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Stroitel`nye Materialy №5

Stroitel`nye Materialy №5
May, 2017

ДОГОВОР О ПЕРЕДАЧЕ ПРАВА НА ПУБЛИКАЦИЮ (ЛИЦЕНЗИОННЫЙ ДОГОВОР) (без заполненного и подписанного лицензионного договора статья для рассмотрения и публикации приниматься не будет)

Table of contents

The Prize after I.A. Grishmanov was Established by the Russian Engineering Academy In memory of an outstanding state and economic figure, The Hero of Socialist Labor The First Minister of Construction Materials Industry of the USSR Ivan Aleksandrovich Grishmanov
The VII International Scientific-Practical Conference «InterConPan-2017: from LPC to Frame-Panel Construction» was held in the capital of the Chuvash Republic (Information) . . . . . . . . . . 6
Irish Construction Concern CRH Invests in the New Extruder with New Sealing Technology (Information) . . . . . . . . . .14
N.S. SOKOLOV1,2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Director(forstnpf@mail.ru); S.N. SOKOLOV1, Engineer, Deputy Director for Science, A.N. SOKOLOV 1, Engineer, Deputy Director for Production
1 OOO PPF “FORST” (109a, Kalinina Street, Cheboksary, 428000, Chuvash Republic, Russian Federation)
2 I.N. Ulianov Chuvash State University (15, Moskovsky Avenue, Cheboksary, Chuvash Republic, Russian Federation)

Fine Concrete as a Structural Building Material of Bored-Injection Piles EDT
The concrete strength of cross-section of bored-injection EDT-piles is a fundamental index for determination of bearing capacity by soil and by shaft. Electric discharge technology makes it possible to increase the strength of fine concrete. Also it can exceed the strength of untreated concrete by 40–50% by using the electro-hydraulic method. An important role in the process of development of strength in concrete plays a compliance with technological regulations of EDT-piles manufacturing. Cases of the inconsistency of concrete strength with design values are very frequent in geotechnical construction. In the article below a case of geotechnical practice is given.

Keywords: strength of fine concrete, boring piles, electric discharge technology, EDT-piles, fine concrete mixture, workability.

For citation: Sokolov N.S., Sokolov S.N., Sokolov A.N. Fine Concrete as a Structural Building Material of Bored-Injection Piles EDT. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 16–19. (In Russian).

References
1. Patent RF 2250958. Ustroistvo dlya izgotovleniya nabivnoi svai [The device for production of a stuffed pile]. N.S. Sokolov, V.Yu. Tavrin, V.A. Abramushkin. Declared 14.07.2003. Published 27.04.2005. Bulletin No. 12. (In Russian).
2. Patent RF 2250957. Sposob vozvedeniya nabivnoi svai [The method of production of a stuffed pile]. Sokolov N.S., Tavrin V.Yu. , Abramushkin V.A. Declared 14.07.2003. Published 27.04.2005. Bulletin No. 12. (In Russian).
3. Patent RF 2282936. Generator impul’snykh tokov [Generator of pulse currents]. Sokolov N.S., Pichu- gin Yu.P. Declared 4.02.2005. Published 27.08.2006. Bulletin No. 24. (In Russian).
4. Patent RF 2318960. Sposob vozvedeniya nabivnoi svai [The method of production of a stuffed pile]. Sokolov N.S. Declared 26.12.2005. Published 10.03.2008. Bulletin No. 7. (In Russian).
5. Patent RF 2318961. Razryadnoe ustroistvo dlya izgotov- leniya nabivnoi svai [Discharge device for production of a stuffed pile]. Sokolov N.S. Declared 10.07.2007. Published 10.03.2008. Bulletin No. 7. (In Russian).
6. Sokolov N.S., Ryabinov V.M. About one method of cal- culation of bearing capacity of bored-injection EDT- piles. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov. 2015. No. 1, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
7. Sokolov N.S. Method of calculation bearing capacity of the bored-injection EDT-piles taking into account «thrust bearings». Materials of the 8th All-Russian (the 2nd International) the «New in Architecture, Designing of Construction Designs and Reconstructions» conference (NASKR-2014). Cheboksary – 2014, pp. 407–411. (In Russian).
8. Sokolov N.S., Viktorova S.S., Fedorova T.G. Piles of in- creased bearing capacity. Materials of the 8th All-Russian (the 2nd International) the «New in Architecture, Designing of Construction Designs and Reconstructions» conference (NASKR-2014). Cheboksary – 2014, pp. 411–415. (In Russian).
9. Sokolov N.S., Petrov M.V., Ivanov V.A. Calculation prob- lems of bored-injection piles manufactured with the use of electric discharge technology. Materials of the 8th All- Russian (the 2nd International) the «New in Architecture, Designing of Construction Designs and Reconstructions» con- ference (NASKR-2014). Cheboksary – 2014, pp. 415–420. (In Russian).
10. Sokolov N.S., Sokolov S.N., Sokolov A.N. Experience of restoration of an emergency building of Vvedensky cathe- dral in Cheboksary. Geotechnica. 2016. No. 1, pp. 60–65. (In Russian).
11. Sokolov N.S., Ryabinov V.M. About Effectiveness of Installation of Bored-Injection Piles with Multiple Enlargements with Using of Electric Discharge Technology. Geotechnica. 2016. No. 2, pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
12. Russian Federation patent for utility model No. 161650. Ustroistvo dlya kamufletnogo ushireniya nabivnoi kon- struktsii v grunte [The device for camouflage broadening of a stuffed design in soil]. Sokolov N.S., Dzhantimirov H.A., Kuzmin M.V., Sokolov S.N., Sokolov A.N. Declared 16.03.2015. Published 27.04.2016. Bulletin No. 2. (In Russian).
13. Sokolov N.S., Ryabinov V.M. Features of Installation and Calculation of Bored-Injection Piles with Multiple Enlargements. Geotechnica. 2016. No. 3, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
14. Technique of Construction of Bored-Injection Piles of Increased Bearing Capacity. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 9, pp. 11–15. (In Russian).
B.A. BONDAREV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), N.N. CHERNOUSOV, Candidat of Sciences (Engineering), R.N. CHERNOUSOV, Candidat of Sciences (Engineering), V.A. STUROVA, Bachelor (v-livenceva@mail.ru) Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, Lopetsk, 398600, Russian Federation)

Research in Strength Properties of Steel-Fiber-Slag Concrete in the Course of Axial Tension and Compression with Due Regard for Its Age Results of the study of strength properties of the fine steel-fiber-slag concrete (SFSC) at the age of 3–448 days are presented. A significant part of the calculations of flexural elements of build- ing structures is based on such characteristics of the material as concrete compression strength Rb, Rm and axial tension strength of concrete Rbt are presented. The purpose of this study is to obtain calculation formulas that make it possible to determine the strength characteristics of SFSC (strength under axial tension and compression Rfbt, Rfb) with due regard for the age of concrete. Tests on tension and compression were carried out with samples fabricated on the basis of waste from crushing of molten slag crushed stone of metallurgic production on fractions of 0–5 mm with bulk density of 1085–1135 kg/m 3 and with different volumetric content of fiber reinforcement and the age of concrete. The hardening of the concrete has taken place under the laboratory conditions at temperatures of +18 – +20°C and humidity of 70±5%. Loading when compression testing has taken place at a rate of 0,6±0,4 МPа/s, when tensile testing – 0,05±0,02 МPа/s. As a result of test conducted and processing of experimental data, dependences and corrected formulas of the design resistance for SFSC under tension and compression with due regard for its age have been obtained; they are the base for creating the application software for automated calculation of elements of building structures on the basis of SFSC.

Keywords: steel-fiber-slag concrete, fiber reinforcement, concrete strength under axial tension, concrete strength under axial compression, fiber, coefficient of fiber reinforcement.

For citation: Bondarev B.A., Chernousov N.N., Chernousov R.N., Sturova V.A. Research in Strength Properties of Steel-Fiber-Slag Concrete in the Course of Axial Tension and Compression with Due Regard for Its Age. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 20–24. (In Russian).

