Stroitel`nye Materialy №3

Table of contents

I.V. YUDIN1, engineer (; I.V. PETROVA2, Candidate of Sciences (Pedagogics) (; V.F. BOGDANOV 3, Candidate of Sciences (Economics) (
1 OOO “Volga house-building factory” (73, Promyshlennay Street, 429950 Novocheboksarsk, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow Polytechnic University, Cheboksary Institute (branch) (54, K. Marksa Street, 428000, Cheboksary, Russian Federation)
3 “Chuvash State University named after I.N. Ulyanov” (15, Moskovsky Avenue, 428015, Cheboksary, Russian Federation)

Improvement of Constructive Solutions, Technology and Organization of Construction of Large-Panel and Panel-Frame Houses of Volga DSK

The development of large-panel housing construction in the Chuvash Republic is shown. Peculiarities of this type of construction in different periods of operation of the integrated house-building factory are revealed. In 1964–1992, the factory not only mastered the production of well-known serial houses, but improved the series 121. The factory increased vol- umes of construction by organizing the continuous complex production flow. In 1993–2007, in the course of transition to the market economy, non-sufficient consumer properties of previously produced large-panel houses manifested sharper. Mastering of the new technology of precast-monolithic frame housing construction and its further development has kept the factory at the construction market. At present, the integrated factory successfully produces both modernized large-panel houses and panel-frame houses.

Keywords: integrated house-building factory, large-panel house, continuous complex flow, reconstruction, precast-monolithic frame, hard node, panel-frame house.

For citation: Yudin I.V., Petrova I.V., Bogdanov V.F. Improvement of constructive solutions, technology and organization of construction of large-panel and panel-frame houses of Volga DSK. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).

1. Baranova L.N. Development of industrial housing con- struction and the industry of construction materials in various regions of Russia. Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii est- estvennykh nauk. 2013. No. 3, pp. 61–63. (In Russian).
2. Usmanov Sh.I. Formation of economic strategy of devel- opment of industrial housing construction in Russia. Politika, gosudarstvo i pravo. 2015. No. 1 (37), pp. 76–79. (In Russian).
3. Antipov D.N. Strategy of development of the enterprises of industrial housing con-struction. Problemy sovremen- noi ekonomiki. 2012. No. 1, pp. 267–270. (In Russian).
4. Magay A.A., Dubynin N.V. Large-Panel Residential Buildings with a Broad Step of Bear-ing Structures, Ensuring the Free Layout of Apartments From large-panel housing construction of XX to system of panel and frame housing construction XXI. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 10, pp. 21–24. (In Russian).
5. Nikolaev S. V. The Revival of house-building factories in the domestic equipment. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Hou- sing Construction]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
6. Dubynin N.V. From large-panel housing construction of XX to system of panel and frame housing construction XXI. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 10, pp. 12–27. (In Russian).
7. Tikhomirov B.I., Korshunov A.N. The line of bezopa- lubochny formation – efficiency plant with flexible tech- nology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 22–26. (In Russian).
8. Reinforced concrete in the XXI century. The state and prospects of development of con-crete and reinforced concrete in Russia: Monografiya pod. red K. V. Mikhailov. Moscow: NIIZHB, 2001. 390 p.
9. Yarmakovsky V.N., Bremner, T.W. Lightweight con- crete: present and future. Stroitelny expert. 2005. No. 20, рр. 5–7. No. 21, рр. 5–7. (In Russian).
10. Yudin I. V., Ermakovskiy V. N. Innovative technolo- gies in industrial building research In-stitute with the use of structural lightweight concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materiаls]. 2010. No. 1, рр. 15–17. (In Russian).
11. Yarmakovsky V.N., Semchenkov A.S., Kozelkov M.M., Shevtsov D.A. About energy saving when using innova- tive technologies in constructive systems of buildings in thecourse of their creation and construction. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. No. 3, Vol. 1, рр. 209–215. (In Russian).
12. Gryzlov V.S. Shlakobetona in large-panel housingcon- struction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materiаls]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 40–41. (In Russian).
13. Nikolaev S.V., Shreiber A.K., Etenko V.P. Panel and frame housing construction – a new stage of development of efficiency. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
V.A. SHEMBAKOV (, Manager, GK “Rekon-SMK”, General Director, zAO “Rekon”, Honored Builder of the Russian Federation, Head of Writing Staff of Development and Introduction of SMK Technology ZAO “Rekon” (20a Dorozhny Passway, 428003, Cheboksary, Russian Federation)

Possibilities to Use the Russian Technology of Precast-Monolithic Frame for Construction of Qualitative Affordable Housing and Roads in Russia

Possibilities to use the technology of precast-monolithic frame (SMK technology) for achieving the goals set in “Strategy of development of building materials industry for the period until 2020 and further until 2030” of the Government Resolution № 868-p of 10.05.2016 are presented. It is shown that the Russian technology of precast-monolithic frame proposed by GK “Rekon-SMK” is able to provide the domestic and foreign markets with qualitative, affordable and energy efficient building materials of the Russian production, to reduce depen- dence on foreign technologies, equipment, and components.

Keywords: precast-monolithic frame, factory readiness, energy efficiency, speed of construction.

For citation: Shembakov V.A. Possibilities to use the russian technology of precast-monolithic frame for construction of qualitative affordable housing and roads in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 9–15. (In Russian).

1. Nikolaev S.V., Shreiber A.K., Khayutin Yu.G. Innovative systems of frame and panel housing construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 3–5. (In Russian).
2. Nikolaev S.V., Shreiber A.K., Etenko V.P. Panel and frame housing construction – a new stage of development of efficiency. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
3. Nikolaev S.V. Revival of House Building Factories on the Basis of Domestic Equipment. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 4–9. (In Russian).
4. Nikolaev S.V. Panel and Frame Buildings of New Generation. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 8, pp. 2–9. (In Russian).
5. Shembakov V.A. Sborno-monolitnoe karkasnoe domostroenie [Combined and monolithic frame housing construction]. Cheboksary, 2013.
6. Semchenkov A.S. Regional адоптированные combined and monolithic construction systems for multystoried buildings. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2013. No. 3, pp. 9–11.
7. Yarmakovsky V.N., Semchenkov A.S., Trestles M.M., Shevtsov D.A. About energy saving when using innovative technologies in constructive systems of buildings in the course of their creation and construction. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. No. 3, Vol. 1, рр. 209–215. (In Russian).
8. Shembakov V.A. Technology of Precast and Cast-in- Situ Housing Construction SMK in Mass Construction of Russia and Country-Members of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).
Regional Leader of Building Industry of Russia — OOO «REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES № 1» OOO «Reinforced Concrete Structures № 1» is the leading enterprise of the building industry of Chuvashia for producing precast reinforced concrete and concrete structures with years of impeccable experience in the work. The use of the newest technologies, competent selection of highclass specialists led the company to the forefront in the field of building material production.
«Sokol» Co. has carried out the successful commissioning of production lines for the production of hollow core slabs of pre-stressed concrete at the equipment of Nordimpianti Co. in the settlement of Mokhsogollokh, Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The use of pre-cast reinforced concrete for construction of buildings and structures of various purposes is more often substantiated, first of all, by fast pace of construction, lower cost of human labor on a construction site and possibility to carry out building-assembling works within a wide range of weather and temperature conditions (comparing with the monolithic method)
S.G. EMELIANOV, Councellor of RAASN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, N.V. FEDOROVA, Councellor of RAASN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, V.I. KOLCHUNOV, Academician of RAASN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( Southwest State University (94, 50-let Oktyabrya Street, 305040, Kursk, Russian Federation)

Design Peculiarities of Nodes of Residential and Public Buildings’ Structures Made of Panel-Frame Elements for Protection against Progressive Collapse The methodology of computational analysis of endurance of structural systems of buildings constructed of industrially manufactured reinforced concrete panel-frame elements is pre- sented. It is shown that, when calculating and designing bearing elements and nodes of the building frame according to the secondary calculation scheme after breakdown one of the bearing elements, the coefficient of dynamic additional loading should be taken into account. Examples of structural solutions of nodes and joints of panel-frame elements and floor slabs for reducing the probability of progressive collapse of the building under emergency impacts are presented.

