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Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №7

Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №7
July, 2014

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Коллектив редакции

Table of contents

V.G. GAGARIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), S.V. GUVERNYUK2, Candidate of Physical-Mathematical Sciences, A.S. KUBENIN2, Engineer
1Research Institute of Building Physics, Russian Academy Architecture and Construction Sciences (21, Locomotive travel, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)
2Research Institute of Mechanics Moscow State University named after Lomonosov (1, Michurinsky Avenue, Moscow, 119192, Russian Federation)

About Reliability of Computer Forecasts when Determining Wind Impacts on Buildings and Complexes
A critical analysis of the possibilities of modern computer technologies for solving practical problems of building aerodynamics is presented. The conclusion that existing technologies of numerical simulation of wind impacts on buildings and complexes make it possible to obtain the reasonable distribution of an average constituent of an aerodynamic load but only for scale models compared with those that are used in the aerophysical experiment, i.e. for Reynolds’ numbers which by two orders smaller than in nature is substantiated. The results of such model calculation are permissible to use for forecasting wind loads on the full-scale object on the basis of the correctness of self-similarity principle by the Reynolds’ number. An approach combining advantages of experimental and computer simulations within the frame of one project is the most rational.

Keywords: turbulent flow around a body, vortex structures, numerical simulation, Reynolds’ number, wind pressure, aerodynamic interference.

References
1. Rulebook SP 20.13330.2011. SNIP 2.01.07-85 updated edition * «Loads and effects». Moscow, 2011. 85 р. (In Russian).
2. Tabunschikov Y.A., Shilkin N.V. Aerodynamics of high-rise buildings. AVOK. 2004. No. 8, pp. 14–23. (In Russian).
3. Guvernyuk S.V., Gagarin V.G. Computer simulation of wind effects on tall buildings fencing elements. AVOK. 2007. No. 1, pp. 16–22. (In Russian).
4. Isaev S.A., Baranov P.A., Zhukova Yu. V. and other simulation of wind effects on tall buildings ensemble using multiblock computational technologies. Inzhenerno-fizicheskij zhurnal. 2014. Vol. 87. No. 1, pp. 107–118. (In Russian).
5. Gutnikov V.A., Lifanov I.K., Setukha A.V. On the modeling of aerodynamics of buildings and structures by closed vortex frames. Izvestiya RAN. MZHG. 2006. No. 4, pp. 78–92. (In Russian).
6. Blocken B. 50 years of Computational Wind Engineering: Past, present and future. Building and Environment. 2014. Vol. 129, pp. 69–102.
7. Montazeri H., Blocken B. CFD simulation of wind-induced pressure coefficients on buildings with and without balconies: Validation and sensitivity analysis. Building and Environment. 2013. Vol. 60, pp. 137–149.
8. Ramponi R. Blocken B. CFD simulation of cross-ventilation for a generic isolated building: Impact of computational parameters. Building and Environment. 2012. Vol. 53, pp. 34–48.
9. Gagarin V.G. Guvernyuk S.V., Ledenev P.V. Aerodynamic characteristics of buildings to calculate the wind effect on the building envelope. Zhilishhnoe stroitelstvo. 2010. No. 1, pp. 7–11. (In Russian).
10. Ledenev P.V. Sinyavin A.A. Experimental study of wind pressure at a flow of the tandem two buildings. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. Vol. 1. No. 3, pp. 377–382 (In Russian).

N.I. KARPENKO1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAABS; V.A. ERYSHEV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Adviser of RAABS, E.V. LATYSНEVA2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1Research Institute of Building Physics of RAABS (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)
2Togliatti State University (14, Belorusskaya Street, Samara region, Togliatti, 445667, Russian Federation)

Methods for Construction of Diagrams of Concrete Deformation by Repeated Compression Loads at Variable Stress Levels Methods for construction of diagrams of concrete deformation at complex loading modes with repeated loads which include the cyclic loadings with constant and variable levels of stress have been developed. Residual deformations at unloading and deformations at the peaks of cycles are calculated in the increments of stresses and deformations with the use of the radial method in the new systems of coordinates, beginnings of which are transferred at the levels of minimal and maximal stresses of each cycle. The connection between the initial deformation modulus of the reference diagram of concrete deformation which is realized at static loading of samples till their destruction, and the modulus of deformations when transferring from one group of constant stresses to another one with due regard for the history of loading during previous cycles has been established. The offered calculated dependences passed the test by the experimental data obtained in the course of tests of standard samples under conditions of repeated loading at three levels of stresses. The comparative analysis shows that calculated values of deformations and their increments at the cycle peaks and at the full release of compression stresses slightly differ from the experimental values, and the replacement of the curved diagrams with straight line segments don’t make large changes in the final result.

