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Stroitel`nye Materialy №10

Stroitel`nye Materialy №10
October, 2017

Table of contents

L.M. DOBSHITS, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (levdobshits@yandex.ru) Moscow State University of Railway Engineering (9, bldg. 9, Obraztsova Street, 127994, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Ways to Improve the Durability of Concretes Durability of concretes can be significantly improved under the condition of reasonable assignment of design requirements for concrete, correct choice of materials for its preparation, selection of concrete mix with due regard for the specified properties, compliance with the technology of preparation, placing, compaction, and care for concrete in the process of its active hardening and operation. Recommendations for achieving the best results for each of listed items are presented. It is noted that the concrete resistance to destruction will be more active, the higher its impermeability, which is affected by the value of the open porosity and sizes of pores. It is shown that the low frost resistance is another reason for insuffi- cient durability of concrete and reinforced concrete. Reasons and mechanism of formation of various types of pores (reserve, contraction, closed, conditionally closed, open) are consid- ered in details.

Keywords: durability, concrete mix, destruction, porosity, frost resistance, water impermeability, concrete, reinforced concrete.

For citation: Dobshits L.M. Ways to improve the durability of concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 10, pp. 4–9. (In Russian).

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S.V. FEDOSOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (fedosov-academic53@mail.ru), V.E. RUMYANTSEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Adviser of RAACS (varrym@gmail.com), V.S. KONOVALOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kotprotiv@yandex.ru), A.S. EVSYAKOV, Engineer (smart47@rambler.ru) Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (20, 8 Marta Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)

Colmatation: Phenomenon, Theory, Prospects of Using for Control Over Concrete Corrosion Processes General information about peculiarities of the phenomenon of colmatation of pores and capillaries of the cement stone is presented; negative and positive consequences of the process of materials colmatation in various branches of the industry are also presented. Data revealing the increase in the strength characteristics of the cement stone at the initial stage when colmatating pores due to the structural transformations, which occur in the cement stone because of corrosion processes, are presented. Research in changes of the mineralogical composition of the cement stone in the course of fluid corrosion in the aggressive media containing chloride-ions has been conducted. The relation between changes in the structure and mineralogical composition of cement stone and the strength loss after effect of liquid aggressive media containing chloride-ions has been established. Mathematical models of the kinetics and dynamics of the mass transfer, accompanied by colmatation, at chemical corrosion of the cement stone are presented.

Keywords: colmatation, colmatation of pores, concrete corrosion, increasing the strength, structure of cement stone, mineralogical composition of concrete.

For citation: Fedosov S.V., Rumyantseva V.E., Konovalova V.S., Evsyakov A.S. Colmatation: phenomenon, theory, prospects of using for control over concrete corrosion processes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 10, pp. 10–17. (In Russian).

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Confidence in the Future is Now Ensured . Bet on Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Elements . (Information) . . . . . . .18
К.Б. САФАРОВ1, инженер (sk90@mail.ru); В.Ф. СТЕПАНОВА2, д-р техн. наук (vfstepanova@mail.ru); В.Р. ФАЛИКМАН1,2, д-р материаловедения (vfalikman@yandex.ru)
1 Национальный исследовательский Московский государственный строительный университет (129337, г. Москва, Ярославское ш., 26)
2 Научно-исследовательский, проектно-конструкторский и технологический институт бетона и железобетона (НИИЖБ) им. А.А. Гвоздева (109428, г. Москва, 2-я Институтская ул., 6, корп. 5)
Влияние механоактивированной низкокальциевой золы-уноса на коррозионную стойкость гидротехнических бетонов Рогунской ГЭС Известно, что введение в состав бетона активных минеральных добавок, таких как микрокремнезем, зола-уноса, доменный шлак, снижают расширение бетона, вызванное проявлением реакционной способности заполнителей и сульфатной коррозией, однако механизм данного процесса остается до конца не исследованным. В работе проведено исследование влияния низкокальциевой золы-уноса на процессы одновременного протекания щелочной реакции заполнителей и сульфатной коррозии бетона. Изучены возможности механоактивации низкокальциевой золы-уноса для повышения ее активности. Показано, что прочность образцов цементно-песчаных растворов с 20% механоактивированной золы-уноса превышает прочности образцов без золы и образцов с 20% исходной золы на 18 и 21% соответственно, значительно повышая в то же время коррозионную стойкость бетона. Достаточно подробно описаны разнообразные приемы активации минеральных добавок при различных воздействиях.