Keywords: progressive collapse, protection, durability of structural systems of buildings, reinforced concrete panel-frame elements, industrially manufactured reinforced concrete ele- ments, building frame, calculation of structures according to limit states.

For citation: Emelianov S.G., Fedorova N.V., Kolchunov V.I. Design peculiarities of nodes of residential and public buildings’ structures made of panel-frame elements for protection against progressive collapse. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 23–26. (In Russian).

1. Travush V.I., Kolchunov V.I., Klyueva N.V. Some areas of survivability theory of structural systems of buildings and structures. Promyshlennoe i gragdanskoe stroitelstvo. 2015. No. 3, pp. 4–11. (In Russian).
2. Kolchunov V.I., Emel’yanov S.G. Questions billing anal- ysis and protection of large buildings against progressive collapse. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Сonstruc- tion]. 2016. No. 10, pp. 17–21. (In Russian).
3. Kodysh E.N., Trekin N.N., Chesnokov D.A. Protection of high-rise buildings from the progressive collapse. Promyshlennoe i gragdanskoe stroitelstvo. 2016. No. 6, pp. 12–15. (In Russian).
4. Shapiro G.I., Gasanov A.A., Yur’ev R.V. The calculation of buildings and structures in MNIITEP. Promyshlennoe i gragdanskoe stroitelstvo. 2007. No. 6, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
5. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston, Virginia 20191, 2010, 658 p.
6. Evrokod 1. Vozdeistviya na konstruktsii, chast’ 1–7. Obshchie vozdeistviya. Osobye vozdeistviya, Belorusskaya redaktsiya. Minsk. 2010, 67 p.
7. Code of practice for the use of masonry, the Standards Policy and Strategy Committee, 2005. 80 p.
8. Geniev G.A. Prochnost’ i deformativnost’ zhelezobeton- nykh konstruktsii pri zaproektnykh vozdeistviyakh [The strength and deformability of reinforced concrete struc- tures under beyond design impacts]: Nauchnoe izdanie. Moscow: ASV, 2004. 216 p.
9. Kolchunov V.I., Androsova N.B., Klyueva N.V., Bukhtiyarova A.S. Zhivuchest’ zdanii i sooruzhenii pri zaproektnykh vozdeistviyakh [Vitality buildings at beyond design impacts] Moscow: ASV, 2014. 208 p.
10. STO 008-02495342–2009. Predotvrashchenie progres- siruyushchego obrusheniya zhelezobetonnykh monolit- nykh konstruktsii zdanii [Prevention of progressive col- lapse of reinforced concrete monolithic constructions of buildings] Moscow: TsNIIPromzdanii, 2009. 23 p. (In Russian).
11. Rekomendatsii po zashchite zhilykh karkasnykh zdanii pri chrezvychainykh situatsiyakh, [Advice on protection of residential frame buildings in emergencies] MNIITEP, 2002. 16 p. (In Russian).
12. Rekomendatsii po zashchite monolitnykh zhilykh zdanii ot progressiruyushchego obrusheniya, [Advice on protec- tion monolithic apartment buildings from the progressive collapse] MNIITEP, 2005. 76 p. (In Russian).
13. Rekomendatsii po predotvrashcheniyu progressiruyush- chikh obrushenii krupnopanel’nykh zdanii, [Recommen- dations to prevent progressive collapse of large buildings] Nits Stadio., 1999. 35 p. (In Russian).
14. Patent RF 289779. Platformennyi sborno-monolitnyi styk [The platform prefabricated monolithic joint]. Kolchu- nov V.I., Klyueva N.V., Filatova S.A., Martynen- ko D.V. Pablished 10.07.2016. Bulletin No. 19. (In Russian).
During many years the group of enterprises PROGRESS GROUP successfully works at the markets of the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. The concern which combines five machine-building enterprises, an enterprise for development of software, and a company-producer of pre-cast reinforced structures has developed and installed in the region tens production lines with due regard for individual requirements of every customer. However, the key to success is continuous improvement: enterprises of PROGRESS GROUP Concern constantly invest in new developments and solutions. The ultimate goal is to provide the customer with all the best from one source at the same time providing support in the efficient production of reinforced concrete elements of the highest quality.
A.G. KOVRIGIN, Engineer, Head of Technical Support Group (, A.V. MASLOV, Engineer, A.A. VALD, Deputy Director LLC «Biysk factory of glass fibre reinforced plastics» (60/1, Leningradskaya Street, Biysk, Altay Region, 659316 Russian Federation)

Factors Influencing on Reliability of Composite Ties Used in Large-Panel Housing Construction Flexible ties from composite materials made of similar initial materials can have significantly different operational characteristics. As a result of tests of composite flexible ties, their physical and chemical characteristics have been determined. It is established that flexible ties with a coiled bundle or with a sand anchor element significantly lose the adhesion strength with concrete (up to 90%) after alkaline impact. Flexible ties with cylindro-conical broadening during the whole operational time losenot more than 9% of the initial adhesion strength and can guarantee the reliability and durability of structures. The technology of production of thermal-efficient wall panels with the use of flexible ties СПА ® 7,5 manufactured at LLc “Biysk factory of glass fibre reinforced plastics” is used at the factories of the Russian Federation, Belorussia, Kazakhstan, Germany, France, and Swiss. For the market of the European Union, a special trade mark for flexible ties – ThermoPin ® has been developed. The general tolerance of construction supervision has been obtained at the testing laboratory Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik, Berlin.

Keywords: large-panel housing construction, flexible composite tie, durability, bearing capacity, requirements of normative documentation, coefficients of operational conditions, com- plex of technical assessment of composite flexible ties.

For citation: Kovrigin A.G., Maslov A.V., Vald A.A. Factors influencing on reliability of composite ties used in large-panel housing construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction mate-
rials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 31–34. (In Russian).

