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Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №6

Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №6
June, 2014

Table of contents

V.G. GAGARIN 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.Yu. NEKLYUDOV 2 , Engineer
1 Research Institute of Building Physics RAACS (21, Locomotive Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Accounting of Thermal Bridges of Enclosures When Determining Heat Load on the Heating System of the Building*
The calculation of transmission heat losses of rooms of the building when determining the design capacity of the heating system is considered. In the course of calculation of transmission heat losses through the external enclosing structures linear and point thermal bridges are taken into consideration in accordance with the method of calculation of reduced resistance to heat transfer of enclosures contained in SP 50.13330.2012 «Thermal perfomance of buildings. Actualized version of SNiP 23-02–2003 «(an elemental «approach). The calculation of heat losses is made not only through the external enclosures but also through the internal enclosures separating rooms with different temperature. To reduce the labor content of calculation of buildings with a great number of rooms it is proposed to present data for calculation in the form of matrix. Operations of multiplication and addition of matrix lead to obtaining of a set of transmission heat losses for all rooms of the building (matrix method); this set is presented in the form of a vector of the data column. Due to the improvement of calculation accuracy and direct account of the influence of enclosing structures joints it is proposed to refuse from correction coefficients β used in such calculations since XIX century. The use of the matrix method make it possible to significantly simplify the work of a designer and to bring it to collection of geometrical and thermophysical characteristics in matrixes. The matrix method makes it possible to maximally automate the calculation of transmission heat losses when using a table editor, MicrosoftExcel for example. The proposed method is an energy saving measure by itself when designing any heating systems for any buildings as it takes into account the exact values of physical parameters and, in addition, makes it possible to calculate operational conditions when the outdoor air temperature change.

Keywords: heat power of heating system, transmission heat losses, reduced resistance to heat transfer, linear and point non-homogeneities, matrix method.

References
1. Skanavi A.N., Makhov L.M. Otopleniye [Heating]. Moscow: ASV, 2008. 576 p. (In Russian).
2. Gagarin V.G. Macroeconomic aspects of substantiation of power saving measures aimed at improving the heat protection of buildings enclosing structures. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 3, pp. 8–16. (In Russian).
3. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Theoretical preconditions for calculation of reduced resistance to heat transfer of enclosing structures. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 12, pp. 4–12. (In Russian).
4. Rietschel H. Leitfaden zum berechnen und entwerfen von Lüftungs- und Heizungs- anladen. Ber-lin: Verlag von Julius Springer, 1894. 308 p.
5. Makhov L.M., Usikov S.M. Raschet peremennogo gidravlicheskogo rezhima raboty sistemy vodyanogo otopleniya. AVOK. 2014. No. 2, pp. 54–66. (In Russian).
6. Fabi V., Andersen R.V., Corgnati S.P. Influence of occupant's heating set-point preferences on indoor environmental quality and heating demand in residential buildings. HVAC&R Research. 2013. Vol. 19. Issue 5, pp. 635–645.

T.A. AKHMYAROV, engineer, A.V. SPIRIDONOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.L. SHUBIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Director, Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Principles of Designing and Assessment of External Enclosing Structures with the Use of Modern Technologies of “Active” Energy Saving
A fundamentally new principle of improving the energy efficiency of external enclosing structures of the new generation with heat recuperation which can be used both in building structures of buildings under construction and buildings under reconstruction is considered. One of the new prospective solutions is the use of energy efficient ventilated enclosing structures (EVES) of buildings with the system of active energy saving (SAES) with heat recuperation which makes it possible to increase the level of heat protection and comfort of microclimate of premises at significant economy of fuel and energy resources. The basic principle of operation of the systems of transmission heat recuperation (due to the heat transfer and convection) and radiation heat recuperation (heat radiation) is a special organization of conditions of entry of outdoor air flow and its further passing through the enclosing structure as well as heat reflections with help of special screens (autonomous or in the form of coating layers). A flat air curtain of cold incoming air which maximally cools surfaces, layers, heat reflecting screens, and flexible connections which transfer the air into the atmosphere is created in the air space, at the air flow inlet. For assessment of EVES designs two indexes (in addition to existing) – a factor of heat flow reduction and a factor of recuperation – are proposed.

Keywords: energy efficient ventilated enclosing structures, systems of active energy saving, recuperation of transmission heat, factor of heat flow reduction, recuperation factor.

