Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №1-2

Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №1-2
February, 2014

Table of contents

V.P. BLAZHKO, Candidate of Technical Sciences, “Central Research and Design Institute for Residential and Public Buildings OAO (TSNIIEP zhilishcha), (9/3 Dmitrovskoye Hwy, Moscow, 127434, Russian Federation)

A Fastener for Connection of Structural Elements of a Panel Building
A new construction solution of a fastener for connection of wall panels in large-panel buildings which makes it possible to do without the use of welding and which has high bearing capacity, reliability and simplicity is presented. On the basis of data of the in-place test of the connection it is shown that the fastener can be used both under ordinary conditions and also in seismically active regions. The good bearing capacity of the fastener both for shear and tension is confirmed.

Keywords: large-panel buildings, fastener for connection of panel, panel connection, clasp joints.

L.I. KASTORNYKH1, I.V. TRISHCHENKO1, candidates of Technical Sciences, M.A.GIKALO 2 ( ) engineer
1 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162 Sotsialisticheskaya str., Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation);
2 «Nauchno-Tekhnichesky Tsentr Akademstroy» OOO (144 Taganrogskaya str., Rostov-on-Don, 344016, Russian Federation)

Actualization of Recommendations on Preparation of Process Charts for Manufacturing Prefabricated Concrete Units
The problem of actualization of recommendations on preparation of typical process charts of prefabrication of concrete mixes and manufacture of concrete and reinforced concrete products is raised. Content, form and rules of charts preparation are proposed. Individual sheets of charts developed for the modern housebuilding factory are presented. The conclusion about preparation of serious methodological recommendations on the rules of preparation of process charts for factory preparation of concrete mixes and production of concrete and reinforced concrete units is made.

Keywords: process chart, production process, process operation, composition and preparation of charts, concrete mixes and prefabricated concrete units

1. Plaksenko N.V. Production of decorative carpets for finishing the krupyopanelnykh of buildings. Zhilishnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 3. Pp. 46–49 (in Russian).
2. Grigor'eva P.I. Production of protecting elements of buildings with decorative carpets on technological lines of the enterprises of large-panel housing construction. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 3. Pp. 22–23 (in Russian).

V.V. DANEL, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, (26 Yaroslavskoye Hwy, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Perfection of Loop Joints of Wall Panels

A design of the loop junction of wall panels making it possible to increase the reliability of anchoring panels to each other, increase the rigidity of the assembly, especially when extending and turn, ensure the secure fixation of joint loops in project-rated position during concreting, while maintaining the possibility of mounting the panels in the top-downwards direction is proposed. These results are achieved in that the loops at the end of one panel are bar ones, loops at the end of each of the adjacent panels, that are mounted in the second place, flexible and located above the bar loops. The flexible hinges may be made of ropes, wire reinforcement or tape, they lie on the rod loops after the end of movement of adjacent panels that are mounted in the second turn. The use of several smaller diameter wire ropes instead of one, reinforcement wire, tape allows to make the loops of panels mounted in the second turn more flexible and with a smaller radius of curvature. Therefore, the form of flexible loops with the help of the former can be approximated to a rectangular one and the vertical rods can be placed at the corners of the inner hinge side. This, in turn, will prevent the cutting of concrete joint by loops and improve the anchoring of wall panels in each other. That is, make the assembly more rigid and reliable.

Keywords: large-panel buildings with vertical loop joints, reinforcing loops, deformation of shear of vertical loop keyed joint, earthquake-proof large-panel buildings, non-welded hinge joints, reliability of loop connections, anchoring vertical rods, hinge joints with loops of rope, installation of panels in direction of from top to bottom, shapers, ropes, wire reinforcement, tape, anchors, pulling loops, cutting concrete, fill the joint, diameter of ropes.