1. Kovrigin A. G, Maslov A.V. Composite Flexible Bracing in Large-Panel House Building. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Cons- truction Materiаls]. 2016. No. 3, pp. 25–30. (In Russian).
2. Usmanov Sh.I. Formation of economic strategy of develop- ment of industrial housing construction in Russia. Politika, gosudarstvo i pravo. 2015. No. 1 (37), pp. 76–79. (In Russian).
3. Baranova L.N. Development of industrial housing con- struction and the industry of construction materials in various regions of Russia. Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii est- estvennykh nauk. 2013. No. 3, pp. 61–63. (In Russian).
4. Lugovoy А.N., Kovrigin A.G. Composite Flexible Bracings for Three-Layered Thermal Efficient Panels. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materiаls]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 32–33. (In Russian).
5. Lugovoy А.N. Enhancement of Energy Efficiency of Enclosing Structures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materiаls]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 22–24. (In Russian).
6. Lugovoy А.N., Kovrigin A.G. The accounting of require- ments of standard documentation at design of three-layer panels. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materiаls]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 35–38. (In Russian).
7. Hozin V.G., Piskunov A.A., Gizdatullin A.R., Kuklin A.N. Coupling of polimerkompozitny fittings with cement concrete. Izvestiya KazGASU. 2013. No. 1 (23), рр. 214–220. (In Russian).
8. Blazhko V.P., Granik M.Yu. Flexible bazaltoplastikovy communications for application in three-layer panels of external walls. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materiаls]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 56–57. (In Russian).
9. Frolov N.P. Manufacturing techniques of fiberglass fit- tings and some of its properties. Beton i zhelezobeton. 1965. No. 9, pp. 5–8. (In Russian).
10. Blaznov A.N., Atyasova E.V., Bychin N.V., Shundri- na I.K., Hodakova N.N., Samoylenko V.V. Influence of extent of hardening of vitrification of composite materi- als, binding on temperature. Yushno-sibirskii nauchnyi vestnik. 2016. No. 1, pp. 13–19. (In Russian).
M.A. GONCHAROVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.N. IVASHKIN, Engineer, A.A. KOSTA, Candidate of Architecture ( Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, 398600, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)

Proportioning and Optimization of Concretes for Production of Hollow-Core Floor Slabs of Off-Shuttering Forming At present, the off-shuttering method for reinforced concrete products forming is one of the progressive in the building material industry. It makes it possible to produce a wide range of products with high technical and operational characteristics as well as significantly expand possibilities of large-panel housing construction in the field of architectural-planning solu- tions. Hollow-core pre-stressed slabs are one of the most demanded products made according to the technique of off-shuttering forming. They are often used in housing construction. However, up to the present day, this type of products is insufficiently studied. There is no single regulation base in accordance to which the enterprises of building complex could pro- duce floor slabs. The article presents the results of control tests of reinforced concrete hollow-core floor slabs for strength and resistance to cracks, for which the composition of con- crete mixes has been selected. An expert assessment of parameters of slabs operation under the effect of concentrated loading is made.

Keywords: large-panel housing construction, hollow-core slab, without-shuttering formation, pre-stressing, control tests, reinforced concrete structures, concrete mix composition.

For citation: Goncharova M.A., Ivashkin A.N., Kosta A.A. Proportioning and optimization of concretes for production of hollow-core floor slabs of off-shuttering forming. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 35–38. (In Russian).

1. Nikolaev S.V. Architectural-Urban Development System of Panel-Frame Housing Construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 3, pp. 15–25. (In Russian).
2. Bosakov S.V., Belevich V.N., Shchetko N.S. Calculation and experimental estimation of shear strength of hollow core slabs taking into account European standards re- quirements. Stroitel’naya nauka i tekhnika. 2010. No. 6, pp. 47–54. (In Russian).
3. Voronov V.I., Mikhailov V.V., Roshchina S.I. The results of control testes of hollow-core pre-srtessed slabs bench formless molding. Nauchno-tekhnicheskii vestnik Povolzh’ya. 2011. No. 5, pp. 89–92. (In Russian).
4. Klyueva N.V., Gornostaev S.I. To the question of the choice of settlement model for the assessment of reinforced concrete designs. Izvestija Jugo-Zapadnogo gosudarstven- nogo universiteta. 2016. No. 1 (64), pp. 71–74. (In Russian).
5. Goncharova M.A., Ivashkin A.N., Kashirskaya O.A. Assessment of products front surface quality from multi- component decorative concrete. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 19–22. (In Russian).
6. Goncharova M.A., Ivashkin A.N., Simbaev V.V. Development of Optimal Compositions of Silicate Concretes with the Use of Local Raw Resources. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constriction Materials]. 2016. No. 9, pp. 6–8. (In Russian).
7. Yumasheva E.I., Sapacheva L.V. House-building industry and social order of time. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constriction materials]. 2014. No. 10, pp. 3–11. (In Russian).
I.N. TIKHONOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, V.Z. MESHKOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); A.N. ZVEZDOV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), I.P. SAVRASOV2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 NIIZHB named after A.A. Gvozdev, JSC “RC of Construction”) (6, 2nd Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 JSC Research Center of Construction (JSC “RC of Construction”) (6, 2nd Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Efficient Reinforcement for Reinforced Concrete Structures of Buildings Designed With Due Regard for Impact of Special Loads The main design criterion is to prevent progressive collapse of structures in the first place to save people’s lives. When designing, studies and account of strength and deformability characteristics of reinforcement and concrete structures at stages close to the destruction as well as development and studies of new types of reinforcing bars ensuring the high strength and power intensity of adhesion between concrete and reinforcement at the stage of plastic deformation of tensile reinforcement on the anchorage and in the most loaded cross-sections of elements are very relevant. The requirements of normative documents of the Russian Federation and Eurocode 2 «Design of concrete structures» for mechanical properties of reinforcement ensuring greatly the strength of reinforced concrete structures are mapped. The principal differences showing that the requirements of Eurocode 2 deserve serious attention, as they are more specific in the evaluation of strength and deformation characteristic of reinforcement steels. Basic provisions to guide when developing geometric parameters of efficient types of the deformed reinforcement are formulated. It is shown that the new profile of reinforcement with the conventional name “sickle-shaped four-sided” makes it possible to significantly improve the strength and rigidity of adhesion between concrete and reinforcement due to the increase in bearing and shear resistance of zigzag inter- costal concrete keys of continuous length as well as due to the efficient operation of grains of coarse aggregate introduced in them.

Keywords: progressive collapse of structures, reinforcement, crushing resistance, anchorage, reinforcement steel, reinforcement profile, adhesion between concrete and reinforcement, reinforcement structures.

For citation: Tikhonov I.N., Meshkov V.Z., Zvezdov A.N., Savrasov I.P. Efficient reinforcement for reinforced concrete structures of buildings designed with due regard for impact of spe- cial loads. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 39–45. (In Russian).