References
1. Mashukova A.I., Matveev S.F. New varieties of concrete. Science Time. 2016. No. 4 (16), pp. 485–488. (In Russian).
2. Chernousov R.N. Strength and deformability of struc- tural elements of transport structures on the basis of fine- grained steel-fiber-slag-concrete. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitecturno-stoitelnogo instituta. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2011. No. 1 (21), pp. 87–97. (In Russian).
3. Chernousov N.N., Chernousov R.N., Sukhanov A.V. Investigation of the mechanics of the operation of fine- grained cinderblock in axial tension and compression. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 59–63. (In Russian).
4. Chernousov N.N., Chernousov R.N., Liventseva V.A. Modeling of physical and mechanical properties of fine- grained cement-sand concrete under axial tension and com- pression. Tekhnicheskie nauki – ot teorii k praktike: Materialy XXII Mezhdunarodnoi zaochnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi kon- ferentsii. Novosibirsk. 2013. V. 1, pp. 78–80. (In Russian).
5. Bentur A., Mindess S. Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composites. Second edition. NewYork, USA, Taylor & Francis, 2007. 604 p.
6. Chernousov N.N., Chernousov R.N., Sukhanov A.V. Influence of age of high-strength dispersed-reinforced slag-pouc-concrete on its strength and deformation char- acteristics. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 7 (667), pp. 22–31. (In Russian).
7. Chernousov N.N., Chernousov R.N. Flexible steel and concrete slag-concrete elements. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2010. No. 4, pp. 7–11. (In Russian).
8. Karpenko N.I., Sokolov B.S., Radaikin O.V. To calculate the strength, rigidity and crack resistance of eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete elements using a nonlin- ear deformation model. Izvestiya KGASU. 2013. No. 4 (26), pp. 113–120. (In Russian).
P.P. PASTUSHKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), (pavel-one@mail.ru); V.G. GAGARIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAACS (gagarinvg@yandex.ru) Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)

Research in Dependence of Heat Conductivity on Density and Coefficient of Thermo-Technical Quality of Autoclaved Concrete
The relevance of the theme of the work is due, on the one hand, to the obsolete nature of the studies described earlier, since the results obtained in them reflect the thermophysical characteristics of aerated concrete produced on equipment and technologies different from modern ones, and on the other hand, the current activity of updating normative documents in the field Thermal protection of buildings. The paper describes the results obtained for determining the thermal conductivity in the dry state and the thermo quality factor (TQF) for auto- claved aerated concrete of modern production with a range of grades in density from 100 to 600 kg/m 3. The dependence of the thermal conductivity of the material in the dry state on the density is constructed, an equation describing this dependence is presented. A comparison of the obtained dependence and data in the current SP 50.13330 is made, a conclusion is made about the greater accuracy of the results obtained. The dependence of TQF aerated concrete on density is presented – the results obtained are correlated with classical works on this topic. It is found that the TQF value of the investigated grades according to the density of aerated concrete is approximately the same and is equal to 0.04 1/%. The obtained data on the values of thermophysical parameters can be used for designation and analysis of calculated values for the thermal conductivity of aerated concrete, as well as for updating and issu- ing new regulatory documents in the field of thermal performance of buildings and production of aerated concrete.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, thermo quality factor, density, autoclave aerated concrete.

For citation: Pastushkov P.P., Gagarin V.G. Research in Dependence of Heat Conductivity on Density and Coefficient of Thermo-Technical Quality of Autoclaved Concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 26–28. (In Russian).

References
1. Grinfeld G.I., Korkina E.V., Pastushkov P.P., Pavlenko N.V., Erofeeva I.V. The system of the protecting designs providing the increased energy saving in buildings. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhi- tekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitek- tura. 2016. No. 3, pp. 25–35. (In Russian).
2. Silaenkov E.S. Dolgovechnost’ izdeliy iz yacheistykh be- tonov [Longevity of products from cellular concretes]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1986. 174 p.
3. Gaevoy A.F. Kachura B.A. Kachestvo i dolgovechnost’ ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy iz yacheistogo betona [Quality and durability of the protecting designs from cel- lular concrete]. Khar’kov: Vishcha shkola. 1978. 224 p.
4. Künzel H. Gasbeton. Wärme- und Feuchtigkeitsverhalten. Wiesbaden–Berlin: Bauverlag. 1970. 120 S.
5. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfeld G.I., Smirnova A.S. Russian market of autoclave gas concrete. Results of 2016. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 49–51. (In Russian).
6. Grinfeld G.I., Korkina E.V., Pastushkov P.P., Pavlen- ko P.P., Erofeeva I.V., Gubanov D.A. Researches of heat conductivity of cellular concretes. Topical issues of archi- tecture and construction: Materials of the XIV-th International scientific and technical conference. Saransk. 2015, pp. 21–24. (In Russian).
7. Pastushkov P.P. Calculated definition of operational hu- midity of autoclave aerocrete of the D300-600 brands. Tekhnologii betonov. 2016. No. 3–4, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).
8. Gagarin V.G., Pastushkov P.P. Definition of calculated humidity of structural materials. Promyshlennoe i grazh- danskoe stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 8, pp. 28–33. (In Russian).
9. Gagarin V.G. The theory of a state and transfer of mois- ture in structural materials and heat-shielding properties of the protecting structures of buildings. Doctor Diss. (Engineering). Moscow. 2000. 396 p. (In Russian).
10. Pastushkov P.P. The theory of a state and transfer of moisture in structural materials and heat-shielding properties of the protecting structures of buildings. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Moscow. 2013. 169 p. (In Russian).
V.N. DERKACH, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (v-derkatch@yandex.ru) Branch of Republican Unitary Enterprise «Institute BelNIIS», «Scientific-Technical Center» (267/2, Moskovskaya Street, Brest, 224023, Republic of Belarus)

Strength and Deformability of Stone Masonry Made of Cellular Concrete Blocks of Autoclaved Hardening with Polyurethane Joints. Part 1. Strength and Deformability under Compression

Results of the experimental study of stone masonry samples made of cellular concrete blocks with thin-layer polyurethane joints under compression are presented. On the basis of the experimental study, the peculiarities of deformation and destruction of experimental samples have been revealed; values of the stone masonry strength under compression and its deformation characteristics have been obtained. The comparison of results obtained with results of the experimental study of stone masonry made of cellular concrete blocks with thin- layer polymer-cement joints has been made. It is shown that the nature of deformation of masonry samples on the polymer-cement adhesive solution and on the glue-foam is different. The modulus of deformations of the stone masonry on the glue-foam increases with increasing compressive stresses that is explained by high ductility of horizontal polyurethane joints at the initial stages of loading of experimental samples. In the process of compression of polyurethane joints, their deformability is reduced, but until the stresses close to the compres- sive strength of the masonry, it remains higher than the deformability of polymer-cement glue joints. It is established that the value of the secant elastic modulus of the stone masonry with thin-layer polymer-cement joints exceeds the elasticity modulus of the masonry on the glue-foam by 3.3 times.

Keywords: stone masonry, cellular concrete blocks, polyurethane glue, compressive strength, modulus of deformations, Poisson number.

For citation: Derkach V.N. Strength and Deformability of Stone Masonry Made of Cellular Concrete Blocks of Autoclaved Hardening with Polyurethane Joints. Part 1. Strength and Deformability under Compression. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 29–32. (In Russian).

References
1. Glumov A. Laying on polyurethane structures: how to elimi- nate cold bridges. Stroitelnyye materialy, oborudovaniye i tekhnologii XXI veka. 2014. No. 4, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).
2. Derkach V.N., Orlovich R.B. Crack growth resistanceof masonry walls. Zhilishnoe Stroitelstvo [Housing construc- tion]. 2012. No. 8, pp. 34–37. (In Russian).
3. Jäger A., Kuhlemann C., Habian E., Kasa M., Lu S. Verklebung von Planziegelmauerwerk mit Polyure- thanklebern. Mauerwerk. 2011. No. 15, pp. 223–231.
4. Aldoghaim Ye. Untersuchungen zur Verbesserung der mech- anischen Eigenschaften von Mauerwerk durch Elastomerlager. Mauerwerk. 2012. No. 16, pp. 93–102. (In German).
5. Eurocode 6: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Mauerwerksbauten. Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Regeln für be- wehrtes und unbewehrtes Mauerwerk: EN 1996-1-1:2005. Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Normung. 2005. 127 p.
6. Drobiec R. Wplyw rodzaja zaprawy na parametry me- chaniczne murow z ABK poddanych sciskaniu. Materialy Budowlane. 2015. No. 4, pp. 3–7. (In Polish).
7. Grinfeld G.I., Kharchenko A.P. Comparative tests of ma- sonry made of autoclaved aerated concrete with different masonry seam execution. Zhilishnoe Stroitelstvo [Housing construction]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 30–34. (In Russian).
8. Gorshkov A.S., Vatin N.I. Properties of wall construc- tions from cellular concrete products of autoclave hard- ening on polyurethane glue. Inzhenerno-stroitelnyy zhur- nal. 2013. No. 5, pp. 5–19. (In Russian).
N.I. KOZHUKHOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kozhuhovanata@yandex.ru), D.N. DANAKIN, Engineer V.G. Shukhov Belgorod State Technological University (46, Kostyukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

A Stabilizing Additive as a Method for Optimization of Porous Structure of Lightweight Composites on the Basis of Geopolymeric Binder*

When designing and manufacturing cellular composites, independently on the type of a binding component, one of the relevant problems is the formation of a uniform porous structure providing the optimal strength and also thermal-physical characteristics of a lightweight composite. The most problematic is to achieve the correct porous structure in the systems in two cases: the presence of a low-active binding matrix and long lines of formation of the strength of a matrix framework. In both cases, the forming porous structure, at the initial stage of composite obtaining due to the absence of minimum required early strength of the framework, has the trend to the destruction that leads to worsening of operational characteristics of the final material. Within the work, research in the study of possibility to use the cement binder as an additive which stabilizes the porous structure in cellular composites on the basis of geopolymeric binders, has been conducted. It is established that the introduction of 10% Portland cement of the binder mass makes it possible to reduce the density of geopolymeric foam concrete up to 21% at simultaneous increase in the compression strength up to 8%.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymeric binder, stabilization, porous structure, foam concrete.

