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Stroitel`nye Materialy №9

Stroitel`nye Materialy №9
September, 2017

Table of contents

14–15 июня 2017 г. в столице Чувашской Республики Чебоксарах состоялась XV Международная научно-практическая конференция «Развитие керамической промышленности России: КЕРАМТЭКС-2017». В ее работе приняли участие более 200 руководителей и ведущих специалистов кирпичных заводов, представителей машиностроительных фирм и инжиниринговых компаний, ученых отраслевых исследовательских и учебных институтов из 28 регионов России и 12 зарубежных стран.
Норский керамический завод отметил 40-летие! Он был введен в эксплуатацию 1 июля 1977 г. Это первый в Советском Союзе кирпичный завод, полностью оснащенный импортным оборудо ванием. В настоящее время одно из крупнейших предприятий России по выпуску керамического кирпи ча высокого качества. Ассортимент выпускаемой продукции позволяет комплектовать строительные объекты от фундамента до кладки и облицовки стен.
A.Yu. STOLBOUSHKIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (stanyr@list.ru), O.A. FOMINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); V.V. SHEVCHENKO1, Engineer; G.I. BERDOV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); M.S. DRUZHININ3 , Student (dms95@mail.ru); I.V. KAMBALINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirov Street, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)
2 State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (113, Leningradskaya Street, Novosibirsk, 630008, Russian Federation)
3 Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (4, 2-nd Krasnoarmeyskaya Street, Saint Petersburg 190005, Russian Federation)

Research of Exploitation Properties of a Ceramic Brick of a Matrix Structure* The study of physical and mechanical properties of ceramic wall materials of the matrix structure from coal waste and iron ore beneficiation waste is presented. The results of the inves- tigation of the chemical, granulometric and mineralogical compositions of raw materials are given. In the factory conditions, a hollow ceramic brick of the size 1NF with dimensions of 65120250 mm was produced from granular charge based on technogenic raw materials (70–85% by weight). The products meet the requirements of GOST 530–2012 for the strength grade M100–200, for frost resistance F25, F50, for the class of medium density – 2. According to the thermal characteristics, the bricks belong to the group of inefficient prod- ucts and have an equivalent coefficient of thermal conductivity of the masonry more than 0.45 W/(m·°С). According to the specific effective activity of natural radionuclides, the prod- ucts belong to the first class and can be used without restrictions. It is established that there are no efflorescences on the surface of bricks from coal waste and their insignificant mani- festation with alternate moistening and drying in ceramic products from slagged iron ore. A chemical method for transferring sulphates to water-insoluble compounds is proposed to eliminate high temperatures.

Keywords: waste coal, iron ore beneficiation waste, ceramic brick, pilot plant tests, exploitation properties, radiation safety.

For citation: Stolboushkin A.Yu., Fomina O.A., Shevchenko V.V., Berdov G.I., Druzhinin M.S., Kambalina I.V. Research of exploitation properties of a ceramic brick of a matrix structure. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 9–13. (In Russian).

References
1. Kondratenko V.A., Peshkov V.N. Problems of brick production and ways to solve them. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2002. No. 3, pp. 19–21. (In Russian).
2. Salakhov A.M., Morozov V.P., Lis O.N., Pasynkov M.V. Ceramic mate-rials from low-melting clays modified by industrial wastes of enterprises of the petrochemical complex. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 12, pp. 46–50. (In Russian).
3. Klyavlin M.S., Klyavlina Ya.M., Samofeev N.S., Shildt L.A., Gaynanova E.S. Eco-nomic aspects of de- termining the cost of construction with the use of inno- vative materials. Naukovedenie. Internet Journal. 2017. No. 2, p. 27. (In Russian).
4. Yatsenko N.D., Zubehin A.P. Scientific bases of innova- tive technologies of ceramic bricks and the management of its properties depending on chemical and mineralogi- cal composition of materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
5. Kara-sal B.K., Biche-ool N.M. Improving the quality of bricks by combining clay formulations. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 2, pp. 54–55. (In Russian).
6. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Yu.V., Kotlyar A.V. Methods of testing lithoidal raw materials for producing wall ce- ramic products of compression molding (as a discus- sion). Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
7. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Berdov G.I., Vereshchagin V.I., Fomina O.A. Ceramic wall materials with matrix structure based on non-sintering stiff technogenic and natural raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 8, pp. 19–23. (In Russian).
8. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Storozhenko G.I. Production of frost-resistant ceramic brick of semidry pressing from industrial waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 4–7. (In Russian). м9. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Ivanov A.I., Permyakov A.A., Druzhinin S.V. Petrographic study of the ceramic brick structure produced from the waste of Korkinskiy coal open pit mine. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 49–53. (In Russian).
10. Alperovich I.A., Burmistrov V.N. Sposoby predotvrash- cheniya vysolov na glinyanom kirpiche. Obzornaya infor- matsiya. [Ways to prevent salt formation on clay bricks. Overview information]. Moscow: VNIIMSM. 1977. 56 p.
11. Inchik V.V. Vysoly i solevaya korroziya kirpichnykh sten [Salt formation and salt corrosion of brick walls]. St. Petersburg: SPbGASU. 1998. 324 p.
12. Patent RF No.2500647, IPC С1 С 04 В 33/132. Syr’evaya smes’ dlya izgotovleniya stenovoi keramiki i sposob ee polucheniya [Feedstock mixture for the pro- duction of wall ceramics and the method of its produc- tion]. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Storozhenko G.I., Iva- nov A.I. and others. Declared 20.04.2012. Published 10.12.2013. Bulletin No. 34.
А.N. BOGDANOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (bogdanovAN@kgasu.ru), L.A. ABDRAKHMANOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (laa@kgasu.ru), V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (khozin@kgasu.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Modification of Brick Loams with Multi-Layer Carbon Nano-Tubes for Production of Wall Ceramics The technology of the modification of clayey raw material with multi-layer nano-tubes is proposed as an alternative to the modification of brick loams with plastic clays. The technique of their introduction in the composition of clay mass in the form of dispersions in surfactant solutions is considered. The micro-structure of an adobe and ceramic body in the presence of an optimal amount of a nano-modifier was studied. The practical application of the proposed technology makes it possible to abandon the development of several quarries by enterpris- es in favor of more technological modifying additives, reduce the load on public roads and improve the region ecology. Results of the industrial approbation of developed recommenda- tions when producing the ceramic whole brick are presented. The technical effect is in improving drying properties, reducing the time for adobe draying, improving the appearance and improving operational indicators of wall ceramic when using small amounts of modifying additives.