1. Tikhonov I.N. Designing of elements of buildings from a lezobeton on emergency loadings taking into account properties are of maturny hire. Stroitel’naja mehanika i raschet sooruzhenij. 2007. No. 4, рр. 52–56. (In Russian).
2. Tikhonov I.N. Effective reinforcing of steel concrete de- signs without preliminary tension. Promyshlennoe i grazh- danskoe stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 1, рр. 25–27. (In Russian).
3. Snimshchikov S.V., Kharitonov V.A., Kharitonov V.A., Surikov I.N., Petrov I.M. Analysis of the level of quality of reinforcing B500C class hire on the basis of methods of mathematical statistics. Сhernaia metalurgia. 2013. No. 8, рр. 48–59. (In Russian).
4. Tikhonov I.N. Investigation of reinforced concrete ele- ments with an effective reinforcement of class A500. Sbornik nauchnyh trudovv NIIGB. Moscow: NIIZhB. 2013, pp. 179–190. (In Russian).
5. Semchenkov A.S., Zalesov A.S., Meshkov V.Z., Kvasnikov A.A. Character coupling rod to concrete rein- forcement of various profiles. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2007. No. 5, рр. 2–7. (In Russian).
6. Tikhonov I.N., Gumenyuk V.S. To a question of assess- ment of influence of cold hardening of fittings on her re- sistance to compressionconcrete goods. ZhBI i konstrukt- sii. 2010. No. 2, рр. 16–20. (In Russian).
7. Tikhonov I.N., Gumenyuk V.S. About the settlement re- sistance to compression of fittings strengthened in a cold state. Metizy. 2008. No. 2 (18), рр. 26–30. (In Russian).
8. Madatyan S.A. Properties of an armature of steel concrete designs in Russia at the level of the best international stan- dards. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2013. No. 5, рр. 2–5. (In Russian).
9. Madatyan S.A. New reinforcing steel of the class A 600 C. Strojmetall. 2010. No. 5, рр. 7–10. (In Russian).
10. Madatyan S.A. Holodnodeformirovanny armature of the class B 500 C. Metizy. 2008. No. 2, рр. 20–25. (In Russian).
11. Tikhonov I. N. An efficiency evaluation of reinforcing hire with different types of a periodic profile of a surface. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 3, рр. 29–34. (In Russian).
12. Zvezdov A.I., Snimshchikov S.V., Kharitonov V.A., So- kol H., Haritonov A.V. Format of delivery of bukhtovy rein- forcing hire and its quality in the domestic market. Chernaja metallurgija. 2016. No. 10 (1402), рр. 53–62. (In Russian).
13. Tikhonov I.N., Meshkov V.Z., Rastorguyev B.S. Proekti- rovanie armirovanija zhelezobetona [Steel concrete rein- forcing designing]. Moscow: TsNTP of G.K. Ordzho- nikidze, 2015. 273 p.
14. Mayer, U (2002), Zum Einfluss der Oberflachengestalt von Ripptnstahlen fuf das Trag – und Verformungsverhalten von Stahlbetonbauteilen, Dissertation, Universitat Stuttgart, Institut fur Werkstoffe im Bauvesen, IWB – Mitteilungen 2002/1.
15. Madatyan S.A. Armatura zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij [ Armature of steel concrete designs]. Moscow: Voyentekhlit, 2000. 256 p.
16. Mulin N. M. Sterzhnevaja armatura zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij [Rod armature of steel concrete designs]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1974. 233 p.
E.F. FILATOV, Chief Technologist ( OOO UK “Bryansk Large-Panel Prefabrication Plant” (99A, Rechnaya Street, 241031, Bryansk, Russian Federation)

Express-Methods for Forecasting Cement Activity in the Plant Laboratory There are many methods of accelerated assessment of the cement activity which were developed for cement consumers with the purpose of forecasting the cement brand. During recent years, accelerated methods for forecasting the cement activity, so-called contraction-metric methods of operative determination and forecasting of the cement activity based on the established interconnection of the activity with processes of reducing the absolute volume of cement material as a result of cement hydration were developed and are widely used in the practice of building industry enterprises. Along with the use of contraction-meters in the laboratory practice, since 2009 automatic contraction-metric devices are used in Russia. Methods for accelerated determination of the cement activity under the building laboratory conditions are considered.

Keywords: portland cement, cement paste, cement activity, contraction-metric devices, reinforced concrete products, concrete strength, quality of reinforced concrete structures.

For citation: Filatov E.F. Express-methods for forecasting cement activity in the plant laboratory. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 46–48. (In Russian).

1. Sizov V.P. Ratsional’nyi podbor sostavov tyazhelogo be- tona [Rational selection of compositions of heavy con- crete]. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1995. 52 p.
2. Gubaidulin G.A., Leonidov S.M. The new device for as- sessment of quality of cement. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Сonstruction]. 2009. No. 12, pp. 17–18.
3. Zvezdov A.I., Malinina L.A., Rudenko I.F. Tekhnologiya betona i zhelezobetona v voprosakh i otvetakh [Tekhnologiya of concrete and reinforced concrete in questions and answers]. Moscow: NIIZhB, 2005. 434 p.
4. Bolotskikh O.N. Evropeiskie metody fiziko-me- khanicheskikh ispytanii tsementa [The European meth- ods of the physicist-mechanical tests of cement]. Khar’kov: Spektr, 2015. 89 p.
A.A. VISHNEVSKY1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (; G.I. GRINFELD2, Engineer, Executive Director, A.S. SMIRNOVA 2, Engineer, Assistant Executive Director
1 Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin (19, Mira Street, 620002, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)
2 National Association of Autoclave Gas Concrete Producers (40 A, Oktyabrskaya Embankment, 193091, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Russian Market of Autoclave Gas Concrete. Results of 2016 The current state of the sub-sector PSM, production of autoclave gas concrete, is presented. Volumes of the autoclave gas concrete production in Russia and its share at the market of small piece materials are shown. The comparison of the dynamics of aerated concrete production in Russia and neighboring countries, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan, is made. The distribution of produced autoclaved gas concrete according to the average density of brands is presented. It is noted that the reduction in the density of produced articles continues, the share of heat-efficient articles production increased. Different types of products, non-reinforced and reinforced for various purposes are shown. Regional differences in the prices of gas concrete blocks are shown; the volumes of autoclave gas concrete in 2017 are forecasted. Total output of production decreased by 9.1%, capacity utilization fell to 64%, factory prices decreased by 5.1%. Keywords: autoclave gas concrete, cellular concrete, statistics, volume of production, regional peculiarities, brand on density, small piece materials, forecast of production.

For citation: Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfeld G.I., Smirnova A.S. Russian market of autoclave gas concrete. Results of 2016. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 49–51. (In Russian).

1. Levchenko V.N., Grinfel’d G.I. Production of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete in Russia: prospects of development of subsector. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
2. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfeld G.I., Kulikova N.O. Analysis of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Market of Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 40–44. (In Russian).
3. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfel’d G.I., Smirnova A.S. Production of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 6, pp. 52–54. (In Russian).
4. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfel’d G.I., Smirnova A.S. Manufacture of Autoclaved Aerocrete. Results of 2015. Forecast for 2016. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 5, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
5. Grinfel’d G.I. Dialectics of Specified Requirements for Resistance of Enclosing Structures to Heat Transfer. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 1, pp. 22–24. (In Russian).
6. Grinfel’d G.I., Korkina E.V., Pastushkov P.P., Pavlen- ko N.V., Erofeeva I.V. The system of the protecting de- signs providing the increased energy saving in buildings. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhi- tekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitek- tura. 2016. No. 3, pp. 25–35. (In Russian).
A.N. NESTEROV1, Docent, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Director (; D.O. DATUKASHVILI2, General Director
1 OOO «KIANIT» (1, Yuriya Gagarina Avenue, St. Petersburg, 196105, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «MAGMA engineering» (10, A. Nevskogo Street, Borovichi, Novgorod Oblast, 174411, Russian Federation)

Production of High-Calcium Lime in Russia A review of production of high-calcium lime in Russia in shaft and rotary kilns of different design is presented. Main technical characteristics of kilns operating on gas fuel for burning of different types of carbonate raw materials are given. New technical decisions which make it possible to modernize kilns in order to improve the lime grade, increase the productivity of kilns and reduce the fuel consumption are considered. New solutions on making the energy saving lining of shaft and rotary kilns which make it possible o reduce the heat loss through the kiln casing more than twice are presented. Various designes of burners, loading and unloading devices of shaft and rotary kilns are considered. Issues of the correct operation of kilns and selection of the optimal burning conditions are addressed. Main criteria for selection of the type and design of kilns for limestone or chalk burning are listed.