References
1. Shubin I.L., Spiridonov A.V. Legislation for Energy Conservation in USA, Europe and Russia. Ways for Decision. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. No. 3, v. 1, pp. 4–14. (In Russian).
2. Gagarin V.G. Sanitation of a envelopes at reconstruction of residential buildings in the cities of Russia. Reconstruction, energy modernization of residential buildings and thermal infrastructure in the Russian Federation: Materials of the Russian-German technical seminar on December 8–9, 2011. Moscow. 2012, pp. 23–51. (In Russian).
3. W.Feist Osnovnye polozhenia po proektirovaniyu passivnyh domov [Basic provisions on design of passive houses]. Moscow: ASV. 2011. 144 p. (In Russian).
4. Abdurafikov R.M., Spiridonov A.V. How to estimate energy efficient windows. Energosberezhenie. 2013. No. 7, pp. 68– 75. (In Russian).
5. Belyaev V.S, Lobanov V.A., Akhmyarov T.A. The decentralized forced-air and exhaust system of ventilation with heat recovery. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 73–77. (In Russian).
6. Akhmyarov T.A., Belyaev V.S., Spiridonov A.V., Shubin I.L. System of active energy saving with heat recovery. Energosberezhenie. 2013. No. 4, pp. 36–46. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2295622.Ventiliruemoe okno [Ventilated window]. Akhmyarov T.A. Declared 14.03.2005. Published 20.03.07. Bull. No. 8. (In Russian).
8. Belyaev V.S., Khokhlova L.P. Proektirovanie energoekonomichnyh I energoeffektivnyh zdaniy [Design of energy-efficient and power effective buildings ]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1992. 255 p. (In Russian).
9. Umnyakova N.P. Heat-shielding of the closed air layers with reflective thermal insulation. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 16–20. (In Russian).

N.P. UMNYAKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Heat Transfer through Enclosing Structures with Due Regard for Coefficients of Radiation of Inner Surfaces of Premises
At present when assessing heat insulating characteristics of external enclosing structures the reflecting properties of inner surfaces are not taken into account. Despite the fact that the domestic industry produces a significant amount of materials coated with aluminum foil which have a low radiation value this reflecting effect is not taken into account in the course of heat protection designing that leads to limiting the use of such type of heat insulation. The article presents new methods which make it possible to calculate the temperature on the inner surface of the wall if reflective heat insulation the shiny surface of which faces the room is available. Calculations made according to these methods take into account the radiation coefficients of all surfaces facing the room – a floor, a ceiling, walls, and others. Values of temperature on the inner surface obtained as a result of calculations according to these methods are compared with the experimental values obtained in the course of on-site investigations. The convergence of the results of experimental data and calculated values makes it possible to use the methodology of temperature calculation on the inner surface of enclosing structures with due regard for radiation coefficients of surfaces for practical engineering designs.

Keywords: radiation coefficient, temperature, radiant heat flux, radiation, heat release by radiation, heat release by convection, thermal-technical studies

References
1. Umnyakova N.P. Heat protection of closed air spaces with reflective insulation. [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 16–20. (In Russian).
2. Umnyakova N.P. Energy and resources saving in buildings – element of the concept of biosphere compatibility with the environment. Biosfernosovmestimye goroda i poseleniya. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii. Bryansk 11–13 de kabrya 2012, рр. 56–64. (In Russian).
3. Fokin K.F. Building thermotechnics of enclosing parts of buildings[Stroitel'naya teplotekhnika ograzhdayushchikh chastei zdanii]. M.: ABOK-PRESS, 2006. 230 р. (In Russian).

V.N. YARMAKOVSKY1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Honorary Member of RAABS, A.N. KOSTIN1, engineer, O.V. FOTIN2, Director of Design Department, A.E. KONDYURIN3, Head of projects
1 Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAABS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 ZAO “Irkutsky DSK (22, Pugacheva Street, 666505, Workers Settlement Magistralny, Kazachinsko-Lensky District, Irkutsk Region, Russian Federation)
3 OOO “Praymbild” (4, Vorobievskoye High Way, 119285, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Thermal Efficient External Walls of Buildings Built with the Use of Monolithic Polysterene Concrete with High-Porous and Plasticized Matrix
The principally new basic technical solutions, fundamentals of technology and practical examples of constructing external walls of buildings with the use of the monolithic heat insulation from modified polysterene concrete with high-porous and plasticized matrix developed by the authors (RF Patent № 2169132) are presented. Especially light (density grade D150–D200) monolithic polysterene concrete is poured in the thin-walled permanent formwork of different types. Flexible basalt-plastic connections are used between formworks. In fact such a wall is very close to a single-layer one. It is necessary to note the following advantages in comparison with the traditionally used designs of wall: the increased coefficient of thermal-technical homogeneity of a wall (from 0.70–0.75 up to 0.90–0.92); significantly increased guarantee of heat protection characteristics of the wall for the whole estimated period of building exploitation, high possibility of industrial erection of such walls which is ensured by high porosity of polysterene concrete mix (volume of air-entraining – 25–30%) and plastification of its matrix; the last makes it possible to transport such a mix with the help of a concrete pump of an on-site mobile installation at the height of up to 3 floors and in length up to 50 m without its segregation and, it is very important, to pour concrete mix in the formwork without vibrocompaction with the help of the extrusion method.

Keywords: external walls, monolithic heat insulation polysterene concrete, permanent framework, energy-resource saving.