Keywords: deformation, stress, radial method, repeated loads.

References
1. Karpenko N.I., Eryshev V.A., Latysheva E.V. Method of calculation of parameters of concrete deformation during unloading from the compression stress. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 3, pp. 168–178. (In Russian).
2. Karpenko N.I., Eryshev V.A., Latysheva E.V. About developing diagrams of concrete deformation under repeated loads of compression at constant stress levels. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 48–52. (In Russian).
3. Eryshev V.A., Toshin D.S. Strain diagram of concrete at nemnogokratnyh repeated loads. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel'stvo. 2005. No. 10, pp. 109–114. (In Russian).
4. Karpenko N.I. Obshhie modeli mehaniki zhelezobetona [General mechanics model of reinforced concrete]. Moscow: Strojizdat, 1996. 416 p.
5. Bekker V.A., Sergeev S.M. Features of development of volume deformations of concrete under repeated loading compressive load. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel'stvo i arhitektura. 1983. No. 10, pp. 6–10. (In Russian).
6. Babich E.M, Pogoreljak A.P., Zalesov A.S. Work elements on the transverse force at nemnogokratno repeated loading. Beton i zhelezobeton. 1981. No. 6, pp. 8–10. (In Russian).
7. Stavrov G.N., Rudenko V.V., Fedoseev A.A. Strength and deformability of concrete at re-static loads. Beton i zhelezobeton. 1986. No. 1, pp. 33–34. (In Russian).
8. Bondarenko V.M., Kolchunov V.I. Raschetnye modeli silovogo soprotivlenija zhelezobetona [Computational models of the power of resistance of reinforced concrete]. Moscow: Publishing ASV, 2004. 471 p.
9. Eryshev V.A., Latysheva E.V., Bondarenko A.S. Methodology of experimental studies of the stress-strain state of linear reinforced concrete elements under axial uploading repetitive and alternating loads. Vektor nauki Tol'jattinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2010. No. 3 (13), pp. 51–56.

YU.O. KUSTIKOVA,Engineer, V.I. RIMSHIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), L.I. SHUBIN, Engineer Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Practical Recommendations and Technical and Economic Assessment of Using Composite Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete Structures of Buildings and Facilities
The article considers the application and use of composite reinforcement (glass-plastic and basalt-plastic) in reinforced concrete structures. Physical-mechanical characteristics of reinforcements ASP and ABP as well as characteristics of basalt-plastic and glass-plastic reinforcement in comparison with the characteristics of steel reinforcement are presented. It is noted that basalt-plastic reinforcement can be efficiently used for reinforcement of non-tensioned structures as its strength can vary widely at the same value of elastic modulus. The search for alternative ways of substituting the metal reinforcement in bearing reinforced concrete structures for composite one which does not corrode and, at the same time, has high bearing capacity is an actual scientific-research task. It is known that composite materials minimize corrosion and other force and medium impacts. At present the intensive studies aimed at searching for substitution of metal for other reinforcement are conducted. The example of such studies is the creation of various types of plastics which gradually supplant it. In recent years a serious breakthrough in this direction was the opening of “glass and basalt technology” which made it possible to “renew” the building materials base with new types of reinforcement for building structures..

Keywords: composite reinforcement, pre-stressed structures, strength, tension, elastic modulus, aramid fibre.

References
1. Kustikova Yu.O. Rimshin V. I. Batdalov M. M. Practical recommendations and the feasibility study on use of composite fittings when carrying out concrete works. Actual problems of development of housing and communal services of the cities and settlements. The ninth International Scientific and practical conference. Moscow-Sofia- Kavala, May 30 – June 6. 2010, pp. 39-48. (In Russian).
2. Tur V.V., Semenyuk O.S. Application of basalt-plastic reinforcement in the manufacture of self-intense designs. Vestnik Brestskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura. 2013. No. 1 (79), pp. 99-103. (In Russian).
3. Shaludin S.A. Application of basalt-plastic and composite reinforcement as innovation-oriented tool for socio-economic development of the building complex.Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo otkrytogo universiteta. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya. 2012. No. 2 (8), pp. 59–63. (In Russian).
4. Abashidze G.S., Marquis F.D.S., Chikhradze N.M. Basalt reinforced plastics: Some operating properties. Materials Science Forum. 2007. Vol. 561-565, pp. 671–674.
5. ACI 440.1R-06 Guide for the Design and Construction of Structural Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars. American Concrete Institute, 2006. 44 p.