For citation: Kozhukhova N.I., Danakin D.N., Strokova V.V. A Stabilizing Additive as a Method for Optimization of Porous Structure of Lightweight Composites on the Basis of Geopolymeric Binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 33–35. (In Russian).

References
1. Suleymanova L.A., Pogorelova I.A., Suleymanov K.A., Generalized analysis of pore structure in non-autoclave gas concrete based on composite binders. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shu- hova. 2016. No. 3, pp. 75–79. (In Russian).
2. Suleymanova L.A., Lesovik V.S., Kondrashev K.R., Suleymanov K.A., Lukuttsova N.P. Energy efficient technologies of production and use non-autoclave aerat- ed concrete. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015. Vol. 10. No. 5, pp. 12399–12406.
3. Voitovich E.V., Kozhukhova N.I. Cherevatova А.V., Zhernovsky I.V. Osadchaya M.S. Features of quality control of free of cement binder of non-hydration type. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015. Vol. 724, pp. 39–43.
4. Beregovoy V.A., Snadin E.V. Pore structure formation in silica ceramics. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 2 (27), pp. 55–59. (In Russian).
5. Beregovoy V.A. Effective foam ceramic concrete for housing and special construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 9, pp. 93–96. (In Russian).
6. Fomina E.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Strokova V.V. Features of phase formation of silicate cellular products of autoclave hard- ening with aluminosilicate raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 9, pp. 38–39. (In Russian).
7. Zhernovsky I.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Cherevatova A.V., Rakhimbaev I.Sh., Zhernovskaya I.V. New data about nano-sized phase formation in binding system «gypsum — lime». Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 7, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
8. Pavlenko N.V., Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V. Penobeton na osnove nanostructurirovannogo vyazhush- ego [Foam concrete based on nanostructured binder]. Belgorod: BSTU. 2011. 77 p.
9. Miroshnikov E.V., Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V. Nanostructured perlite binder and based foam concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 105–106. (In Russian).
10. Pavlenko N.V., Kapusta M.N., Miroshnikov E.V., Aspect of reinforcement of non-autoclave cellular concrete based on nanostructured binder. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shuhova. 2013. No. 1, pp. 33–36. (In Russian).
11. Cherevatova A.V., Burianov A.F., Zhernovsky I.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Alekhin D.A. Features of complex structure formation in composite gypsim-silica binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 11, pp. 12–16. (In Russian).
12. Kozhukhova N.I., Voitovich E.V., Cherevatova A.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Alekhin D.A. Heat-resistant cellular materials on the basis of composite gypsum-silica binders. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 6, pp. 65–69. (In Russian).
13. Zhernovsky I.V., Cherevatova A.V., Voitovich E. V., Kozhukhova N.I., Evtushenko E.I. High-temperature phase transformations in CaO-SO3-SiO2-H2O system with nano- sized component. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2016. Vol. 11. No. 12, pp. 7732–7735.
14. Danakin D.N., Kozhukhova N.I., Zhernovsky I.V., Veprik A.A. Cellular geopolymer concrete – new mate- rial for green construction. «Interdisciplinary approaches in material science and technology. Theory and practice». Proceedings of All-Russian meeting of head of department of material science and material technology. Belgorod. 2015, pp. 102–110. (In Russian).
15. Bondareva E.N., Kozhukhova M.I., Kozhukhova N.I., Prospective of geoplymer based cellular material synthe- sis. Proceedings of International Research-to-Practice Conference «Source- and energy-saving technologies in construction complex of the region». Saratov: SGTU. 2014, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
16. Bondareva E.N., Kozhukhova N.I., Fomina E.V. Design of cellular concrete based on alkali-activated binder. Proceedings of International Research-to-Practice Conference of Young Scientists from BSTU named after V.G. Shoukhov. Belgorod. 2014, pp. 94–97. (In Russian).
17. Kozhukhova N.I., Zhernovsky I.V. Geopolimernoe vyazhush- ee i beton na o osnove zol-unosa TES [Geopolymer binder and concrete based on fly ashes from power plants]. Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. 2015 183 p.
18. Kozhukhova N.I., Zhernovsky I.V., Fomina E.V. Phase formation in geo-polymer systems on the basis of fly ash of Apatity TPS. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 85–88. (In Russian).
G.N. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer(Kuznetzowa.gal@yandex.ru); N.N. MOROZOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), L.I. POTAPOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry), V.V. KLOKOV, Student Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaa Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

A Complex Additive for Autoclaved Concrete In the technology of the autoclaved gas concrete, important characteristics are mix fluidity, hydration kinetics of lime-cement binder, swelling process, curing time of mass concrete, and autoclaved strength. Results of the study of the effect of complex additives on the basis of hydro-silicates from waste of silicate brick production, superplasticizers, sulfates of natu- ral origin (gypsum stone) , and soda-sulfate mixture both for each component independently and in complex on the lime, cement, cellular-concrete mix, and autoclaved concrete are presented. An additive S-3 and gypsum stone among sulfates possess the greatest retardation coefficient of lime hydration. Hydro-silicates don’t change the time of cement setting sep- arately. Complexes containing 5% of hydro-silicates with plasticizer and hydro-silicates, sulfates and plasticizer retard the end of setting, and in an amount of 10% retard also the time of setting beginning. The efficiency of the complex with sulfates of natural origin and soda-sulfate mixture in an amount of 5% is established according to the temperature, fluidity of the cellular-concrete mixture and autoclaved strength of the gas concrete D600. The increase in strength by up to 23% has been obtained.

Keywords: gas concrete, silicate brick, additives, hydrosilicate, plasticizer, sulfates.

For citation: Kuznetsova G.N., Morozova N.N., Potapova L.I., Klokov V.V. A Complex Additive for Autoclaved Concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).

References
1. Morozov N.M., Muginov Kh.G., Krasinikova N.M., Gayfullin N.E. Fine concretes with the complex strength- ening additives. Technical science: theory and practice. Materials of the International scientific conference. Chita: Molodoy uchenyi. 2012, pp. 108–1112. (In Russian).
2. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N., Klokov V.V., Zigangaraeva S.R. Silicate Brick and Autoclaved Gas Concrete with the Use of Waste of Own Production. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 4, pp. 76–80. (In Russian).
3. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N., Khozin V.G. Facing Layer and Hydrophobizator in Manufacture of Aerated Concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 8, pp. 8–10. (In Russian).
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5. Nelyubova V.V., Strokova V.V., Altynnik N.I. Cellular Autoclaved Composites with Application of Mamostructured Modifier. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
6. Kashapov R.R., Krasinikova N.M., Khozin V.G., Galeev A.F., Shamsin D.R. Complex additive on the ba- sis of sodosulfatny mix. Izvestiya KGASU. 2015. No. 2. pp. 239–243. (In Russian).
7. Bedarev A.A. Influence of plasticizing additives on tem- perature and viscoplastic properties of silicate mix for production of gas-silicate. Izvestiya KGASU. 2013. No. 2, pp. 208. (In Russian).
8. Morozova N.N., Kuznetsova G.V., Golosov A.K. Influence of Cements from Different Producers on Properties of Cellular-Concrete Mix of Autoclaved Gas Concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 49–51. (In Russian).
From Idea to Implementation. Russian Gasifiers for Production (Information)
Optimization of a Matrix Structure When Producing Gas Concrete with Reduced Content of Cement Due to the Method of Two-Stage Mixing (Information)
Automated Line for Production of U-shaped Jumpers and Drilling of Cellular Concrete Blocks of WKB Systems GmbH (Information)
N.V. LYUBOMIRSKY, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Professor, (niklub.ua@gmail.com), E.Yu. NIKOLAENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (lesha29.04@mail.ru), V.V. NIKOLAENKO, Engineer, A.S. BAKHTIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), T.A. BAKHTINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University (4, Vernadskogo Prospekt, Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, 295007, Russian Federation)

Impact of Forced Carbonation on Formation of Gas Concrete Structure on the Basis of a Lime-Cement Binder and Carbonate-Calcium Filler
Results of the experimental study to establish the possibility of obtaining gas concrete on the basis of lime-cement binder and carbonate-calcium filler (marble-like limestone), harden- ing of which is arranged according to hydration and carbonation type, are presented. Features of physical-chemical transformations in the body of the porous material, when organizing its hardening in media with high concentration of carbon dioxide gas, are revealed. It is established that the forced carbonation contributes to the hardening of the crystalline skeleton of gas concrete and improving of its strength comparing with the samples of hydration hardening as a result of heat-humidity treatment (HHT). It is shown that the combined (HHT with subsequent carbonation) method of hardening of gas concrete samples on the basis of the mixed binder provides conditions both for process of hydration hardening of cement minerals and carbonate hardening that causes the appearance of the maximum amount of crystalline hydrate and carbonate new formations and improvement in the strength. The compression strength of gas concrete immediately after artificial hardening is 90% of the strength at age of 28 days. Revealed features of physical-chemical processes make it possible to optimize the conditions of production of heat-insulation and heat insulation-structural gas concretes with improved physical-mechanical properties

Keywords: gas concrete, carbonation, microstructure, lime-cement binder, energy efficiency.

