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Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №6

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I.E. TSUKERNIKOV 1,2 , I.L. SHUBIN 1 , T.O. NEVENCHANNAYA 1,2
1 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State Polytechnic University (2a Pryanishnikova Street, 127550, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Analysis of Rules for Noise and Vibration Rationing and Hygienic Estimation at Workplaces and in Living Conditions in Residential Buildings and Premises The comparative analysis of rules for rationing and hygienic estimation of noise and vibration at workplaces and in the living conditions of residing at residential buildings and the premises is made which are stated by sanitarian norms 2.2.4/2.1.8.562–96 “Noise at workplaces, in premises of residential and public buildings and on areas of housing development”, СН 2.2.4/2.1.8.566–96 “Production vibration, vibration in premises of residential and public buildings”, entered into 1996, and by sanitary-and-epidemiologic rules and specifications SanPiN 2.1.2.2645–10 “Sanitary-epidemiologic requirements for living conditions in residential buildings and premises”, SanPiN 2.2.4.3359–16 “Sanitary-epidemiologic requirements for physical factors at workplaces”. It is noticed that introduction of SanPiN 2.1.2.2645–10 has not led to any changes in rules of rationing and estimation of noise and vibration in the conditions of residing at residential buildings and premises. Essential differences in rationing and assessment of noise and vibration at the workplaces, caused by introduction of SanPiN 2.2.4.3359–16, are presented. Disagreements with requirements of operating standards of methods of noise and vibration measurement and estimation are noted. Features of a hygienic estimation of non-steady vibration in residential buildings and premises are considered. An example of its wrong interpretation in practice is given.

Keywords: noise, vibration, rationing, estimation, exceeding.

For citation: Tsukernikov I.E., Shubin I.L., Nevenchannaya T.O. Analysis of rules for noise and vibration rationing and hygienic estimation at workplaces and in living conditions in residential buildings and premises. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).

References
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2. Shubin I.L., Tsukernikov I.E., Nikolov N., Pisarsky A. Osnovy proektirovaniya transportnykh shumozashchitnykh ekranov [Bases of designing transport noise barriers]. Мoscow: BASTET, 2015. 208 p.
3. Boganik A.G. Acoustic comfort. Part I. Sound- and vibro insulation from internal sources in a residential building. Tekhnologii stroitel’stva. 2008. No. 4 (59), pp. 1–7. (In Russian).
4. Boganik A.G. Acoustic comfort. Part II. Sound- and vibro insulation of a residential building from external sources of sound and vibration. Tekhnologii stroitel’stva. 2008. No. 7 (62), pp. 1–5. (In Russian).
5. Tsukernikov Ilya E. Determination of limit admissible A-weighted noise emission values of machinery and equipment. Proceedings of the 5-th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (1997), pp. 635–641.
6. Tsukernikov I.E., Shubin I.L., Tikhomirov L.A., Nevenchan- naya T.A. Apartment house noise increase because of the road section reconstruction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014, No. 6, pp. 27–30. (In Russian). м7. Tsukernikov I.E., Tikhomirov L.A., Solomatin E.O., Salty- kov I.P., Kochkin N.A. Building acoustics problem solution as a factor providing safety and comfort residing in buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014, No. 6, pp. 49–52. (In Russian). м8. Spiridonov A.V., Tsukernikov I.E., Shubin I.L. Monitiring and analysis of construction regulations in the field room inner climate and safety of harmful exposure. Part 3. Acoustic factors (noise, vibration, infrasound, ultrasound). BST. 2016, No. 6, pp. 8–11. (In Russian).
9. Tsukernikov I.E., Tikhomirov L.A., Schсurova N.E., Neven- channaya T.O. Assessment of Possibility to Reduce Noise from MKAD at Residential Territory «Zarechie». Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 6, pp. 37–39. (In Russian).
10. Smirnov Vladimir, Tsukernikov Ilya. To the question of vibration levels prediction inside residential buildings caused by underground traffic. Dynamics and Vibroacoustics of Machines (DVM2016). Procedia Engineering. 176 (2017) 371–380. м11. Tsukernikov I.E., Shubin I.L., Nevenchannaya T.O. Designing of industrial sound protection. Proceedings of IIth Russian Acoustic Conference combined with XXXth Session of Russian Acoustic Society. 6–9 June 2017, Nizhny Novgorod, IPF RAN, pp. 1387–1397. (In Russian).
12. Tsukernikov I.E. O trebovaniyah k akkusticheskim parametram [About requirements to acoustic parametres]. Standarty I Kachestvo. 2006, No. 6, pp. 20–22. (In Russian). м13. Guide for hygienic estimation of factors of a working environment and labor process. Criteria and classification of working conditions. Guide Р 2.2.2006-005. Moscow: Federalnyi centrf Gossanepidnadzora Minzdrava Russii, 2005. м14. I.E. Tsukernikov, Smirnov V.A. Measurement and analysis of vibrations caused by the movement of underground trains on surrounding buildings and development of vibration isolation system. Proceedings of IIth Russian Acoustic Conference combined with XXXth Session of Russian Acoustic Society. 6–9 June 2017, Nizhny Novgorod, IPF RAN, pp. 1376–1386. (In Russian).
S.I. KRYSHOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), The Centre of Expertise, Research and Testing in Construction (GBU «TsEIIS») (109052, Moscow, Ryazansky prospect, 13)

