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Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №12

Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №12
December, 2014

Table of contents

Whether Relations of Designing with Production during Construction of Large-Panel Buildings are Necessary in Russia

The problem of modernization of series, which are widely used in large-panel housing construction, is facing the Russian builders. It is necessary to abandon the construction of twin-houses using similar products. In Europe there is a notion “a building of repeated use”, but of individual geometry, when each product is designed and produced individually. To create more comfortable and diverse environment in Russia it is necessary to move to individual, industrial architecture. An attempt to find out the difference between levels of design in Russia and European countries is made. It is shown that the use of up-to-day software product Allplan Precast makes it possible for a designer to solve faster and more qualitative the problems facing him.

Keywords: large-panel housing construction, flexible designing, Allplan Precast, specification.
h1>V.P. SELYAEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (ntorm80@mail.ru), Р.V. SELYAEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Е.V. SOROKIN, Engineer, E.L. KECHUTKINA, Engineer Mordovia State University named after N.P. Ogarev (68, Bolshevistskaya Street, Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation)

Prediction of Durability of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Elements by Method of Degradation Functions

A mathematical model for describing the operation of reinforced concrete products under the joint impact of mechanical loads and aggressive media is proposed. Constants of the chemical resistance of materials, which are the basic kinetic parameters of the model and make it possible to theoretically evaluate the residual lifetime and durability of reinforced concrete products are substantiated. Examples of calculation are considered. It is proposed to use the results of tests on compression of prisms after exposure in the aggressive medium for verification of degradation models recommended to apply for evaluating the residual lifetime and durability of elements of building structures.

Keywords: corrosion, micro-hardness, isochrones of degradation, diffusion factor, destruction front.

References
1. Selyaev V.P., Koldin A.O., Sorokin E.V., Selyaev P.V., Utkin I.Yu. Assesment of reliability of the ferroconcrete bent elements working without cracks. Regional'naya arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2011. No. 2, рр. 70–75. (In Russian).
2. Selyaev V.P. Calculation of durability of ferroconcrete constructions. Vestnik Mordovskogo universiteta. 2008. Nо. 4, рр. 140–150. (In Russian).
3. Selyaev V.P., Neverov V.A., Oshkina L.M., Selyaev P.V., Sorokin E.V., Kechutkina E.L. Soprotivlenie of cement concre- te of sulphatic corrosion. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construc- tion Materials]. 2013. No. 12, pp. 26–30. (In Russian).
4. Selyaev V.P., Selyaev P. In, Koldin A.O. Forecasting of durability of the ferroconcrete bent elements by probabilistic methods. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel'stvo. 2009. No. 6, рр. 91–96. (In Russian).

M.A. GONCHAROVA Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (magoncharova@lipetsk.ru), A.N. IVASHKIN, engineer, O.A. KASHIRSKAYA, student Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, 398600, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)

Assessment of products front surface quality from multicomponent decorative concrete
The results of structure optimization of decorative concrete are offered Laboratory research of obtaining high quality front surface of molded products by two different technologies are shown. Particular attention is given to the rheological parameters of concrete, which, as shown by experimental data, have maximum impact on the face of the category of quality products manufactured from modified decorative concrete.

Keywords: decorative (architectural) concrete, the quality of the front surface, converter slag, self-compacting concrete