N.P. UMNYAKOVA, Candidate of Sciences, I.N. BUTOVSKIY, Candidate of Sciences, A.G. CHEBOTARЕV, Civil Engineer Research Institute of Building Physics of RAAСS (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)

Development of the Regulation Methods of Heat Shield of Energy Efficient Buildings

Development of modern requirements for thermal protection of buildings was made possible thanks to scientific basis for building thermal physics , which was created in our country during the XX century. The article describes the development of methods for the valuation for level of thermal protection of the external enveloping constructions , beginning from works of O.E.Vlasov and A.M.Shklovera (30th years of XX century) till the modern approach to the valuation of the building envelope thermal protection and energy consumption for heating buildings in SP 50.13330.2012 « SNIP 23-02-2003 Thermal protection of buildings . Updated edition».

Keywords: energy saving, thermal protection, thermal insulation, reduced costs, reduced resistance to heat transfer, specific heatproof characteristics.

References
1. Vlasov O.E. Teplotehnicheskiy raschot ograjdaucshih konstrukciy [Thermotechnical calculation of external enveloping constructions]. Leningrad. Gosstroyizdat. 1933. 146p.
2. Shklover A.M. Determination of the relative economic efficiency of outdoor enclosures based on their insulating ability. Proekt I Standart. 1933. No. 7.
3. Bobrova K.N., Zezin V.G. Ekonomicheskaya effektivnost legkih ograjdayuschih konstrukciy [Economic efficiency of light external enveloping constructions]. Moscow. Stroiizdat. 1976.127p.(In Russian)
4. Allowance for designing building envelopes. NIISF. Edited by Morozov N.V., Umnyakov P.N., Yankelev L.F., Moscow. Stroyizdat. 1967. (In Russian)
5. Matrosov Y.A., ButovskyI I. N. Strategy for standardization of thermal protection of energy efficient buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitelstvo [Housing Constructions].1999. No. 1, рр. 2–6. (In Russian)
6. Matrosov Y.A., ButovskyI I. N. Strategy for standardization of thermal protection of energy efficient buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitelstvo [Housing Constructions].1999. No. 2, рр. 13-16. (In Russian)
7. Matrosov Y.A., ButovskyI I. N. Strategy for standardization of thermal protection of energy efficient buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitelstvo [Housing Constructions].1999. No. 3, рр. 8–11. (In Russian)
8. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Standardization of energy consumption for heating and ventilation, as well as thermal protection in the draft updated edition SNIP «Thermal protection of buildings.» Proceedings of the conference «Actual problems of building physics – energy efficiency – environmental security». Moscow. 3–5 July 2012. (In Russian)
9. Shubin I.L., Umnyakova N.P. Normative documents on energy efficiency and building acoustics developed in NIISF RAACS. BST.2013. No. 2, рр. 7–13. (In Russian)

A.A. DAVIDYUK, Engineer Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Assessment of Influence of Heat Conductivity Inclusions on Reduced Resistance to Heat Transfer of External Multilayer Walls on the Basis of Light Concretes with Vitreous Fillers
The study of influence of heat conductivity inclusions on the reduced resistance to heat transfer of external multilayer walls on the basis of light concrete with vitreous fillers has been conducted. Rational thicknesses of structures of external multilayer walls on the basis of light concrete block with vitreous fillers of D600–D700 density for their possible use without additional heat insulation under climatic conditions of the Moscow Region have been determined.

Keywords: enclosing structures, external walls, façade structures, thermo-technical characteristics, resistance to heat transfer, heat conductivity, heat conductivity inclusions, concrete with vitreous fillers.