For citation: Lyubomirsky N.V., Nikolaenko E.Yu., N.ikolaenko V.V., Bakhtin A.S., Bakhtina T.A. Impact of Forced Carbonation on Formation of Gas Concrete Structure on the Basis of a Lime-Cement Binder and Carbonate-Calcium Filler. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 48–51. (In Russian).

References
1. Mikhaylov N.N., Kuznetsov A.M. Artificial carboniza- tion as a way to increase the activity of dolomitic astrin- gent. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 1960. No. 9, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).
2. Kaminskas A.Yu., Mataitis A.I. New two-stage way of concreting of limy and sand products. Stroitel’nye mate- rialy [Construction Materials]. 1970. No. 6, pp. 32–35. (In Russian).
3. El’kina I.I., Fedorkin S.I. Influence of a carbonization on durability of the pressed exemplars from a wastage of rocks on cement and limy and cement knitting. Stroitel’stvo i tekhnogennaya bezopasnost’. 2012. No. 44, pp. 41–45. (In Russian).
4. Pol’mann Kh. The Ways to reduce CO2 emissions in the production of alternative cements. Tsement i ego primen- enie. 2016. No. 2, pp. 89–93. (In Russian).
5. Fedorkin S.I., Lyubomirskii N.V., Luk’yanchenko M.A. Systems based on lime of carbonization hardening. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 11, pp. 45–47. (In Russian).
6. Chizhov S.V., Kuznetsov S.A. Prediction of process of a carbonization of concrete Perspektivy nauki. 2014. No. 11, pp. 76–81. (In Russian).
7. Svit T.F., Semin D.S. About change of structure of prod- ucts of hydration of cement. Polzunovskiy vestnik. 2006. No. 2, pp. 220–224. (In Russian).
8. Anikanova T.V., Rakhimbaev Sh.M., Kaftaeva M.V. On the mechanism of carbon dioxide corrosion of building materials. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2015. No. 5, pp. 19–26. (In Russian).
9. Rakhimbaev Sh.M. Principles of choosing cements for use in chemical aggression. Izvtstiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 1998. No. 10, pp. 65–68. (In Russian).
10. Chernyshev E.M., Potamoshneva N.D., Kukina O.B. Portlandite and portlandite-carbonate cementless curing systems. Part. 2. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXІ veka. 2002. No. 5, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
11. Dvorkin L.I., Dvorkin O.L. Stroitel’nye mineral’nye vy- azhushchie materialy [Building mineral knitting materi- als]. Мoscow: Infra-Inzheneriya. 2011. 544 p.
12. Funk A., Salakh Uddin K.M., Vettsel’ A., Middendorf B. Carbonation of portlandite in low humidity conditions. Tsement i ego primenenie. 2016. No. 5, pp. 88–92. (In Russian).
E.E. KADOMTSEVA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (elkadom@yandex.ru), L.V. MORGUN 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (konst-lvm@yandex.ru), N.I. BESKOPYLNAYA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); V.N. MORGUN 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (morgun_vlad@bk.ru), Ya.A. BERDNIK 2 , Engineer
1 Don State Technical University (1, Gagarina Square, Rostov-on-Don, 344000, Russian Federation)
2 Southern State University (105/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russian Federation)

Research in Influence of Bi-Modularity of Fiber Foam Concrete on Strength of Reinforced Beams

The necessity to take into account the bi-modularity of a material when calculating structures is substantiated on the example of a freely-supported beam of a rectangular cross-section operating under the impact of arbitrary bending loads. It is shown that with due regard for the bi-modularity of the material, the calculated position of the neutral lines is changed and, as a sequence, values of maximal compressing and tensile normal stresses are changed that significantly influence on the bearing capacity of the beam. Examples of calculations for the arbitrary supported, arbitrary loaded beam depending on the various ratios of the modules of elasticity in the course of tensile and compression are presented. The dependence of the maximum normal stress on a number of reinforced bars placed in the compressed and tensile zones of the beam has been established. The numerical study shows that accounting of the bi-modularity of fiber foam concrete contributes, in some cases, to the reduction in material consumption of building structures.

Keywords: fiber foam concrete, reinforced beam, bi-modular filler, calculation of structure, module of elasticity.

For citation: Kadomtseva E.E., Morgun L.V., Beskopylnaya N.I., Morgun V.N., Berdnik Ya.A. Research in Influence of Bi-Modularity of Fiber Foam Concrete on Strength of Reinforced Beams. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 52–55. (In Russian).

References
1. Morgun L.V. Penobeton: Monografiya [Foam Concrete: Monograph]. Rostov-on-don: Rostov State University of Civil Engineering. 2012. 154 p.
2. Zarubina A.P. Teploizolyatsiya zdanii i sooruzhenii. Materialy i tekhnologii. [Insulation of buildings and structures. Materials and technologies]. Saint-Petersburg: Bkhv-Peterburg, 2012. 416 p.
3. Morgun V.N., Kurochka P.N., Bogatina A.Yu., Kadomtseva E.E., Morgun L.V. Issues of bar reinforce- ment bond with concrete and fiber concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 56–59. (In Russian).
4. Ambartsumyan S.A. Raznomodul’naya teoriya uprugo- sti [Multimodulus elasticity theory] Moscow: Nauka. 1982. 317 p.
5. Kadomtsev E.E., Morgun L.V. The influence of differ- ences in modulus of elasticity in compression and tension when calculating the strength of beams reinforced with filler from reinforced foam concrete. Inzhenerniy vestnik Dona. 2013. No. 2. http://www.ivdon.ru/magazine/ar- chive/n2y2013/1655 (Date of access 05.12.2016). (In Russian).
6. Kadomtsev E.E., Beskopylny A.N. Calculation of strength of beams reinforced with an aggregate of bi- modulus of elasticity material using various theories of strength Inzhenerniy vestnik Dona. 2013. No. 4. http:// www.ivdon.ru/ru/magazine/archive/n4y2013/2125 (Date of access 05/12/2017). (In Russian).
7. Rigbi Z. Some thoughts concerning the existence or oth- erwise of an isotropic bimodulus material. ASME Journal of engineering materials and technology. October 1980. No. 102, pp. 183–384.
8. Filin A.P. Prikladnaya mekhanika tverdogo deformirue- mogo tela. Tom 1 [Applied mechanics of solid deform- able body. Vol. 1]. Moscow: Nauka. 1981. 832 p.
9. Myshkis A.D. Prikladnaya matematika dlya inzhenerov. Spetsial’nye kursy [Applied mathematics for engineers. Special courses]. Moscow: Fizmatlit. 2007. 688 p.
10. Chirkov V.P., Klyukin V.I., Fedorov S.V., Shvydko Y.I. Osnovy teorii proektirovaniya stroitel’nykh konstruktsii. Zhelezobetonnye konstruktsii [Fundamentals of the the- ory of design of building structures. Reinforced concrete structures]. Moscow: Publishing house of UMK Ministry of Railways of the Russian Federation. 1999. 371 p.
11. Kudyakov A.I., Steshenko A.B., Heat insulating rein- forced air hardened foamed concrete. Vestnik TSUAB. English version appendix to 2013. No. 4, 2014. No. 2–6, pр. 60–65. http://www.tsuab.ru/upload/files/addition- al/6_2014_05_Kudjakov_file_4972_4313_4348.pdf (Date of access 05.12.2016).
12. Mydin Md Azree Othuman, Soleimanzadeh Sara. Effect of polypropylene fiber content on flexural strength of lightweight foamed concrete at ambient and elevated temperatures. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2012, Vol. 3. Iss. 5, pp. 2837–2846. http://www.imedpub.com/ articles/effect-of-polypropylene-fiber-content-on-flex- ural-strength-of-lightweightfoamed-concrete-at-ambi- ent-and-elevated-temperatures.pdf (Date of access 05.12.2016).
Ya.I. VAYSMAN, Doctor of Sciences (Medicine), A.A. KETOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (alexander_ketov@mail.ru); P.A. KETOV, Engineer-Ecologist Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolsky Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)

Secondary Application of Foam Glass when Producing Foam-Glass-Crystal Slabs During the operation, overwhelming majority of building materials loses their consumer properties and the completion of the life cycle assumes their location at the polygons of solid communal waste. However, from the point of view of the sustainable development concept, the production of new materials for construction must be based on the renewable raw mate- rials exclusively. Issues of the secondary use of foam glass and foam-glass-crystal slabs for producing new slab glass-crystal materials of cellular structure are considered. It is shown that after the completion of the life cycle, slab foam glass can be processed in foam-glass crushed stone which, in its turn, can be used as a filler when producing new slab foam-glass- crystal materials. It is established that obtained slab products are not structurally differ from foam-glass-crystal slabs produced from the primary materials.

