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Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №11

Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №11
November, 2014

Table of contents

A.R. KRYUKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Architecture), OAO «Central Research and Designing Institute for Residential and Public Buildings» (TSNIIEP zhilishcha) (9, structure 3, Dmitrovskoye Hwy, 127434, Moscow, Russian Federation)

On the Unity of rules for determining space-planning indicators of objects capital construction
Set out the principles and present a proposals for advanced development code of rules establishment of space-planning indicators of object capital construction of different functional purpose and multi-function, presents an analysis and synthesis of existing guidance documents in this area.

Keywords: capital construction objects (Objects), codes of practice design (CP), the space-planning indicators (Indicators), the volume of the object, the object area, the height of the object, functional and planning areas, functional zoning and planning, building physical boundaries.

References
1. Neufert P., Neff L. Proektirovanie i stroitel'stvo. Dom, kvartira, sad [The design and construction. House, apartment, garden]. M.: «Architectura-S», 2006. 255 p.
2. Kryukov A.R. The utility of skyscrapers. Visotnie zdaniya. 2007. No. 4, pp. 64–67. (In Russian).
3. Kryukov A.R. Guidelines on the interior design in skyscrapers. Visotnie zdaniya. 2007–2008. No. 6, pp. 64–69. (In Russian).
4. Kryukov A.R., Smurova N. Yu. Multi-functional complexes of variable number of storeys in industrial construction system of panel-frame house building. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 36–40. (In Russian).
5. Kryukov A.R. High-Rise vertical // Visotnie zdaniya. 2008. No. 3, pp. 64–69. (In Russian).
6. Huw M.A. Evans. Guide to the Building Regulations 2011 Edition. RIBA Publishing is a part of RIBA Enterprises Ltd., 2010. 424 p.

B.S. SOKOLOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.B. ANTAKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), K.A. FABRICHNAYA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) The Kazan State University of Architecture and Construction (1, Zelenaya street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Design of Preschool and School Institutions with the Use of Universal Industrial Frame Construction System (UIFCS) and Large-Size Ceramic Stones
An analysis of specified requirements for preschool and school institutions is made. Space-planning decisions of preschool educational organization and schools with the use of a new bearing system UIFCS, which is distinct from the known system KUB-2.5 in a principally new design of a joint between columns and over column slabs that makes it possible to significantly reduce the material consumption of elements and labour intensity of assembling, have been developed and presented. The use of enclosing structures made of environmentally friendly and energy efficient hollow-porous ceramic large-format stones is substantiated. Prospects of the development of eco-friendly and ergonomically contemporary typical projects of preschool and school institutions of various capacity are indicated.

Keywords: preschool institutions, schools, bearing system.

References
1. Sokolov B.S. Teoriya silovogo soprotivleniya anizotropnykh materialov szhatiyu i ee prakticheskoe primenenie [The theory of the power of resistance to compression of anisotropic materials and its practical application]. Moscow: ASV, 2011. 160 p.
2. Sokolov B.S., Antakov A.B., Fabrichnaya K.A. Compre hensive research strength hollow-porous ceramic stone and masonry in compression. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2012. No. 5 (34), pp. 65–71. (In Russian).

V.T. IVANCHENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.A. GRAZHDANKIN, Engineer (GrazhdankinAA@gradoresurs.com), A.A. ZAYTSEV, Engineer Kuban State Technological University (2, Moskovskaya Street, Krasnodar, 350072, Russian Federation)

A Passive Energy-Saving Residential Building for Krasnodar Krai

The design of the passive energy-saving residential building is presented. Enclosing structures are made of gas concrete blocks with insulants of rigid mineral wool boards. The thermal balance of the building is given. The life support system of the building is described. Heating and hot water supply of the two-storey building are realized with solar batteries mounted on the flat roof of the auxiliary building. Power supply is also provided by solar batteries. To collect electricity lead accumulators are installed. A diesel generator is used for reserve power supply.

Keywords: passive energy saving building, passive house, insulant, solar collector, solar batteries.