References
1. Krasnova T.A., Baturin I.A. Questions of improvement of quality of a surface of ferroconcrete products. Tekhnologii betonov. 2014. No. 4, рр. 14–15. (In Russian).
2. Loshak V.V., Cherkasov S.V., Vlasov V.V. Influence of particle size distribution of filler on esthetic and operational properties of decorative concrete. Scientific bulletin of the Voronezh state architectural and construction university. Series: Physical and chemical problems of construction materials science and high technologies. 2011. No. 3–4, рр. 61–65. (In Russian).
3. Dryanin R.A., Sekhposyan G.P., Ananyev S.V., Kalashni kov V.I. Influence of the content of microsilicon dioxide on increase of durability of reactionary and powder concrete. Molodoi uchenyi. 2014. No. 13, рр. 44–47. (In Russian).
4. Korniyenko P.V., Gakshteter G.V. Production of modern high-functional concrete on the basis of steel-smelting slags. Tekhnologii betonov. 2013. No. 3, рр. 47–49. (In Russian).
5. Bondarev B.A., Korneev K.A., Ivashkin A.N. Composite construction materials on the basis of local sand and waste. Тhe Bulletin of the Volgograd state architectural and construction university. Series: Construction and architecture. 2012. No. 26, рр. 96–101. (In Russian).
6. Korneev K.A., Ivashkin A.N., Kopeykin A.V. Optimization of composition of filler of fine-grained concrete elimination of crushing of construction limestone and domain slag. Materials of the All-Russian scientific and technical conference «Topical Issues of Construction». Novosibirsk state architectural and construction university, 2012. T. 1. 288 p. (In Russian).
7. Morozov N.M., Avksentyev V.I., Borovskikh I.V., Hozin V.G. Application of eliminations of crushing of crushed stone in the self-condensed concrete. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyi zhurnal. 2013. No. 7 (42), рр. 26–31. (In Russian).
8. Morozov M.N., Kalashnikov V.I., Suzdaltcev O.V., Yanin V.S. Vysokoprochnye decorative and finishing superficial гидро фобизированные concrete. Regional'naya arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2014. No. 1, рр. 18–23. (In Russian).
9. Nesvetayev G.V., Davidyuk A.N. Melflux hyper softeners for dry construction mixes and concrete. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 3, рр. 38–40. (In Russian).

A.G. RYMAROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (rymarov@yandex.ru), V.V. SAVICHEV Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Distinctions of determining of the optimal air exchange in rooms of residential buildings
The problem of the existing norms of air exchange in the room of the residential building, which does not take into account the quality of the outdoor air are described. For the indicator of clean air passed carbon dioxide, the concentration of which characterizes the quality of indoor air environment of a residential building. Outdoor air pollution leads to a decrease of oxygen, resulting in the need to increase the air consumption for CO2 below the required values. Unfortunately, the Russian Federation had not approved the rules of allowable carbon dioxide air pollution for a normal human being indoors, however, foreign States have such rules that allows you to analyze the existing rules on the required air exchange in the apartment. Increase ventilation will reduce the concentration of contaminants in the environment, provided that the concentration of contaminants in the air below the maximum allowable concentration.

Keywords: ventilation, air quality, the concentration of harmful impurity, ventilation of residential buildings.

References
1. Rymarov A.G. Monitoring of microclimate parameters and concentrations of contaminants in areas of the building. Privolzhskii nauchnyi zhurnal. 2014. № 1, рр. 61–63. (In Russian).
2. Rymarov A.G. Prediction of air, heat, gas and humidity regimes building. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2009. № 5, рр. 362–364. (In Russian)
3. Rymarov A.G. Gas mode of building. Estestvennye i tehnicheskie nauki. 2012. № 6, рр. 595–599. (In Russian)
4. Rymarov A.G. Characteristics of heat-mass exchange modes of mutual influence buildings. Estestvennye i tehnicheskie nauki. 2013. № 1, С. 380–382. (In Russian)
5. Samarin O.D. Justification reducing the heat shielding enclosures by using the updated version of Snip 2/23/. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. № 3, рр. 46–48. (In Russian)
6. Rymarov A.G., Savichev V.V. Regenerative system of ventilation administrative building with a «winter garden». Estestvennye i tehnicheskie nauki. 2012. № 6, рр. 600–601. (In Russian)
7. Samarin O.D. Energy balance of buildings and energy-saving options. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. № 8, рр. 2–4. (In Russian)
8. Rymarov A.G., Savichev V.V. Features of changes in the concentration of carbon dioxide indoors kitchen apartment building from the burning of natural gas. The materials of the third international scientifically-practical Conference «theory of heat and gas supply and ventilation». 21–23 November 2009. Moscow: Moskovskii gosudarstvennyi stroitel'nyi universitet. Р. 215–217. (In Russian).

O.S. SUBBOTIN (subbos@yandex.ru), Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Kuban State Agrarian University (Krasnodar) (15, Kalinina Street, 350044 Krasnodar, Russian Federation)

Architectural and Town Planning Heritage of Armenian Buildings in Cities of Ekaterinodar and Armavir of XIX–XX c.