Keywords: lime, limestone, chalk, shaft kiln, rotary kiln.

For citation: Nesterov A.N., Datukashvili D.O. Production of high-calcium lime in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 52–59. (In Russian).

1. Monastyrev A.V. Proizvodstvo izvesti [Production of Lime]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1971. 272 p.
2. Dresvyannikova E.A., Gotuleva Yu.V. Energy saving technologies by production of construction materials. Sovremennye naukoemkie tekhnologii. 2013. No. 8–2, pp. 301–302. (In Russian).
3. Nesterov A.V., Batyzhev D.Z. A New Life of Shaft Kilns. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 3, pp. 49–52. (In Russian).
4. Monastyrev A.V., Galiakhmetov R.F. Pechi dlya proiz- vodstva izvesti [Kilns for production of lime]. Voronezh: Istoki. 2011. 392 p.
5. Patent RF 2079785. Gazovaya gorelka [Gas burner]. Kalashnikov L.V., Kalashnikov G.L. Declared 13.04.1995. Published 20.05.1997. (In Russian).
6. Tabunshchikov N.P. Proizvodstvo izvesti [Production of Lime]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1974. 240 p.
7. Monastyrev A.V. Designs of Efficient Shaft and Rotary Kilns of 200–600 t/d Capacity. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 2, pp. 26–28. (In Russian).
8. Monastyrev A.V. Ways of Reduction of Fuel Consumption in the Course of Chalk Roasting with Production of Lime in Long Rotary Kilns. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 9–15. (In Russian).
V.I. ZUEV, General Director (; A.E. MIKALUTSKY, Head of Technological Department OOO VPP “Izvesta” (231, 9 Yanvarya Street, 394019, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Improvement of Lime-Burning Rotary Kilns The main advantage of rotary kilns due to which they found widespread – is the possibility to produce high-quality soft burnt lime from small raw materials with various properties. At this, the high quality lime can be obtained practically at any rotary kiln. The main disadvantage of rotary kilns is low economic efficiency, due primarily to high fuel consumption and high expenditures for construction and maintenance. Main elements and systems of the rotary kiln, which determine its performance with different raw materials, the design of the lime cooler; designs of seals of hot and cold ends; the design of the burner device; the design of the kiln lining; the design of the kiln feeding unit; designs of internal or separate pre-heaters of raw materials. A brief description of modern, practically applicable main elements and systems of rotary kilns is presented; proposals and recommendations on their introduction and improvement are also given.

Keywords: lime, chalk, rotary kilns, lime coolers, gas burner, feeding unit of kiln, raw materials pre-heater.

For citation: Zuev V.I., Mikalutsky A.E. Improvement of lime-burning rotary kilns. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 62–68. (In Russian).

1. Khavkin L.M. Tekhnologiya silikatnogo kirpicha [Technology of a silicate brick]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1982. 384 p.
2. Monastyrev A.V. Requirements of Consumers to Properties of Lime Used for Cellular Concrete and Technological Means to Guarantee these Properties. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 6, pp. 36–37. (In Russian).
3. Korneev V.I., Zozulya P.V. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi [Dry construction mixes]. Moscow: Stroimaterialy. 2010. 320 p.
4. Semenov A.A. Situation at the Russian Market of Lime. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 107–110. (In Russian).
5. Monastyrev A.V. Ways of Reduction of Fuel Consump- tion in the Course of Chalk Roasting with Production of Lime in Long Rotary Kilns. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 9–15. (In Russian).
6. Patent RF 2568806. Shakhtnyi podogrevatel’ kuskovogo materiala [Mine heater of lumpy material]. Zuev V.I. Declared 11.06.2014. Published20.11.2015. Bulletin No. 32. (In Russian).
E.V. KOTLAYRSKY, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.I. KOCHNEV, Engineer, V.M. OL’KHOVIKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.I. ABRAMOVA, Magistrand Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (64, Leningradsky Avenue, 125319, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Cold Regeneration of Structural Layers When Surfacing Municipal Roads The technology of cold regeneration when surfacing municipal roads network is considered. As it is known, the local municipal road network is usually heavily worn due to delays in carrying out the required cycle of repair-maintenance works. When repairing it, it is advisable to use the methods of hot and cold regeneration that makes it possible to maximally use the materials of existing pavements and reduce the material consumption and financial expenses when planning road repairing works. Methods for assessing the real conditions of transport-maintenance and technical indicators of the road structure are presented; requirements for determination of road pavement strength by means of expert assessment are given; minimal thicknesses of strengthening layers are presented; there are nomograms for determining the required modulus of elasticity and the thickness of the regenerated layer of granulate.

Keywords: cold regeneration, repair, defects, road pavement, asphalt concrete, granulate, nomograms.

For citation: Kotlayrsky E.V., Kochnev V.I., Ol’khovikov V.M., Abramova A.I. Cold regeneration of structural layers when surfacing municipal roads. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 70–75. (In Russian).

1. Dolgilevich Yu.P., Kostel’ov M.P., Khakkert Yan. Experience of using cold regeneration road pavement technology in the US. Dorozhnaya Tekhnika. 2005. No. 1. (data obrashcheniya 07.12.2016). (Date of access 12.7.2016).
2. Gornaev N.A., Nikishin V.E., Kochetkov A.V. Cold re- generated asphalt. Vestnik Saratovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2007. Vol. 3, No. 1 (26), pp. 112–116. (In Russian).
3. Patent RF 2232841. Sposob kholodnoi regeneratsii sloev dorozhnoi odezhdy (varianty) [The process of cold regen- eration of pavement layers (options)] Bakhrakh G.S. Declared 29.01.2003. Published 20.07.2004. Bulletin No. 3. (In Russian).
4. Bakhrakh G.S. Kholodnaya regeneratsiya dorozhnykh odezhd nezhestkogo tipa [Cold regeneration pavements non-rigid type]. Moscow: Rosavtodor. 1999. 84 p.
5. Wirtgen. Tekhnologiya kholodnogo resaiklinga [Wirtgen. The technology of cold recycling]. Windhagen, Germany: Wirtgen Windhagen. 2012. 370 p. http://media.wirtgen- cler/kaltrecycling_technologie/kaltrecycling_handbu- ch/___RU.pdf. (Date of access 12.7.2016). (In Russian).
6. Kanhal P.S., R.B. Mallick. Development of rational and practical mix design system for full depth reclaimed (FDR) mixes. University of New Hampshire. Final Report. 2002, pp. 1–103.
7. Sartakov A.A. The calculation of the service life of pave- ments asfaltogranulobetonnyh reason recovered by cold recycling. Vysshaya shkola. 2016. No. 9-1, pp. 124–126. (In Russian).
8. Efimova V.M., Verkhovtseva T.A., Dudin V.M. Repair pavement cold regeneration method (recycling). Sixty- ninth All-Russia scientific-technical conference of stu- dents, undergraduates and graduate students of higher educational institutions with international participation. Yaroslavl. 2016. Vol. 1, pp. 968–971. (In Russian).
9. Chernykh D.S., Stroev D.A., Zadorozhniy D.V., Gorelov S.V. Assessing the impact of the number of asfaltogranu- lyata and feed technology on the properties of prepared asphalt mixtures. Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona. 2013. Vol. 27. No. 4, p. 196. chive/n4y2013/2197. (Date of access 12.7.2016). (In Russian).
10. Tsitsikashvili M.S., Vagner E.Ya., Kostylevskiy A.V., Popov A.M. The efficiency of technology of cold regen- eration of pavement layers. Nauchnye trudy SWORLD. 2016. No. 1 (42), pp. 8–14. (In Russian).
A.V. RUDENSKY, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Deputy Head, Research Center of Road Construction (( OAO «NIIMosstroy» (8, Vinnitskaya Stret, 119192, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Rational Application of Building Materials and Resource Saving — Actual Way of Improving Works Efficiency When Constructing and Repairing Automobile Roads Main ways of the efficient application of building materials and resource saving, improvement of the quality and the extension of the service life of automobile roads with asphalt-con- crete pavements are considered. Data on the volumes of road-building materials consumption when constructing and repairing pavements are presented. The need to improve traditional technological solutions and technical requirements for asphalt concrete, improve design methods for road pavements with asphalt concrete facings, extend the service life of road structures for the purpose of economy consumption of material, energy and finance resources when constructing automobile roads is shown.