Keywords: foam-glass-crystal slabs, foam glass crushed stone, sustainable development concept, energy efficiency, secondary use of materials.

For citation: Vaysman Ya.I., Ketov A.A., Ketov P.A. Secondary Application of Foam Glass when Producing Foam-Glass-Crystal Slabs. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 56–59. (In Russian).

References
1. Telichenko V.I. From the Principles of Sustainable Development to “Green” Technologies. Vestnik MGSU. 2016. No. 3, pp. 5–6. (In Russian).
2. Benuzh A.A., Kolchigin M.A. Analysis of the Concept of “Green” Construction as a Vehicle to Ensure the Environmental Safety of Construction Activities. Vestnik MGSU. 2012. No. 12, pp. 161–165. (In Russian).
3. Sieffert Y., Huygen J.M., Daudon D. Sustainable con- struction with repurposed materials in the context of a civil engineering–architecture collaboration. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2014. No. 67, pp. 125–138. Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.12.018.
4. Raut S.P., Ralegaonkar R.V., Mandavgane S.A. Development of sustainable construction material using industrial and agricultural solid waste: A review of waste- create bricks. Construction and Building Materials. 2011. No. 25, pp. 4037–4042. Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j. conbuildmat.2011.04.038.
5. Ketov A.A. Prospects of Foam Glass in Housing Construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 3, pp.79–81. (In Russian).
6. Puzanov S.I. Features of Materials Using on the Basis of Glass Cullet as Aggregates in Portland Cement Concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 7, pp. 12–15. (In Russian).
7. Vaisman Ya.I., Ketov A.A., Ketov P.A. The Scientific and Technological Aspects of Foam Glass Production. Glass Physics and Chemistry. 2015. Vol. 41. No. 2, pp. 157–162.
8. Qu Y.-N., Xu J., Su Z.-G., Ma N., Zhang X.-Y., Xi X.-Q., Yang J.-L. Lightweight and high-strength glass foams pre- pared by a novel green spheres hollowing technique. Ceramics International. 2016. Vol. 42. Issue 2, pp. 2370–2377.
9. Vaisman Ya.I., Ketov A.A., Ketov Yu.A., Molochko R.A. Oxi- dation of Water Vapor in Hydrate Gas-Formation Mechanism in Manufacture of Cellular Glass. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2015. Vol. 88. No. 3, pp. 382–385. (In Russian).
10. Vaisman I., Ketov A., Ketov I. Cellular glass obtained from non-powder preforms by foaming with steam. Ceramics International. 2016. Vol. 42, pp. 15261–15268. Doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2016.06.165.
11. Attila Y., Güden M., Taşdemirci A. Foam glass process- ing using a polishing glass powder residue. Ceramics International. 2013. Vol. 39, pp. 5869–5877. Doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2012.12.104.
V.G. KUZNETSOV, President, General Director (ppfp_astiki@mail.ru), I.P. KUZNETSOV, Commercial Director (astik_kp@mail.ru) OOO «As-Tik KP» (16, Teterinsky pereulok, 109004, Moscow. Russian Federation)

Sealing Arrangement Made of PPFP-Astiki for Receiving Hoppers of Belt Conveyers Usually, the receiving hoppers of belt conveyers are made in the form of two parallel shields with inclination of 20–30° to the vertical plane. Sealing is made, as a rule, of technical rub- ber or a spent conveyer belt which is fixed to the bottom parts of shields. This design of the receiving hopper causes increased loads on the side shields and rubber sealing, an upper working cover of the conveyor belt intensively wears on the contact with sealing and, as a result, considerable soil spillages are formed near the place of belt loading. The installation of sealing strips of PPFP-Astiki with an opening gap in the direction of movement of the conveyor belt makes it possible to exclude the wedging of solid pieces of soil between the belt and sealers that leads to significant reducing the longitudinal strip wear of the working side of the belt, increasing its operation life as well as making it possible to liquidate downtimes of hoppers caused by the frequent breakage of the rubber sealers.

Keywords: receiving hopper, conveyor, soil, rubber sealer, sealer made of PPFP-Astiki.

For citation: Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P. Sealing Arrangement Made of PPFP-Astiki for Receiving Hoppers of Belt Conveyers. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 60–62. (In Russian).

References
1. Kiselev N.N., Avigdor G.A., Kuznetsov V.G. at al. Elimination of sticking of rock mass in the nodes of over- load of overburden complexes of continuous action. Gornyi zhurnal. 1983. No. 9, pp. 47–48. (In Russian).
2. Kuznetsov V.G., Il’chenko S.V. Sealing devices of receiv- ing hoppers of belt conveyors. The construction materials industry in Moscow. 1992. No. 3–4, pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
3. Kuznetsov V.G., Zatkovetskii V.M., Kuznetsov I.P. and al. Polymer lining plates – an effective solution to the problem of sticking moistened materials on the working surfaces of process equipment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 5, pp. 32–34. (In Russian).
4. Kuznetsov V.G., Zatkovetskii V.M., Kuznetsov I.P. Selection of polymeric antiplaning lining plates depend- ing on the strength of the rock. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 10, pp. 86–87. (In Russian).
5. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P. Determination of the thickness of the polymer anti-lamination lining plate for various operating conditions of the equipment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 5, pp. 13–14. (In Russian).
6. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P., Kopylov S.V. Estimation of economic efficiency of introduction of polymer anti-lamination lining plates. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 9, p. 48. (In Russian).
7. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P., Borodin A.A. i dr. fac- tory production of bunkers equipped with efficient means of struggle with adhering of materials – PPFP-Astiki. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 5, pp. 54–56. (In Russian).
8. Kuznetsov V.G., Kochetov E.V., Kuznetsov I.P. Increasing the efficiency of the use of construction equip- ment on humidified soils. Stroitel’nye i dorozhnye mash- iny. 2012. No. 4, pp. 2–4. (In Russian).
9. Kuznetsov V.G., Kochetov E.V., Kuznetsov I.P. Improvement of quality of working surfaces of techno- logical equipment at the design and manufacturing stages due to the use of an effective means of combating the sticking of raw materials PFPP-Astiki. Mekha- nizatsiya stroitel’stva. 2015. No. 1, pp. 29–31. (In Russian).
10. Kuznetsov V.G., Kiselev N.N., Kochetov E.V., Kuznetsov I.P. Reducing the influence of stickiness of rocks and raw materials on working efficiency of equip- ment due to application of PPFP-Astiki. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 1–2, pp. 99–103. (In Russian).
11. Avigdor G.A., Kovrigin V.A., Kuznetsov V.G. at al. Determine the throughput capacity of the receiving part of the overload node. Extraction of coal by open method. TsNIEIugol’. 1978. No. 11, pp. 16–18. (In Russian).
Review of Russian Market of Crushed Stone and Gravel (Information)
I.D. USTINOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry); A.D. SHULOYAKOV 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Research and Engineering Corporation “Mekhanobr-Tekhnika” (3, 22 liniya, V.O. 199106,St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Interstroyproekt» (128A, Nevsky Prospect, 191036, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Production of Cubiform Crushed Stone is an Innovative Stage of Development of Building Materials Industry It is shown that the increase demand for cubiform crushed stone in the beginning of the 2000s led to the complication of technological lines both due to the installation of additional, import mainly, equipment and increase in the number of internal return cycles and, as a consequence, to significant growth of capital and energy costs for production of crushed stone as well as to the increase in crushing screenings of 0-5 mm fraction. The construction of a mathematical model of solid materials fracture in the crushing chamber made it possible to theoretically sub- stantiate the method of forced self-crushing of materials inside the own layer under the effect of vibro-impulse compression and simultaneous shear when dosing the effect force on the material layer according to the value of strength limit of defect surfaces of its structure. On this scientific base, REC «Mekhanobr-Tekhnika» has developed and produces in a wide structural and dimension-types range the cone inertial crushers КИД® in which the rigid connection between cones was replaced by dynamic one. Technical characteristics of the crushers КИД-1500 and КИД-1750 (KID), which make it possible to receive the crushed stone of a 25–60 mm fraction for railway ballast, are presented. The technological scheme of the operating line at the Turgoyak Mine Management in the Chelyabinsk Region, where the rotor crushed I-1312, was replaced with KID-1500 is shown. Crushing is carried out in two stages with the production of 40–70 mm, 20–40 mm, 5–20 mm commercial fractions of crushed stone. The output of screenings was reduced by 40–50%, the lifetime of crushing linings increased by 60–70%.

Keywords: cubiform crushed stone, cone inertial crusher, vibration crusher, vibrating screen, crushing-sorting equipment, disintegration, forced self-crushing, vibro-impulse compression.

For citation: Ustinov I.D., Shuloyakov A.D. Production of Cubiform Crushed Stone is an Innovative Stage of Development of Building Materials Industry. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 66–68. (In Russian).