References
1. Gallyamova G.R., Kobelkov G. V. Energy saving technologies at construction of buildings: passive house. Aktual'nye problemy sovremennoi nauki, tekhniki i obrazovaniya. 2013. T. 2. No. 71, рр. 228–232. (In Russian).
2. Elokhov A.E. Features of design of the passive house in Russia. Vestnik MGSU. 2009. No. 4, рр. 313–316. (In Russian).
3. Ivanova-Pogrebnyak K. «The passive house» and active economy. Samoregulirovanie i biznes. 2012. No. 29 (09), рр. 34–39. (In Russian).
4. Smolyago G. A., Dronova A.V. Possibilities of improvement of qualities of external walls at construction and operation of low «passive» houses. Izvestiya Yugo-Zapadnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2010. No. 3, рр. 66–70. (In Russian).

V.P. GUSEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. SIDORINA2, Engineer
1 Scientific Research Institute for Building Physics, Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences (21, Lokomotivny Proezd, Moscow 127238, Russian Federation)
2 OOO “K-Flex” ( 4th floor, structure B3, BC “Riga Land”, 26th km of Baltic Highway, Krasnogorsky District, Moscow Oblast, 143421 Russian Federation).

Protection against Noise of Water Disposal Systems of Residential and Public Buildings
Acoustic characteristics of pipelines required for the design of water disposal systems (water drains and sewers) and defined experimentally on the special testing stands are considered. It is shown that widely used various polymer water disposal pipelines can be sources of raised noise in premises of residential and public buildings. Methods for reducing the structural constituent of noise of polymeric pipelines and air constituent by means of sound insulating coatings on the basis of contemporary elastomeric and fibrous materials are presented. Measured acoustic characteristics of various coatings which make it possible to select the optimal, from the acoustic and economy point of view, variants for installing on any pipes radiating noise are also presented. Source data for the development of such solutions under different situations at objects being designed are the required reduction, which depends on frequency, of expected levels of noise penetrating through the pipe walls into open or closed ambient space.

Keywords: water drains and sewer systems, pipelines, noise, required reduction of noise, sound insulating coatings.

References
1. Otstavnov А.А., Sidorina A.V. Noise reduction of domestic sewage. Santechnika. 2012. № 2, рр. 46–52. (In Russian).
2. Otstavnov A.A., Ustyugov V. A. Noise-quality building systems. Santechnika. 2005. № 5, рp. 56–60. (In Rus- sian).
3. Gusev V.P. Of noise control equipment engineering systems // AVOK. 2012. № 2, рр. 38-42, №. 3, рр. 64–69. (In Rus- sian).
4. Gusev V.P. Vibration as a source of structural noise equipment engineering systems and mass marketing. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2010. № 3. pр. 175–183. (In Russian).
5. Gusev V.P., Sidorina A.V. Сalculation and design of noise protection transits duct systems HVAC. AVOK. 2013. № 2, рp. 94–100. (In Russian).
6. Gusev V.P., Sidorina A.V. Insulation of ventilation ducts noise using elastomeric coatings and fiber materials. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. № 6. C. 37–41. (In Russian).

O.S. SUBBOTIN, Candidate of Sciences (Architecture), (subbos@yandex.ru) Kuban State Agrarian University (13, Kalinina Street, 350044, Krasnodar, Russian Federation)

Development of Population Distribution System and Original Features in Planning of Settlements of Kuban

The history of appearance and development of Kuban is considered. It is revealed that the architectural and town planning development of Kuban settlements favoured the strengthening of economic relations between Russia and Eastern countries. It is accentuated that the primary goal during the settling of the region was to execute strategic objectives – protection of the southern borders of the Russian state. Strategic reasons had a great influence on the development of the regular base of planning of large Cossack villages, stretched out over long distances. It is shown that the part of settlements, acting as a liaison between cities, developed intensively. In the main, a transit road coincided with the main compositional (planning) axis of the city where the commercial and cultural center of the city was usually located. In conclusion, it is noted that the leading role belongs to the architectural-planning organization of interior space of a settlement that create conditions for changing views of long enough and regularly developed streets and squares.

Keywords: settlement, village, development, strategy, architecture, town planning, Kuban.