Keywords: building materials, road pavements, asphalt concrete, resource saving, technical requirements.

For citation: Rudensky A.V. Rational application of building materials and resource saving – actual way of improving works efficiency when constructing and repairing automobile roads. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 76–80. (In Russian).

1. Rudenskiy A.V., Dotsenko A.I. Efficient use of resources in road construction. MIR (Modernizatsiya. Innovatsii. Razvitie). 2011. No. 3, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
2. Rudenskiy A.V. Resource-saving technologies – effective direction of saving material, energy and financial costs in road construction. Dorozhniki. 2014. No. 2, pp. 30–32. (In Russian).
3. Rudenskiy A.V. Possibilities of economy of power re- sources at building and repair of highways. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka. 2011. No. 6, pp. 37–38. (In Russian).
4. Rudenskiy A.V. Dorozhnye asfal’tobetonnye pokrytiya [Road asphalt coating]. Moscow: Transport. 1992. 254 p.
5. Rudenskiy A.V., Kalgin Yu.I. Dorozhnye asfal’tobetony na modifitsirovannykh vyazhushchikh [Road asphalt concretes on modified binders]. Voronezh: VGASU. 2009. 142 p.
6. Rudenskiy A.V., Nikonova O.N., Kaziev M.G. Increase of durability of asphalt concretes by introducing the active complex modifier. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 10, pp. 10–11. (In Russian).
7. Rudenskiy A.V., Tarakanov S.A. The use of preformed granules asphalt cement concentrate – way to increase the efficiency and quality of production of road asphalt mix- tures. Dorozhnaya tekhnika. 2014, pp. 48–49. (In Russian).
8. Rudenskiy A.V. On the need for substantial processing guest on asphalt. Trudy Rosdornii. 2009. Vol. 21/1, pp. 244–250. (In Russian).
V.S. LESOVIK1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, D.Ju. POPOV1, Engineer (; E.S. GLAGOLEV 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 Department of Construction and Transport, Belgorod Oblast (4, Sobornaya Square, 308005, Belgorod, Russian Federation)

Textile-Concrete – Efficient Reinforced Composite of the Future The analysis of the development of textile-concrete is presented; main trends of its application are determined. The industrial experience in the application shows that the efficient fields of textile-concrete application are creation of small architectural forms, garden-park furniture, pedestrian bridges, sandwich-panels and facade panels, execution of works concerning the strengthening and reconstruction building and structures, architectural monuments especially. Due to the high bearing capacity, the absence of corrosion of textile meshes, possibility to construct thin-wall structures, the textile-concrete expands the creative boundaries of the modern architecture. It is concluded that further perspectives of textile-concrete development is connected with interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies within frames of which composite binders of a new generation are developed. The importance of 3D-additive technolo- gies in construction is highlighted, for these purposes water-resistant and frost-resistant composite gypsum binders have been developed.

Keywords: textile-concrete, composite materials, reinforced composites, 3D-additive technologies.

For citation: Lesovik V.S., Popov D.Ju., Glagolev E.S. Textile-concrete – efficient reinforced composite of the future. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 81–84. (In Russian).