The historical-cultural heritage of Armenian buildings of Kuban, their architectural-artistic and town planning aspects, examples of which can be the architecture of buildings of the Armenian school, gymnasium, charitable society and the Dormition of the Mother of God Church in Ekaterinodar, Armenian female primary school in Armavir, are considered. The characteristic features and peculiarities of planning, composition-spatial structure and constructions of these architectural monuments, character of décor of facades and interiors are disclosed. Considerable attention is paid to the object of cultural heritage of regional level – the Dormition Armenian-Gregorian Church in Armavir. Actual problems appearing in the course of the reconstitution of architectural appearance of historical development areas are covered. Principles of the preservation of historical-cultural and architectural-town planning heritage are emphasized. The attention is accentuated on the cooperation of Kuban and Armenia in the field of architecture and town planning.

Keywords: architecture, town planning, culture, development, preservation, heritage, monument, Armenia, Kuban.

References
1. Bardadym V.P. Arkhitektura Ekaterinodara. Krasnodar: Publisher Lebedev Yu.Yu., 2009. 400 p. (In Russian).
2. Tverdyj A.V. Kavkaz v imenah, nazvanijah, legendah: opyt toponimicheskogo slovarja. [The Caucasus in names, names, legends: experience of the toponymic dictionary] Krasnodar: Izdatel' I. Platonov, 2008. 432 p. (In Russian)
3. Koveshnikov V.N. Ocherki po toponimike Kubani. [Sketches on toponymics of Kuban]. Krasnodar: RITs «World of Kuban», 2006. 252 p. (In Russian).
4. State archive of Krasnodar Krai. T. 449. Оп. 2. Of 1985 L. 1, 4, 5, 9.
5. Ktitorov S.N. Liki starogo Armavira: Kubanskoe selenie na pochtovoj otkrytke nachala XX veka. [Faces of old Armavir: The Kuban settlement on a post card of the beginning of the XX century]. Krasnodar: Publisher I. Platonov, 2010. 128 p. (In Russian).
6. Subbotin O.S. Architectural and town-planning heritage of Armavir. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 5, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
7. Subbotin O.S. Features of regeneration of quarters of historical building. P. 1. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 10, pp. 22–25. (In Russian).

G.P. VASILIEV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.A. LICHMAN 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics), V.N. PESKOV 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics)
1 NIIMosstroy (8, Vinnitskaya Street, 119192 Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Lomonosov Moscow State University (1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation)

Technique of Instrumental Determination of Energy Consumption in Buildings Taken into Use

The technique of instrumental determining the specific consumption of energy resources for heating, ventilation, hot-water supply, and communal electric power consumption has been developed. The article states the basic principles laid down in the procedure for determining the energy for heating and ventilation of the building, expressions for engineering calculations of coefficients of drying and accumulation of external enveloping structures of the building, presents the results of field tests conducted for determining the specific energy for heating and ventilation of the building.

Keywords: field thermo-technical tests, coefficients of drying and accumulation of external enveloping structures of building, specific consumption of energy resources for heating and ventilation of building, transmission loss of thermal energy of building.

References
1. Prizhizhetsky S.I. Questions of energy saving in houses of industrial series. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo. 2011. No. 12, рр. 30–32. (In Russian).
2. Semenova E.E., Kotova K.S. Development action for increase of energy efficiency of buildings. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno- stroitel'nogo universiteta. Seriya: Vysokie tekhnologii. Ekologiya. 2012. No. 1, рр. 193–196. (In Russian).
3. Vasilyev of G.P. Odn from the main problems of energy efficiency – lack of quality control of construction. Energosberezhenie. 2014. No. 6, рр. 10–12. (In Russian).
4. Vasilyev G.P., Lichman V.A., Peskov N.V. Modeling of process of drying of the protecting designs of buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 7, рр. 21–26. (In Russian).