References
1. Subbotin O. S. Landscape and topographical features of Kuban in a context of formation of the cities and settlements. Vestnik VolgGASU. Stroitelstvo i architectura. 2013. No. 33 (52), pp. 218–224. (In Russian).
2. Esaulov G.V. Arhitekturno-gradostroitel'noe nasledie Juga Rossii (Ego formirovanie i kul'turnyj potencial) [Cossack captains architectural and town-planning heritage of the South of Russia (Its formation and cultural potential)]. Thesis of Doktor of architecture. Moscow. 2004. 482 p.
3. Kubanskie stanicy: jetnicheskie i kul'turno-bytovye processy na Kubani [Kuban villages: ethnic and cultural and community processes in Kuban] Under the editorship of K.V. Chistov. M.: Nauka. 1967. 355 p. (In Russian).
4. Subbotin O.S. Arhitekturno-gradostroitel'noe razvitie istoricheskih naselennyh mest Juga Rossii. [Architectural and town-planning development of the historical occupied places of the South of Russia]. M.: ASV, 2012. 232 p. (In Russian).
5. Apostles L.Ya. Geografichesky sketch of the Kuban area. [Geograficheskij ocherk Kubanskoj oblasti]. Krasnodar: Tradicija. 2010. 320 p. (In Russian).
6. Subbotin O.S. Local features and the main lines in architecture of a traditional low domostroitelstvo of Kuban. Vestnik MGSU. 2009 . No. 3, pp. 8–13. (In Russian).
7. Kazachinsky V.P. Arhitektura i gradostroitel'stvo Kubani XIX– XX vv. Chast' 2. Arhitektura Kubani do 1985 g. [Architecture and town planning of Kuban of the XIX–XX centuries. Part 2. Architecture of Kuban till 1985]. Krasnodar: YuIM. 2002. 95 p. (In Russian).
8. Hikhlukh L.V. Arhitektura rossijskogo sela: regional'nyj aspect. [Arkhitektura of the Russian village: regional aspect]. M.: Arkhitektura-S. 2005. 208 p. (In Russian).

M.A. GRANSTREM, Candidate of Sciences (Architecture) (arch_project@bk.ru), M.V. ZOLOTAREVA, Candidate of Sciences (Architecture) (goldmile@yandex.ru) Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (4, 2-ya Krasnoarmeyskaya Street, 190005, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Research in the Structure of Historical Housing Development of Saint-Petersburg

Preservation of historical-town planning and architectural heritage of the central areas of Saint-Petersburg, their development, comfortable inclusion in the life of the contemporary city demands a special approach to the solution of problems of renovation and reconstruction of the historical city environment. The current period, characterized by active reconstruction of the historical centre, puts forward new requirements for the preservation of cultural heritage objects. Relation to the history as experience, on which the modern practice should be based, involves the disclosure of historical architectural and town planning processes on the basis of systematization of existing information and replenishment of missing information. This makes it possible to make an analysis of spatial-temporal transformations which the city has undergone in the course of its development. Identifying internal regularities of the genesis of these processes is very important.

Keywords: museumification, historical environment, historical city, habitat forming development, structure of urban space, historical-cultural heritage.

References
1. Zavarikhin S. of the Item St. Petersburg. Architectural plots. St. Petersburg: Saint- Petersburg State University of CivilEngineering. 2012. 448 p. (In Russian).
2. Shtiglits M. S. Industrial architecture of St. Petersburg in the sphere «Industrial archeology». St. Petersburg: «Black and white». 2003. 280 p. (In Russian).
3. Kurbatov Yu.I. Balans of values of new architecture of historic center of St. Petersburg (between acceptance of the population and a tendency of its denial). Architectura i stroitelstvo Moscvi. 2004. No. 2–3, pp. 24–30. (In Russian).
4. Gordeev Yu.V O problems of right application of the standards of the legislation arising at work on town-planning zoning of territories in which objects of cultural heritage (from the report at the international conference «Town-planning culture are located. Traditions and prospects»). Messenger «Architect. 21st century». 2014. No. 3 (52), pp. 3–14. (In Russian).
5. Granstrem M.A. To a question of preservation of historical creation of environment building the St. Petersburg. Reports of the 68th scientific conference of professors, teachers, scientists, engineers and graduate students of university. P. 3. St. Petersburg: Saint-Petersburg State University of Civil Engineering. 2011, pp. 46–49. (In Russian).
6. Shvidkovsky D. Russian architecture and the West (2007). Yale University Press. 2007. 480 p.