References
1. Savin V.K. Energoekonomika [Power economy]. Moscow: Lazur. 2011. 415 p. (In Russian).
2. Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovsky V.N, Shkolnik Ya.Sh. State and using perspectives of by-products in building industry. Ecologiya i promishlennost Rossii. 2012. No. 10, pp. 50–55. (In Russian).
3. Umniakova N.P. Rising of energo-effective buildings to reduce the action for sustainable. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. No. 3, pp. 221–227. (In Russian).
4. Patent RF 2169132. Smes dlya izgotovleniya teploizo lyacionnikh izdelii [Mix for manufacturing of heat-insolation articles]. Yarmakovsky V.N., Krilov B.A., Khaimov I.S., Mishina T.B. Declared 19.05.2000. Published 20.06.2001. Bulletin No. 17. (In Russian).
5. Kosmatka S., Kerkoff B., Hooton R. Design and control of Concrete Mixtures. The Guide to Application, Methods and Materials. Eight Canadian Edition. Cement Association of Canada. Ottawa: 2011. 280 p.
6. Hider I. Clinker substitutes at cement industry. Cement. Lime. Gips. ZKG International. 2006. No. 2, pp. 26–31. (In Russian).
7. Iudovich B.E., Zubehin C.A., Rahovsky V.I., Klimov C.B. New model of the cement stone and the materials on its base. Materials of the XXIII International meeting of chiefs of laboratories of cement factories. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 2010, pp. 151–159. (In Russian).
8. Petrov V.P., Makridin N.I., Sokolova Yu.A., Yarmakovsky V.N. Tekhnologiya i materialovedenie poristykh zapolnitelei i legkykh betonov [The technology and material-learning of porous aggregates and lightweight concretes]. Moscow: Paleotyp. 2013. 331 p. (In Russian).

References
1. Мalyavina E.G.,Kryuchkova O.Yu. The stochastic-stati stics climatic model for calculation of power consumption by air conditioning systems. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. No 3, pp. 389–394. (In Russian).
2. Kryuchkova O.Yu., Мalyavina E.G. Development of the engineering method of the power index analysis of air conditioning systems. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No 6, pp. 73–75. (In Russian).
3. Oko C.O.C. and Ogoloma O.B.A. Generation of a tipical meteorological year for Port Harcourt zone. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. April 2011, vol. 6 (2), pp. 204–214.
4. LEE T. Changing Climate: ersatz future weather data for lifelong system evaluation. Proceedings of Building Simulation 2011:12th Conference of International Buil ding Performance Simulation Association. Sydney. 2011, pр. 633–640.
5. Beccali М., Bertini I. Ciulla G., Di Pietra M., Lo Brano V. Software for weather databases management and construction of Reference years. Pro-ceedings of Building Simulation 2011:12th Conference of International Buil ding Performance Simulation Association. Sydney. 2011, pр. 1181–1186.
6. Narowski P., Janicki M., Heim D. Comparison of untypical meteorological years (UMY) and their influence on building energy performance simulations. Proceedings of Building Simulation 2011:12th Conference of International Buil ding Performance Simulation Association. Sydney. 2011, pр. 1414–1421.
7. Gates A., Liley B., Donn M. New Zealand weather data – How different? Proceedings of Building Simulation 2011:12th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association. Sydney. 2011, pр. 1599–1606.
8. Мalyavina E.G., Ivanov D.S., Zhuravlev P.A., Kryuchkova O.Yu. Details in the development of information as specialized “reference year”. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No 6, pp. 36–38. (In Russian).
9. Мalyavina E.G., Ivanov D.S., Frolova A.A. Presentation of climate information as «reference year». Promyshlennoe I grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo [Industrial and civil engineering]. 2013. No 9, pp. 27–29. (In Russian).
10. The Russian hydrometeorological portal. Hydrometeorolo gical data of the Russian State fund of data of the natural environment state. http://meteo.ru/ (the date of inquiry is 10th of March, 2012). (In Russian).

E.G. MALYAVINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), O.Yu. KRYUCHKOVA1, engineer; V.V. KOZLOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Comparison of Climate Models for Calculating Energy Consumption by Central Systems of Air-Conditioning
Results of the comparison of two climate models intended for calculating the annual energy consumption by the systems of air-conditioning, a probabilistic- statistic model and a “model” year, are presented. Both models are developed on the same primary climatological material. The repeatability of values of outdoor air during the year at different hours of the day by the gradation of after each 2°C and relative humidity of outdoor air by the gradation of after each 5°C is compared. The comparison shows that the “model” year reflects the annual variation of reiterations of these parameters. The probabilistic-statistic model more fully accumulates all possible combinations of temperature-humidity parameters and can serve as a basis for more accurate projection of energy consumption by the systems of air-conditioning, operating the part of the day in particular.

Keywords: probabilistic-statistic model, combination of temperature and relative humidity, probabilistic distribution of reiteration, time intervals during the day

I.L. SHUBIN 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), I.E. TSUKERNIKOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), L.A. TIKHOMIROV 1 , engineer; T.O. NEVENCHANNAYA 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation);
2 Moscow State University of Printing Arts named after Ivan Fedorov (2a, Pryanishnikova Street, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Augmentation of Noise in Residential Development in Connection with Reconstruction of the Road The assessment of augmentation of noise levels in the residential development in connection with reconstruction of the part of Yaroslavskoe Highway near the city of Mytishchi is made with the use of software. The calculation of noise levels near facades of 9-storey and 10-storey residential buildings is made. The parts of the road responsible for augmented noise levels are revealed; an analysis of the share of various noise sources is made. The predictive assessment and analysis of the efficiency of placing the noise screens near the most noisy parts of the roads are made.