References
1. Vaysberg L.A., Zarogatskiy L.P., Turkin V.Ya. Vibratsionnye drobilki. Osnovy rascheta, proektirovaniya i tekhnologicheskogo primeneniya [Vibratory crushers. Basics of calculation, design and technological applica- tion]. Saint Petersburg: VSEGEI. 2004.
2. Vaysberg L.A., Zarogatskiy L.P. New generation of jaw and cone crushers. Stroitel’nye i dorozhnye mashiny. 2000. No. 7, pp. 16–21. (In Russian).
3. Arsent’ev V.A., Vaysberg L.A., Zarogatskiy L.P., Shuloya- kov A.D. Proizvodstvo kubovidnogo shchebnya i stroitel’no- go peska s ispol’zovaniem vibratsionnykh drobilok [Pro- duction of cubical crushed stone and building sand using vibrating crushers]. Saint Petersburg: VSEGEI. 2004. 112 p.
4. Vaysberg L.A., Shuloyakov A.D. Technological capabili- ties of cone inertial crushers in the production of cubical crushed stone. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2000. No. 1, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
5. Vaysberg L.A., Orlov S.L., Spiridonov P.A., Korovni- kov A.N., Trofimov V.A. Innovative technologies and equip- ment for the production of high-quality crushed stone. Dorozhnaya derzhava. 2010. No. 26, pp. 72–75. (In Russian).
V.N. AMINOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), E.E. KAMENEVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); I.D. USTINOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry)
1 Petrozavodsk State University, (33, Lenin Street, Petrozavodsk, 185910, Russian Federation)
2 Research and Engineering Corporation «Mekhanobr-Tekhnika» (22, Line 3, Vasilevsky Ostrov, 199106, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Innovative Developments for Improving the Accuracy of Assessment of Physical-Mechanical Properties of Construction Rocks at Geological Exploration For determining the principal possibility to use rocks for production of crushed stone, some their parameters are studied under the laboratory conditions according to normatives. The data obtained are the basis for designing the processing technology and preliminary assessment of possible ways for using final marketable products in a particular type of construction. It is known that the content of grains of plate and needle-shaped forms is a factor which significantly reducing their physical-mechanical characteristics. Crushed stone for testштп is produced from an initial core or massive geological sample by means of one-stage crushing in the laboratory screw crushers, a feature of which is a high content of plate and needle- shaped grains in the product of crushing. On the example of tests of granite crushed stone from one of the Karelian deposits, it is shown that this leads to conservative values of main strength characteristics (durability, abradability and frost resistance) and significantly reduces the accuracy of predictive assessment of the crushed rock quality. “Mekhanobr-Tekhnika” Research and Engineering Corporation proposes a new design of the laboratory screw crusher 2SHCHDS 100200 which provides the receiving of initial feeding of up to 100 mm fine- ness and obtaining of the crushed product of 0–40 mm fineness. Complex reciprocating and elliptical motions of a crushing jaw provides the application of shear and compression forc- es to the material being crushed and makes it possible to obtain the crushed stone with a low share of plate and needle-shaped grains that corresponds to the content of such grains in the crushed stone produced in the production conditions. This makes it possible to compare correctly physical properties of industrial crushed stone and crushed stone produced under the laboratory conditions.

Keywords: crushed stone, crushing, cubiform grains, plate and needle-shaped grains, laboratory tests of crushed stone, laboratory screw crusher.

For citation: Aminov V.N., Kameneva E.E., Ustinov I.D. Innovative Developments for Improving the Accuracy of Assessment of Physical-Mechanical Properties of Construction Rocks at Geological Exploration. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 69–72. (In Russian).

References
1. Vaysberg L.A., Kameneva E.E., Aminov V.N. Assessment of Technological Capabilities of Control over Crushed Stone Quality in the Course of Disintegration of Building Rocks. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 30–34. (In Russian).
2. Vaysberg L.A., Zarogatskiy L.P. New equipment for crushing and grinding materials Gornyi zhurnal. 2000. No. 3, pp. 49–52. (In Russian).
3. Vaysberg L.A., Zarogatskiy L.P. New generation of jaw and cone crushers. Stroitel’nye i dorozhnye mashiny. 2000. No. 7, pp. 16–21. (In Russian).
4. Arsent’ev V.A., Vaysberg L.A., Zarogatskiy L.P., Shuloyakov A.D. Proizvodstvo kubovidnogo shchebnya i stroitel’nogo peska s ispol’zovaniem vibratsionnykh drobilok [Production of cube-shaped crushed stone and building sand using vibrating crushers]. Saint-Petersburg: VSEGEI Publishing. 2004. 112 p.
V.G. KHOZIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (Khozin@kgasu.ru), A.A. ABDULKHAKOVA1, Magistrand (abdulkhakova.alina@gmail.com), I.A. STAROVOITOVA 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (irina-starovoitova@yandex.ru), E.S. ZYKOVA2 , Engineer (barblzka@mail.ru)
1 Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)
2 «NPF «RECON» OOO (Building 7, Technopolis «Khimgrad», 100, Vosstania Street, 420033, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation)

Cement compositions modified with an aqueous emulsion of an epoxy oligomer The prescription and technological parameters for manufacturing polymer cement compositions based on portland cement and aqueous epoxy emulsion cured by aliphatic polyamine were developed. The concentration dependence of the technological and physico-chemical properties of the material was studied. The optimum polymer-cement ratio is established (P/C=0,5). The degree of curing of epoxy resin in the composition of the compositions was studied at different stages of their hardening. With the aid of electron microscopy with ele- mental analysis there was investigated the structure of polymer-cement compositions at P/C=0,5, in which the dispersion medium is an epoxy polymer, and the disperse phase – a cement stone. The strength of this polymer-cement composition is 2.75 times higher than the strength of a “pure” hardened cement paste.

Keywords: polymer-cement compositions, aqueous emulsions of epoxy resins, proportion, structure, strength, wear resistance.

For citation: Khozin V.G., Abdulkhakova A.A., Starovoitova I.A., Zykova E.S. Cement compositions modified with an aqueous emulsion of an epoxy oligomer. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 73–77. (In Russian).
References
1. Cherkinskii Yu.S. Polimertsementnyi beton [Polymer ce- ment concrete]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1984. 213 р.
2. Fedorov V.M. Meliorative pipes from polymer-cement concrete. Politematicheskii setevoi elektronnyi nauchnyi zhurnal Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo univer- siteta. 2010. No. 64(10), pp. 1–10. (In Russian).
3. Busel D.A., Koshevar V.D., Shkadretsova V.G., Kazhu- ro I.P., Ostrovskaya E.F. Polymer composition for creation of antislip strip. Trudy BGTU. Lesnaya i derevoobrabatyvayush- chaya promyshlennost’. 2016. No. 2, pp. 99–104. (In Russian).
4. Anagnostopoulos C.A., Sapidis G., Papastergiadis E. Fundamental properties of epoxy resin-modified cement grouts. Construction and Building Materials. 2016. No. 125. pp. 184–195.
5. Khozin V.G. Usilenie epoksidnykh polimerov [Strengthening of epoxy polymers]. Moscow: Dom pe- chati, 2004. 446 p.
6. Donnelly, J. H. U. S. Patent 3,198,758; Aug. 3, 1965.
7. Il’in A.N. Polymer-Modified Cement as Electroinsulated Material for Electrotechnical Systems. Elektrotekhnicheskie sistemy i kompleksy. 2015. No. 1(26), pp. 25–27. (In Russian).
8. Starovoitova I.A., Drogun A.V., Zykova E.S., Semenov A.N., Khozin V.G., Firsova E.B. Colloidal stability ofaqueous dispersions of epoxy resins. Stroitel’nye mate- rialy. [Construction Materials] 2014. No. 10, pp. 74–77. (In Russian).
9. Cherkinskii, Yu.S., Slipchenko G.F. Hydration and cur- ing of cements in the presence of polymers. The VI International congress in cement chemistry. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1976. T. 3, pp. 305–308.
10. Anagnostopoulos C.A. Effect of different superplasticiz- ers on the physical and mechanical properties of cement grouts. Construction and Building Materials. 2014. No. 50, pp. 162–168.
Experience in the Use of Polycarboxylate Plasticizers in Production of Dry Building Mixes (Information). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
The State of the Russian Economy and its Influence on the Russian Construction Industry (Information) . . . . . . . . . . 80
G.I. BERDOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), S.A. VINOGRADOV1, Engineer (semenvinogradov@yandex.ru); A.F. BERNATSKY 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (bernatsky@sibstrin.ru)
1 Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (113, Leningradskaya Street, Novosibirsk, 630008, Russian Federation)
2 Novosibirsk State University of Architecture, Design and Art (38, Krasny Avenue, Novosibirsk, 630099, Russian Federation)

Effect of Thermal-Humidity Treatment on Structure and Properties of Cement Stone Results of the X-ray phase analysis, differential-thermal analysis, determination of mechanical strength and dielectric properties of cement stone samples which were hardened during 3–28 days under the normal conditions as well as after the thermal-humidity treatment at 80°C are presented. This treatment stimulates the deeper hydration of cement that manifests in reducing the intensity of C3S, C2S reflexes, increasing the Ca(OH)2 content, increasing the total loss of mass when heating. Dielectric permeability and dielectric losses are reduced (at 1.5 MHz frequency) when the hardening time increases. These changes are correlated with the increase in samples strength. Dielcometry shows the higher orderliness of the struc- ture of cement stone samples of normal hardening.

