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Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №3

Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №3
March, 2014

Table of contents


L.V. SAPACHEVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, OOO RIF “Stroy'materialy”, (9/3 Dmitrovskoye Hwy, 127434 Moscow, Russian Federation)

Efficiency of contacts of professional audience at conferences and with the help of scientific and technical publications
Conferencing is one of the most remarkable traditions in the life of scientific community. It is live contacts make it possible to discuss current issues of research, new scientific developments, share views, present their students. Communication of conference and publishing activities enables scientists to effectively promote the results of scientific-technical works, to arrange the public discussion of the ideas of theoretical and practical studies, establish links between the scientific and industrial organizations.

Keywords: geotechnics, underground space, conference, scientific-technical publication.

References
1. Il’ichev V. A., Nikiforova N.S., Gotman Yu.A., Tupikov M.M., Trofimov E.Yu. Analysis of the Use of Active and Passive Means of Protection of the Existing Development in the Course of Underground Construction. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 6, рp. 25–27 (In Russian).
2. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Ter-Martirosyan A.Z. Some Problems of Under-ground Construction. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 9, рp. 2–5 (In Russian).
3. Petrukhin V.P.. Geotechnical Problems of Construction in Moscow. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2010. No. 7, рp. 4–13 (In Russian).
4. Mangushev R.A., Osokin A.I. Features of Construction of Foundations of St. Petersburg Historical Buildings. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2009. No. 2, рp. 46–48 (In Russian).
5. Ulitsky V.M., Shashkin A.G. Construction of Underground Volume of the Second Stage of the Mariinsky Theatre Under Conditions of Soft Clay Soils. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’- stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 10, рp. 24–31 (In Russian).
6. Paramonov V.N., Sakharov I.I., Paramonov M.V. Experience in Joint Calculation of a Building with a Foundation Suffering from Frost Penetration. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 2, рp. 10–13 (In Russian).
7. Kattsenbakh R., Leppla Sh., Fogler M., Dunaevsky R.A., Kh. Kuttig Experience in Optimization of Cost of High-Rise Buildings’ Foundation. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2010. No. 5, рp. 5–9 (In Russian).
8. Mangushev R. A. Osokin A.I. Experience of reconstruction of the six-storied building with underground space in the central part of St. Pe-tersburg. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnotekhnicheskoi konferentsii «Sovremennye geotekhnologii v stroitel'stve i ikh nauchno-tekhnicheskoe soprovozhdenie [Materials of the international scientific and technical conference «Modern Geotechnologies in Construction and Their Scientific and Technical Maintenance»]. SPbGASU, 2014, рр. 60–71. (In Russian).

R.A. MANGUSHEV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Corresponding Member of RAACS, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (4, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya str., 190005 Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Contribution of Department of Geotechnics of SPBGASU to Russian education and science
The development of geotechnics in Russia in many respects is connected with the construction in the twentieth century of large structures along the Trans-Siberian and Baikal-Amur mainline railroads, hydroelectric power stations on the largest rivers of the European and Asian parts of the country, development of natural resources of Siberia, the Far North, Central Asia and the Far East. The builders had to solve complex engineering problems caused by a variety of engineering-geological conditions: permafrost, melting, weak, sinking, saline soils, seismics, karst, and others. In doing so the problem of an organic combination of scientific research with training of engineering and scientific staff was solved. The article presents a brief history of the department, periods of activities in the XX century: scientific and technological research, normative-technological documentation, preparation and publication of monographs, training of specialists. It is shown that the scientific, design and educational activities of the Department of geotechnics under modern conditions, based on the foundation of the glorious 80-year history, are the basis for further development..

Keywords: geotechnics, bases, foundations, engineering geology, soil mechanics, foundation engineering.