Keywords: road noise, residential development, calculation, noise reduction, noise screen.

References
1. Pospelov P.I., Purkin V.I., Shchit B.A., Pasul'ko D.S., Shubin I.L., Tsukernikov I.E., Aistov V.A. Methodical maintenance design. Protection against high noise and vibration. Proceedings IV All-Russian scientific and practical conference with international participation. St. Petersburg. BGTU. 2013, pp. 105–115. (In Russian).
2. Tsukernikov I.E., Tikhomirov L.A. The calculation results for road noise residential area of Moscow, obtained using three software. Proceedings IV All-Russian scientific and practical conference with international participation. St. Petersburg. BGTU. 2013, pp 409–419. (In Russian).

A.M. GREBENKIN1, Architect; E.V. GREBENKINA2, Architect; I.L. SHUBIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Research Institute of Building Physics of RAABS (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)
2 Tambov State Technical University (106 Sovetskya Street, Tambov, 392000, Russian Federation)

Design Principles of Noise Control Installations in the Urban Environment with Due Regard for Their Integration

The design of noise control installations (NCI) is a complex, multi-factor process based on the establishment of optimal links among relatively independent objects little connected with each other and their further transformation into a single, integral environment in which all its parts are coordinated and interdependent. Available practical experience of integration of NCI in the urban environment shows the absence, in most cases, of a positive effect. The value of the aesthetic aspects of the integration of noise control installations in the environment of cities and human settlements is growing. In this connection there is a consideration of the methods which makes it possible, in the course of designing, to take into account the factors ensuring their efficient integration into the urban environment. The methodology is based on the principles of urban environment design “from the general to the particular”. It is approbated in the course of developing design conceptions of NCI with maximal integration of them into the environment of the city of Tambov, and at present it is used in NIISF for the solution of noise control problems on the territories adjoining the city mains of Moscow.

Keywords: road traffic noise, noise-protective measures, urban environment, noise control installations, noise control in city.

References
1. Shubin I.L, Tsukernik I.E. Monitoring noise in urban areas. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2009. No. 5, pp. 94– 100. (In Russian).
2. Shubin I.L, Aistov V.A. Investigation of influence of the shape on the acoustic soundproofing screen efficiency. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2009. No. 5, pp. 200–208. (In Russian).
3. Shubin I.L, Tsukernik I.E. Unwedded T.S. Assessment of Reduction in sound level of noise screens. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 37–42. (In Russian).
4. Shubin I.L., Shchurova N.E. Aesthetic integration of anti-noise barriers in the environment. International scientific-practical conference: Harmonization of European and Russian regulations and protect the public from increased noise. Moscow–Sofia–Koval. 2009, pp. 143–156. (In Russian).
5. Shubin I.L., Shchurova N.E. Integration of anti-noise barriers in the environment. Vestnik MGSU. 2010. No. 1, pp. 255–261. (In Russian).
6. Stein Bach K.E, Elenskiy V.I. Psikhologiya zhiznennogo prostranstva [Psychology of living space]. Saint Petersburg: Speech. 2004. 239 p.
7. Voltchkova I.M, Lazareva E.A, Chuvarkin A.A. Gorod kak sosredotochie kommunikatsii [City as the center of communications]. Yekaterinburg: Arhitekton. 2009. 300 p.
8. Shubin I.L, Tsukernik I.E, Tikhomirov L.A, Nikiforov A.V. Calculation of road noise residential area of Moscow using two software. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 2–6. (In Russian).

V.A. IL’ICHEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS, N.S. NIKIFOROVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Yu.A. GOTMAN2, Candidate of Sciences, General Director, E.Yu. TROFIMOV1, engineer
1 Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 OOO “Podzemproekt” (34, structure1, Verkhniaya Street, 125040, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Anchors with Additional Cementation as an Active Method for Protection of Buildings and Communications in the Zone of Influence of Deep Excavations

Digging deep trenches for the underground part of complexes in the presence of buildings and communications requires the application of active or passive protective measures. A new type of active protective measures – SBMA anchors with additional cementation was used in the course of construction of a multifunctional complex with underground parking at the address: 19, Yartsevskaya Street, Moscow as an alternative to the geo-technical barrier. The use of pre-stressed SBMA anchors with additional cementation reduces settlements of neighboring buildings and communication in comparison with design settlements. There is no need for strengthening buildings and foundation soils. It is recommended to continue the studies in the field of using active methods of protection of buildings and communications in the zone of construction influence.

Keywords: deep foundation, active protection, anchors.