References
1. Bazhenov Yu.M., Korol' E.A., Erofeev V.T., Mitina E.A. Ograzhdayushchie konstruktsii s ispol'zovaniem betonov nizkoi teploprovodnosti. Osnovy teorii, metody rascheta i tekhnologicheskoe proektirovanie [Protecting designs using concrete low thermal conductivity. Fundamentals of the theory, methods of calculation and technological design]. Moscow: ASV. 2008. 320 p.
2. Davidyuk A.A. Bearing capacity of anchor fastening and flexible basalt-plastic ties in masonry made of light-concrete blocks with glassy binders. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 39–43. (In Russian).
3. Davidyuk A.A. Analysis of results of the study of multilayer external walls of multistory frame buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2010. No. 6, pp. 21–26. (In Russian).
4. Ishchuk M.K. Otechestvennyi opyt vozvedeniya zdanii s naruzhnymi stenami iz oblegchennoi kirpichnoi kladki [Domestic experience in the construction of buildings with exterior walls made of lightweight masonry]. Moscow: «Stroimaterialy», 2009. 360 p.
5. Davidyuk A.N., Davidyuk A.A. Mechanical properties of lightweight concrete aggregates for multilayer glassy walling. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2008. No. 6, pp. 9–13. (In Russian).
6. Davidyuk A.N. Legkie konstruktsionno-teploizolyatsionnye betony na steklovidnykh poristykh zapolnitelyakh [Lightweight structural heat-insulating concrete on glassy porous aggregates.]. Moscow: Krasnaya zvezda, 2008. 208 p.
7. Davidyuk A.N., Davidyuk A.A. Deformation properties of lightweight concrete aggregates on vitreous. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2009. No. 1, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
8. Livchak V.I. On the practice of MGSN 201–99 in the development section «Energy» building projects. Mosgosekspertiza. Newsletter. 1999. No. 2, pp. 40–46. (In Russian).

V.M. GORIN 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering),Yu.S. VYTCHIKOV 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), L.P. SHIYANOV 3 , General Director; I.G. BELYAKOV 2 , engineer
1 “NIIKeramzit” CJSC (3A, Eroshevskogo Street, 443086, Samara, Russian Federation)
2 Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (194, Molodogvardeyskaya Street, 443001, Samara, Russian Federation)
3 “Zavod keramzitovogo graviya” LLC (31, Kirpichny lane, Oktyabrsk, Samara Oblast, Russian Federation)

Study of Heat Protection Characteristics pf Wall Enclosing Structures of Cottage Buildings Built with the Use of No-Sand Haydite Concrete
Results of the thermo-technical survey of wall enclosing structures of two cottages built from haydite concrete stones of different sizes are presented. External walls are made of large-size wall stones from no-sand haydite concrete of 500 kg/m3 density on the mortar with improved thermo-technical characteristics with the use of haydite sand and standard blocks on cement-sand mortar. The comparative analysis show the reasonability to use large-size stones when constructing cottages because of higher heat protection characteristics of external walls (3.23 m2 .о C/W).

Keywords: no-sand haydite concrete, hatdite concrete blocks.

References
1. Bazhenov Ju.M., Korol' E.A., Erofeev V.T., Mitina E.A. Ograzhdajushhie konstrukcii s ispol'zovaniem betonov nizkoj teploprovodnosti: osnovy teorii, metody rascheta i tehnologicheskoe proektirovanie [Protecting designs with use of concrete of low heat conductivity: theory bases, methods of calculation and technological design]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Associacija stroitel'nyh vuzov. 2008. 319 p.
2. Komisarenko B.S., Chiknovor'jan A.G. Ograzhdajushhie konstrukcii iz keramzitobetona [Protecting designs from Haydite Concrete]. Samara: SamGASA – RATN (Povolzhskoe otdelenie). 1997. 424 p.
3. Gorin V.M., Tokareva S.A., Vytchikov Ju.S. Up-to-Date Enclosing Structures Made of Haydite Concrete of for Energy Efficient Building. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 34–36. (In Russian).
4. Fokin K. F. Stroitel'naja teplotehnika ograzhdajushhih konstrukcij [Construction of the heating engineer of protecting designs]. Moscow: AVOK-PRESS. 2006. 256 p.

E.A. KOROL, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Y.A. KHARKIN, Candidate of Sciences(Engineering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Technology of Construction of Multilayer Monolithic External Walls with Heat-Insulating Layer from Concrete of Low Heat Conductivity
A new technology of construction of external walls of monolithic buildings is presented: an inner layer is made of structural concrete, middle layer – light heat- insulating concrete, external one – fine concrete slabs. The distinctive feature of this technology is production of structural and heat-insulating layers of the wall without technological break that significantly reduces the time of work execution and makes it possible to construct the external walls simultaneously with bearing monolithic vertical structures of the storey. This solution does not imply the works for heat insulation and faade finishing after completion of concrete works. The developed technology makes it possible to reduce the labor intensity and duration of construction as well as to improve the durability of an external wall due to the use of light concrete as heat insulation which durability is comparable with the durability of bearing reinforced concrete structures of the building.