References
1. Karlov V.D. Traditions of chair of geotechnics (to the 100 anniversary since the birth of professor Boris Ivanovich Dalmatov). The Interuniversity thematic collection of the works «Topical Issues of Geotechnics at the Solution of Complex Challenges of New Construction and Reconstruction». St. Petersburg. 2010, рp. 8–13.
2. Mangushev R.A. Application of modern constructive and technological methods for the device of underground space in St. Petersburg. Geotechnics. 2010. No. 2, рp. 58–67.
3. Mangushev R.A. Osokin A.I. Geotekhnika Sankt-Peterburga [Geotekhnika of St. Petersburg]. M.: ASV, 2010. 259 p.
4. Mangushev R.A. Contribution of staff of chair of geotechnics and the center of geotechnologies of spbgasu to preparation of construction shots and practice of foundation engineering during 2000–2010. (To the 100 anniversary since the birth of professor B.I. Dalmatova). Geotechnics. 2010. No. 5, рp. 8–17.
5. Ilyichev V.A. Mangushev R. A. Nikiforova H.C. Opyt of development of underground space of the russian megapolicies. Bases, bases and mechanics of soil. 2012 . No. 2, рp. 15.

A.I. OSOKIN1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, O.O. DENISOVA2, Design engineer, T.N. SHAKHTARINA1, engineer
1 ZAO “GEOSTROY” (27/21, Zagorodny passage, 191180 Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Bureau of examination and improvement of design decisions» (4, Malaya Posadskaya Street, 197046 Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Technology support of underground construction under conditions of urban development
At present, the user value of housing is largely determined not only by the composition, layout schemes, architecture of a building, but also its engineering equipment making it possible to create a comfortable stay in it. The availability of transport infrastructure and underground parking increase the cost of housing. In the accepted practice of construction in St. Petersburg in recent years, major design decisions on the development of underground space both in the central historical part of the city and in areas of mass housing development have appeared. Risks, which occur in the course of underground construction and excavation depending on the construction situation of the project, engineering-geological conditions of the site, construction technology are considered; their assessment is made. For selecting the model of geotechnical construction it is proposed to prepare the geotechnical substantiation with the evaluation of efficiency of possible variants of foundation pit shoring.

Keywords: bored piles, cast piles, top down technology, jet grouting technology, up-down technology, slurry wall.

References
1. Mangushev R.A. Osokin A.I. Features of Construction of Foundations of St. Petersburg Historical Buildings. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2010. No. 5, рp. 32–34.
2. Mangushev R. A. Nikiforova N. S., Konyushkov V. V., Osokin A.I. Sapin D. A. Proektirovanie i ustroistvo podzemnykh sooruzhenii v otkrytykh kotlovanakh [Design and the device of underground constructions in open ditches]. M.: ASV, 2013. 256 p.
3. A.I. Osokin, A.B. Serebryakova, T.N. Shakhtarina, A.I. Shubin Underground Parkings – a Basis of Improvement of City Infrastructure of Megapolises (on an Example of St.- Petersburg) Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2010. No. 5, рp. 32–34.
4. Bezrodny K.P., Matsegora A.G., Maslak V.I., Osokin A.I., Boltintsev V.B., Ilyakhin V.N. Control over Injection Stabilization under Soil Conditions of St. Petersburg. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2009. No. 2, рp. 4–9.
5. Mangushev R.A. Osokin A.I. Geotekhnika Sankt-Peterburga [Geotekhnika of St. Petersburg]. M.: ASV, 2010. 259 p.

S.G. BOGOV, engineer, JSC “ISP Georekonstruktion” (4 Izmaylovsky Ave. office 414, 190005 Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Adaptation of jetting technology for development of underground space in the historical part of Saint-Petersburg under conditions of weak soils
Data on the adaptation of the jetting technology in Saint-Petersburg are presented. To solve the geotechnical problems connected with the development of underground space under complex geological and hydro-geological conditions of construction, the field investigation conducted directly on the construction site, results of which are given for the site in the central part of Saint-Petersburg, are necessary. For successful and optimal choice of parameters of cement jet grouting in weak clay soils it is necessary to take into account a large number of parameters considered in the articles.

Keywords: jetting grouting, consolidation of weak floury water-saturated soils, anti-filtration curtain, lower spacer propping of excavation shoring.