References
1. Il'ichev V.A. Nikiforova N.S., Gotman Y.A., Tupikov M.M., Trofimov E.J. Analysis of the application of active and passive methods of protection in underground construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 25–27. (In Russian).
2. Patent RF 2245428. Sposob vozvedeniya podzemnykh sooruzhenii v gorodskoi zastroike [Method of construction of underground structures in urban areas]. Petruhin V.P. Shulyat'ev O.A., Mozgacheva O.A. Declared 15.08.2002. Published 27.01.2005. Bulletin No. 3. (In Russian).
3. Yermolaev V.A., Matsegora A.G. Strengthening of the building foundations during deep excavations in urban areas. Design and construction of the underground part of the new building ( the second stage) of the Mariinsky Theatre: Collection of scientific papers edited by V.A. Ilichev, A.P. Ledyaev, R.A. Mangushev. St. Petersburg: St-PSACU. 2011, рр. 139–146. (In Russian).
4. Petruhin V.P., Shulyat'ev O.A., Popsuenko I.K., Mozgache va O.A., Experience of micropiles application during reconstruction of the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Collection of scientific papers number 100 NIIOSP after N.M. Gersevanov. Moscow. 2011, рр. 267–277. (In Russian).
5. Patent RF 112913. Buroin'ektsionnaya kompensatsion naya svaya [Compensation micropile]. Popsuenko I.K., Shulyat'ev O.A. Declared 4.08.2011. Published 27.01.2012. Bulletin No. 3. (In Russian).
6. Konovalov P.A., Kissin B.F., Eremin V.Y., Eremin A.V., Taturin A.Y., Sarafanov N.V., Sigute . V., Minasenko A.N. Experience fixing pits in a dense housing. Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering: Geotechnical Challenges in Megacities. Moscow. 2010. Volume 4, рр. 1555–1560. (In Russian).
7. Zuev S.S., Makovetskii O.A., Khousainov I.I. Application of jet grouting device for underground parts of complexes. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 9, pp. 1–4. (In Russian).

N.I. KARPENKO1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS, V.I. TRAVUSH2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS, A.V. MISHINA2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 OAO “ENPI” (8, 2-ya Brestskaya Street, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Determination of Creep Deformations Under Complex Loading Conditions

Results of the experimental study of rheological properties of new high-strength steel-fibre concrete are presented. The study included tests of samples of different ages with step-by-step increasing of loading of different level. The theoretical treatment of the results obtained was made with the help of different methods for determining theoretical values of creep deformation under complex loading conditions: consistent with the principle of effects superimposition (PES) and not consistent with PES. A comparison of obtained theoretical curves of creep deformation change with the experimental curves is presented; advantages and shortcomings of each method used are marked out.

Keywords: high-strength steel-fibre concrete, experimental studies, creep deformation, step-by-step loading mode, PES, creep degree.

References
1. Karpenko N.I., Travush V.I., Kaprielov S.S., Bezgodov I.M., Andrianov A.A., Mishina A.V. The research of physical, mechanical and rheological properties of high high strength steel fiber reinforced concrete. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2013. No. 1, pp. 106–113. (In Russian).
2. Mishina A.V. The research of high strength steel fiber reinforced concrete creep under unloading. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2013. No. 3, pp. 111–114. (In Russian).
3. Karpenko N.I., Bondarenko V.M. Level state of stress as a factor in structural changes and rheological force resistance of concrete. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2007. No. 4, pp. 56–59. (In Russian).
4. Karpenko N.I., Travush V.I., Adrianov A.A., Mishina A.V. The research of high strength steel fiber reinforced concrete creep. Vestnik Odesskoi Gosudarstvennoi Akademii Stroi tel'stva i Arhitektury. 2013. Vol. 49. Book 1, pp. 161–166. (In Russian).

P.P. PASTUSHKOV 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); K.I. LUSHIN 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); N.V. PAVLENKO 3 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Research Institute of Building Physics of RAAСS (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
3 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Absence of Problem of Condensate Formation on the Inner Surface of Walls with Fastened Heat Insulation

Possibilities to define an everyday expression “breathing walls” from the point of view of air-permeability and resistance to vapor permeability are considered. It is noted that enclosing structures that fall under these definitions do not meet the requirements of SNiP “Heat protection of buildings”. The types of methods for calculation of humidity conditions are described. Calculations of non-stationary humidity conditions of multi-layer structures with the use of main types of efficient heat insulating materials (mineral wool, formed foam polystyrene, extruded foam polystyrene) in different cities of Russia are presented. It is demonstrated that the humidity on the inner surface of the wall, when mineral wool and extruded foam polystyrene are used as a heat insulators, does not exceed 1%, when formed foam polystyrene is used - 2%. This work debunks the existing opinion that when some types of efficient heat insulator are used “the walls are not breathing” and the condensate can form on the inner surface. It is shown that this does not happen even in the period of the greatest moisture accumulation in any climatic zone of construction.

Keywords: breathing walls, humidity conditions, non-stationary method of calculation, efficient heat insulators, condensate.

