrad: Mashgiz.1962. 456 p.

A.A. KETOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (alexander_ketov@mail.ru) Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolsky Avenue, 614990, Perm, Russian Federation)

Prospects of Foam Glass in Housing Construction

The article considers the properties of produced block foam glass according to new technologies at the territory of the former USSR. Properties and physical-chemical peculiarities of new products are described; it is revealed that new enterprises produce a partially crystallized material. It is shown that the existing technical-economic characteristics of the produced material can’t objectively compete at the market of heat insulation. Technical solutions which make it possible to produce, in perspective, a material competitive at the building materials market are offered.

Keywords: block foam glass, foam glass crystal materials, energy saving.

References
1. Ketov A.A., Tolmachev A.V. Foamed Glass: Technological Realities and the Market. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 1, pp. 17–23. (In Russian).
2. Vaisman Ya.I., Ketov A.A., Ketov Yu.A., Molochko R.A. Effect of oxidation of carbon water vapors at the hydrate mechanism of gas generation when receiving cellular glass. Zhurnal prikladnoi khimii. 2015. Vol. 88. No. 3, pp. 118–121. (In Russian).
3. Patent RF for useful model 102003. Tekhnologicheskaya liniya proizvodstva oblitsovochnogo teploizolyatsionnogo materiala [Technological production line of facing heatinsulating material]. Kapustinskii N.N., Ketov P.A., Ketov Yu.A. Declared 08.10.2010. Published 10.02.2011. Bulletin No. 4. (In Russian).
4. Vaisman Ya.I., Ketov A.A., Ketov P.A. Scientific and technological aspects of production of a foamglass. Fizika i khimiya stekla. 2015. Vol. 41. No. 2, pp. 214–221. (In Russian).

L.A. ABDRAKHMANOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (laa@kgasu.ru); A.M. ISLAMOV, Engineer; V. KH. FAKHRUTDINOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Foamed Composite Materials On the Basis of Polyvinylchloride

Results of the experimental research in the modification of non-plasticized PVC-compositions with a reactive oligomer, polyisocyanate, with the purpose to obtain materials and prod ucts of various functions are presented. A “temporary” plasticizing impact of the oligomer on PVC leading to the improvement in processability of compositions and strength properties of composites is shown. The study of expanding compositions with the purpose to obtain polyvinylchloride materials of an integral structure which combine maximum possible strength and low density has been carried out.

Keywords: polyvinylchloride, polyisocyanate, integral foam plastics, co-extrusion, shaped and linear articles.

References
1. Pakharenko V.A., Pakharenko V.V., Yakovleva R.A. Plastmassy v stroitel’stve [Plastic construction]. Saint- Petersburg: Nauchnye osnovy i tekhnologii. 2010. 358 p.
2. Pol D.R., Baknell K.B. Polimernye smesi [Polymer blends]. T. 1. Saint-Petersburg: Nauchnye osnovy i tekhnologii. 2009. 606 p.
3. Kuleznev V.N. Smesi i splavy polimerov (konspekt lektsii) [Alloys and blends of polymers (lecture notes)]. Saint- Petersburg: Nauchnye osnovy i tekhnologii. 2013. 216 p.
4. Islamov A.M., Fakhrutdinova V.Kh., Abdrakhmanova L.A. Structural features of the formation of the modified PVC compounds. Materials of II All-Russian scientific conference of young scientists with international participation «Advanced materials technology and construction». Tomsk: TSUAE. 2015. pp. 339–342. (In Russian).
5. Islamov A.M., Fakhrutdinova V.Kh., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Starostina I.A., Yagund E.M., Kuznetsova L.M. Surface strengthening of PVC by polyisocyanate. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 3. pp. 28–33. (In Russian).
6. Ermakov S.N., Kravchenko T.P. Compatible polymers. Thermodynamic and chemical aspects // Plasticheskie massy. 2012. No. 4. pp. 32–39. (In Russian).
7. Buist J.M. Kompozitsionnye materialy na osnove poliuretanov [Composite materials based on polyurethanes]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1982. 240 p.
8. Klempner D., Sendzharevich V. Polimernye peny i tekhnologii vspenivaniya [Handbook of polymeric foams and foam technology]. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya. 2009. 600 p.
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