I.A. PROKOFIEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Architecture) (archirina@mail.ru) Moscow Architectural Institute (State Academy) (11/4, structure 1, bldg 4, Rozhdestvenka Street, 107031 Moscow, Russian Federation)

Morphotypes of Individual House in Holland and Japan

A morphological analysis of townhouses on the example of traditional and contemporary forms of residential houses of Holland and Japan is presented. Contemporary townhouses in Holland and the residential house of K. Tange in Japan are a modern version of unique and, at the same, traditional morphotypes of individual residential houses which are popular and actual in our days under specific conditions and can be widely used in the modern practice of building construction.

Keywords: morphotype, type, form, residential house, tradition, modern times

References
1. Prokofieva I.A. Kendzo Tange house. Features of spatial construction. The collection of scientific and practical conferen ce of the faculty and young scientists «Science, education and experimental design in Moscow Architectural Institute». Mos cow: Arkhitektura-S, 2012. Vol. 1, pp. 180–181. (In Russian).
2. Prokofieva I.A. 100 years to Tanga Kendzo. Architectural anniversaries. Calendar of memorials 2012–2016. Moscow: Moscow Architectural Institute (The State academy), Prod. Rudentsov' house, 2012, pp. 114–116. (In Russian).
3. Prokofieva I.A. K. Kurakava – the classic of modern architecture. Collection of theses of the international Scientific conference «Modern architecture of the world: main processes and directions of development». Moscow: NIITIAG, 2012, pp. 65–66. (In Russian).
4. Prokofieva I.A. Vasilyev A.V. Current state of the Moscow low ensembles. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 1, pp. 42–44. (In Russian).
5. Prokofieva I.A. Vasilyev of A.V. Istoriya of the comfortable dwelling on the example of the Moscow low ensembles. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 5, pp. 5–8. (In Russian).
6. Prokofieva I.A. Mobile housing. Japanese house of dream. The collection of scientific and practical conference of the faculty and young scientists «Science, education and experimental design in Moscow Architectural Institute». Moscow: Arkhitektura-S, 2011. Vol. 1, pp. 249–251. (In Russian).

V.D. KORNIENKO, Engineer-Architect (volodya.kornienko2319@yandex.ru), S.I. CHIKOTA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University (38, Lenin Avenue, Magnitogorsk 455000, Russian Federation)

Problems of Modern Russian Town Planning (on the Example of the City of Magnitogorsk)

On the example of Magnitogorsk the town planning problems and tendencies typical for most Russian cities, namely: increase in building density and number of storeys in buildings, reducing housing stock and planting, acceleration of building dilapidation, and violation of the architectural harmony of the urban environment are considered. The general characteristic of the housing stock of Magnitogorsk of different years of construction is presented. The proposed principles of the reconstructing the existing housing development of different periods are described.

Keywords: town planning problems, principles of housing development reconstruction

References
1. Sovremennaya arkhitektura mira [Modern architecture of the world]. Moscow-St.Petersburg: Nestor-History, 2013. 440 p. (In Russian).
2. Kalimullin M.F., Chikota S.I. Actual problems of reconstruction of a housing estate. Safety of construction fund of Russia. Problems and decisions: Materials of the International academic readings. Kursk: Kursk state technical university. 2009, pp. 78–82. (In Russian).
3. Kornienko V.D., Chikota S.I. To a question of safety of multiroom houses. Architecture of buildings and urban environment. Release 2.: Interuniversity collection of scientific works. Magnitogorsk: Magnitogorsk state technical university. 2013, pp. 35–36. (In Russian).
4. Narkevich M.Yu. Research of an insolyatsionny mode of a residential development of average number of storeys of 30–50 of the XX century. Construction and education: Collection of scientific works. Yekaterinburg: UGTU–UPI. 2007, pp. 125–127. (In Russian).
5. Kornienko V.D., Kutluyarov S.F., Chikota S.I. The Concept Of Reconstruction Of A Housing Estate 50 – The 60Th Years Of The XХ Century. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. № 5, рp. 6–8. (In Russian).
h1>A.S. SEMENOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (semenov-alex@mail.ru), Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs (87, Gorky Street, 600000, Vladimir, Russian Federation)

Organization of Reconstruction of Social Infrastructure Objects

The problem of shortage of the number of places in pre-school educational institutions due to the increased public demand for this type of service at the lack of pace of development of social infrastructure objects has a national-wide scale. The solution of this problem has been handed over to the authority of regions as there is a need for the development of individual approaches with due regard for the specificity of the situation existing in cities and permanent control of municipal and regional authorities. Measures which are carried out for improving affordability and quality of rendering services at pre-school educational institutions of the city of Vladimir are presented. The necessity for development of a new municipal program of address reconstruction of objects of pre-school educational institutions is substantiated; recommendations on the development of this program are described.