1. Kireeva E.I. Large-panel buildings with loopback connections of designs. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 9. Pр. 47–50 (in Russian).
2. Kireeva E.I. Prochnost of horizontal joints of panels and multihollow plates of overlappings in large-panel buildings. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 10. Pр. 2–6 (in Russian).
3. Blazhko V. P. Tendencies in development of constructive systems of panel housing construction. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012 . No. 4. Pр. 43–46 (in Russian).

N.P. UMNYAKOVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Research Institute for Building Physics of RAABS (21 Lokomotivny pass., Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)

Heat Protection of Cloused Air Spaces with Reflective Insulation
Aluminium foil reflects a part of radiant heat flux falling on its surface. This ability of reflective insulation can be used by placing it on the surfaces of air cavities. However, at present there are no methods of calculation of thermal resistance of dead air spaces which take into account the reflective effect of shiny faces. Methods of calculating the heat protection of air cavities with due regard for the coefficients of surface radiation developed by the author are presented.

Keywords: reflective insulation, dead air space, emissivity coefficient, thermal resistance, heat transfer, radiation, reflection, convection, heat conductivity.

1. Umniakova N.P. Ensuring energy saving in buildings according to requirements The joint venture 50.13330.2012 Construction Norms and Regulations. "Thermal protection of buildings". The Staticized edition. Sb. dokladov Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii «ZhKKh: razvitie infrastruktury dlia ekologicheski bezopasnogo i komfortnogo prozhivaniia». Iaroslavl', 1–2 noiabria 2012 g. Pp. 72–78 (in Russian).
2. Umniakova N.P. Energy resources saving in construction – an element of the concept of biospheric compatibility of the person with environment. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii «Biosfernosovmestimye goroda i poseleniia». Briansk, 11–13 dekabria 2012 g. Pp. 56–63 (in Russian).
3. Fokin K.F. Stroitel'naia teplotekhnika ograzhdaiushchikh chastei zdanii [Construction the heating engineer of protecting parts of buildings]. Pod red. Iu.A. Tabunshchikova i V.G. Gagarina. M.: AVOK-PRESS, 2006. 256 p. (in Russian).

V.S. BELYAEV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, OAO “Central Scientific, Research and Design Institute for Residential and Public Buildings” OAO (TSNIIEP zhilishcha), (9/3 Dmitrovskoye Hwy, Moscow, 127434, Russian Federation)

Methodology of Thermo-Technical Calculations of External Enclosures with Recuperation of Transmission and Ventilation Heat Flows
Examples of technical solutions, methods of thermo-technical calculations of external enclosures elements with recuperation of transmission and ventilation heat and recommendations on the use of the results obtained with respect to the heat-efficient external enclosures, improving the heat and air regimes of premises are presented. For convenience the article includes three parts: the first part characterizes in details the developed system of ventilation with regard to windows with recuperation of the heat flow (transmission and ventilation); the second one presents the theory and methods of calculation of heat transfer of external ventilated enclosures with multiple air motion; the third one is devoted to the derivation of an equation for thermo-technical calculation of the ventilated external enclosure with double following and contrary air motions. The calculation is considered with regard to the concrete object. Equations and formulas presented are intended for the use in design calculations.

Keywords: recuperation of transmission and ventilation heat flow, air exchange, coefficient of heat transfer, condensate, air motion.

1. Belyaev V.S. Exterior building envelope with heat recovery. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 8. Рp. 10–21 (in Russian).
2. Belyaev V.S. External walling recovery transmission and ventilation heat. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 12. Рp. 39–45 (in Russian).
3. Belyaev V. S., Khokhlov L.S. Proektirovanie energoekonomichnykh i energoaktivnykh grazhdanskikh zdanii [Designing energy-efficient and energy-active civic buildings]. Moscow: Higher School. 1991. 255 р. (in Russian).