Keywords: polystyrene concrete, multilayer structures, external walls, light concretes, production technology

References
1. Vorob'ev V.N. Navesnye fasadnye sistemy: problemy bezopasnosti. [Hinged facade systems: safety problems]. Vladivostok. 2012. 86 p. (In Russian).
2. Terehov V.A., Gagarin V.G., Gorbunov A.M., Pavlova M.O. About norms of design of multilayered external walls from the facilitated laying in frame buildings. Zilishchnoe Srtoitel`stvo [Housing Construction]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 10-12. (In Russian).
3. Ishhuk M.K. Problems of norms on design of stone designs. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 10, pp.15-17. (In Russian).
4. Nemova D.V. Hinged ventilated facades: review of the main problems. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal. 2010. No 5, pp. 7–11, (In Russian).
5. Yavorskiy A.A., Kiselev S.A. Relevant objectives of assurance of reliability of faade systems serving thermal insulation and finishing purposes. Vestnik MGSU. 2012. No. 12, pp. 78–84. (In Russian).
6. Bazhenov Yu.M., Korol' E.A., Erofeev V.T., Mitina E.A. Ograzhdayushchie konstruktsii s ispol'zovaniem betonov nizkoy teploprovodnosti. Osnovy teorii, metody rascheta i tekhnologicheskoe proektirovanie. [Exterior walls using low thermal conductivity concrete. Fundamentals of the theory, calculation procedure and technological designing]. Moscow: ASV. 2008, 320 p. (In Russian).
7. Rakhmanov V.A. Energy saving in construction on the basis of application of innovative manufacturing technology of especially light polystyrene concretes. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo. 2011. No. 8, pp. 61–62. (In Russian).
8. Yarmakovskiy V.N., Semchenkov A.S. New modifications of lightweight structural concrete – in resources and energy saving construction systems of buildings. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2010. No. 3, pp. 31–39. (In Russian).
9. Yarmakovskiy V.N., Kostin A.N., Fotin O.V., Kondyurin A.E. The heateffective external walls of the buildings which are put up with use of monolithic polysterene concrete with a vysokoporizovanny and plasticized matrix. Zilishchnoe Srtoitel`stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 6, pp. 18-23. (In Russian).
10. Korol' E.A., Khar'kin Yu.A. Technological and organizational efficiency of multilayer exterior walls construction in monolithic building. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstruktsiya. 2013. No 6, pp. 3–8. (In Russian).
11. Korol' E.A., Pugach E.M., Nikolaev A.E. Experimental research of different strength concrete connection in multilayer reinforced concrete elements. Tekhnologii betonov. 2006. No. 4, pp. 54–55. (In Russian).

I.V. BESSONOV 1 , Candidate of Sciences, V.S. BARANOV 2 , Engineer-Mechanic (General Director), V.V. BARANOV 2 , V. P. KNYAZEVA 3 , Candidate of Sciences, T.F. ELCHISHCHEVA 4 , Candidate of Sciences.
1 Research Institute of Building Physics of RAABS (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)
2 ООО «NPF «STROYMOST» (27/2, Burakova Street, Moscow, Russian Federation)
3 Moscow Architectural Institute (The State Academy) (11/4, Rogdestvenka Street, Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation )
4 Tambov State Technical University (106 Sovetskya Street, Tambov, 392000, Russian Federation)

Reasons and Eliminate Efflorescence on the Brick Walls of Buildings

The factors leading to the formation of efflorescence on brick layered exterior walls of the building. The types of salts, efflorescence components. Revealed that the prevention of the formation of efflorescence and biodegradation of masonry materials should be selected taking into account the balance between the chemical composition and properties of capillary-porous. This avoids the metastability of the system as a whole by combining materials and moisture. Set the preferred use for the solution of complex masonry sand–lime–cement developed capillary- porous structure with respect to the brick or lime- sand mortar with a filler of from fine sand. Proposals to eliminate efflorescence wash composition method based on polyfunctional acids followed by treatment with silicone masonry surface repellents to prevent the recurrence of salt formation.

Keywords: efflorescence, hygroscopic salts, brickwork, metastable system emergence.