Problems of sound insulation of buildings In the article the statistical data of the experimental evaluation of sound insulation of building structures of forty-one modern building. The problem are the isolation of air noise of interroom walls and the impact noise of floors. To improve the sound insulation of buildings under construction is necessary to improve the quality of design solutions internal walls and intermediate floors. To use the practice of checking acoustic qualities of the internal walling to individual slices prior to their mass device at the site. In the draft should apply the design of walls and floors, confirming its effectiveness in laboratory and real-world testing

Keywords: sound insulation, airborne noise, impact noise, building envelope, building control.

For citation: Kryshov S.I. Problems of sound insulation of buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 8–10. (In Russian).

References
1. Spiridonov A.V., Tsukernikov I.E., Shubin I.L. Monitoring and analysis of normative documents in the field of indoor climate and protection from harmful influences. Part 3. The acoustical factors (noise, vibration, infrasound,ultrasound). Bulletin of construction equipment. 2016. No. 6, pp. 8–11.
2. Shubin I.L. Normative documents on energy efficiency and building acoustics, designed NIISF RAASN. Bulletin of construction equipment. 2012. No. 2, pp. 7–13.
3. Angelov V.L., Poroshenko M.A. Assessment and regulation of sound insulation of enclosing structures of buildings. Academia. Architecture and construction. 2010. No. 3, рр. 170–174. (In Russian).
4. Poroshenko M.A., Minaeva N.A., Sukhov V.N. Evaluation of airborne sound insulation of a wall with a flexible plate on the relative. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 7, рр. 54–56. (In Russian). м5. Minaeva N.A. Experimental researches of sound insulation of gypsum slabs, covered with sheets of drywall. Academia. Architecture and construction. 2010. No. 3, рр. 194–197. (In Russian).
6. Angelov V.L. The problem of providing sound insulation fences residential and public buildings. Academia. Architecture and construction. 2009. No. 5, рр. 193–195. (In Russian).
7. Angelov V.L., Angelov L.V., Lyubakova E.V. Sound insulation for residential buildings made of individual units. Materials of international scientific-practical conference «Problems and ways of development of energy saving and noise protection in building and housing and communal services». Moscow– Budva. 2011, рр. 215–218. (In Russian).
8. Angelov V.L., Angelov L.V. Soundproofing interfloor overlappings of modern large-panel buildings. Materials of international scientific-practical conference «energy Saving and ecology in the construction, housing and utilities, transport and industrial ecology». Moscow–Budva. 2010, pp. 195–197.
9. Gerasimov A.I., Nikonova E.V. Soundproofing acoustically homogeneous slab with a coating of rolled materials. Materials of international scientific-practical conference «Problems of ecological safety and energy saving in construction and housing and communal services». Moscow–Kavala. 2014, pp. 173–177.
10. Gorin V.A., Klimenko V.V., Shnurnikova E.P. Insulation impact noise interfloor overlappings with parquet floors. Academia. Architecture and construction. 2010. No. 3, рр. 200–203. (In Russian).
S.N.OVSYANNIKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), P.N. SEMENYUK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.N. OVSYANNIKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering),V.N. OKOLICHNY, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), (okolichnyi@mail.ru) Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (2, Solyanaya Square, 634003 Tomsk, Russian Federation)

Space-Planning, Structural and Engineering Decisions of Frame Universal Prefabricated Architectural-Construction System The article discusses the features of space-planning decisions of a new frame universal prefabricated architectural-construction system CUPASS developed according to the project 02.G25.31.002 of the Ministry of Education of Russia “Development and launch of сonstruction technology of energy-saving housing of economic class on the basis of universal prefabricated frame structural system”. The CUPASS system is earthquake resistant and has an obvious universality advantage over the existing frameless and frame architectural-construction systems that make it possible to design, on the basis of unified structural elements, both residential and public buildings of different functional purposes with a variety of spatial-planning and structural decision which have high energy efficiency.