Keywords: cement stone, thermal-humidity treatment, X-ray phase analysis, differential-thermal analysis, dielectric properties.

For citation: Berdov G.I., Vinogradov S.A., Bernatsky A.F. Effect of thermal-humidity treatment on structure and properties of cement stone. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materi- als]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 81–85. (In Russian).

References
1. Kuznetsova T.V., Yurovich B.E. Concretes – ways of devel- opment. Cement i ego primenenie. 2005. No. 5, pp. 68–69. (In Russian).
2. Chen W., Shen P., Shui Z. Determination of water con- tent in fresh concrete mix based on relative dielectric constant measurement. Construction and Building Mate- rials. 2012. Vol. 34, pp. 306–312.
3. Lai W.L. [et al.] Characterization of concrete properties from dielectric properties using ground penetrating radar. Cement and Concrete Research. 2009. Vol. 39. No. 8, pp. 687–695.
4. Yoon S.S., Kim S.Y., Kim H.C. Dielectric spectra of fresh cement paste below freezing point using an insulated electrode. Journal of Materials Science. 1994. Vol. 29. No. 7, pp.1910–1914.
5. Haddad R.H., Al-Qadi J.L. Characterization of Portland cement concrete using electromagnetic waves over the microwave frequencies. Cement and Concrete Research.1998. Vol. 28. No. 10, pp. 1379–1391.
6. Gu P., Beaudoin J.J. Dielectric behavior of hardened ce- ment paste systems. Journal of Materials Science Letter. 1996. Vol. 15. No, 2. pp. 182–184.
7. Levita G. [et al.] Electrical properties of fluidified Portland cement mixes in the early stage of hydration. Cement and Concrete Research.2000. Vol. 30. No. 6, pp. 923–930.
8. Vodop’yanov K.A. Themperature – frequency depen- dence for dielectric losses in crystals with polar molecules. Doklady AN SSSR. 1952. Т. 94. No. 5, pp. 919–921. (In Russian).
9. Mashkin A.N., Berdov G.I., Vinogradov S.A., Chritankov V.F. Dielectric measurement analysis of the process of cement stone hardening. Izvestiya vusov. Stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 3, pp. 23–27. (In Russian).
10. Berdov G.I., Mashkin A.N., Vinogradov S.A. High- frequency dilectric measurement control of the process of cement materials hardening . Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 1–2. pp. 107–109. (In Russian).
G.F. AVERINA, Engineer, T.N. CHERNYKH, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.A. ORLOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), L.Ya. KRAMAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (kramar-l@mail.ru) South Ural State University (National Research University) (76, Lenina Avenue, Chelyabinsk, 454080, Russian Federation)

Revealing Possibilities to Use Magnesia Wastes of Mineral Processing Plant for Manufacturing Binders A possibility to expand the raw materials base for manufacturing magnesia binders and building materials due to the use of wastes of mineral processing plants and refractory produc- tions is considered. Methods for assessing the suitability of such wastes on the example of dumps of OAO «Grupp Magnezit», the city of Satka, adopted as a raw material have been developed and a methodological scheme of technology of binders production was proposed. The study includes fractioning of rocks and an analysis of their mineralogical composition with the help of X-ray phase and derivatographic analyses. Magnesites of the 3rd and 4th grade from the dumps of the plant are adopted as raw materials. As a result, features of the distribution of admixtures in rocks depending on the fraction composition was established; the technology of binder production, which includes the combined method of burning with the use of additive-intensifiers that makes it possible to exclude the presence of potentially harmful impurities, is proposed.

Keywords: magnesia binder, mineralogical and fractional composition, magnesite, dolomite, calcite.

For citation: Averina G.F., Chernykh T.N., Orlov A.A., Kramar L.Ya. Revealing possibilities to use magnesia wastes of mineral processing plant for manufacturing binders. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 86–89. (In Russian).

References
1. Budnikov P.P., Matveev M.A., Yanovskii V.K., Kharitonov F.Ya. Sintering of high-purity magnesium oxide with additives. Neorganicheskie materialy. 1967. No. 5, pp. 840–848. (In Russian).
2. Magnesian Super fields «Maglit». Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2000. No. 3, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).
3. Miryuk O.A. Magnesian compositions of oxychloride cur- ing. Tsement i ego primenenie. 2003. No. 4, pp. 38–40. (In Russian).
4. Monolithic seamless floors on magnesian knitting. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1998. No. 6, pp. 31. (In Russian).
5. Istomin M.Y. Effective wall materials based on magnesia- dolomite cement and industrial wastes. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Ulan-Ude. 1998. 145 p. (In Russian).
6. Kuzmenkov M.I., Bahir E.N. Production of wood-min- eral composite material on a magnesia astringent of caus- tic dolomite. Energy-saving in the production of cement and other cementitious materials: Proceedings of the Interna- tional Conference. Belgorod. 1997. Vol. 1, pp. 83–87. (In Russian).
7. Matkovic V., Rogich I. Modified magnesia cement (Sorel cement). The Sixth International Congress of cement chem- istry. Moscow. 1976. Vol. 2, pp. 94–100. (In Russian).
8. Shelikhov N.S. Features of the formation of the active phase of MgO in dolomitic cement. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 10, pp. 32–33. (In Russian).
9. Marchik E.V. Production of dolomite and magnesia ce- ment foam on its basis. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Minsk. 2010. 121 p. (In Russian).
10. Kuzmenkov M.I., Marchik E.V., Melnikova R.Ya. The intensification of the process of decarbonising dolomite salt additives. Work under GKPNI “Chemical reagents and materials”. Minsk: Belarusian State Technological University. 2009. 192 p. (In Russian).
11. Ivanov A.E. Development of bases of technology recon- stituted magnesia binders of dolomite. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Ivanovo. 1996. 117 p. (In Russian).
12. Vaivade A.Ya., Hoffman B.E., Carlson K.P. Dolomitovye vyazhushchie veshchestva [Dolomite binders]. Riga: Nauka. 1958. 240 p.
13. Nosov A.V. Dolomite astringent construction application and materials on its basis. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Chelyabinsk. 2014. 118 p. (In Russian).
14. Averina G.F., Chernikh T.N., Kramar L.Ya. Impact factor factional heterogeneity magnesia raw materials on the prop- erties of the resulting binder. Proceedings of the XIII International Conference “Trends in the development of science and education”. Samara. 2016, pp. 5–7. (In Russian).
15. Vayvade A.Ya. Magnezial’nye vyazhushchie veshchestva [Magnesium binders]. Riga: Nauka. 1971. 315 p.
16. Beruto D.T., Vecchiattini R., Giordani M. Effect of mix- tures of H2O (g) and CO2 (g) on the thermal half decomposi- tion of dolomite natural stone in high CO2 pressure regime. Thermochimica Acta. 2003. Vol. 404. Iss. 1–2, pp. 25–33.
17. Noll W. Uber den halbgebrannten Dolomit. Angewandte Chemie. 1950. Vol. 62. Iss. 23/24, pp. 567–572. (In Germany).
18. Haul R.A., Heystek H. Differential thermal analysis of the dolomite decomposition. American Mineralogist. 1952. Vol. 37. pp. 166–179.
19. Hedvall J.A. Uber die thermische Zersetzung von Dolomit. Zeitschrift fur anorganische und allgemeine Chemie. 1953. Vol. 272. Iss. 1–4, pp. 22–24. (In Germany).
20. Chernykh T.N., Nosov A.V., Kramar L.Ya. Dolomite mag- nesium oxychloride cement properties control method during its production. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2015. Volume 71. Conference 1. http://iop- science.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/71/1/012045/ pdf.
The IX International Conference «Nanotechnologies in Construction: NTC-2017» was held on March 17–21, 2017 in Sharm El Sheikh (Egypt). Its organizers traditionally are, from the Egyptian side, the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Development, Housing and Building National Research Center, Egyptian Russian University, from the Russian side – Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (Izhevsk). Constant information partner of the Conference is the journal «Construction Materials»®.
M.I. KOZHUKHOVA1,2, PhD (kozhuhovamarina@yandex.ru); I.L. CHULKOVA 3, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (chulkova_il@sibadi.org); A.N. KHARKHARDIN 1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); K.G. SOBOLEV2 , PhD, (sobolev@uwm.edu)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (3200, N. Cramer Street, Milwaukee, 53211, WI, USA)
3 The Siberian Automobile and Highway University (SIBADI) (5, Mira Avenue, Omsk, 644080, Russian Federation)

Estimation of Application Efficiency of Hydrophobic Water-Based Emulsions Containing Nano- and Micro-Sized Particles for Modification of Fine Grained Concrete* It is well known, that the efficiency of hydrophobic admixtures drastically depends on chemistry, dispersity and concentration of containing ingredients. This study reports on the effect of different factors on hydrophobic characteristics of polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS) containing water-based emulsions applied as a coating for concrete wearing surfaces. Calculations of topological characteristics proved the effectiveness of mineral additives such as silica fume and metakaolin in the formulation of hydrophobic siloxane emulsions, in terms of their physical-and-chemical potential. It was demonstrated that the emulsions produced with 1% of mineral nano- and micro-sized particles (silica fume/metakaolin) showed a high stability of emulsions and required workability when applied to concrete surfaces.