Keywords: multi-layer carbon nano-tubes, surfactants, argillous raw material, ecological compatibility.

For citation: Bogdanov А.N., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Khozin V.G. Modification of brick loams with multi-layer carbon nano-tubes for production of wall ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 14–17. (In Russian).

References
1. Patent RF No. 2462431. Nanomodifitsirovannaya kerami cheskaya massa [The nanomodified ceramic weight]. Gabidullin M.G., Mindubayev A.A., Huzin A.F., Gabidullin B.M. Declared 24.01.2011. Published 27.09.2012. Bulletin No. 27. (In Russian).
2. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Polyanskikh I.S., Cyrene I., Machulaytis P., Pudov I. A., Senkov S.A., Politayeva A.I., Gordina A.F., Shaybadullina A.V.Nanostrukturirovanie kompozitov v stroitel’nom materi- alovedenii: monografiya. [Nanostructuring composites in construction materials science: monography]. Izhevsk: Publishing house of IzhGTU. 2014. 196 p.
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4. Yakovlev G.I., Mikhaylov Yu.O., Ginchitskaya Yu.N., Kiziniyevich O., Taybakhtina P.A., Balobanova Yu.A. The construction ceramics modified by dispersions of multi- walled carbon nanotubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 1–2, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
5. Bogdanov A.N. Modification of clay raw materials multi- functional additives for production of wall ceramics. Cand. Diss (Engineering). Kazan. 2014. 206 p. (In Russian).
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A.M. SALAKHOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (salakhov8432@mail.ru); R.R. KABIROV2, Engineer, General director; V.P. MOROZOV 3, Doctor Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy); R.A. ARISKINA1 , Engineer; A.R. VALIMUKHAMETOVA1, Magistrand, K.A. ARISKINA1, Engineer
1 Kazan Federal University. Institute of Physics (16a, Kremlyovskaya Street, Kazan, 420008, Russian Federation)
2 “Alekseevskaya ceramics” ОАО (10, Kirpichnezavodskaya Street, Urban-type settlement Alekseevseo, 422900, Republic of Tatarstan)
3 Kazan Federal University. Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies (4/5, Kremlyovskaya Street, Kazan, 420008, Russian Federation)

Research of structure and phase composition of clays in the course of their heat treatment The necessity of developing a theory allowing to control the processes of structure formation and color formation of building ceramics products were indicated. A complex study of a number of clays was carried out using the most modern research methods: nuclear gamma resonance (Mssbauer) spectroscopy, high-temperature phase analysis, synchronous thermal analysis and spectrophotometry. The use of these methods made it possible to understand the processes that occur throughout the temperature range during the annealing of clay. Based on the conducted studies, the characteristic behavior of kaolin clays during roasting and the influence of hematite on the color of ceramic products have been established. The reflection spectra of ceramic materials of various manufacturers was compared. Examples of the expediency of using the CIELab model for qualitative assessment of color were given. It was shown how the application of modern research methods allows solving the problems arising in brick factories.

Keywords: ceramics, Mossbauer spectra, hematite, mineral composition, thermal studies, spectrophotometry, firing regime, color scale of bricks

For citation: Salahov A.M., Kabirov R.R., Morozov V.P., Ariskina R.A., Valimuhametova A.R., Ariskina K.A. Research of structure and phase composition of clays in the course of their heat treatment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 18–22. (In Russian).

References
1. Reznik V.I. Possibilities of production of facing and clin ker brick of light colors on the basis of clays of PG “Kislotoupor”. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 4, pp. 54–55. (In Russian).
2. Ezersky V.A., Panferov A.I. Kaolinite Clay of Novoorsk deposit is an effective additive in production of face brick and clinker. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 19–21. (In Russian).
3. Bogdanovsky A.L., Pishchik A.V. The use of clays of bol shaya karpovka deposit in production of building ceram ics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 22–25. (In Russian).
4. Krolovetsky D.V., Gryzunov R.N. Voronezh Rudo- upravleniye: development of the company and expansion of latnenskiye clays for ceramic brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 18–19. (In Russian).
5. Zubehin A.P., Yatsenko N.D., Golovanova S.P. Theoretical Foundations of white and painting ceramics and Portland cement. Moscow: OOO RIF Stroymaterialy. 2014. 152 p.
6. Penrose Roger The new mind of the king: About comput- ers, thinking and the laws of physics: Tr. with the English. / General. Ed. V.O. Malyshenko. Foreword by G.G. Malinetsky. Ed. 2-nd, corrected. M.: Editorial URSS, 2005. 400 p. (Synergetics from the past to the future).
7. Fayer M. Absolute minimum. How quantum theory ex- plains our world. / Trans. With the English. A. Sergeev. St. Petersburg: Peter, 2016. 384 p.
8. Mössbauer Mineral Handboack / Stevens J.G., Khasa- nov A.M., Miller J.W. Et al. Messburger Mineral Handbook, Biltmore Press, Ashville, NC. 2005. 626 p.
9. Petelin A.D., Saprykin V.I., Klevakin V.A., Klevakina E.V. Features of application of clays of Nizhneuvelskoye de- posit in the production of ceramic bricks. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials. 2015. No. 4, pp. 28– 30. (In Russian).
10. Petelin A.D., Saprykin V.I., Klevakin V.A., Klevakina E.V. Universal clays of the Nizhne-Uvelsky deposit for the production of ceramic building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials. 2017. No. 4, pp. 11–13. (In Russian).
The First Student Scientific Group «KeramTech» in Tatarstan (Information) . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Ibstock South Holmwood Ceramic Brick Factory in England (Информация) . . . . . . .25
A.E. BURUCHENKO1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (buruchenko.ae@mail.ru), V.I. VERESHHAGIN 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (vver@tpu.ru), S.I. MUSHARAPOVA1 , Engineer
1 Siberian Federal University (79, Svobodny Avenue, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation)

Research in Physical-Chemical Processes by Method of Measuring Electric Conductivity in Ceramic Masses When Firing The method of measuring the electric conductivity in clays and ceramic masses when firing consists of definition of the change in the specific volume resistance of a ceramic sample when heating. Results of the study of the dependence of specific resistance on the temperature for samples made of low-melting clays, secondary raw materials and ceramic masses with various component compositions are presented. The considered experimental materials reflect the output of adsorption and interlayer waters, the formation of a liquid phase, destruction of crystalline lattices of mineral, and formation of new ones. The methodology of measuring the dependence of specific volume resistance on the temperature makes it pos- sible, in conjunction with other study methods, to more deeply study the physical-chemical processes in ceramic masses and establish optimal conditions of products firing.