Keywords: space-planning decisions,, residential buildings, public buildings, earthquake resistant frame universal system, built-in and attached premises, free planning decisions, energy efficiency.

For citation: Ovsyannikov S.N., Semenyuk P.N., Ovsyannikov A.N., Okolichny V.N. Space-planning, structural and engineering decisions of frame universal prefabricated architectural-construction system. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 11–19. (In Russian).

References
1. Ovsyannikov S.N., Okolichny V.N. New frame universal prefabrication aseismic constructive system. Investments, construction and real estate as material basis of modernization and innovative development of economy: materials of the Fifth All-Russian scientific and practical conference with the international participation, on March 10–13, 2015. Tomsk State architectural and construction university. 2015, рp. 36–43. (In Russian).
2. Kopanitsa D.G., Kaparulin S.L., Danilson A.I., Ustinov A.M., Useinov E.S., Shashkov V.V. Dynamic durability and deformativnost of knot of interface of a reinforced concrete framework. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2015. No. 5 (52), pp. 57–63. (In Russian).
3. Baldin I.V., Goncharov M.E., Baldin S.V., Tigay O.Yu. Pilot studies of joints of combined reinforced concrete columns of a framework of the constructive KUPASS system on action of static loadings. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2015. No. 5 (52), pp. 64–71. (In Russian).
4. Baldin I.V., Utkin D.G., Baldin S.V. A research of work of knots of interface of a column and the bearing crossbars of the KUPASS system. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2015. No. 5 (52), pp. 72–79. (In Russian).
5. Kabantsev O.V., Gontaruk A.A. About some features of behavior of aseismic buildings in zones of tectonic violations (on the example of the Shikotan 1994 of an earthquake). Second National conference on aseismic construction and seismic division into districts. Sochi. 1997. October, pp. 9–10. (In Russian). м6. Steshenko A.B., Kudyakov A.I. Optimization of processing methods of preparation of foam-concrete mix. Aktual’nye problemy sovremennosti. 2016. No. 2 (12), pp. 197–202. (In Russian).
7. Kudyakov A.I., Abakumov A.E. Technology solutions of production of ceramsite gravel of the increased durability from clay raw materials of the Tomsk region. Vestnik Evraziiskogo natsional’nogo universiteta im. L.N. Gumileva. 2016. Part 2, No. 4 (113), pp. 404–410. (In Russian).
8. Ovsyannikov S.N., Samokhvalov A.S. Heattechnical and sound-proof characteristics of the external and internal protecting structures of buildings of the KUPASS system. Investments, construction and real estate as material basis of modernization and innovative development of economy: materials VI of the International scientific and practical conference. Tomsk state architectural and construction university, 2016. Part 2, pp. 48–53. (In Russian). м9. Kulikov V.V., Tolstykh A.V., Penyavskii V.V. Comparison of an enegoeffektivnost of various options of the organization of ventilation in buildings. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2015. No. 5 (52), pp. 151–161. (In Russian).
10. Osipov S.P., Klimenov V.A., Batranin A.V., Shteyn A.M., Prishchepa I.A. Application of digital radiography and a x-ray computing tomography at a research of building constructions and in construction materials science. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno- stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2015. No. 6, pp. 116–127. (In Russian). м11. Bubis, A.A., Petrosyan, A.E., Petryashev, N.O., Petrya- shev S.O. Natural dynamic tests for seismic stability of the KUPASS architectural and construction system. Seismostoikoe stroitel’stvo. Bezopasnost’ sooruzhenii. 2016. No. 2, pp. 13–23. (In Russian).
12. Umnjakova N.P., Egorova T.S., Andrejceva K.S., Smir nov V.A., Lobanov V.A. New constructive solution of interface of external walls to monolithic interfloor overlappings and balcony plates. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
A.Yu. NEKLYUDOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (a.yu.neklyudov@gmail.com) Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)