References
1. Pastushkov P.P. Scientific approach to the topic of «breathing walls». Krovel'nye i izoljacionnye materialy. 2013. No. 4, pp. 13–14. (In Russian).
2. Fokin K.F. Calculation consistent dampening materials in outdoor enclosures. In book: Voprosy stroitel'noj fiziki v proektirovanii [Issues in the design of building physics]. Moscow–Leningrad: Strojizdat, 1941, pp. 2–18.
3. Mingottia N., Chenvidyakarna T., Woodsb A.W. The fluid mechanics of the natural ventilation of a narrow-cavity double-skin facade. Building and Environment. 2011. Vol. 46, pp. 807–823.
4. Kjunzel H.M., Kjunzel H., Sedelbauer K. Hydro thermal beanspruchungund lebensdauervon heat dam composite systems. Bauphysik. 2006. Vol. 28, p. 3.
5. Gagarin V.G. Thermophysical problems of modern wall enclosures multistory buildings. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2009. No. 5, pp. 297–305. (In Russian).
6. Gagarin V.G., Pastushkov P.P. Methods of determining the total water vapor resistance of the outer layers of finishing facade insulation composite systems with outer layers of plaster. Vestnik MGSU. 2012. No. 11, pp. 140–143. (In Russian).
7. Gagarin V.G., Pastushkov P.P. Quantitative evaluation of energy saving measures. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No 6, pp. 7–9. (In Russian).

A.I. ANTONOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), O.A. ZHOGOLEVA1, Master, V.I. LEDENEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), I.L. SHUBIN2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Tambov State Technical University (106 Sovetskya Street, Tambov, 392000, Russian Federation)
2 Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Effect of Sound Absorption of Premises and Sound Proofing of Doors on the Noise Mode in Apartments of Residential Buildings

The influence of sound-absorption of premises and sound proofing of doors on the noise mode of apartments is assessed. It is shown that in the course of evaluating the sound energy distribution in an apartment from indoor noise sources the apartment has to be considered as a system of acoustically connected premises. In these systems the acoustic efficiency of sound-absorption is determined by conditions of the reciprocal position of the noise source and sound- absorbing lining as well as by the type of acoustic connections among premises. It is established that the construction of sound-absorbing ceilings can’t be an efficient measure for noise reduction. The ceiling can be used only as an additional measure for noise reduction in premises with low sound-absorption factors (αср-0,1) and if permanent noise sources are available in them. The sound insulation of doors more efficiently influences on the sound energy distribution in the apartment. Their acoustic efficiency is several times higher than the efficiency of additional sound absorption.

Keywords: noise mode of apartment, sound-absorption of premises, sound insulation of enclosing structures, acoustic efficiency

References
1. Voronkov A.Yu., Zhdanov A.E., Ledenev V.I. Metod of an assessment of a noise mode of apartments. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2004. No. 11, pp. 15–17. (In Russian).
2. Antonov A.I., Zhogoleva O.A., Ledenev V.I. Choubin I.L. Metod of noise calculation in apartments with cell systems of planning. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2013 . No. 7, pp. 33–35. (In Russian).
3. Antonov A.I. Zhogoleva O.A. Ledenev V.I. Metod of calculation of a noise mode in buildings with corridor systems of planning. Stroitel’stvo i reconstruksija. 2013. No. 3 (47), pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
4. Osipov G.L., Judin E.Ja. Snizhenie shuma v zdanijah i zhilyh rajonah. [Decrease in noise in buildings and residential areas]. Moscow: Stroizdat, 1987. 558 p.
5. Antonov A.I., Batsunova A.V., Kryshov S.I. Method of Assessment of Noise Fields of Premises When Designing the Sound Protection in Civil Buildings with Noise Sources Inconstant in Time. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 58–59. (In Russian).
6. Antonov A.I., Batsunova A.V., Kryshov S.I. Estimate of noise in rooms with sources of a pulse sound of periodic action. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. V. 1. № 3, pp. 48–53. (In Russian).
7. Antonov A.I., Batsunova A.V., Dyomin O.B. Metod of calculation of non-stationary noise fields in disproportionate rooms and rooms of difficult forms. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 3, pp. 183–185. (In Russian).

I.E. TSUKERNIKOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), L.A. TIKHOMIROV 1 , engineer, E.O. SOLOMATIN 2 , engineer, I.P. SALTYKOV 3 , engineer, N.A. KOCHKIN 4 , engineer
1 Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Tambov State Technical University(106, Sovetskaya Street, 392000 Tambov, Russian Federation)
3 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering(26, Yaroslavskoye Hwy, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)
4 Vologda State University(15, Lenina Street, 160000, Vologda, Russian Federation)

Solution of Building Acoustic Problems as a Factor Ensuring Safety and Comfort of Habitation in Buildings

Results of the over ten years work of the collective of authors aimed at the complex solution of the problem of protection of residential territories against the noise, ensuring the acoustic safety and comfort in residential buildings are presented. Peculiarities of the developed methods for noise monitoring and more accurate methods for determining noise characteristics and forecasting the sound distribution from the main noise sources in the cities are considered. These methods ensure obtaining of reliable information about noise distribution on the urban territory. Data on research in improving sound-insulating properties of enveloping structures of buildings with the use of vibration damping are presented; methods for assessment of comfort of internal living environment are offered. The specificity of the combined method for assessment of the noise spreading in large-size air-vents of in-built systems of heating, ventilation, and conditioning and the method for calculating the levels of structural noise caused by wind flows impact on the building structures located on the building roof are described.