Keywords: physical-chemical processes, electric conductivity, ceramic mass, firing.

For citation: Buruchenko A.E., Vereshhagin V.I., Musharapova S.I. Research in physical-chemical processes by method of measuring electric conductivity in ceramic masses when firing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).

References
1. Kotlyar V.D., Lapunova K.A. The peculiarity of physico chemical transformations during roasting of opokoid raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 5, pp. 40–42. (In Russian).
2. Gur’eva V.A., Prokof’eva V.V. Structural-phase features of building ceramics based on technogenic magnesia raw materials and low-grade clays. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 55–57. (In Russian).
3. Poznyak A.I., Levickij I.A., Baranceva S.E. Basalts and granitoid solids as mass constituents for ceramic internal linning tiles. Steklo i keramika. 2012. No. 8, pp. 17–22. (In Russian).
4. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Berdov G.I., Stolboushkina O.V., Zlobin V.I. Firing temperature impact on structure form- ing in ceramic wall materials produced of fine dispersediron ore enrichment wastes. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 1, pp. 33–42. (In Russian).
5. Kovba L.M., Trunov V.K. Rentgenofazovyj analiz [X-ray phase analysis]. Moscow: MGU. 1976. 232 p.
6. Salahov A.M., Tuktarova G.R., Nafikov R.M., Moro zov V.P. Modern methods of research - the way to in crease the efficiency of ceramic production. Stroitel’ nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 2, pp. 23–25. (In Russian).
7. Oreshkin P.T. Jelektroprovodnost’ ogneuporov [Conductivity of refractories]. Moscow: Metallurgija. 1965. 151 p.
8. Borkoev B.M., Zherdev A.M., Salieva K.T., Kydyralie- va A.K. Temperature dependence of electrical conductiv ity of ceramics from mineral raw materials of the Kyrgyz Republic. Sovremennye naukoemkie tehnologii. 2013. No. 11, pp. 164–166. (In Russian).
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I.F. SHLEGEL 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (info@inta.ru), G.Ja. SHAEVICH 1 , Engineer, S.G. MAKAROV 1 , Engineer, G.G. LIBEROVA 1 , Engineer, M.G. TUROV 1 , Engineer; V.V. CHELYSHEV 2 , Engineer (refractory@slsoz.ru)
1 Institute of New Technologies and Automation of the Industry of Construction Materials, OOO «INTA-STORY» (100, Putevaya Street, 644113, Omsk, Russian Federation)
2 OAO Suholozhskij ogneupornyj zavod (2, Milicejskaja Street, Suhoj Log, Sverdlovskaja Region, 624800, Russian Federation)

Tests of a Cutting Automatic Machine under Extreme Conditions The design of the cutting automated machine RASHL-3 for one stage cutting of a clay block for products in the technology of production of ceramic brick or shaped refractories is described; its technical characteristic is also given. The result of introduction of RASHL-3 at the Sukholozhsky refractory plant is analyzed. A method for solution of problems appearing when the plastic block is cut, with additions of a large amount of sawdust in refractory production – gusts of a cutting string, is presented.

Keywords: ceramic brick, plastic molding, one-stage cutting, cutting of plastic block, cutting automated machine for technology of plastic molding.

For citation: Shlegel I.F., Shaevich G.Ja., Makarov S.G., Liberova G.G., Turov M.G., Chelyshev V.V. Tests of a cutting automatic machine under extreme conditions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).
References
1. Shlegel I.F., Shaevich G.Ya., Makarov S.G., Shkur- kin N.I. A New automatic machine for cutting of a plastic extruded column. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 16–17. (In Russian).
2. Patent RF 2411121. Ustroistvo dlya rezki plastichnogo brusa [The device for cutting of a plastic bar]. Shlegel’ I.F. Declared 11.23.2009. Published 02.10.2011. Bulletin No. 4. (In Russian)
отрудничество компаний BEDESCHI SpA и LYMAN Group в Индонезии Новые разработки итальянской компании BEDESCHI SpA. Пресс для производства черепицы Итальянская компания Bedeschi SpA (Бедески СпА), одна из старейших в Европе, разрабатывает и производит оборудование для кирпичной промышленности. Помимо отрасли грубой керамики, компания производит широкую гамму оборудования для цементной промышленности: дробилки, системы забора и складирования сырья, пылеочистительные системы, а также оборудование для обеспечения портовой инфраструктуры и логистики: судопогрузчики, судоразгрузчики и системы переброски груза с одного судна на другое. Оборудование находит применение в различных отраслях промышленности, что способствует финансовой и экономической стабильности компании, позволяет использовать различные конструкторские и схожие технические решения и повышать технический и проектный уровень компании. За более чем 100 лет своей работы компания Bedeschi SpA сохраняет в неприкосновенности семейные традиции и является уникальным производителем, гарантирующим своим клиентам преемственность и надежность.
G.T. ORUZBAEVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (gul_talg@mail.ru); M.T. KASYMOVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (kasymova_mariam@mail.ru)
1 Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov (66, Mira Avenue, Bishkek, 720044, Kyrguzstan)
2 Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin (44, Kiev Street, Bishkek, 720000, Kyrgyzstan)

Determination of Burning Temperature of Chuy Ceramics of the VIII—XVI Centuries There are many historic cities and monuments of different epochs on the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan where a lot of potteries were found which describe the peculiarities of develop- ment of one of the main productions on the territory of Kyrgyzstan which played an important role in the economic life of medieval society. Samples of potteries of the Burana, Krasnorechensk, and Kokzharsk hillforts, which were large commercial and cultural centers and located in the Chuy Valley on the Great Silk Route, are studied. Due to the fact that at present, the Kyrgyz ceramics, the Chuy in particular, is under-researched and there are no their complete and detailed descriptions, this article attempts to determine the burning tem- perature of the Chuy ceramics of the VIII–XVI centuries and modern ceramics by the method of complex cross analysis; their comparative data are presented. The method of complex cross-sectional analysis includes petrographic, X-ray phase analyses and technical tests for hardness. They make it possible to reveal the peculiarities of the Chuy ceramics technology as well as to note the important moments of the historical development of ceramic production, connect the history with the present and develop recommendations for the future, as it is known that he old technological methods with the use of modern equipment get a new and unexpected expression.