Unresolved Issues of Methods for Calculation of Energy Efficiency of Buildings The indicator of specific annual energy resources consumption reflecting the specific energy resources consumption for heating, ventilation, hot water supply as well as for electric supply in the part of electric energy consumption for communal needs fixed in the Order of June 6, 2016, № 399 “On approval of rules of determining the class of energy efficiency of apartment houses” is considered. When analyzing the mechanism of determination of this indicator, the absence of influence of some factors, nominally included in this fixed indicator, is shown. It is shown that the specific annual consumption of energy resources characterizes the energy efficiency of buildings partially only. A functional dependence for complex evaluation of energy efficiency of the building is proposed. The critical conclusion about the factual impact of this Order on the correct evaluation of energy efficiency of buildings is presented.

Keywords: energy saving, energy efficiency, class of energy efficiency, specific annual consumption of energy resources, communal needs, engineering systems, sanitary-hygienic requirements, microclimate, enclosing structures, heat transfer, transmission heat losses.

For citation: Neklyudov A.Yu. Unresolved issues of methods for calculation of energy efficiency of buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).

References
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7. Savin V.K., Savina N.V. Architecture and energy efficiency of buildings. Gradostroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 1 (23), pp. 82–84. (In Russian). м8. Tihomirova S.V., Lopatina A.B. Impact of technical and design solution for energy-efficient buildings under construction. Uspehi sovremennoj nauki i obrazovanija. 2016. No. 10. Vol. 5, pp. 105–107. (In Russian). м9. Cvetkov N.A., Tolstyh A.V., Doroshenko Ju.N., Penjavskij V.V. Estimation of Thermal Energy Efficiency Used in Building Operation. Vestnik TGASU. 2016. No. 6, pp. 189–200. (In Russian).
10. Gagarin V.G. Macroeconomic aspects of substantiation of power saving measures aimed at improving the heat protection of buildings’ enclosing structures. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 3, pp. 8–16. (In Russian).
11. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V., Neklyudov A.Yu. Accounting of thermal inhomogeneities when determining the thermal load on the building heating system. BST: Bjulleten’ stroitel’noj tehniki. 2016. No. 2 (978), pp. 57–61. (In Russian).
M.V. BODROV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (tes84@inbox.ru), V.Yu. KUZIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), M.S. MOROZOV, Engineer Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (65, Il'inskaja Street, Nizhnij Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation)

Effect of Selecting Window Blocks on Indicators Energy Efficiency of thermal Construction and Air Mode of low-Rented Residential Buildings The influence of the design of window blocks (their interface with external fences and the presence or absence of organized supply devices (inlet valves)) on the energy efficiency of modern low-rise apartment buildings, as well as on the actual value of the average air exchange rate in the premises of apartment houses taking into account the actual periodicity of ventilation (opening / closing of the ventilation pans and transoms). A general conclusion is made that it is impossible to reliably determine the energy-saving class of multi-family apartment houses equipped with natural ventilation systems and window openings without organized air-supply devices, by calculation. The results in the article showed that unauthorized changes in the construction of window openings by tenants can lead to the result of a reverse (negative) energy-saving effect even in conditions of increasing the overall thermal protection of buildings.

Keywords: ventilation, coefficient of thermal engineering uniformity, multi-apartment houses, thermal protection of buildings, energy efficiency.

For citation: Bodrov M.V. Kuzin V.Yu., Morozov M.S. Effect of selecting window blocks on indicators energy efficiency of thermal construction and air mode of low rented residential buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 24–26. (In Russian).

References
1. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V., Nekljudov A.Ju. The account of heat- conducting inclusions at definition of a heat load on system of heating of a building. BST: Bjulleten’ stroitel’noj tehniki. 2016. No. 2 (978), pp. 57–61. (In Russian).
2. Gagarin V.G. The account of thermotechnical heterogeneities of protections at definition of a heat load on system of heating of a building. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo. [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 6, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
3. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. On the standardization of heat protection and the requirements for energy consumption for heating and ventilation in the draft updated version of SNiP «Thermal protection of buildings». Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. Serija: Stroitel’stvo i arhitektura. 2013. No. 31–2 (50), pp. 468–474. (In Russian).
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5. Samarin O.D. Calculation of specific heat loss through point heat engineering in homogeneities using the updated version of SNiP 23–02. Izvestija vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij. Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 1 (661), pp. 81–85. (In Russian).
6. Kostin V.I., Karmishkina A.V. Influence of the value of thermal engineering heterogeneity of external enclosing structures on the thickness of the insulation. Izvestija vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij. Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 3, pp. 52–60. (In Russian).
7. Maljavina E.G. Identification of economically feasible thermal protection of external fences of a three-story building. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 6, pp. 13–15. (In Russian).
8. Dacjuk T.A. Quality of air in buildings with natural ventilation. Santehni- ka, otoplenie, kondicionirovanie. 2016. No. 1, pp. 78–81. (In Russian).
9. Rymarov A.G., Markevich A.S. Air-thermal regime of the room. Santehnika, otoplenie, kondicionirovanie. 2011. No. 9 (117), pp. 82–85. (In Russian).
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E.V. KORKINA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (Elena.v.korkina@gmail.com); E.V. GORBARENKO 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Geography); V.G. GAGARIN 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAACS, I.A. SHMAROV 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)
2 Lomonosov Moscow State University (1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation)