Keywords: pre-school educational institutions, engineering survey, sociological survey, technical condition, program of reconstruction.

References
1. Semenov A.A. Current state of housing construction in the Russian Federation. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 4, рр. 9–11. (In Russian).
2. Sheina S.G., Babenko L.L. Metodika of advance planning of placement of educational institutions at reconstruction of urban areas. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Severo-Kavkazskii region. Seriya: Tekhnicheskie nauki. 2010. No. 5, рр. 80–82. (In Russian).
3. Dmitriyev B.V. Transformation of preschool educational institutions in the course of reconstruction of a housing estate. 2011. No. 12. Page 39–41. (In Russian).
4. Kuznetsova A.A. Influence modern legislative and legal documents on functional and space-planning structure of buildings of the children's preschool educational organizations. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitek turno-stroitel'nogo universiteta. Gradostroitel'stvo i arkhitek tura. 2014. No. 1, рр. 40–43. (In Russian).

R.E. DASHKO, Doctor of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy) (regda2002@mail.ru), Ya.A. KARPOVA, Geologist University of Mines (1, 22nd Line, Vasilyevsky Island, 199106, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Principles of Geotechnical Typification of Saint Petersburg Territory for Above-Ground Construction

The comparative analysis of engineering-geological principles of typification of the Saint Petersburg territory for the above-ground construction developed in 1989 and 2013–2014 is made. It is noted that the moraine deposition of the Ostashkov horizon in reducing medium can’t be considered as a reliable base for surface structures including of high class of solidity. Experimental studies of the strength and deformation capacity of moraine depositions, formed under the anaerobic conditions, confirm their relatively low strength. Data on numerical and species compositions of microorganisms of turfs and underlying sand-clay soils of Lakhti bog in the Primorsky District as one of the natural factors of the transformation of disperse soils properties are presented. The scientific-practical principles and propositions of the geotechnical typification of the territory for construction of above-ground structures on the example of the Primorsky District of Saint Petersburg with the use, as a bearing horizon, of Verkhnekotlinskiye clays of the Upper Vendian considered as a fractured-block medium are formulated. The areas, which are the most favorable for constructing buildings of a higher level of responsibility and complexity, are selected.

Keywords: underground space, geotechnical typification, above-ground structures, contamination, foundations.

References
1. Shashkin A.G. Proektirovanie zdanii i podzemnykh sooruzhenii v slozhnykh inzhenerno-geologicheskikh usloviyakh Sankt- Peterburga [Design of buildings and underground constructions in difficult engineering-geological conditions of St. Petersburg]. M.: The academic science – Geomarketing, 2014. 352 p.
2. Dashko R.E., Vlasov D. Yu., Shidlovskaya A. V. Geotekhnika i podzemnaya mikrobiota. [Geotechnics and Underground microbiota]. Saint-Petersburg: PI Georeconstruction. 2014. 280 p.
3. Dashko R. E., Lange I.Ue. Pollution influence by oil products and their degradations in the underground environment on geotechnical parameters of sandy-argillaceous soil. Geotekhnika. 2013. No. 5/6, pp. 62–75. (In Russian).
4. Erofeyev V. T., Smirnov V. F., Kasimkina M. M., Khudyakov VA., Smirnova O. N. Research of impact of biologically active environments on sheetings of construction designs. Privolzhskiy nauchnyy zhurnal. 2010. No. 1, pp. 30–34. (In Russian).
5. Dashko R.E., Korobko A.A. Geotechnical Aspects of Study of Lower Cambrian Clays of Saint-Petersburg as the Base of Structures. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 9, pp. 19–22. (In Russian).
6. Zhukova A.M. Geotechnical engineering and hydrogeological specifics of estimate high-rise buildings construction and operation conditions (in terms of local zone on the right bank of Neva river). The Proceedings of the Mining Institute. Saint- Petersburg: SPSMI(TU), 2010. T.186, pp. 13–17. (In Russian)