S.B. SMIRNOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences (, Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (44 Kiyevskaya Str., Bishkek, 720000, Kyrgyz Republic)

Official Vibration Model of Earthquakes Does Not Take into Account Destructive Impulses For the first time it is proved that the use of official accelerograms multiple understates the real value of accelerations of destructive earthquake shock-impulses.
It is shown that just the acceptance and durational dominance of the resonance model of seismic destruction of buildings has predetermined the fact of criminal inattention to destructive earthquake shocks. It is proved that the seismic vibrations occur not in the hypocenter of earthquake, but directly under the building, where the upper stratum of soil shifted by wave momentums generates them. It is shown that these impulses occur in the hypocenter of earthquakes in the course of mutual shift of two blocks of the Earth's crust, when the links between the blocks burst in the plane of fracture and create the acceleration jumps in the seismic impulses.

Keywords: shocks, impulses, waves, oscillations, resonance, seismic, stratum, soil, shift, shear, building, columns.

1. Smirnov S.B. Researches of abnormal forms in seismic destructions of the buildings contradicting the official theory of seismoprotection and disproving an official view of causes of destruction of buildings at earthquakes. Joint scientific magazine. 2008. No. 9. Pp. 51–59 (in Russian).
2. Smirnov S.B. Forms of seismic destructions as reliable source of information on real destructive wave seismic influence. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing construction], 2012. No. 1. Pp. 39–41(in Russian).
3. Smirnov S.B. Superficial thickness of soil, as amplifier of destructive effect of seismic waves and generator of shift fluctuations. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing construction], 2009. No. 12. Pp. 33–35 (in Russian).
4. Smirnov S.B. II-7–81 Construction Norms and Regulations* «Construction in seismic countries» as the document disproving the official oscillatory doctrine of seismic of destructions of buildings. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing construction], 2010. No. 4. Pp. 9–11(in Russian).
5. Smirnov S.B. II-7–81 Construction Norms and Regulations* «Construction in seismic countries» and new option CONSTRUCTION NORMS AND REGULATIONS 22-03– 2009 as additional sources of seismodanger and seismic risk for citizens of the Russian Federation. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing construction], 2010. No. 9. Pp. 49–51 (in Russian).
6. Smirnov S. B., Ordobayev B. S., Aydaraliyev B. R. Seismic destructions – the alternative look. Collection of scientific works Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic university. Рart 2. Bishkek: 2013, 144 p.
7. Smirnov S. B. Features of work and strength calculation of buildings at pulse seismic influences. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing construction], 1995. No. 3. Pp. 14–17 (in Russian).
8. Smirnov S. Discordances between seisemic disfarction and present calculation. Enternational Civil disence journal, 1994. No. 1. Pp. 6–7, 28–29, 46–47.

A.G. BOLSHAKOV1, doctor of architecture; K.A. CHEREPANOV2, architect,
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46 Kostyukova str., Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation);
2 National Research Irkutsk State Technical University (83 Lermontova str., Irkutsk, 664074, Russian Federation)

Methods of Selection of City Development Parameters on the Basis of Assessment of Ecological Conditions of Elements of Urban Relief Forms

Methods and principle of the ecologically oriented regulation of such parameters of development as number of storeys, density and type of its spatial organization in part have been developed. It is based on the geomorphological law of movement and collection of landscape information on elements of the relief forms: peaks, slopes, lowlands. This regularity makes it possible to define the indexes of ecological stability and ecological value (productivity) of natural elements of the city relief. The principle of regulation of development parameters which correspond to ecological possibilities of the urban landscape is formulated on the basis pf these indexes. Methods of regulating development parameters according to ecological conditions of relief locations have been developed. According to this principle the maximally dense development may be on the city hilltops surfaces. The rated density of 10 000 m2 per 1 ha of the territory is a unit (or 100%) of density of hilltop surfaces development. Indicators of density and number of storeys really existing in the city are evaluated in points which show the level of compliance of development with the settled principle. The last step of this methodology is proposals for bringing the existing number of floors and building density to comply with the settled principle.

Keywords: elements of relief form, ecological conditions, density and number of storeys of development, principle of compliance of development parameters with ecological properties of urban landscape, methodology of bringing the development parameters to comply with ecological possibilities of landscape.