A.P. SVINTSOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (svintsovap@rambler.ru), E.A. SKORNYAKOVA, Bachelor of technique and technology (ninimucha@mail.ru) Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (6, Miklukho-Maklaya Street, 117198, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Construction Complex as a Subsystem of Meso-Economics

Results of the study of the place and role of the construction complex in the meso-economic space of Russia are presented. The character of participation of building companies in the meso-economic system is disclosed. The attention is accentuated on the fact that enterprises of the construction complex, in most cases, are not linked with each other organizationally, but their activity is under the control of a single regional centre of executive authority.
It is shown that in the process of the construction complex functioning production and economic inter-industry linkages and relationships creating preconditions for strengthening the significance of the industry in the economy of the country are forming and developing. Construction companies, functioning independently or as a part of financial-industrial groups, significantly influence on the formation of both regional and macro-economic environment of the country. This makes it possible to reasonably affirm that the construction represents a major economic complex with numerous intra-industry and inter-industry links and is a significant subsystem of meso-economics. The generalization of the study results shows that there is a number of scientific tasks and problems solution of which will make it possible to develop recommendations on the formation of practical orientation of the economic policy of the state at the regional and federal levels.

Keywords: meso-economics, construction complex, holding, branch, development.

References
1. Ardasheva Е.Р. Mesoeconomy typology. Vestnik Kazan skogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2007. No. 3–4, рр. 218–229. (In Russian).
2. Kovalev A.I. Mesoeconomy: branch or region? Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. N.A. Nek rasova. 2011. Vol. 17. No. 4, рр. 136–139. (In Russian).
3. Lopatnikov L.I. Ekonomiko-matematicheskiy slovar': Slo var' sovremennoy ekonomicheskoy nauki. Economic mathematical dictionary: Dictionary of modern economic science. Moscow: Academy of national economy at the Government of the Russian Federation: Business. 2003. 520 р.
4. Svintsov A.P. New generation of highly skilled specialists builders for Russia and foreign countries. Zhilishch noe stroitel'stvo. [HousingConstruction]. 2013. No. 8б, рр. 25–28. (In Russian).
5. Prikhod'ko A.N. Relevance of an educational factor in management of construction production. Ekonomika obrazovaniya. No. 1. 2011, рр. 172–176. (In Russian).
6. Svintsov A.P., Nikolenko Yu.V., Patrakhal'tsev N.N., Ivanov V.N. Improvement of technology of concrete works in monolithic housing construction. Stroitel'nye materia ly [Construction materials]. 2012. No. 1, рр. 28–32. (In Russian).
7. Belousova L.S. Branch and territorial transformation of a construction complex of the region (methodical aspects). Izvestiya Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta ekonomiki i finansov. 2010. No. 3 (63), рр. 27–34. (In Russian).
8. Amelina P.Yu. Essence of development as economic category and type of business activity. Izvestiya Sankt- Peterburgskogo universiteta ekonomiki i finansov. 2011. No. 1, рр. 57–59. (In Russian).
9. Beloborodov R.S. Development as effective control system of the investment and construction project. Sovremennye tekhnologii upravleniya. 2011. No. 2, рр. 16–22. (In Russian).

V.S. BELYAEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) OAO “Central Research and Designing Institute for Residential and Public Buildings (TSNIIEPzhilishcha)” (9, structure 3, Dmitrovskoye Hwy, 127434, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Engineering Method of Calculation of Joints for Panel Buildings External Enclosing Structures with Due Regard for Air Filtration

A substantiation of a new approach to the assessment of the influence of external air filtration with negative temperature on the heat protection of buildings is made; this method consists in quantitative accounting (division) of air permeability as transversal, longitudinal and total. The simplified method for the assessment of the influence of transversal filtration of external, cold air on the heat insulation of external walls is presented. An example of thermal-technical method for assessment of heat protection properties of horizontal joints for a residential nine-storey house made of one-layer cellular concrete panels, when air filtration is available or not, is given.

Keywords: air permeability, filtration, heat losses, resistance to heat transfer, air flow rate.

References
1. Belyaev V.S. Techniques of heattechnical calculations of external protections with recovery of a transmission and ventilating thermal stream. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 1–2, рр. 21–26. (In Russian).
2. Belyaev V.S. External Enclosing Structures with Recuperation of Transmission Heat. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 8, рр. 10–21. (In Russian).
3. Shapiro G.I., Shapiro A.G. Calculation of durability of platform joints of panel buildings. Industrial and civil engineering. 2008. No. 1, рр. 55–57. (In Russian).
4. Korniyenko S.V. Improvement of the constructive solution of translucent protections at an assessment of heatlosses. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 6, рр. 72–73. (In Russian).
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