Список литературы / References
1. Лесовик В.С. Строительные материалы. Настоящее и будущее // Вестник МГСУ. 2017. Т. 12. № 1 (100). С. 9–16.
1. Lesovik V.S. Construction materials. Present and future. Vestnik MGSU. 2017. Vol. 12. No. 1 (100), pp. 9–16. (In Russian).
2. Лесовик В.С., Перькова М.В., Бабаев В.Б. Архитектурная геоника как междисциплинарное направление в архитектурной науке и практике // Вестник БГТУ им. В.Г. Шухова. 2015. № 6. С. 74–79.
2. Lesovik V.S., Per’kova M.V., Babaev V.B. Architectural a geonickname as the cross-disciplinary direction in archi- tectural science and practice. Vestnik BSTU imeni V.G. Shukhova. 2015. No. 6, pp. 74–79. (In Russian).
3. Пухаренко Ю.В., Пантелеев Д.А., Морозов В.И., Магдеев У.Х. Прочность и деформативность полиармированного фибробетона с применением аморфной металлической фибры // Academia. Архитектура и строительство. 2016. № 1. С. 107–111.
3. Pukharenko Yu.V., Panteleev D.A., Morozov V.I., Magdeev U.Kh. Durability and deformativnost of the polyreinforced fibrobeton with application of an amor- phous metal fiber. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 1, pp. 107–111. (In Russian).
4. Ерофеев В.Т., Богатов А.Д., Ларионов Е.А., Римшин В.И. К вопросу длительной прочности бетона // Архитектура. Строительство. Образование. 2014. № 2 (4). С. 32–43.
4. Erofeev V.T., Bogatov A.D., Larionov E.A., Rimshin V.I. To a question of long durability of concrete. Arkhitektura. Stroitel’stvo. Obrazovanie. 2014. No. 2 (4), pp. 32–43. (In Russian).
5. Scherer, S., Michler, H., Curbach, M. Brücken aus Textilbeton. Handbuch Brücken: Entwerfen, Konstruieren, Berechnen, Bauen und Erhalten (2014), S. 118–129.
6. Textilbeton in die Praxis überführen. BauBlog der TU Dresden vom 31. Oktober 2007. Access mode: https:// on-in-die-praxis-uberfuhren.
7. Schladitz F., Lorenz E., Jesse F., Curbach M. Verstärkung einer denkmalgeschätzten Tonnenschale mit Textilbeton. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau. 104 (2009), Heft 7, S. 432–437.
8. Curbach M., Graf W., Jesse D., Sickert J.U., Weiland S. Segmentbräcke aus textilbewehrtem Beton - Konstruktion, Fertigung, numerische Berechnung. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau. 102 (2007), Heft 6, S. 342–352.
9. Hankers C., Matzdorf D. Verstärkung von Stahlbetonbauteilen mit textilbewehrtem Spritzbeton. Fachausatz, S. 10. Access mode: leistungsvielfalt/kernkompetenzen/textilbeton-carbonbet- on.html
10. Schladitz F., Lorenz E., Walther T. Textilbeton – Gestaltung ohne Grenzen? 10 Symposium Baustoffe und Bauwerkserhaltung Karlsruher Institut für Technologie. 13 März 2014, S. 49–55.
11. Hegger J., Goralksi C., Kulas C. Schlanke Fußgängerbrücke aus Textilbeton – Sechsfeldrige Fuägängerbrücke mit einer Gesamtlänge von 97 m. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau. 106 (2011), Heft 2, S. 64–71.
12. Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik (DIBT): Allgemeine bauaufsichtliche Zulassung: „betoShell“ Platten aus Betonwerkstein mit rückseitig einbetonierten Befestigungselementen zur Verwendung als hinter lüftete Außenwandbekleidung oder als abgehängte Decke. Geltungsdauer bis 27.11.2018, DIBt (Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik), Berlin, 2013.
13. Ehlig D., Schladitz F., Frenzel M., Curbach M. Textilbeton – Ausgeführte Projekte im überblick. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 107 (2012) 11, S. 777–785.
14. Gelbrich S. Organisch geformter Hybridwerkstoff aus textil- bewehrtem Beton und glasfaserverstrktem Kunststoff. Leichter bauen – Zukunft formen. TUDALIT, 7 (2012), S. 9.
15. Die Paulsberg Story – von ersten Materialexperimenten zur Erlebniswelt. Collection. Access mode: http://store.
16. Neuer Stoff und alter Meister Pavillon aus Textilbeton an der RWTH Aachen. Access mode: http://www.baunetz. de/meldungen/Meldungen-Pavillon_aus_Textilbeton_ an_der_RWTH_Aachen_4329073.html
17. Толстой А.Д., Лесовик В.С., Ковалева И.А. Компо- зиционные вяжущие для порошковых бетонов с промышленными отходами // Вестник БГТУ им. В.Г. Шухова. 2016. № 1. С. 6–9.
17. Tolstoy A.D., Lesovik V.S., Kovaleva I.A. Kompozitsion- nye vyazhushchie dlya poroshkovykh betonov s pro- myshlennymi otkhodami. Vestnik BGTU imeni V.G. Shu- khova. 2016. No. 1, pp. 6–9. (In Russian).
18. Чернышева Н.В., Лесовик В.С., Дребезгова М.Ю. Водостойкие гипсовые композиционные материалы с применением техногенного сырья. Белгород: БГТУ им. В.Г. Шухова, 2015. 320 с.
18. Chernysheva N.V., Lesovik V.S., Drebezgova M.Yu. Vodostoykie gipsovye kompozitsionnye materialy s prim- eneniem tekhnogennogo syr’ya. Belgorod [Waterproof plaster composite materials with use of technogenic raw materials]. Belgorod: BGTU imtni V.G. Shukhova, 2015. 320 p.
19. Lessowik W.S., Sagorodnjuk L.H., Ilinskaya G.G., Kupri- na A.A. Das Gesetz über die Verwandtschaft von Strukturen als theoretische Grundlage für die Projektierung von Trockenmischungen. 19-te Internationale Baustofftagung Ibausil. Weimar, 16-18 September 2015. S. 1465–1470.
E.V. KOROLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Technical-Economical Efficiency of New Technological Solutions. Analyses and Improvement The article presents methodical approaches to the formulation of the generalized criterion of building material quality and to the assessment of technical and economic efficiency of new technological solutions, including solutions in nanotechnology. It is shown that the formalization of the material quality should be carried out with due regard for the classification of properties which are used for quality assessment. To achieve a significant increase in the generalized criterion of quality that should be observed during application of new technological solutions (particularly in case of nanotechnology), it is not enough to improve the values of individual properties. The methods that can be used for improving the calculation of techni- cal and economic efficiency, as well as methods that can be used for designing compositions of building materials are proposed. The improved methodology for assessing the technical and economic efficiency of new technological solutions takes into account the effect of the random variation of the material composition on its quality and is able to modernize the for- mula for calculating the technical and economic efficiency depending on the change in the relative price of the material.

Keywords: technical-economic efficiency, quality, system analyses, building material science, nano-technology, technological solutions.

For citation: Korolev E.V. Technical-economical efficiency of new technological solutions. Analyses and improvement. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 85–88. (In Russian).

1. Korolev E.V., Chevychalov A.A. Method of practicability estimation for nanotechnology implementation. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve. 2012. No. 2, pp. 25–31. (In Russian).
2. Bazhenov Yu.M., Korolev E.V. Technical and economi- cal base of applied nanotechnology in material science. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2008. No. 2, pp. 3–9. (In Russian).
3. Bazhenov Yu.M., Korolev E.V. Estimation of technical and economical efficiency nanotechnology in material science. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 6, pp. 66–67. (In Russian).
4. Korolev E.V. Technical and economical efficiency and prospective construction materials. Regional’naya arkhi- tektura i stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 3, pp. 9–14. (In Russian).
5. Korolev E.V., Kiselev D.G., Al’bakasov A.I. Operational properties as the indicators of sulfur binders nanomodifi- cation. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve. 2013. No. 3, pp. 60–70. (In Russian).
6. Korolev E.V., Smirnov V.A., Al’bakasov A.I., Inozemtsev A.S. Some aspects of mixture design for mul- ticomponent composites. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve. 2011. No. 6, pp. 32–43. (In Russian).
7. Danilov A.M., Gar’kina I.A., Korolev E.V. Building ma- terials as systems. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 7, pp. 55–57. (In Russian).
8. Bazhenov Yu.M., Gar’kina I.A., Danilov A.M., Korolev E.V. Sistemnyy analiz v stroitel’nom materialo- vedenii [Systems analysis in construction material sci- ence]. Moscow: Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. 2012. 432 p.
9. Sovremennyy entsiklopedicheskiy slovar’ [Modern ency- clopedic dictionary]. Moscow: Bol’shaya Rossiyskaya Entsiklopediya. 1997. 1263 p.
10. Efremova T.F. Novyy slovar’ russkogo yazyka. Tolkovo- obrazovatel’nyy [New Russian dictionary. Explanatory and educational]. Moscow: Russkij yazik. 2000. 1209 p.
11. Khozin V.G., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Nizamov R.K. General concentration-dependent pattern during na- noscale enhancement of building materials. Stroitel’- nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 25–33.
12. Batyanovskiy E.I., Krauklis A.V., Samtsov P.P., Ryabchikov P.V., Samtsov P.P. Influence of nanoscale carbon materials on the properties of cement and cement stone. Stroitel’naya nauka i tekhnika. 2010. No. 1–2. pp. 3–10. (In Russian).
A.M. SALAKHOV1, Candidate of Science (Engineering) (, V.P. MOROZOV1, Doctor of Science (Geology and Mineralogy), F.G. VAGIZOV 1, Candidate of Science (Physics and Mathematics); A.A. ESKIN2 , Candidate of Science (Geology and Mineralogy); A.R. VALIMUHAMETOVA 1, Student, A.L. ZINNATULLIN1 , Student
1 Kazan Federal University. Institute of Physics (16a, Kremlyovskaya Street, Kazan, 420008, Russian Federation)
2 Kazan Federal University. Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies (4/5, Kremlyovskaya Street, Kazan, 420008, Russian Federation)