References
1. Kimbal J. Basley. Masonry Facade Stress Failures// The Construction Specifier. 1998. Vol. 51. No. 2.
2. Krogh H., Hansen K. Collection and use of environmental data on building materials// Second International Conference on Buildings and Environment. Paris. 1997, pp. 149–156.
3. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V., Kryshov S.I., Ponomarev O.I. Thermal insulation of external walls of buildings with masonry cladding // AVOK. 2009. Ch. 1. No. 5, pp. 48–56. Ch. 2. No. 6, pp. 48–55. (In Russian).
4. Chumachenko N.G., Mironenko E.V. Influence of masonry mortars on vysoloobrazovanie in brick buildings // Tekhnologii, materialy, konstruktsii v stroitel'stve. 2003. № 4, pp. 65–73. (In Russian).
5. Izotov V.S., Sokolova Yu.A. Khimicheskie dobavki dlya modifikatsii betona [Chemical additives for concrete modifications]. M. : Kazanskii GASU: Izdatel'stvo «Paleotip», 2006. 244 p.
6. Inchik V.V. Vysoly i solevaya korroziya kirpichnykh sten [Efflorescence and salt corrosion brick walls]. SPb.: SPbGASU, 1998. 324 p.
7. Ishchuk M.K. Causes of defects exterior walls with a facing layer of brickwork // Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo. 2008. № 3, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
8. Kalashnikov V.I., Makhambetova K.N. Corrosion resistance of cement mortars in aggressive environments // Stroitel'nye materialy. 2010. № 11, pp. 12–13. (In Russian).
9. Krasnova T.A., Boroulya N.I. Effect of antifreeze additives on the properties of concrete // Tekhnologii betonov. 2011. № 11–12, pp. 22–24. (In Russian).

M.N. BERLINOVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); V.V. BOBROV2, Engineer
1Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2OAO “TSNIIPromzdaniy” (46, structure 2, Dmitrovskoye Highway, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Analytical Determination of a Limit of Concrete Micro-Destructions with Due Regard for Conditions of Hardening,

Tension State and Shrinkage in Protective Layer Methods for analytic calculation of a limit of concrete micro-destructions are presented. It is shown that analytic forecasting of the limit of micro-destructions RT 0 /Rb is possible. This forecasting can be made, if RT 0 /Rb is considered as a function of concrete strength under compression. Analytical dependences RT 0 /Rb=f1(Rb) и RT v /Rb=f2(Rb) have been obtained. It is proposed to take into account the influence of conditions of concrete hardening, concrete shrinkage and character of tension state of structures by introducing appropriate correction factors into the dependence obtained RoT/Rb=f1(Rb). Factor values are experimentally obtained. They can be used at the stage of reinforced concrete structures design that makes it possible to make structural decisions more reasonably. Besides, it is necessary to note that the number of correction factors can be increased in the process of accumulation of experimental data.

Keywords: concrete, micro-destructions, shrinkage, tension state.

V.V. DANEL, Candidate of Sciences(Engineering), Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Three-layer external wall panels with improved bearing capacity

Designs of three-layer external wall panels with external and internal bearing layers which can be used as basement ones and at availability of an external heat insulating layer can be used as a suspended fa ade or as shop window and at lower storeys are offered. Recommendations on designs of horizontal joints of external wall panels are made. It is best to use these panels for two reasons. Firstly, it makes it possible to distribute the loading on the foundation surface more uniformly and to reduce the concentration of stresses and lower the material consumption. Secondly, it expands opportunities to use three-layer external panels as bearing structures of the first non-residential floors which need increased sizes of window and door openings.

Keywords: three-layer external wall panel with external and internal bearing layers, tie, foundation, horizontal joint of external wall panels, haunch, rib, earthquake stability, bearing capacity.

References
1. Danel V. V. Styk of external wall panels with a monolithic ferroconcrete belt. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Сonstruction]. 2013 . No. 7, pp. 12–13. (In Russian).
2. Danel V. V. Way of increase of bearing ability of external three-layer wall panels. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Сonstruction]. 2013 . No. 12, pp. 5–8. (In Russian).
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A.M. IBRAGIMOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Adviser of RAABS; A.S. SEMENOV 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (20, 8 Marta Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)
2 Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs (87, Gorkogo Street, Vladimir, 600000, Russian Federation)

Dependence between Physical Deterioration and Technical Conditions of Elements of Housing Stock Buildings

In the course of building-technical examinations the tasks of simultaneous determination of technical conditions and physical deterioration of elements of housing stock buildings are specified. The emergence of new building materials and development of new normative documents demand the study of problems of determining the dependence between technical conditions and physical deterioration of elements of housing stock buildings. The current methodology for determining the physical deterioration of residential buildings does not make it possible to define the physical condition of elements. An enlarged scale for determining the physical deterioration and technical condition of buildings elements which can be used for inspection of bearing, enclosing structures and finishing elements is offered.

Keywords: inspection, technical condition, physical deterioration, dependence, enlarged scale.

References
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