Keywords: archaeological research, Chuy ceramics, burning temperature, microscopic analysis, X-ray phase analysis, hardness.

For citation: Oruzbaeva G.T., Kasymova M.T. Determination of burning temperature of chuy ceramics of the VIII–XVI centuries. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 33–36. (In Russian).

References
1. Saiko E.V. Istoriya tehnologii keramicheskogo remesla Srednei Azii VIII–XII vv. [History of the technology of ceramic craft of Central Asia VIII–XII centuries]. Dushanbe. 1966. 224 p.
2. Oruzbaeva G.T., Kasymova M.T. Development of ce- ramic, metallurgical, glass production in the territory of Kyrgyzstan until the XII century. Izvestiya of KSTU. 2013. No. 29, pp. 209–213. (In Russian).
3. Saiko E.V. The roasting regime in the practice of ancient and medieval potters of the East. Archeology of Siberia, Central Asia and the Caucasus: KSIA. 1981. No. 167, pp. 43–64. (In Russian).
4. Zhushchikhovskaya S., Zalishchak B.L. Petrographic method in the study of ancient ceramics (based on Neolithic-medieval cultures of Primorye). Methods of nat- ural sciences in the archaeological study of ancient industries in the Far East of the USSR. 1986, pp. 55–67. (In Russian).
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8. Oruzbaeva G.T., Omarbekova A.O. Comparative analysis of microhardness of ancient ceramics found on the terri- tory of Kyrgyzstan. Izvestiya KazNTU. 2015. No. 4, pp. 393–395. (In Russian).
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10. Kuznetsova G.A. Kachestvennyi rentgenofazovyi analiz. [Qualitative X-ray phase analysis]. Irkutsk. 2005. 28 p.
P.D. ARLENINOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), (arleninoff@gmail.com), S.B. KRYLOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) NIIZHB named after A.A. Gvozdev, JSC «Research Center of Construction» (6, bldg. 5, 2nd Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Numerical Methods for Determination of Unknown Technological Parameters of Concrete Mix during Long-Term Experimental Studies The article considers the issue of lack of some initial parameters of conducted experimental studies and their published results in the course of the subsequent scientific analysis of data. Methods for the definition of technological parameters – determination of the strength grade of concrete according to the available data about average prism strength of concrete in the arbitrary age and definition of permanent coefficients in the formula for long-term elasticity module – are described. An algorithm of calculation is presented.

Keywords: concrete strength, experimental studies, technological parameters, long-term tests, concrete mix, scientific value, age of concrete.

For citation: Arleninov P.D., Krylov S.B. Numerical methods for determination of unknown technological parameters of concrete mix during long-term experimental studies. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 37–39. (In Russian).

References
1. Ponomarev V.N., Travush V.I., Bondarenko V.M., Eremin K.I. About need of system approach to scientific research for area complex safety and accident prevention of buildings and constructions. Monitoring. 2014. No. 1, pр. 5–12. (In Russian).
2. Travush V.I., Konin D.V., Rozhkova L.S., Krylov A.S., Kaprielov S.S., Chilin I.A., Martirosyan A.S., Fimkin A.I. Experimental study of composite structures, working for eccentric compression. ACADEMIA. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 3, pр. 127–135. (In Russian).
3. Travush V.I., Konin D.V., Rozhkova L.S., Krylov A.S. Domestic and foreign experience in research of compos- ite structures for eccentric compression. Stroitelstvo I Reconstruktsia. 2016. No. 5 (67), pр. 31–44. (In Russian).
4. Rimshin V.I., Krishan A.L., Mukhametzyanov A.I. Creation of the chart of deformation of the monoaxial compressed con- crete. Vestnik MGSU. 2015. No. 6, pр. 23–31. (In Russian).
5. Tamrazyan A.G., Esayan S.G. Mekhanika polzuchesti betona [Mechanics of creep of concrete]. Moscow: MGSU, 2012. 490 p.
6. Vlasov V.M., Veretyushkin V.I., Lindes A.G. Pilot studies of du- rability and deformability of concrete at two-axis compression. Izvestiya VNIIG im. B.E. Vedeneeva. 1987. Vol. 199, pр. 40–44.
7. Bondarenko V.M., Rimshin V.I. Primery rascheta zhe- lezobetonnykh i kamennykh konstruktsii [Examples of calculation of reinforced concrete and stone designs]. Moskva: Vysshaya shkola, 2014. 504 p.
8. Kodysh E.N., Nikitin I.K., Trekin N.N. Raschet zhe- lezobetonnykh konstruktsii iz tyazhelogo betona po prochnosti, treshchinostoikosti i deformatsiyam [Calculation of reinforced concrete designs from heavy concrete on durability, crack resistance and deforma- tions]. Moskva: ASV. 2011. 372 p.
9. Rekomendatsii po uchetu polzuchesti i usadki betona pri raschete betonnykh i zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsii (The recommendations about accounting of creep and shrink- age of concrete when calculating concrete and reinforced
E.M. CHERNYSHOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (chem@vgasu.vrn.ru) Voronezh State Technical University (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Frost Destruction of Concretes. Part 1. Mechanism, Criterial Conditions of Control A scientific-engineering problem of the frost destruction of concretes in building structures is discussed in a generalized statement. The importance of this generalization due to, on the one side, the appearance of new high technological dense and macro-porous concretes with a modified, nano-modified including, structure, on the other side, due to the expansion of their application fields, under the extreme conditions of operation of buildings and structures including, is shown. The systematization of phenomena and processes which determine the mechanisms and factors of damage accumulation in the material in the course of multiple and cyclic freezing and thawing is presented in the context of studies of frost-resistance prob- lems conducted by domestic and foreign scientists for the last 50–60 years. A special attention is paid to the peculiarities and regularities of the exhaustion of potential of the frost- resistance of concretes in the course of their operation in building structures. Taking into account the factor of the solid phase structure and porous space of the concrete, the defining value of the thermo-gradient factor of structure conditions for the development of heat and mass transfer processes in the concrete and, accordingly, for the intensity and measures of its frost destruction are analyzed. Criterial conditions of providing the potential of workability of concretes in the structures subjected to the frost impact of the operational environment are substantiated.