Basic Relationships for Calculation of Solar Radiation Expousure of Walls of Separate Buildings Theoretical ratios for calculating direct, scattered and reflected radiations are considered. The actinometric measurements necessary for such calculations are also considered. A formula for calculating the total radiation arriving at inclined surfaces and a formula for calculating the total radiation with due regard for cloudless days are proposed. When comparing with the calculation under average cloud conditions, it is shown that the proposed calculation gives large values of the total radiation. The proposed calculation seems more accurate, because it takes into account changes in weather conditions for a long averaging period.

Keywords: solar radiation, walls of buildings, inclined surfaces, heat inputs.

For citation: Korkina E.V., Gorbarenko E.V., Gagarin V.G., Shmarov I.A. Basic relationships for calculation of solar radiation expousure of walls of separate buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 27–33. (In Russian).

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10. Pigol’tsina G.B. Radiatsionnye faktory mezo- i mikroklimata. [Radiation factors meso – and a microclimate]. Sankt- Peterburg: Sankt-Peterburgskaya gosudarstvennaya leso- tekhnicheskaya akademiya. 2003. 199 p.
11. Golubova T.A. Calculations of the average hour sums of direct solar radiation on inclined surfaces. Works of the main geophysical observatory. 1980. Iss. 426, pp. 90–103. (In Russian). м12. Gorbarenko E.V. Climatic changes of radiation parameters of the atmosphere according to observations in meteorological observatory of MSU. Meteorologiya i gidrologiya. 2016. No. 2, pp. 5–17. (In Russian). м13. Norris J.R., Wild M. Trends in aerosol radiative effects over Europe inferred from observed cloud cover, solar “dimming”, and solar “brightening”. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2007. Vol. 112. Iss. D 08. Doi:10.1029/2006JD007794.
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За 25 лет Российская академия архитектуры и строительных наук (далее – РААСН, Академия) сформировалась как федеральный научный центр, осуществляющий координацию фундаментальных исследований в сфере архитектуры, градостроительства и строительных наук и объединяющий крупнейших мастеров архитектуры и градостроительства, ученых в области архитектурной, градостроительной и строительной науки. РААСН активно включилась в разработку, реализацию и научное сопровождение государственных программ и иных программных документов в указанных областях.
D.Yu. ZHELDAKOV 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (djeld@mail.ru); A.A FROLOV 2 , Engineer (a.frolov@proekt-ts.su)
1 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian)
2 «Proekttehstroy» OOO (7, build. 1, Kashirskoe Highway, Moscow, 115230, Russian)

Segment Method for Calculation of Temperature Distribution along the Section of the Enclosing Structure of a Building Methods for determining the number of cycles of the temperature transition via zero for different sections of enclosing structures of the building are presented. The basis of methods is the solution of the differential equation of heat conductivity of Fourier which determines the one-dimensional heat transfer under non- stationary conditions at permanent coefficients with the help of the finite difference method. Developed methods make it possible to calculate the temperature at any section of the enclosing structure at any moment of time. At this, a real external temperature of the ambient air, not standard, participates in the calculation. To confirm the correctness of the developed methods, long-term testing on the external wall of the operated building has being conducted. The results of tests showed a good convergence of calculated and experimental data. Methods for conducting tests and processing the experiment data are described in details. Comparison of the developed method with the methods of Muromov-Shklover and S.V. Aleksandrovsky shows its advantage.

Keywords: building, heat conductivity, durability, temperature, enclosing structure, experiment.