1. Bolshakov A.G. Assessment morphotypes of development as a reflection of the interests and values of the local community and their balance as the principle of the urban regeneration of the historic centre of. Vestnik IRGSU. 2012. No 9. Pp. 89–97 (in Russia).

A.V. VESELOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, A.I. KIRZHAEVA,engineer, (kai.174@, Magnitogorsk State Technical University (38 Lenina Ave., Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast, 455000, Russian Federation)

A Bored-Driven Precast and Cast-in-Situ Friction Pile of Increased Bearing Capacity
The principal possibility to manufacture a bored-driven precast and cast-in-situ friction pile with increased bearing capacity and considerably lower materials consumption and cost comparing with analogue piles used for pile foundations is considered. A new structural design of such piles consisting in the manufacture of several single-type pile elements and using different numbers of these elements as well as in changing the length of bearing bars is offered. The possibility of regulating the bearing capacity of the pile in accordance with the values of the load from the parts of the building or structure laying above is shown.

Keywords: bored-driven pile, pile foundation, bearing capacity of pile, well.

1. Grevcev A.A., Fedorovskij V.G. The Theory of Expansion of a Cavity and Ultimate Strength of Ground under the Pile Foot of Driven Piles in Sandy Soil. Zhilishnoe stroitel'stvo [Hausing construction]. 2012. No. 9. Pp. 2–5 (in Russian).
2. Rytov S.A. Efficiency of the Use of Electric Discharge Technique for Organization of Geotechnical Structures. Zhilishnoe stroitel'stvo [Hausing construction]. 2012. No. 9. Pp. 2–5 (in Russian).
3. Veselov A.V., Permjakov M.B., Trubkin I.S., Tokarev A.A. Combined and monolithic compound pile and technology of its production. Zhilishnoe stroitel'stvo [Hausing construction]. 2012. No. 11. Pp. 15–17 (in Russian).

E.I. YUMASHEVA, engineer-chemist-technologist OOO RIF “Stroymaterialy” (/3 Dmitrovskoye Hwy, Moscow, 127434, Russian Federation)

Revival of Traditions of Brick Construction Requires Not Only High Quality Materials, but Also Training of Highly Qualified Personnel
It is shown that at the present stage the brick industry of Russia produces a sufficient range of modern high-quality effective materials for construction of low-rise and multi-storey housing. Factors putting obstacles in the way of a wide introduction of new materials into the practice of construction are revealed. An example of successful interaction of manufacturing enterprises, building organizations, educational institutions, and bodies of executive power within the framework of the Contest of professional skills “Master of Bricklaying” held during the specialized exhibition is described. It is concluded that the introduction of new materials and technologies into the practice of construction is associated with the complex of challenges that lie not only in the field of production but and competent application. The solution of these tasks should be of complex character and realized by jointly interconnected subjects of the building complex.

Keywords: brick manufacturing, face brick, large-size ceramic blocks, masonry mortar, LSR Group, Contest of professional skills “Master of Bricklaying”, professional college.