Keywords: concrete, building structure, operational environment, concrete’s structure, heat-mass transfer, frost destruction.

For citation: Chernyshov E.M. Frost destruction of concretes. Part 1. Mechanism, criterial conditions of control. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 40–46. (In Russian).

References
1. Blumel O.W., Frey H. Sättigungsbeiwert und Frostwi- der – stand von Zementmörtel. Betonstein – Ztg. 1968. Vol. 34. No. 12.
2. Valore R.C. Volume changes in stall concrete cylinders during freezing and thawing. JASI. 1950. Vol. 21. No. 6.
3. Goto Y., Miura T. Deterioration of concrete subjected to repetitions of very low temperatures. Transactions of the Japan concrete institute. 1979. No. 2, pp. 183–190.
4. Kreis U.I., Konts P.R., Marmor H.G. On deformations autoclave concrete at alternate freezing and thawing. The durability of concrete structures of the autoclave: Proceedings of the II-nd Republican Conference. Tallinn. 1975, pp. 112–114. (In Russian).
5. Macinnis Cameron B.E., Beandoin J. Effect of degree of saturation of the frost resistance of mortar mixes. JACI. 1968. No. 3.
6. Ronnels L.K. Led. Fizika tverdogo tela. Atomnaya struk- tura tverdykh tel: Sbornik statei [Ice. Solid State Physics. The atomic structure of solids: сollection of articles. Ed. from English]. Moscow: Nauka. 1972, pp. 38–48.
7. Usherov-Marshak A.V. Betonovedenie: Sovremennye jetjudy. [The Science of concrete: Modern studies]. Kharkov: Rarities Ukraine. 2016. 135 p.
8. Chernyshov E.M., Medvedeva S.V. Systematics factors frosty destruction of concrete. Concrete and reinforced concrete – resource- and energy-efficient designs and tech- nologies: Proceedings of the Regional Conference on con- crete and reinforced concrete. Voronezh. 1988, pp. 40–49. (In Russian).
9. Derpgolts V.F. Mir vody [Water World]. Leningrad: Nedra.1979. 254 p.
10. Sinyukov V.V. Voda izvestnaja i neizvestnaja. [Water is known and unknown]. Moscow: Znanie. 1987. 176 p.
11. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S. On the structure of the pore space of the building materials from the standpoint and in terms of the concept of nano. International Congress «Science and Innovation in Сonstruction «SIB-2008». Modern problems of building materials and technology. Voronezh. 2008. Vol. 1. Book. 2, pp. 630–636. (In Russian).
12. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S., Korotkich D.N. The structure of the pore space of the solid phase of building materials: materials science generalization. Bulletin of the Department of Building Sciences. Moscow-Orel. 2009. Iss. 13. Vol. 2, pp. 119–126. (In Russian).
13. Chernyshov E.M., Dyachenko E.I. Metodika ocenki vjaz- kosti razrushenija silikatnyh avtoklavnyh materialov. [Methodology to evaluate the fracture toughness autoclave silicate materials]. Voronezh: Voronezh GASA. 1990. 33 p.
N.S. SOKOLOV1,2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Director (forstnpf@mail.ru, ns_sokolov@mail.ru), S.S. VIKTOROVA 1, Engineer, G.M. SMIRNOVA1 , Engineer, I.P. FEDOSEEVA1, Engineer
1 Chuvash State University named after I.N. Ulyanov (15, Moskovsky Avenue, 428015, Cheboksary, Chuvash Republic, Russian Federation)
2 OOO NPF «FORST» (109a, Kalinina Street, 428000, Cheboksary, Chuvash Republic, Russian Federation Bored-Injection Pile-ERT as a Buried Reinforced Concrete Structure A bored-injection pile made according to the discharge-impulse technology (pile-ERT) has some competitive advantages comparing with bored-injection piles made according to tradi- tional technologies. They are the improved strength values of fine concrete (by 40–60%); enhanced (by 1.5–3 times) the values of bearing capacity relating to soil; enhanced (by 1.5 times and more) values of the bearing capacity relating to the strength of the cross-section; enhancing the values of the bearing capacity relating to both the soil and the body in time comparing with design values. Besides, the electro-hydraulic treatment of the fine concrete improves its waterproofing.

Keywords: bored-injection piles-ERT, strength of cross-section, bearing capacity, working reinforcement.

For citation: Sokolov N.S., Viktorova S.S., Smirnova G.M., Fedoseeva I.P. Bored-injection pile-ert as a buried reinforced concrete structure. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 47–49. (In Russian).

References
1. Il’ichev V.A., Mangushev R.A., Nikiforova N.S. Development of underground space in large Russian cit- ies. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov. 2012. No. 2, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).
2. Ulitsky V.M., Shashkin A.G., Shashkin K.G. Geotechnical maintenance of urban development. Georeconstructsiya. 2010. 551 р.
3. Sokolov N.S., Ryabinov V.M. Features of Installation and Calculation of Bored-Injection Piles with Multiple Enlargements. Geotechnica. 2016. No. 3, pp. 60–66. (In Russian).
4. Sokolov N.S., Ryabinov V.M. Technique of Construction of Bored-Injection Piles of Increased Bearing Capacity. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 9, pp. 11–14. (In Russian).
5. Sokolov N.S., Dzhantimirov H.A. Calculation and de- sign of Bored-Injection EDT-piles (FORST, ERST). Cheboksary – 2016. 103 p. (In Russian).
6. Sokolov N.S. Calculation of bearing capacity of bored- injection EDT-piles with formed «thrust bearings». Materials of the 7th All-Russian (the 1st International) the «New in Architecture, Designing of Construction Designs and Reconstructions» conference (NASKR-2012). Cheboksary – 2012, pp. 289–292. (In Russian).
7. Sokolov N.S., Ryabinov V.M. About one method of cal- culation of bearing capacity of bored-injection EDT- piles. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov. 2015. No. 1, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
L.I. KHUDYAKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), (lkhud@binm/bscnet), O.V. VOYLOSHNIKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (6, Sakhyanovoy Street, 670047, Ulan-Ude, Russian Federation)