For citation: Zheldakov D.Yu., Frolov A.A. Segment method for calculation of temperature distribution along the section of the enclosing structure of a building. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).

References
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P.N. UMNYAKOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Professor; H.P. UMNYAKOVA 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); N.E. ALDOSHINA 3 , Artist-Restorer of Highest Degree
1 Restoration Art Institute ( 3, block. 4, Bauman Village Street, 105037 Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian)
3 Holy Trinity- St. Sergius Lavra (Sergiev Posad, Moskovskaya Oblast, 141300, Russian Federation)

Preservation of Ancient Masterpieces of Russian Icon Painting of the Trinity Cathedral of the Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra The article considers the history of the Trinity Cathedral of the Holy Trinity Sergius Lavra, built in 1421–1423. Particular attention is paid to the space-planning and constructive decisions of the cathedral, thanks to which the stone building of the 15th century has survived to our time, as well as to the issues of providing favorable temperature and humidity conditions inside the Cathedral, which allowed preserving the unique icons. The possibility of functioning of the heating system in the Trinity Cathedral is analyzed in the work, the constructive solution of the rocket stove for heating is given in the article. The arrangement of air inlets in the floor and the lower parts of the walls, through which the warm air from the furnaces gets inside the Cathedral, and exhaust openings for removing the exhaust air. The studies conducted made it possible to establish that the system of heating and distribution of warm air in the temple premises thought out by ancient architects allowed to ensure a favorable temperature and humidity regime in the Trinity Cathedral and to ensure the preservation of unique icons written by Andrei Rublev, Daniil Cherniy and ancient icon painters.

Keywords: temperature regime, humidity, stove heating, cathedral, constructive solution.

For citation: Umnyakov P.N., Umnyakova H.P., Aldoshina N.E. Preservation of ancient masterpieces of russian icon painting of the Trinity cathedral of the holy Trinity-St. Sergius lavra. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 40–44. (In Russian).

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G.S. ABDRASILOVA, Doctor of Architecture, (g.abdrassilova@kazgasa.kz) Kazakh Leading Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineering (KAZGASA) (28, Ryskulbekov Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, 050043)

High-Rise Buildings in Architecture of Astana The experience in design and construction of high-rise buildings under climatic conditions of Kazakhstan is considered. On practical examples, town planning and space-planning features of design and construction of high-rise buildings are analyzed; methods providing the structural sustainability to wind and seismic loads are revealed on the basis of innovative technical and technological solutions. Particular importance of high-rise buildings for the formation of an international image of the new capital of Kazakhstan – the city of Astane is emphasized. In the course of study of the architecture of high-rise buildings in Kazakhstan, literature sources and design materials has being used.

Keywords: architecture, Kazakhstan, Astana, high-rise buildings, earthquake-resistant construction, innovations, structural stability.

For citation: Abdrasilova G.S. High-rise buildings in architecture of Astana. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 45–50. (In Russian).

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E.V. LEVIN, Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics), A.Yu. OKUNEV, Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics) (OkunevAY@gmail.com), Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian)

Gas-Separation Technologies as a Way to Increase Operational Safety of Buildings and Structures The problem of improving the safety of buildings and structures during their operation is an object of the study. The aim of this work is to show principally new methods for improving the operational safety based on the use of contemporary gas-separation technologies when preparing special protective gas media on the basis of atmospheric air. Two types of the safety, fire safety and safety to use buildings and structures, are considered. As the safety to use, two types of objects are considered: electric grids inside the building and supply and exhaust ventilation systems which can be subjected to the corrosion and biological impact. As a way to protect objects, it is proposed to use modified air atmospheres with reduced moisture content and/or reduced oxygen content. As a method for production of these atmospheres, it is proposed to use the adsorption and membrane gas-separation methods. On the example of the more universal membrane method, data characterizing energy expenditures for production of modified air atmospheres are presented.

Keywords: operational safety of buildings, fire safety of buildings, gas separation methods, membrane gas separation.

For citation: Levin E.V., Okunev A.Yu. Gas-separation technologies as a way to increase operational safety of buildings and structures. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 51–56. (In Russian).

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2. Okunev A.Yu. The prospects of use of membrane technologies at operation of buildings. ACADEMIA. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2009. No. 5, рр. 476–479. (In Russian).
3. Levin E.V., Okunev A.Yu. To a question of use of membra- ne technologies for creation of the respiratory atmosphe- res. ACADEMIA. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 3, рр. 512–520. (In Russian).
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