References
1. Bogov S.G., Zuyev S. S. Experience of application of jet technology for fixing of weak soil at building reconstruction on Pochtamtskaya St. in St. Petersburg. Aktual'nye voprosy geotekhniki pri reshenii slozhnykh zadach novogo stroitel'stva i rekonstruktsii: sb. trudov nauchnotekhnicheskoi konferentsii [Topical issues of geotechnics at the solution of complex challenges of new construction and reconstruction: collection of works of scientific and technical conference] St. Petersburg, 2010, рр. 80–86 (In Russian).
2. Bogov S.G. Use of cement mortars for jet technology of fixing of soil taking into account their rheological properties. // Hydraulic engineering. 2013. No. 4, рр. 84–86 (In Russian).

I.Ya. HARCHENKO1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, O.V. BOGOMOLOVA2, Candidate of Technical Sciences
1 Scientific and engineering center for development of underground space (NITS OPP), OAO “MOSINZHPROEKT” (4/1 Sverchkov lane, 101990 Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 JSC “NPO Kosmos” (38 Entuziastov Hwy, 105118 Moscow, Russian Federation)

Building and technological features of the use of cement grout jetting of soils at arrangement of anti-filtering curtains
An experience in the practical application of various methods of cement grout jetting of soils, when arranging the anti-filtering curtains, is generalized and analyzed. It is established that for guaranteed ensuring their continuity, the designed diameter of soil-cement massif should be established with due regard for the depth and a possible borehole deviation along the drilling depth. In addition it is necessary to ensure the strict control at all technological conversions.

Keywords: cement grout jetting of soil, earth-cement pile, full-hole technique, combined cementation.

References
1. Broyd I.I. Struinaya geotekhnololgiya [Jet geotekhnololgiya]. M.: ASV, 2004. 440 p. (In Russian).
2. Eichler K. Spezialtiefbau. Expert Verlag GmbH, Renningen. Deutschland, 2009. 427 S.
3. Vogt N. Beitragezum 6. Geotechnik-Tag in Munchen, Heft 39. Deutschland, Munchen, 2007, рp. 125–143.
4. Malinin A.G. Influence of modes of jet cementation on diameter gruntotsementnykh of columns // Mosty i tonnely. 2013. No. 4, р. 30 (In Russian).
5. Gladkov I.L., Zhemchugov A.A. , Malinin D.A. Technology of Jet Grouting of Soils under Conditions of Dense Urban Development. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 9, рp. 6–9 (In Russian).

A.N. REMIZOV1, Аrchitect, O. LADYGINA2, Master
1 Russian Sustainable Architecture and Building Council (12, office 28, Granatnyi pereulok 123001 Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Studio of Design and Architecture DeViz (1/2 b 4, office 112 Sadovaya-Spasskaya str., 107078 Moscow, Russian Federation)

Stimulating the «green» construction
In the article the basic regulations devoted to ecological requirements to construction objects in Russia are covered. Also a range of steps directed towards stimulating the “green” development is suggested, such as application of facultative certification systems. The use of the first Russian facultative certification system of sustainable development which forms a new approach to architecture and urban planning is considered on the concrete example.

Keywords: sustainable architecture, green development, state stimulation, energy efficiency, certification.

References
1. Sapacheva L.V. Ecosteady position of the Russian architects. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2010. No. 12, рp. 19–22 (in Russian).
2. Bunina O. A. State and prospects of development of objects of green construction in the city of stavropol. Modern high technologies. 2009. No. 3, рp. 50–51 (in Russian).
3. Korchagina O.A. Ostrovskaya A.A. Yudina O.A. Ilyasova O.I. «Green» construction. Components of scientific and technological progress. 2013 . No. 3 (18), рp. 42–45 (in Russian).
4. Danilov S. I. Aktivny, because passive and clever. XXI century Initiatives. 2011 . No. 4–5, рp. 72–83 (in Russian).
5. Tsitsin K.G. Power effective technologies – the future of housing construction. Effective crisis management. 2013 . No. 2 (77), рp. 50–51 (in Russian).