Ключевые слова: бетон, реакционная способность заполнителей, сульфатная коррозия, низкокальциевая зола-уноса, механоактивация.

Для цитирования: Сафаров К.Б., Степанова В.Ф., Фаликман В.Р. Влияние механоактивированной низкокальциевой золы-уноса на коррозион ную стойкость гидротехнических бетонов Рогунской ГЭС // Строительные материалы. 2017. № 9. С. 20–24.

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R.A. IBRAGIMOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (rusmag007@yandex.ru); E.V. KOROLEV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (KorolevEV@mgsu.ru); T.R. DEBERDEEV 3, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.V. LEKSIN3 , Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics)
1 Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
3 Kazan National Research Technological University (68, K. Marksa Street, Kazan, 420015, Russian Federation)

Durability of Heavy-Weight Concrete with Portland Cement Treated in Apparatus of Vortex Layer At present, the tendency of improving physical-mechanical properties of building material due to the activation of raw components is observed. One of the methods is the activation of cement in the apparatus of vortex layer. The paper presents the data on optimization of parameters of the apparatus of vortex layer by means of realization of the four-factor plan of the second order for heavy-weight concrete of B25 class. On the basis of the experiment planning, optimal parameters of operation of the apparatus of vortex layer, sizes of ferromagnetic particles and relation of ferromagnetic particles to the material activated were revealed. The mathematical dependence of durability of heavy-weight concrete at the age of 1 and 28 days of hardening on the independent variables was found. At optimal conditions of the apparatus of vortex layer operation, improving the compression strength of heavy-weight concrete takes place at the first day of hardening by 2.44 times and at the grade age – by 1.48 times.

Keywords: activation, binder, vortex layer, ferromagnetic particles, heavy-weight concrete.

For citation: Ibragimov R.A., Korolev E.V., Deberdeev T.R., Leksin V.V. Durability of heavy-weight concrete with portland cement treated in apparatus of vortex layer. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 10, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
V.V. RUSINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (rusina07@bk.ru), Yu.Yu. DUBROVINA 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); E.I. CHERNOV 2, Engineer (ev7080@yandex.ru)
1 Kostroma State Agricultural Academy (34, Karavaevskaya Village, Campus, Kostroma District, Kostroma Region, 156530, Russian Federation)
2 “Mostootryad-6” Yaroslavl territorial firm, branch of PJSC “Mostotrest” (64A, Tutaevskoye Highway, Yaroslavl, 150033, Russian Federation)

Concretes for Enclosing Structures on the Basis of Waste of Wood Machining Advantages of composites on the basis of mineral binders and an organic filler from the waste of logging, lumbering, and machining are shown. Negative qualities of a wood filler which make it difficult to obtain material of high strength are determined. Organo-mineral concretes for wall structures, in which the waste of wood machining – sawdust and bark – are used as a light filler, and slag- and ash-alkaline binders consisting of ash-slag wastes and liquid glass from micro-silica serve as mineral binders, are proposed. Quite high physical-mechani- cal characteristics of such concretes due to the phase composition of the binders used and the peculiarities of liquid glass are explained. Processes and phenomena, which take place when forming the contact zone of wood filler – binder, have being studied. It is concluded that concretes obtained on the basis of waste of larch machining and slag- and ash-alkaline binders on the liquid glass from micro-silica meet all the requirements for enclosing structures. The possibility of using the bark, as a filler, is shown. It is noted that for the successful use of bark , the simultaneous use of low- and high-module liquid glass is needed. For regions where metallurgic slag and furnace bottom ash from coal burning are absent, it is pro- posed to use the peat ash for organo-mineral concretes.