Keywords: protection against noise, assessment, monitoring, noise.

References
1. Tsukernikov I.E., Choubin I.L. Noise monitoring of urban areas. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2009. No. 5, pp. 94–100. (In Russian).
2. Tsukernikov I.E., Choubin I.L. Calculation of levels of direct noise of extended sources. Materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii «Jekologicheskaja bezopasnost' i jenergosberezhenie v stroitel'stve». [Materials of the international scientific and practical conference «Ecological Safety and Energy Saving in Construction»]. Moscow-Kavala, 2013, pp. 176–187. (In Russian).
3. Tsukernikov I.E., Choubin I.L., Ivanov N.I., Minina N.N. Noise characteristics of building sites and method of their definition. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 3, pp. 140–144. (In Russian).
4. Choubin I.L., Tsukernikov I.E., Tikhomirov L.A., Nevenchan naya T.O. Noise increase in a housing estate in connection with highway reconstruction. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2014. No. 6, pp. 27–30. (In Russian).
5. Kochkin A.A., Kochkin, N.A. Design of sound insulation of easy protecting designs of buildings from elements with vibrodamping layers. Materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchno- prakticheskoj konferencii «Jekologicheskaja bezopasnost' i jenergosberezhenie v stroitel'stve». [Materials of the international scientific and practical conference «Ecological Safety and Energy Saving in Construction»]. Moscow- Kavala. 2013, pp. 111–117. (In Russian).
6. Gusev V.P., Ledenev V.I., Solodova M.A., Solomatin E.O. The combined method of calculation of noise levels in large size air-gas channels. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. V. 1. No. 3, pp. 33–38. (In Russian).
7. Gusev V.P., Zhogoleva O.A., Ledenev V.I., Solomatin E.O. Metod of an assessment of distribution of noise on air channels of systems of heating, ventilation and conditioning. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo. [Housing construction]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 52–54. (In Russian).
8. Tsukernikov I.E., Choubin I.L., Shchurova N.E., Nevenchan naya T.O. Estimate of levels of the structural noise created in rooms of the top floor of the high-rise building by fluctuations of a spike established on a roof. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2009. No. 5, pp. 231–236. (In Russian).

V.A. SMIRNOV, engineer, Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Method of Calculation of a Compressed Flexural Elastic Element of Variable Cross Section at Large Displacements
The statistic calculation of a compressed flexural beam of variable cross section loaded in the center with the concentrated force Fmax, which is an elastic element of the rigidity corrector of the non-linear vibration isolator intended for the vibration protection of the high precision equipment against the low frequency oscillations of natural and anthropogenic origin. For determining the beam elastic behavior, that is to say loading – deformation dependence, the method of parameter continuation is used. At that, the calculation of the beam deflection is made progressively from the know solution at F=F0 up to F=Fmax. To improve the level of conditioning of matrix of Jacobi determinant the algorithm of Ricks is used; this algorithm uses the length of the arch of the equilibrium state curve as a leading parameter and includes the auxiliary equation for iterations on the sphere. The use of the arch length as a parameter of continuation ensures the unified process of passing regular, limiting, and bifurcation points.

Keywords: low frequency oscillations, non-linear vibration isolator, method of parameter continuation, geometric non-linearity, initial curvature.

References
1. Jack B. Evans. Pneumatically Isolated Inertia Base with Active Damping for a Transmission Electron Microscope. Journal of Low Frequency Noise. Vibration and Active Control, Multi-Science Publishing Company, Ltd. 2010. Vol. 28, Nо. 3, pp. 169–184.
2. Yang J., Xiong Y.P., Xing J.T. Dynamics and power flow behaviour of a nonlinear vibration isolation system with a negative stiffness mechanism. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 2013. Vol. 332, pp. 167–183.
3. Gendreau M. and Amick H. Maturation of the Vibration Environment in Advanced Technology Facilities. J. Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology. 2005. Vol. 48, issue 1, pp. 83–93.
4. Smirnov V.A. Methods of placement of the high-precision equipment in existing buildings // Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 76–77. (In Russian).
5. Carrella A., Brennan M.J., Waters T.P., Shin K. On the design of a high-static–low-dynamic stiffness isolator using linear mechanical springs and magnets. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 2008. Vol. 315, issue 3, pp. 712–720.
6. Zand M. Moghimi. The Dynamic Pull-In Instability and Snap-Through Behavior of Initially Curved Microbeams. Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures. 2012. Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 485–491.
7. Smirnov V.A. Metod of continuation in the parameter for the solution of a problem of a zakritichesky bend of the squeezed core variable cross section. Construction – formation of the environment of activity: Collection of works of the 17th international conference of young scientists, doctoral candidates and graduate students. Moscow on April 23–25, 2014. M.: MGSU, 2014, рр. 111–114. (In Russian).