A.A. DAVIDYUK, engineer JSC “KTB ZhB” (6/15А, 2nd Institutskaya str., 109428 Moscow, Russian Federation)

Bearing capacity of anchor fastening and flexible basalt-plastic ties in masonry made of light-concrete blocks with glassy binders
Experimental studies of the effect of break-out forces on the anchor fastening and flexible basalt-plastic ties installed into the masonry from light-concrete blocks with glassy binders of 600 kg/m3 and 800 kg/m3 density and B2 and B5 strength have been conducted. Values of break-out forces for some anchor fastenings and ties have been obtained. Deformations appearing during the effect of transverse forces on the anchor joint have been tracked. Schemes and character of deformations of anchor joints considered have been established.

Keywords: enclosing structures, external walls, facades, anchor, fa ade structures, concretes with glassy binders, blown-up tuff-argillite gravel (BTG), blown-up vetresit gravel (BVG), foam glass granulates (FGG), tripoli gravel.

References
1. Davidyuk A.N., Davidyuk A.A. Mechanical properties of lightweight concrete aggregates for glassy multilayer walling. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2008. No. 6(555), pp. 9–13. (In Russian)
2. Davidyuk A.N., Davidyuk A.A. Deformation properties of lightweight concrete aggregates on vitreous. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2009. No. 1(556), pp. 10–13. (In Russian)
3. Obozov V.I., Davidyuk A.A. Damage analysis of multi-storey brick veneer facade frame buildings. Seismostoikoe stroitel'stvo. Bezopasnost' sooruzhenii. 2010. No. 3, pp. 51–57. (In Russian)
4. Ishchuk M.K. Otechestvennyi opyt vozvedeniya zdanii s naruzhnymi stenami iz oblegchennoi kirpichnoi kladki [Domestic experience in the construction of buildings with exterior walls made of lightweight masonry]. Moscow. STROIMATERIALY. 2009. 360 р.
5. Granovskii A.V. Ways to improve the reliability of anchorages. Tekhnologii stroitel'stva. 2008. No. 4 (59), pp. 13–14. (In Russian)
6. Davidyuk A.N. Legkie konstruktsionno-teploizolyatsionnye betony na steklovidnykh poristykh zapolnitelyakh [Lightweight structural heat-insulating concrete on glassy porous aggregates]. Moscow. Krasnaya zvezda. 2008. 208 p.

V.V. DANEL, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26 Yaroslavskoye Hwy, 129337 Moscow, Russian Federation)

Solution of problem of vertical joints of external wall panels
As a result of daily and seasonal fluctuations of temperature the external layers of three-layer wall panels change their sizes that leads to change the distance between them. Since vertical sizes of panels usually more vertical ones the vertical joints are weak points. A design of combined external wall panels which makes it possible to exclude leakage and freezing of vertical joints is proposed. This result is achieved by using the suspended fa ade at parts of the external wall panel adjoining the sidelong butt ends. In this case, any structure can be used in the middle part of the panel. For example, the traditional three-layer panel with heat insulation made of concrete with low heat conductivity and monolithic ties between layers, with vacuum insulating panel and others. The use of combined external wall panels makes it possible to use various schemes of connection between panels, improve the architectural expression of the buildings at different schemes of cutting the exterior walls, reduce the labor intensity in comparison with the installation of a suspended facade on the whole area of the panel.

Keywords: combined external wall panel, vertical joint, internal layer, external layer, heat insulation, suspended fasade.

References
1. Yarmakovsky V. N., Shapiro G. I. Roginsky S. L. Trosnitsky V. B., Zalesov A.S. Rosenthal N. K. Power effective protecting designs of buildings with flexible composite communications. Energosberezhenie. 2012. No. 2, рр. 8–13 (in Russian).
2. Bazhenov YU.M., King E.A., Erofeyev V.T., Mitino E.A. Ograzhdayushchie konstruktsii s ispol'zovaniem betonov nizkoi teploprovodnosti (osnovy teorii, metody rascheta i tekhnologicheskoe proektirovanie). [Рrotecting designs with use of concrete of low heat conductivity (theory bases, methods of calculation and technological design)]. M.: ASV, 2008. 320 р. (in Russian).
3. Patent RF 110393 for useful model. Stykovoe vertikal'noe soedinenie naruzhnykh i vnutrennei stenovykh panelei [Butt vertical connection external and internal wall panels]. V.V. Danel. Declared 29.06.2011. Published 20.11.2011. Bulletin No. 32 (in Russian).