O.D. SAMARIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (samarin1@mtu-net.ru), P.V. VINSKY, Engineer Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Experimental estimation of thermal protection properties of window units

The high priority of adjustment of thermal protection level of transparent constructions using for estimation of annual building energy consumption is considered. The theoretical approaches to estimation of the dependence of thermal resistance of window units from the difference between external and internal air temperature based on the general pattern of convective and radiant heat exchange on the glass surfaces and in the glass-to-glass space are presented. The most important factors influencing on the searched dependence are determined and the dimensionless parameters necessary for processing the results of experimental measurements of thermal protection properties of glass stacks are defined. The experimental procedure and instruments are described. The basic results of the research and their statistic processing with correlation dependence and estimation of its reliability are presented. The analysis of obtained relationships and their comparison with existing experimental data of other authors are given.

Keywords: window unit, glass stack, thermal resistance, convection, Grashoff’s number, correlation dependence.

References
1. Pchelintseva L.V., Tikhomirnov S.I. Problems of energy saving in Russia. Present-day requirements to the systems of window and façade glazing. Academia. Architecturа i stroitel'stvo. 2010. № 3, рр. 445–449. (In Russian).
2. Christopher Curtland. High-Performance Glazings: Windows of Opportunity. Buildings. 2013. No. 10, рр. 13–23.
3. Motuziene V., Juodis E.S. Selection of the efficient glazing for low energy office building. Papers of the 8th International Conference “Environmental Engineering”. Vilnius. 2011, рр. 788–793.
4. Verkhovsky A.A., Nanasov I.I., Yelizarova E.V., Galtsev D.I., Shcheredin V.V. A new approach to the estimation of energy efficiency of transparent constructions. Svetoprozrachnye konstruktsii. 2012. № 1 (81), рр. 10–15. (In Russian).
5. Samarin O.D., Vinsky P.V. Peculiarities of heat transfer in modern energy efficient glazing. Zhilishchnoe Stroitelstvo [Housing Constructions]. 2013. № 10, рр. 11–13. (In Russian).
6. Prokofyev A.A., Ivanov A.M., Rumyantseva I.A.,Shchu rov A.N. Properties of glass stacks with heat saving coating. Okna I dveri. 2005. № 7 (100), рр. 31–33. (In Russian).
7. Krivoshein A.D., Pakhotin G.A. The results of testing of thermal regime of glass stacks with distance frame «Swiggle strip», «IPS», «Thermix». Okna I dveri. 2005. № 7, рр. 40– 43. (In Russian).
8. Samarin O.D., Lushin K.I. On energy balance of residential buildings. Nov

A.V. MASLYAEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (victor3705@mail.ru), Research Seismological Laboratory (1, Akademicheskaya Street, 400074, Volgograd, Russian Federation)

Actions of Russian Population in Earthquake-Resistant Buildings during Earthquake

It is known that the life of population in buildings during the earthquake to a large extent may be dependent on competent evacuation to an open safe place. In earthquake regions of Russia the population is trained by the corresponding service of EMERCOM of Russia which uses recommendations of scientists for these purposes. The article analyzes the distinction of actions in buildings during the earthquake recommended by scientists of EMERCOM of Russia to the population and conclusions of medical scientists about the peculiarities of people’s behavior in this situation. For example, according to studies of medical scientists the people in seismic-resistant buildings during the powerful earthquake get a psychic trauma which forces them to go to an open safe place as soon as possible, leads to the exacerbation of “old” or emergence of “new” diseases; forced delay of people in the building after the earthquake affects their health. The article gives some examples of people’s behavior during strong earthquakes, presents the conclusions of medical scientists concerning the main characteristics of people’s actions in buildings during the earthquake. But some documents of EMERCOM of Russia recommend that people, in some cases, not leave seismic- resistant buildings during the earthquake. This is contrary to the provisions of the document SP 14.13330.2011 “Construction in seismic regions. Updated edition of SNiP II-7-81*” and conclusions of medical scientists and may be causing the deaths of many people in buildings during the earthquake. Basic rules of people’s behavior in seismic-resistant buildings during the earthquake, the introduction of liability of officials of building industry for the death of people in seismic-resistant building during the earthquake on the territories of settlements are substantiated; recommendations to the Ministry of education and science of RF about training specialists for earthquake regions are given.

Keywords: earthquake, buildings, evacuation, people’s life.
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