Prospects of the Use of Serpentinous Rocks as a Mineral Powder for Asphalt Concrete The possibility of using serpentinous rocks as a mineral powder, when producing asphalt concretes, is considered. The dependence of adsorption activity of powders on their specific surface, the duration of interaction with bitumen as well as the type of a crushable rock has been studied. Mineral powders prepared of serpentinite, which is crushed to the area of the specific surface of 300 m 2/kg, have the best adsorption values. The duration of the bitumen adsorption should be not less than 15 minutes. Physical-chemical properties of the powders have been studied. It is established that they have low porosity, improved water resistance; they don’t swell when mixed with bitumen. The characteristics of mineral powders made of serpentinous rocks meet the GOST requirements and can be used as a raw material in road construction.

Keywords: mineral powder, asphalt concrete, bitumen, serpentinous rocks, adsorption.

For citation: Khudyakova L.I., Voyloshnikov O.V. Prospects of the use of serpentinous rocks as a mineral powder for asphalt concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 50–53. (In Russian).

References
1. Gurieva V.A. Magnesium-containing technogenic raw materials in the production of structural ceramic materi- als. Vestnik YuUrGU. Seriya «Stroitel’stvo i Arkhitektura». 2013. Vol. 13. No. 1, pp. 45–48. (In Russian).
2. Shchiptsov V.V., Il’ina V.P., Popova T.V., Frolov P.V. High-Mg industrial minerals and rocks of Karelia in po- tential production of multi-purpose refractory and ce- ramic materials. Ogneupory i Tekhnicheskaya Keramika. 2013. No. 4–5, pp. 40–46. (In Russian).
3. Erdman S.V., Postnikova A.N. Waterproof compound magnesia cement. Fundamental’nye Issledovaniya. 2013. No. 8–3, pp. 773–778. (In Russian).
4. Pustovgar A.P., Lavdanskiy P.A., Yesenov A.V., Medvedev V.V., Yeremin A.V., Vedenin A.D. Influence of superplasticizer and calcium oxide on cementhydra- tion of in serpentine concrete. Internet-vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya Politematicheskaya. 2014. Vol. 2 (33). http://www. vestnik.vgasu.ru (date of access 14.06.2017). (In Russian).
5. Bazhukov N.M., Shchepeteva L.S. Physical and me- chanical properties of the cube-shaped mineral powder and especiallyitsuse in the asphalt mixture. Transport. Transportnye Sooruzheniya. Ekologiya. 2016. No. 4, pp. 15–25. (In Russian).
6. Alekseienko V.V., Saltanova Yu.V. Asphalt mix modified by polymers and nanoparcticle of the carbon. Vestnik Nauki i Obrazovaniya Severo-Zapada Rossii. 2016. Vol. 2. No. 2. http://vestnik-nauki.ru/ (date of access 14.06.2017). (In Russian).
7. Cheng Y., Tao J., Jiao Y., Guo Q., Li C. Influence of diatomiteand mineral powder onthermal oxidativeageing propertiesof asphalt // Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. Vol. 2015. Article ID 947834. URL:http:// dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/9478348 (date of access 14.06.2017).
8. Afinogenov O.P., Vaydurov S.S. Application in the as- phalt mixes of mineral powder from perlite of the Khasynscoe deposit. Molodoy Uchenyi. 2014. No. 2, pp. 104–107. (In Russian).
9. Borisenko Yu.G., Borisenko O.A., Kazaryan S.O., Ionov M.Ch. Influence of fine-disperse screenings of ex- panded clay crushing on structure and properties of stone mastic asphalt concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 82–85. (In Russian).
10. Gürer C., Selman G.S. Investigation of properties of as- phalt concrete containing boron waste as mineral filler. Materials Science (Med iagotyra). 2016. Vol. 22. No. 1, pp. 118–125.
11. Vasilovskaya G.V., Shevchenko V.A., Kiselev V.P. Application of “Norilskiy Nickel” mining-metallurgical combine industrial waste in road asphalt concrete pro- duction. Vestnik IrGTU. 2015. No. 3 (98), pp. 130–134. (In Russian).
12. Korneev A.D., Goncharova M.A., Andriyantseva S.A., Komarichev A.V. Optimization of the composition and properties of asphalt concrete from waste dust produc- tion. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2015. No. 2–8, pp. 1620–1625. (In Russian).
13. Al-Saffar N.A.H. The effect of filler type and content on hot asphalt concrete mixtures properties. Al-Rafidain Engineering. 2013. Vol. 21. No. 6, pp. 88–100.
14. Sutradhar D., Miah M., Chowdhury G.J., Sobhan M.A. Effect of using waste material as filler in bituminous mix design. American Journal of Civil Engineering. 2015. No. 3 (3), pp. 88–94.
15. Bhat M.A., Mittal O.P. Effect of Fillers on bituminous mixes. International Journal of Advanced Research in Education & Technology. 2016. Vol. 3. Iss. 2, pp. 178–182.
16. Kar D., Panda M., Giri J.P. Influence of fly ash as a filler in bituminous mixes. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2014. Vol. 9. No. 6, pp. 895–900.
17. Madanbekov N.Zh., Osmonova B.Zh. Increase of effi- ciency of road asphalt concrete by using fly ash as a min- eral powder. Innovatsionnaya Nauka. 2015. No. 12, pp. 121–124. (In Russian).
18. Markova I.Yu., Strokova V.V., Dmitriyeva T.V. Influence of fly ashes on the viscoelastic characteristics of the bitu- men. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materils]. 2015. No. 11, pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
19. Khudyakova L.I., Voyloshnikov O.V., Kotova I.Yu. Mineral powder from natural raw materials of the Republic of Buryatia. Stroitel’nye Materialy. 2013. No. 5, pp. 34–35. (In Russian).
20. Dedyukhin A.Yu., Kruchinin I.N., Mel’kumov V.N. Application of chrysolite processing wastes in road con- struction. Nauchnyi Vestnik Voronezhskogo Gosudarstven- nogo Arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo Universiteta. Stroitel’stvo i Arkhitektura. 2009. No. 4, pp. 141–147. (In Russian).
V.A. GURIEVA 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (victoria-gurieva@rambler.ru), A.I. KUDIAKOV 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), T.K. BELOVA 1 , Engineer (belova_tatyana_90@mail.ru)
1 Orenburg State University (13, Pobedy Avenue, 460018, Orenburg, Russian Federation)
2 Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (2, Solyanaya Square, 634003, Tomsk, Russian Federation)