Keywords: siloxane emulsion, silica fume, metakaolin, hydrophobic coating, contact angle.

For citation: Kozhukhova M.I., Chulkova I.L., Kharkhardin A.N., Sobolev K.G. Estimation of application efficiency of hydrophobic water-based emulsions containing nano- and micro-sized particles for modification of fine grained concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 92–97. (In Russian).

References
1. Kluev S.V., Kluev A.V., Lesovik R.V. Optimal design of high-performance fibre-concrete. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2015. No. 6, pp. 119–121. (In Russian).
2. Prasolova E.O., Lesovik V.S., Volodchenko A.A. Effective raw materials for enhancement of thermal char- acteristics of cellular concretes. Research-to-practice con- ference devoted to 85-Universe of honored scientist ofRussian Federation, member of RAAS, PhD, Bazhenov Yu.M. «Effective construction composites». 2015. Belgorod, pp. 531–536 (In Russian).
3. Chernyisheva N.V., Drebesgov D.A. Properties and ap- plication of fast hardening composites based on gypsum binders. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhno- logicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2015. No. 5, pp. 125–133. (In Russian).
4. Voitovich E.V., Fomina E.V. Prospective of development of «green» technologies by application of gypsum binders. Proceeding of International Scientific and Technical Conference «Energy- and resource saving environmentally friendly chemical and technological processes for environ- mental protection. 2015. Belgorod, pp. 467–472. (In Russian).
5. Chizhov R.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Strokova V.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Aluminosilicate free of clinker binders and its application fields. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosu- darstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shu- khova. 2016. No. 4, pp. 6–10. (In Russian).
6. Kozhukhova N.I., Zhernovsky I.V., Fomina E.V. Phase formation in geo-polymer systems on the basis of fly ash of Apatity TPS. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 85–88. (In Russian).
7. Voitovich E.V., Kozhukhova N.I. Cherevatova А.V., Zhernovsky I.V. Osadchaya M.S. Features of quality control of free of cement binder of non-hydration type. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015. Vol. 724, pp. 39–43.
8. Chizhov R.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Korotkih D.N., Fomina E.V., Kozhukhova M.I. Phase formation and properties of aluminosilicate binders with non-hydration type of hardening based on perlite. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 3, pp. 34–36. (In Russian).
9. Flores-Vivian I., Hejazi V., Kozhukhova M.I., Nosonovsky M., Sobolev K. Self-assembling particle-si- loxane coatings for superhydrophobic concrete. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2014. Vol. 5 (24), pp. 13284–13294.
10. Ramachandran R., Kozhukhova M., Sobolev K., Nosonovsky M. Anti-icing superhydrophobic surfaces: controlling entropic molecular interactions to design novel icephobic concrete. Entropy. 2016. Vol. 18 (4). 132. doi:10.3390/e18040132.
11. Kozhukhova M.I., Strokova V.V., Sobolev K.G. Features of hydrophobization of fine-grained fractures. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo uni- versiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2014. No. 4, pp. 33–35. (In Russian).
12. Kozhukhova M.I., Flores-Vivian I., Rao S., Strokova V.V., Sobolev K.G. Complex siloxane coating for super-hydro- phobicity of concrete surfaces. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 26–30. (In Russian).
13. Kharkhardin A.N., Strokova V.V., Kozhukhova N.I. The critical size of micro- and nanoparticles, at which their unusual properties manifest themselves. Izvestiya Vuzov. Stroitelstvo. 2012. No. 10, pp. 109–115. (In Russian).
14. Kharkhardin A.N., Strokova V.V., Kozhukhova N.I. Critical dimension of small-size particles. 11 th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI); 5 th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM V), 6 th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD VI). July 20–25, 2014. Barcelona, Spain. 2014. Vol. 3, pp. 2221–2228.
15. Kozhukhova M.I., Sobolev K.G., Strokova V.V. Supergidrophobnoe antiobledenitel’noe pocryitie dlya betona [Super water-repellent anti-acing coating for con- crete]. Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing. 2016. 145 p.
O.V. ARTAMONOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) (ol_artam@rambler.ru) Voronezh State Technical University (84, 20-let Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Concepts and Bases of Technologies of Nano-Modified Structures of Building Composites. Part 6. Obtaining of Nano-Modified Thermal-Synthesis Systems of Hardening for Structural and Functional Ceramic of a Special Purpose* Nano-structuring in systems of thermal-synthesis hardening in the form of two interconnected technological stages is presented: the nano-technology of the synthesis of initial precur- sors (powders) with realization of the “bottom-up” principle, and the technology of nano-structuring of thermal-synthesis systems with the acquisition of solid state under the thermal impact realized by the “up-down” principle. Considered nano-ceramic compositions on the basis of zirconium dioxide, obtained with due regard for these two technologies, have high strength characteristics: values of micro-hardness (in the range of 70–170 kPA), crack resistance (over 25 MPa/m 2 and compression strength (700–900 MPa) that is connected with the nature of a component introduced (In2O3) and its optimal quantity in the composition of ceramic composition. It is established that an evolution model of acquiring the solid state pro- posed for thermal-synthesis systems of hardening can be used for simulating similar processes of the nano-structuring in the ceramics.

Keywords: thermal-synthesis system of hardening, nano-structuring, nano-cramic, nano-technologies.

For citation: Artamonova O.V. Concepts and Bases of Technologies of Nano-Modified Structures of Building Composites. Part 6. Obtaining of Nano-Modified Thermal-Synthesis Systems of Hardening for Structural and Functional Ceramic of a Special Purpose. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 98–104. (In Russian).

References
1. Zhenzhurist I.A. Perspective trends in construction ce- ramics nanomodified. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 36–40. (In Russian).
2. Fua L., Wub C., Grandfieldc K. et al. Transparent single crystalline ZrO2–SiO2 glass nanoceramic sintered by SPS. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 2016. Vol. 36. No. 10, pp. 3487–3494.
3. Artamonova O.V. Scientific advances and innovations in the field of high-tech materials for nanoceramics engi- neering and construction purposes. Materials of the International Congress: Science and Innovations in Construction. Modern problems of building materials science and technology. Voronezh. 2008, pp. 18–25. (In Russian).
4. Chernyshov E.M., Artamonova O.V., Korotkith D.N. et al. The use of solid-state technology nanochemistry in build- ing materials science engineering problem, direction and implementation examples. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construc- tion Materials]. 2008. No. 2, pp. 32–36. (In Russian).
5. Artamonova O.V., Chernyshov E.M. Concepts and bases of technologies of nanomodification of building compos- ite structures. Part 1. General problems of fundamentali- ty, main direction of investigations and developments. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, pp. 82–95. (In Russian).
6. Chernyshov E.M., Artamonovа O.V., Slavcheva G.S. Concepts and technology base nanomodification of struc- tures of building composites. Part 3. Effective nanomodifi- cation of systems and structures of cement hardening ce- ment stone (criteria and conditions). Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No 10, pp. 54–64. (In Russian).
7. Chernyshov E.M., Popov V.A., Artamonovа O.V. Concepts and technology base nanomodification of structures of building composites. Part 5. Efficient mi- cro-, nanomodification of hydrothermal-synthesis hard- ening systems and structure of silicate stone (criteria and conditions). Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 9, pp. 38–46. (In Russian).
8. Artamonova O.V., Almyasheva O.V., Gusarov V.V. et al. Nanocrystals of solid solutions based on zirconium diox- ide system ZrO2–In2O3. Neorganicheskie materialy. 2006. Vol. 42. No. 10, pp. 1178–1181. (In Russian).
9. Melihov I.V. Fiziko-khimicheskaya evolyutsiya tverdogo eshchestva [Physico-chemical evolution of the solid]. Moscow: BINOM. Laboratoriya znaniy. 2009. 309 p.
10. Rebinder P.A. Poverkhnostnye yavleniya v dispersnykh sistemakh. Fiziko-khimicheskaya mekhanika. Izbrannye trudy [Surface phenomena in disperse systems. Physico- chemical mechanics. Selected Works]. Moscow: Nauka. 1979. 386 p.
11. Kingery W.D. Vvedenie v keramiku. Per. s angl. Rabukhi- na A.I., Yanovskogo V.K. [Introduction to ceramics. Trans. from English. Rabuhina A.I., Yanovsky V.K.]. Moscow: Publishing house of literature on construction. 1967. 499 p.
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