Keywords: wood fillers, arbolite, liquid glass, ash-slag wastes, concretes of enclosing structures.

For citation: Rusina V.V., Dubrovina Yu.Yu., Chernov E.I. Concretes for enclosing structures on the basis of waste of wood machining. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 32–35. (In Russian).
E.A. BARTENYEVA, Master (ek.bartenjeva@yandex.ru), N.A. MASHKIN, Doctor of Science (Engineering) (nmashkin@yandex.ru) Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SIBSTRIN) (113, Leningradskaya Street, Novosibirsk, 630008, Russian Federation)

Research in Properties of Modified Foam Concrete The actual problem for the construction is to reduce the density and heat conductivity of cellular concretes by introducing modifying additives. Results of the study of non-autoclaved concrete on the basis of fly ash modified with additives are presented. Properties of the foam and non-autoclaved foam concrete with introducing additive-electrolytes, fiber and mineral additives are considered. In the course of the study conducted it is established that the use of mineral additives such as diopside and wollastonite is the most efficient in the non-auto- claved foam concrete with protein-based foaming agent. These modifiers make it possible to improve the aggregate stability of the foam concrete mix. The proposed composition and production technology of foam concrete products provide the reduction in the average density of the material in comparison with the control composition when introducing the wollas- tonite additive by 31%, when introducing the diopside by 54%. The heat conductivity factor when introducing the wollastonite and diopside is reduced up to 41–43% in comparison with the control composition. The foam stability factor is increased in the mortar mix by 9.5% when introducing the wollastonite, by 25% when introducing the diopside.

Keywords: cellular concrete, foam concrete, protein-based foaming agent, additive-electrolytes, fly ash, wollastonite, diopside.

For citation: Bartenyeva E.A., Mashkin N.A. Research in properties of modified foam concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 10, pp. 36–40. (In Russian).
Y.A. GONCHAROV 1 , Engineer, Chairman of the Board of Directors, G.G. DUBROVINA 1 , Research Engineer Technical Advisor(dubrovina_gg@mail.ru); A.G. GUBSKAYA 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Head of Laboratory(gubskaya@niism.by)
1 JSC “BELGIPS” (24, Kozlova Street, Republic of Belarus, 220037, Minsk)
2 SE “Institute NIISM” (23, Minina Street, Republic of Belarus, 220014, Minsk)

Gypsum Boards for Protection of Premises against Penetration of Radon One of the main signs of violation of the ecological balance between natural factors and human activity is the increasing of the radiation background, created by both natural and artifi- cial (anthropogenic) sources of radiation. The mechanism of effect of radon and short-lived daughter products of radon on human beings, the ways of their penetration into buildings are described. By measuring the flux density of radon from the surface of a brick without covering and with covering, it is shown that the use of protective coverings makes it possible to reduce the flux density of radon from the surface of building structures. Protective materials for protection against radon (with a low radon penetration) must have a high density and a low specific efficient activity of natural radionuclides. Formulations for the production of gypsum boards for the protection of premises against penetration of radon have been devel- oped. It is revealed that the grade of flux density of radon when finishing the concrete and brick with a radon protection gypsum slab is reduced by 2.3–3 times depending on the quan- tity of an added chemically modified carbon additive.

Keywords: radon, radon-protecting gypsum slab, flux density of radon.

For citation: Goncharov Y.A., Dubrovina G.G., Gubskaya A.G. Gypsum boards for protection of premises against penetration of radon. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 10, pp. 41–44. (In Russian).
T.E. КHAEV1, Engineer (haevt@mail.ru), E.V. TKACH1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (ev_tkach@mail.ru); D.V. ORESHKIN 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (dmitrii_oreshkin@mail.ru)
1 Russian Federation National Research Moscow State Construction University (26, Yaroslavl Highway, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation)
2 Russian Federation Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, (4, Kryukovskij tupik, Moscow, 111020, Russian Federation)