Improvement in Technology of Preparation of a Cement Mortar with Modified Basalt Micro-Fibers Technological methods for preparation of the cement solution with modified basalt micro-fibers (MBM) have been studied. Optimal sequences of introducing components and the meth- od for mixing the mortar mix, which provide the uniform distribution of MBM in the solution and improvement of the homogeneity of parameters of concrete quality, have been estab- lished. The method for preliminary separation of basalt micro-fibers in the liquid medium, which provides the increase in the bending strength by 64.1%, is proposed. When preparing the mortar mix with modified micro-fibers in the mixer of a rotor high-speed type, using the alternate method of loading of initial components, strength characteristics and homogeneity of the mortar are improved. Developed compositions and technological methods for preparing the cement-sand mortar with modified basalt micro-fibers are used when developing the technological regulation and recommended for construction of monolithic floors of industrial buildings.

Keywords: cement mortar, modified basalt micro-fibers, technological methods, homogeneity, monolithic industrial floors.

For citation: Gurieva V.A., Kudiakov A.I., Belova T.K. Improvement in technology of preparation of a cement mortar with modified basalt micro-fibers. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 54–57. (In Russian).

References
1. Angarskiy E.V., Piotrovich A.A. Prefabricated modular structures of industrial buildings made of folding sections as up-to-date construction method. New ideas of the new century – 2017: materials of the Seventeenth International Scientific Conference. Khabarovsk. 2017. Book 3, pp. 182–187.
2. Klyuev S.V., Lesovik R.V., Klyuev A.V., Ginzburg A.V., Kazlitin S.A.Fibrobeton dlja tjazhelonagruzhennyh polov promyshlennyh zdanij [Fiber concrete for heavy-duty floors of industrial buildings]. Belgorod: BGTU im. V.G. Shuhova. 2013. 116 p.
3. Gorb A.M., Voilokov I.A. Questions of ensuring durability and operational reliability of floors of production buildings. Sklad i tekhnika. 2010. No. 4, pp. 38–43. (In Russian).
4. Baronov A.E., Zateeva Ju.S., Abramov M.A. Improvement of technology of the device of coverings of floors with the strengthened top layer. Sixty-eighth All- Russian Scientific and Technical Conference of students, undergraduates and graduate students of higher educational institutions with international participation: Proceedings of the conference. Yaroslavl. 2015, pp. 754–757. (In Russian).
5. Kaprielov S.S., Sheinfel’d A.V., Kardumyan G.S. Novye modifitsirovannye betony [The new modified concrete]. Moscow: OOO «Tipografiya Paradiz». 2010. 258 p.
6. Patent RF 2355656. Betonnaya smes’ [Concrete mix]. Ponomarev A.N., Yudovich M.E. Declared 10.05.2007. Published 20.05.2009. Bulletin No. 14. (In Russian)
.7. Gurieva V.A., Belova T.K. Structural features of the ce- ment-sand mortar reinforced modified basalt microfiber. Procedia Engineering. Materials of 2 nd International Conference on Industrial Engineering (ICIE-2016). 2016. Vol. 150, pp. 2163–2167.
8. Gur’eva V.A., Kudyakov A.I., Belova T.K. Cement and sand solution with the modified microfibers for floors of industrial buildings. Vestnik of TSUAB. 2017. No. 3, pp. 118–126. (In Russian).
9. Kudyakov A.I., Plevkov V.S., Kudyakov K.L., Nevskiy A.V., Ushakova A.S. Improvement in manufac- turing technology of basalt fiber concrete with increased uniformity. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 10. pp. 44–48. (In Russian).
10. Elshekh A.E., Shafiq N., Nuruddin M.F., Fathi A. Evaluation the effectiveness of chopped basalt fiber on the properties of high strength concrete. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2014. Vol. 14. No. 10, pp. 1073–1077. Doi: 10. 3923/jas.2014.1073.1077.
G.I. YAKOVLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gyakov@istu.ru), A.A. VDOVIN, Master, A.F. GORDINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.N. ZORIN, Architect, S.A. POTOROCHINA, Bachelor Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)

Influence of a Complex Additive on the Basis of Asbestos-Cement Waste and Automobile Tires on Properties of Fine Concretes The influence of milled wastes of asbestos-cement products and rubber automobile tires on the properties and structure of a cement composition has been studied. The introduction of anthropogenic additives makes it possible to improve physical-mechanical characteristics of the fine concrete as a result of the synergetic impact of joint effect of additives. Rubber crumb was preliminary subjected to mechanical activation together with Portland cement. Waste of asbestos cement products were introduced in the fine concrete after grinding in the disk grinder up to the fraction of 100 μm. Results of the physical-mechanical study of the structure of modified fine concrete conducted with the help of IR-spectral and differential-ther- mal analyses showed the change in the compositions of new formations in the cement matrix as a result of formation of calcium hydro-silicates of different basicity. Modified fine con- crete can be used for production of small piece materials of improved wear resistance and frost resistance used when arranging coverings in sport facilities.

Keywords: rubber crumb, asbestos-cement waste, fine concrete, modifying additives.

For citation: Yakovlev G.I., Vdovin A.A., Gordina A.F., Zorin A.N., Potorochina S.A. Influence of a complex additive on the basis of asbestos-cement waste and automobile tires on proper- ties of fine concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 58–61. (In Russian).