1. Semenov A.A. Results of Development of Building Complex and Construction Materials Industry in 2012, the forecast for 2013. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2. Pp. 62–65 (in Russian).
2. Lygina T.Z., Sadykov R.K., Kornilov A.V., Senatorov P.P. The State of Production of Wall Ceramic Materials in the Russian Federation. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 4. Pp. 10–11 (in Russian).
3. Begoulev S.A. Development of Production under Crisis Conditions, the Brick Union «Pobeda LSP» as an Example. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 4. Pp. 12–13 (in Russian).
4. Klevakin V.A., Ivanova O.A. Revda Brickyard: Movement Forward In Spite of Crisis. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 4. Pp. 14–15 (in Russian).
5. Klevakin V.A. The Use of Ceramic Large-Size Stone for Filling of Enclosures in Monolithic and Frame Multistory House Building. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 4. Pp. 76–78 (in Russian).
6. Ishchuk M.K. Causes of external wall defects with an obverse layer of masonry. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Building]. 2008. No. 3. Pp. 28–31 (in Russian).
7. Kupriyanov V.N., Ivantsov A.I. Durability of multilayer enclosing structures. Izvestiya KGASU. 2011. № 3(17). S. 63–70 (in Russian).
8. The sixth life of pottery factory in Pavlovskiy Posad, Moscow region. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 7. Pp. 118 (in Russian).
9. II International Specialized Exhibition «Ceramics»-demonstration and discussion of industry issues. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 12. Pp. 38–41 (in Russian).
10. Ishchuk M.K., Shirai M.V. Strength and Deformation of Large-Size Ceramic Stone Masonry with Filling of Voids with Heat Insulation. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5. Pp. 93–95 (in Russian).

D.A. MALININ, director, D.R. GAZIZOV, engineer, A.S. GAZIZOVA, engineer, JSC Spetsialnaya Stroitelnaya Tekhnika (103, 34 Komsomolsky Ave., Perm, 614000, Russian Federation)

Dumper – new equipment for all-construction works
Dumper is a new type of the small-sized construction equipment intended for minimization of the person's work on construction object. Self-propelled radio control dumper for use on dangerous construction objects for protection of life of workers are presented.

Keywords: dumper, dump truck, small-sized equipment, hinged equipment, radio control.

A.M. IBRAGIMOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, A.N. LOPATIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, A.V. GUSHCHIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, E.A. VINOGRAY, engineer, Ivanovo State Politechnic University, (20 8 Marta str., Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)

Technical Diagnostics of the Zero-Cycle of 17-storey Residential Building with Parking in the City of Ivanovo
In the course of designing and constructing high-rise buildings located in coastal areas, it is necessary to carry out especially thorough hydro-geological studies in addition to traditional geological surveys. And upon the completion of construction the mandatory conservation measures are unconditional in order to avoid changes in the state of bases under difficult hydro-geological conditions of the coastal zones, which can lead to failure in the proper operation of the structures. On the example of the construction object in the city of Ivanovo the recommendations on execution of the complete complex of survey work in accordance with normative documents are made.

Keywords: earth foundation, water erosion, internal erosion, cracking, hydro-geological conditions.

1. Semenov A.S. Organization of technical inspection of buildings of housing stock . Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2010. No. 12. Pp. 23–25.
2. N.S.'s owl, Alirzayev I.Sh. Metodika of application of the systematized tabular forms in technical inspection of buildings and constructions. Stroitelnaya mekhanika i konstrucsii [Construction mechanics and designs]. 2011. No. 2. Pp. 107–116.
3. Vorobjev S. A., Sotnikov D.Yu. About efficiency of use of methods of geodetic control at inspection of technical condition of the unfinished and not preserved building. Izvestiya Oryol state technical university: Construction and Transport series. 2006. No. 33-4. Pp. 17–19.

A.V. POPOV, architect (, I.S. RADIONOVSKAYA, Candidate of Architecture, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, (26 Yaroslavskoye Hwy, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Architectural Optimization of Long-Term Housing Environment of University Campuses

An analysis of the existing situation in the field of architecture of temporary housing at higher educational institutions in Russia and the CIS is presented; the basic requirements for the aforesaid housing are defined; main shortcomings in current practice in its design and in specified requirements to the above-named type of a building are specified. The negative consequences of low quality environment of existing Russian student dormitories are considered. A new typology of such a dwelling as a «long-term housing» is proposed. On the basis of studies conducted by authors methods of its transformation in accordance with the requirements of modernity are offered, its recommended characteristics are outlined. The authors also emphasize the need to optimize every day processes and saturate buildings and complexes of long-term housing at institutes of higher education with various functions and zones of their implementation. In the end of the article basic principles of modern long-term housing at universities are offered.