V.K. SAVIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAACS, N.G. VOLKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Yu.K. POPOVA, engineer, Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Role of Ecological and Climatic Factors in the Course of Territory Development
Climatic changes are accompanied by changes of meteorological parameters which influence both positively and negatively on the building structures and materials. Climate as the main natural ecological factor forms aerodynamic processes in the atmosphere. The air space of the Arctic territory of RF filters the contaminated air flows and preserves the natural equilibrium on the planet. The role of forests as an oxygen source which absorb carbon compounds and supply the timber is also considerable. In the course of design and construction of buildings and structures as well as during their operation it is necessary to take into account the environmental conditions considering the problems of ecology and construction in common.

Keywords: ecology, climate, aerodynamics, air composition, polluting substances, construction.

References
1. Volkova N.G. Development of rationing of construction climatology. Bulletin of construction equipment. 2012. No. 8, pp. 37–38. (In Russian).
2. Volkova N.G., Popova Yu.K. Triune problem of ecology in relation to construction problems. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2009. No. 5, pp. 108–116. (In Russian).
3. Berezhnaya T.V., Golubev A.D., Parshina A.N. The abnormal hydrometeorological phenomena in the territory of the Russian Federation in May, 2013. Meteorology and hydrology. 2013. No. 8, pp. 112–120. (In Russian).
4. Savin V.K. Stroitel'naja fizika. Jenergojekonomika [Construction physics. Power economy]. Moscow: Lazur', 2011. 415 p.
5. Savin V.K. Klimatologiya and town planning. Town planning. 2012. No. 4 (20), pp. 55–58. (In Russian).
6. Shabetnik V.D. Main reasons for a global disaster and general direction of revival of Earth. International Ecological Forum. Investments into ecology – a step to the future. Theses of reports. 2001. Pp. 9–10. (In Russian).
7. Elshin I.M. Stroitelju ob ohrane okruzhajushhej prirodnoj sredy [Stroitelyu about protection of surrounding environment]. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1986. 136 p.
8. Ishkov A.G. Environmental problems of Central federal district of Russia. International Ecological Forum. Investments into ecology – a step to the future. Theses of reports. 2001. Pp. 43–44. (In Russian).
9. Umnyakova N.P. New SP 131.13330.2012 «SNiP 23-01–99* “Building Climatology”. Updated Edition». AVOK. 2013. No. 7, рp. 72–76. (In Russian).

S.A. KOBELEVA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), N.V. BAKAEVA 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), K.S. ANDREYTSEVA 2 , engineer
1 State University – Education-Science-Production Complex (29, Naugorskoe Hwy, 127238, Orel, Russian Federation)
2 Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Simulation of Housing Sphere Compatible with Biosphere

Constant complication of impacts on the housing sphere has led to the need to improve the mechanisms of its management. The theme of this study is the search for optimal models. The proposed models of the housing sphere are based on the systematic presentation in the form of an open dynamic structure and are notable for the presence of social, natural and production-infrastructure components in its composition. The principles of biospheric compatibility can serve as a mechanism of self-organization of the housing sphere.

Keywords: housing sphere, simulation, biospheric compatibility, criterion of ecological safety, mechanism of self-organization.

References
1. Kobeleva S.A. The scenarios of housing in view of the influence of the environmental factors. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstrukcija. 2013. No. 3 (47), pp. 33–38. (In Russian).
2. Il'ichev V. A., Emel'janov S.G., Kolchunov V.I., Bakaeva N.V. Social expectations, housing programmes and quality of life in the urbanized area. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo. 2014. No. 2. pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
3. Il'ichev V.A. Biospheric compatibility – the principle, allowing to construct a life paradigm in harmony with a planet Earth. Biosfernaja sovmestimost': chelovek, region, tehnologii. 2013. No. 1, pp. 4–5. (In Russian).
4. Kobeleva S.A. The choice of criteria for the environmental evaluation of the construction technology. Bezopasnost' v tehnosfere. 2013. No. 6, pp. 23–26. (In Russian).
5. Il'ichev V.A. Biosfernaja sovmestimost'. Tehnologii vned- renija innovacij. Goroda, razvivajushhie cheloveka [Biospheric compatibility. Technologies of introduction of innovations. The cities developing the person]. Moscow: LIBROKOM. 2011. 420 p. (In Russian)
6. Il'ichev V.A., Emel'janov S.G. Preobrazovanie gorodov v biosferosovmestimye i razvivajushhie cheloveka: kurs lekcij [Transfor-mation of the cities in biosferosovmestimy and developing the person: course of lectures]. Moscow – Kursk: JuZGU. 2013. 99 p. (In Russian)
7. Bakaeva N.V. , Shishkina I.V. Conceptual model of ecologically safe motor transportation system and management problem definition/ Jekologija urbanizirovannyh territorij. 2013. No 2, pp. 38–42. (In Russian).
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