Modified lightweight gypsum material with hollow glass microspheres for restoration works In the article material science problems of gypsum materials for restoration parts, elements of stucco in the architectural monuments in Russia. Traditional plaster mixtures have a high average density of up to 1900 kg/m 3 , which is unacceptable for a restoration of the weakened wooden load-bearing structures of palaces and other objects. Known to facilitate bulking in a plaster mixture: sawdust, expanded perlite and vermiculite, granules of foamed glass, foam, hollow ceramic microspheres lead to the loss of white and a sharp decrease in strength. The authors suggest for the high-quality restoration lightweight gypsum materials white color with hollow glass microspheres (HGMS), hydrophobic-plasticizing additive. It is possible to obtain gypsum grades G5 and G4 at an average density of 1102 and 531 kg/ m 3 , respectively. The article presents x-ray diffraction and microstructural studies and proven that PSMS and supplements features could have their significant effect on the interplanar distances of the lattice, the intensity of peaks, their angles and dimensions of crystals of gypsum matrix.

Keywords: light weight gypsum material, the properties of the mixture and stone, hollow glass microspheres, powder x-ray diffraction and microstructural studies, the interplanar dis- tances of the lattice, sizes of crystals of gypsum matrix.

For citation: Кhaev T.E., Tkach E.V., Oreshkin D.V. Modified lightweight gypsum material with hollow glass microspheres for restoration works. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 10, pp. 45–50. (In Russian).
Non-Stratified Three-Component Polymeric-Bitumen Binders . . . . . .51
I.F. SHLEGEL, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Director (info@inta.ru), S.G. MAKAROV, Engineer, Head of Department Institute of New Technologies and Automation of Building Materials Industry (OOO «INTA-STROY») (100, 1-ya Putevaya Street, 644113, Omsk. Russian Federation)

Issues of Sawdust Treatment It is noted that the quality of sawdust grinding, used in the technology of ceramic brick and lightweight refractories as a thinning or burning-out additive, significantly influences on the technol- ogy and quality of ready-made production. A new device for re-grinding of sawdust “Kesar” after the sieve with polyhedral drum, which is traditionally used in the ceramic brick technology, is presented. Technical characteristics of the device and characteristics of sawdust before and after re-grinding in it are given. It is shown that the grinder “Kesar” has been successfully tested at the “Sukhoy Log Refractory Works” and installed in the technological line. Two schemes of installation of the grinder “Kesar” in the line for producing the ceramic brick are proposed.

Keywords: ceramic brick, lightweight refractory, sawdust, sieve with polyhedral drum, grinder “Kesar”.

For citation: Shlegel I.F., Makarov S.G. Issues of sawdust treatment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 10, pp. 56–57. (In Russian).
M.V. GRAVIT, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Docent (marina.gravit@mail.ru), A.S. KULESHIN, Bachelor (alex_kulesh4@mail.ru), S.V. BELYAEVA, Engineer Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (29, Polytechnicheskaya Street, Saint Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation)

National Standards for Rigid Spray-On PUR and PIR Foams Differences between properties of the rigid foam polyurethane and polyisocyanurate (PUR and PIR foams) are presented. A brief review of studies of the foams modification with the purpose to improve heat insulation properties and reduce the flammability is made. A comparative analysis of technical characteristics of various producers of rigid PUR and PIR foams is presented. Problems of the market conditions of producing foam polyurethane and polyisocyanurate in Russia are identified. In the situation when most of the raw components for PUR and PIR at the Russian market are imported, the import substitution with domestic components is very relevant. It is established that the further development of the technology of producing heat insulation spray-on rigid PUR and PIR foams demands the uniformity of technical characteristics of primary components and ready-made products, the creation of uni- form information base for for raw materials and auxiliary materials which are used when producing PUR and PIR foams, development of the RF national standards for execution of works and for components for the spray-on foam polyurethane, for methods of quality assessment of the ready-made foam.

Keywords: heat insulation, foam polyurethane, foam polyisocyanurate, spray-on systems, rigid foam.

For citation: Gravit M.V., Kuleshin A.S., Belyaeva S.V. National standards for rigid spray-on PUR and PIR foams. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 10, pp. 58–64. (In Russian).
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