Keywords: University campus, long-term housing, dormitories, residential cells, room parameters.

1. Kireeva T.V. Universitetsky a campus – history of emergence and town-planning development (The X–XIX centuries). The Messenger of the Volgograd state architectural and construction university. Series: construction and architecture. 2012. No. 28. Pp. 263–269 (in Russian).
2. Bunches M. V. Universitetsky campus. Principles of creation of space of modern university complexes. Messenger of Tomsk state architectural and construction university. 2011. No. 3. Pp. 79–99 (in Russian).
3. Popov A.V. Ecological Optimization of the Architectural Environment of Higher Education Institutions in Moscow – The Use of Phyto-Metal Structures. Advanced Materials Research, 2013, 869–870. Рp. 162–166 (in Russian).
4. Dukhnovsky S.V. Violation of personal space as reason of disharmony of the interpersonal relations of subjects of educational process. Education and society. 2012. No. 3. Pp. 47–50 (in Russian).
5. Alekseev Yu.V., Somov G.Yu., Starostina N.G., Popov A.V. of the Problem of the functional and planning organization of buildings of the Moscow hostels and way of their decision. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 3. Pp. 8–11 (in Russian).
6. Sapacheva L.V. Student's hostel – the house for study and creativity. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 2. Pp. 20–22 (in Russian).

O.S. SUBBOTIN, Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor(, Kuban State Agrarian University (15 Kalinina str., Krasnodar, 350044, Russian Federation)

Architectural-Town Planning Development of the City-Resort of Gelendzhik (XVIII–XX c)
Some aspects of the town-planning development of the city-resort of Gelendzhik are considered and the unique features of architectural and shaped organization of the settlement in accordance with the natural landscape are identified. A significant place is given to the historical-architectural heritage of the city, its establishment and formation, as well as monuments of architecture. Positional principles characterizing the fortifications of the Black Sea coast, and, in particular, the fortress of Gelendzhik in the context of town-planning development of the city are analyzed. Attention is focused on the proper conservation of historical, cultural, landscape and architectural-spatial originality of the city studied. The problems of preservation and use of architectural and urban heritage are revealed. Retrospective analysis of architectural and urban development of the city-resort of Gelendzhik makes it possible to reveal the distinctive properties of architectural and planning structure of the settlement connected with the peculiarities of location and historical fate, as well as to determine the optimal direction of the future development of the city under modern conditions.

Keywords: coast, development, heritage, monument, strengthening, bay, Gelendzhik, landscape, town planning, architecture.

1. Chernomorskoe poberezh'e Kavkaza [Black Sea coast of the Caucasus]. Sost. V.P. Dobrohotov; pod. red. N.I. Vorobyov. Krasnodar: Tradition, 2009. Krasnodar: Tradicija, 2009. 526 р. (in Russian).
2. Tverdyj A.V. Kavkaz v imenah, nazvanijah, legendah: opyt toponimicheskogo slovarja. [The Caucasus in names, names, legends: experience of the toponymic dictionary]. Krasnodar: Izdatel' I. Platonov, 2008. 432 р. (in Russian).
3. Subbotin O.S. Strengthenings and forts in formation of the cities of the Black Sea coast. Vestnik VolgGASU. Stroitel'stvo i arhitektura. 2013. No. 33 (52). Pр. 211–217 (in Russian).
4. Maslov V.P. Gelendzhik. Obo vsem ponemnogu. Zapiski jekskursovoda. [Gelendzhik. About everything gradually. Notes of the guide]. Majkop: Poligraf-Jug, 2010. 172 р. (in Russian).
5. Osicheva M.M. Gelendzhiku s ljubov'ju. Zapiski arhitektorakraeveda [To Gelendzhik with love. Notes of the architectregional specialist]. Tuapse: Tuapsinskaja tipografija, 2008. 187 р. (in Russian).
6. Subbotin O.S. Architectural and town-planning evolution of Tuapse. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 12. Рр. 18–22 (in Russian).

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