The Scientific Basis of Color Control Lining Brick at «Alekseevskaya Ceramics» Factory Some innovations in the field of wall ceramics are analyzed. The actuality of production of facial ceramic materials of a wide range of colors are shown. This poses the task of expanding the color gamut of products. The main chromophore of the products of wall ceramics is iron. Therefore, its concrete effect on the color of ceramics on specific examples are shown. Due to extremely sensitivity of the parameters of the Mssbauer spectra to the valence state and to the local environment of iron ions the modern research methods are used. The regu- larities of the change in the parameters of Mossbauer spectra of red-burning clays and clays with a high content of carbonates in ceramic samples are revealed. X-ray phase analysis and Mossbauer spectroscopy have allowed to reveal the characteristic features of clays. The features of the structure of ceramic materials are revealed using scanning electron micros- copy. Various methods for controlling the color of ceramics are shown due to transferring iron compounds to different valence and coordination states. These studies formed the basis of the technological rules for facing brick production on «Alekseevskaya ceramics “ plant (Republic Tatarstan).

Keywords: ceramics, colour scale of brick, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis, clinker, hematite.

For citation: Salakhov A.M., Morozov V.P., Vagizov F.G., Eskin A.A., Valimuhametova A.R., Zinnatullin A.L. The Scientific Basis of Color Control Lining Brick at «Alekseevskaya Ceramics» Factory. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 90–95. (In Russian).

1. Maslennikova G.N., Pishch I.V. Keramicheskie pig- menty [Ceramic pigments]. Moscow: RIF «Stroimate- rialy». 2009. 223 p.
2. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D., Golovanova S.P. Teoreticheskie osnovy belezny i okrashivaniya keramiki i portlandtsementa [Theoretical bases of a whiteness and coloring of ceramics and portlandtsement]. Moscow: RIF «Stroimaterialy». 2014. 152 p.
3. Sidel’nikova M.B., Pogrebenkov V.M. Keramicheskie pigmenty na osnove prirodnogo i tekhnogennogo mineral’nogo syr’ya [Ceramic pigments on the basis of natural and technogenic mineral raw materials]. Tomsk: Izdatelstvo Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2014. 262 p.
4. Llop J., Stoyanova Lyubenova T., Barrachina E., Nota- ri M.D., Nebot I., Carda J.B. The Ceramic Industry in Spain: Chellenges and Opportunities in Times of Crisis. Ceramic forum international. 2014. No. 6. pp. 43–48.
5. Kotlyar V.D., Lapunova K.A. Features of Physical- Chemical Transformations during Opoka-Like Raw Material Burning. Stroitel’nye Materialy. [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 5, pp. 40–42. (In Russian)
6. Stirlen A. Iskusstvo islama [Art of Islam]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Astrel’. 2003. 319 p.
7. Vil’chek F. Krasota fiziki: Postigaya ustroistvo prirody [A beautiful question finding nature’s deep design] Moscow: Al’pina non-fikshn. 2016. 604 p.
8. Ezerskii V.A. Quantitative assessment of color of ceramic facing products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 8, pp. 76–80. (In Russian).
9. Semenov A.A. About a condition of the domestic market of ceramic wall materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy. [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 8, pp. 9–14. (In Russian).
10. Enver M., Cashion J. Mossbauer spectroscopy of envi- ronmental materials and their industrial utilization. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. 417 p.
11. Salakhov A.M., Tagirov L.R. Structure formation of ce- ramic with clays which form various phases at burning. Stroitel’nye Materialy. [Construction Materials] 2015. No. 8, pp. 68–74. (In Russian).
12. Salakhov A.M. Innovatsionnye materialy: Sovremennaya keramika. [Innovative materials: Modern ceramics]. Kazan’: Paradigma, 2012. 360 p.
13. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Yu.V., Kotlyar A.V. Features of Properties, Application and Requirements for Clinker Brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy. [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 72–74. (In Russian).
14. Petelin A.D., Saprykin V.I., Klevakin A.V., Klevaki- na E.V. Features of the Use of Nizhneuvelsky Deposit Clays in Production of Ceramic Brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy. [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).
A.I. NIZHEGORODOV, Doctor of Sciences Engineering (, A.V. ZVEZDIN, Engineer (, T.B. BRYANSKIH, Engineer Irkutsk National Research State Technical University (83, Lermontov street, Irkutsk, 664074, Russian Federation)

Specified Model of Vermiculite Heat Absorption While Burning in Electric Kilns with New Experimental Data With the advent of a new electric kiln with movable hearth it is possible to determine experimentally the dependence of the density of expanded vermiculite on its temperature. New experimental data have shown that the previous model of heat absorption gave an overestimated result by value needed for full swelling of energy. The experimental results and calcula- tions are presented to demonstrate clearly the new specified and basic indices of model of vermiculite heat absorption. Experimental determination of the temperature of vermiculite found that swelling it effectively requires up to twenty per cent less energy than previously thought according to the first model of heat absorption. And higher efficiency of structuriza- tion process indicates several large energy efficiency electric ovens for roasting vermiculite.

Keywords: vermiculite, electric kiln, the model of heat absorption, efficiency factor of structure formation process.

For citation: Nizhegorodov A.I., Zvezdin A.V., Bryanskih T.B. Specified model of vermiculite heat absorption while burning in electric kilns with new experimental data. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 96–99. (In Russian).

1. Nizhegorodov A.I. Technologies and Equipment for Processing Vermiculite: Optimum Granulation, Electric Firing, Additional Enrichment, Irkutsk: ISTU. 2011. 172 p.
2. Nizhegorodov A.I. Some Aspects of the Preparation Technology and Vermiculite Concentrates Burning in Electric Kilns//Stroitelnye Materialy. [Construction Materials] 2007. No. 11, pp 16–17.(In Russian)
3. Nizhegorodov A.I. The Development of Concept of Energotechnological Units Used for the Purpose of Vermiculite Concentrates Burning Based on Electric Kilns with Module Release // Ogneupori i technicheskaya keramika. 2014. No. 1/2. P. 48–55. (In Russian)
4. Popov N.A. Production and Applications of Vermiculite, Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1964. 128 p.
5. Hvostenkov S.I., Zalkind O.A. Hydration Heat and Magnetic Susceptibility of Vermiculite. Miming institute of Kola Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences of the USSR. coll. of scientific works. 1966, pp. 90–100.
6. Limited Company “Helix”. Properties of Vermiculite [Electronic Resource] / – URL: http://vermiculite.he- (19. 09. 2016).
7. Jaworski B.M., Detlaf A.A. Handbook of Physics for Engineers and Students. Moscow: Nauka. 1968. 940 p.
8. Superheated Vapor. Engineering Thermodynamics [Electronic Resource] / – URL: book2/TD1_19-06/ttd7-6.htm (19.09. 2016).
9. Engineering Handbook DPVA. info. [Electronic Resource] / – URL: (19. 09. 2016).
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2018 EIRICH masa