O.D. SAMARIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, (26 Yaroslavskoye Hwy, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Substantiation of reducing the heat protection of enclosures with the use of an actualized version of SNiP 23-02-2003 The economical expediency of using the decreased level of thermal protection of external building enclosures in terms of demands of SP 50.13330.2012 is considered. The calculation results of design and required specific thermal protection using the procedure of SP, determining the capital costs for thermal insulation, total expenditures for heat energy and other technical and economical parameters at the different values of thermal resistance of the main external enclosures for the series of residential buildings are presented. The analysis of obtained data is given and conditions of recoupment of the base level of thermal protection in comparison with the decreased level with the use of combined discounted costs are shown. The categories of owners and tenants of dwellings getting preferences and losses from increasing of thermal resistances at the actual state of dwelling market, mechanism of its distribution and mortgage lending rate are defined.

Keywords: thermal resistance, specific heat protection characteristic of building, capital costs, payback period, discount norm.

References
1. Gagarin V.G. Macroeconomic features of justification of energy saving measures during increase of thermal performance of building enclosures. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 3, рp. 8–16 (in Russian).
2. Gorshkov A.S. Energy efficiency in construction: problems of standardizing and measures to decrease energy consumption of buildings. Inzhenerno-stroitelnyiy zhurnal. 2010. No. 1, рp. 9–13 (in Russian).
3. Dylewski Robert, Adamczyk Janusz. Economic and ecological indicators for thermal insulating building investments. Energy and Buildings. 2012. No. 54, рp. 88–95.
4. Samarin O.D., Zaytsev N.N. Influence of the orientation of glazed facades on the overall energy consumption of residential buildings. Inzhenerno-stroitelnyiy zhurnal. 2010. No. 8, рp. 16–20 (in Russian).
5. Samarin O.D. Voprosy ekonomiki v obespechenii mikroklimata zdanii. [Problems of economics in maintenance of a building microclimate]. M.: ASV. 2011. 128 p. (in Russian).
6. Gagarin V.G. Economical analysis of increase of thermal performance level of building enclosures. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. № 8. Рp. 41–47 (in Russian).
7. Samarin O.D., Lushin K.I. On energetic balance of residential buildings. Novosti teplosnabzheniya. 2007. No. 8, рp. 44–46 (in Russian).
8. Samarin O.D. Once more on expedience of increase of thermal performance of non-transparent enclosures. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, рp. 56–59 (in Russian).

V.S. BELYAEV1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, V.F. TIKHONOVA2, Engineer
1 “Central Scientific, Research and Design Institute for Residential and Public Buildings” (TSNIIEP zhilishcha), (9/3 Dmitrovskoye Hwy, Moscow, 127434, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering ( 26 Yaroslavskoye Hwy, 129337 Moscow, Russian Federation)

Energy efficient roofs and their thermo-technical calculations
Structural concepts of warm and open attics are presented; methods of thermo-technical calculations, in the course of two-dimensional air flows in particular, are stated in accordance with real conditions of operation. The article is divided into three parts for convenience: in the first part, technical solutions of warm and open attics are given; in the second one – a methodology of thermo-technical calculation of an open attic in a simplified form; the third part contains the methodology of thermo-technical calculation of an open attic at two-dimensional character of air flows movement. It is shown that it is possible to determine heat and aerial characteristics of air at any point of the premises with due regard for two-dimensional character of ventilation flows movement.

Keywords: energy efficiency, utilization, atmosphere, ventilation heat, condensate.

References
1. Belyaev V. S., Granik Yu.G., Matrosov Yu.A. Energoeffektivnost' i teplozashchita zdanii. [Energoeffektivnost and heatshielding of buildings]. M.: ASV, 2012. 400 р.
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