References
1. Alimkulov S.O., Almatova U.I., Egamberdiev I.B. Waste is a global environmental problem. Modern methods of waste management. Molodoy ucheniy. 2014. No. 21, pp. 66–70. (In Russian).
2. Nuzhdina D.Yu. Features of recycling of worn out tires of cars in Russia and abroad. Architectural-building and road-transport complexes: problems, perspectives, innova- tions: Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Omsk. 2016, pp. 574–578. (In Russian).
3. Pokrovskiн A.K., Ennan N. Ecology and recycling of tires. Vestnik transporta. 2004. No. 11, pp. 37–38. (In Russian).
4. Pavlovskaya E.D., Tatarinova E.S., Mikhailichenko T.A. Utilization of tires and rubber products. Science and youth: problems, searches, solutions of the All-Russian sci- entific conference of students, graduate students and young scientists. Novokuznetsk. 2016, pp. 236–238. (In Russian).
5. Deriglazov A.A. Recycling and processing of tires in crumbs. Molodoy ucheniy. 2014. No. 17, pp. 310–313. (In Russian).
6. Giedrius Girskas, D igita Nagrockiene · . Crushed rubber waste impact of concrete basic properties. Construction and Building Materials. 2017. No. 140, pp. 36–42.
7. Repina Zh.V., Chemyakina N.A, Tarskaya-Lapteva E.G. Khrizotil-tsementnye stroitel’nye materialy. Oblasti primeneniya [Chrysotile cement building materials. Areas of use]. Ekaterinburg: AMB. 2009. 152 p.
8. Neiman S.M., Vezentsev A.I., Kashanskiy S.V. O bezo- pasnosti asbestotsementnykh materialov i izdeliy [On the safety of asbestos-cement materials and products] Moscow: Stroimaterialy. 2006. 64 p.
9. Rashad A.M. A comprehensive overview about recycling rubber as fine aggregate replacement in traditional ce- mentitious materials. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment. 2016. No. 5, pp. 46–82.
10. Mohammadi I., Khabbaz H., Vessalas K. In-depth assess- ment of crumb rubber concrete (CRC) prepared by water- soaking treatment method for rigid pavements. Construction and Building Materials. 2014. No. 71, pp. 456–471.
11. Segre N., Joekes I. Use of tire rubber particles as addition to cement paste. Cement and Concrete Research. 2000. No. 30, pp. 1421–1425.
12. Reda Taha M.M., Asce M., El-Dieb A.S., Abd El- Wahab M.A., Abdel-Hameed M.E. Mechanical, frac- ture, and microstructural investigations of rubber con- crete. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 2008. No. 20, pp. 640–649.
13. Pedro D., De Brito J., Veiga R. Mortars made with fine granulate from shredded tires. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 2013. No. 25, pp. 519–529.
L.S. SKAMNITSKAYA, Senior Researcher (skamnits@krc.karelia.ru), Т.Р. BUBNOVA, research assistant (bubnova@krc.karelia.ru), S.A. SVETOV, Doctor Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy) (ssvetov@krc.karelia.ru) Institute of Geology of the Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (11, Pushkinskaya Street, Petrozavodsk, 185910, Russian Federation)
Prospects of the Use of Archean Silicites of Central Karelia (Elmusskaya and Koykarskaya Structures) for Producing Building Materials Data on the situation in the construction industry and present needs in rocks for producing the crushed stone with high physical-mechanical characteristics, which deficit is partially covered due to the import from other countries, are presented. As a perspective object for expansion of the mineral raw material base of the North-West of Russia, archean silicites have been studied. General information about rocks and their geological-mineralogical characteristics is given. Results of the recently conducted research in the structure, compositions, and physical-mechanical properties of silicites, as an untraditional raw material of quartz-field spar composition, are presented. It is shown that these rocks in their natural form are suitable for producing the high-quality crushed stone in accordance with technical requirements. High acid-resistance (>97%) makes it possible to use the ground silicite in acid-resistant con- cretes, mastics and as a filler in lacquers and paints.

Keywords: silicites, high-strength crushed stone, fillers, concretes, raw materials, import substitution.

For citation: Skamnitskaya L.S., Bubnova Т.Р., Svetov S.A. Prospects of the use of archean silicites of central Karelia (Elmusskaya and Koykarskaya structures) for producing building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 62–66. (In Russian).

References
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N.I. MOTORNY, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), (motnikolaj@yandex.ru) Research and Design and Survey Institute for Problems of Extraction, Transport and Processing of Mineral Raw Materials in the Industry of Construction Materials (VNIPIIstromsyryo) (1 Volokolamskoye Shosse, 125080, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Anthropogenic Broken Condition of Stone in the Course of Its Extraction and Treatment Facing products are fabricated from blocks which are extracted from the pit. At the end of the past century the main factor of violation of the stone quality is blasting works at the pit. At present, the use of explosives when extracting blocks is limited by auxiliary functions. At one of the pits for extracting granite blocks Sunset Gold located in China, the separation of a sawn block from the massif is made with the help of the stone-cutting machine and explosives “Purry Roche” produced in France. According to the measurement of the velocity of an ultrasonic impulse, the thickness of the zone of technogenic fissuring from the effect of explosives is about 50 mm, and at cutting technologies – 6–7 mm. It is established that granite details have a pronounced anisotropy according to UZI when it is absent on the blocks that is connected with the appearance of micro-fissuring due to the use of the diamond tool. This leads to reducing physical-mechanical properties of the stone of facing details by 10–15%. Ultrasound examination of slabs made of granite “Flower of Ural” shows that reducing strength properties of the stone in the course of its thermal treatment can reach 22% (GOST 30629–2012 permits not more than 20%), and the zone of such technogenic violations extends to the entire thickness of the slab (80 mm). Besides, thermal treatment reduces the abrasion index by 22.2%. The table of capacities of the zones of technogenic disturbance when treating the stone by mechanical means is presented.

Keywords: stone block, extraction of blocks, zones of disturbance, UZI (ultrasound impulse), anisotropy, micro-fissuring, thermal treatment, surface texture.

For citation: Motorny N.I. Anthropogenic broken condition of stone in the course of its extraction and treatment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 67–71. (In Russian).

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