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Stroitel`nye Materialy №8

Stroitel`nye Materialy №8
August, 2017

Table of contents

A.A. SEMENOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Director (info@gs-expert.ru) OOO «GS-Expert» (18, Off. 207, 1-st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Pereulok, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation) Tendencies of Development of the Russian Commodity Lime Market Data on conditions and main tendencies of the development of the domestic commodity lime market in 2016 and in the first half of 2017 are presented; data on volumes and dynamics of the production and consumption, market structure, price level are also presented.

Keywords: commodity lime, analysis of market, structure of demand.

For citation: Semenov A.A. Tendencies of development of the Russian commodity lime market. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 4–6. (In Russian).
N.V. LYUBOMIRSKY, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (niklub.ua@gmail.com); S.I. FEDORKIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.S. BAKHTIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), T.A. BAKHTINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), T.V. LYUBOMIRSKAYA, Engineer V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University (4, Vernadskogo Prospect, Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, 295007)

Research in Influence of Regimes of Forced Carbonate Hardening on Properties of Materials on the Basis of Lime-Limestone Compositions of Semidry Pressing

Results of the research in forming properties of lime­limestone compositions of semidry pressing depending on the regimes of forced carbonation and prescription­technological factors of their production are presented. The research was conducted with the help of experimental­statistical models by the method of mathematical planning of experiments with the use of a rotatable central composition plan. The influence of dynamic and static regimes of the forced carbonation on the formation of compression strength and water resistance of the samples of lime­limestone compositions of semidry pressing is considered. It is shown that the use of more intensive methods of forced carbonation is less efficient than the use of methods with moderate supply of СО2 in the carbonizing chamber in the process of its absorption by samples. The most reasonable method of organization of accelerated carbonate hardening of the systems on the basis of lime can be a combined method which is to create a preliminary vacuum in the carbonizing chamber with the further organization of the process in a static regime at moderate (up to 50%) concentrations of СО2.

Keywords: lime, lime stone, forced carbonate hardening, strength, water resistance.

For citation: Lyubomirsky N.V., Fedorkin S.I., Bakhtin A.S., Bakhtina T.A., Lyubomirskaya T.V. Research in influence of regimes of forced carbonate hardening on properties of materials on the basis of lime­limestone compositions of semidry pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 7–12. (In Russian).

References
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8. Chernyshеv E.M., Potamoshneva N.D., Artamono- va O.V. The concept and base technology of nano-modi- fication of building composites structures. Part 4. Sol-gel technology of nano-, ultrafine portlandite crystals for a contact-condensation compaction structures portlandite stone and composites on its basis. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 11, pp. 65–73. (In Russian).
9. Fedorkin S.I., Lyubomirskii N.V., Luk’yanchenko M.A. Systems based on lime of carbonization hardening. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 11, pp. 45–47. (In Russiian).
10. Lyubomirskii N.V., Fedorkin S.I. Scientific and techno- logical principles of disposal of carbon dioxide in food- grade, biodegradable building products. Biosfernaya sov- mestimost: chelovek, region, technologii. 2016. No. 4, pp. 39–49. (In Russian).
11. Ermakov S.M., Zhiglyavskiy A.A. Matematicheskaya the- oriya optimalnogo experimenta [The mathematical theory of optimal experiment]. Moscow: Nauka. 1987. 318 p.
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В 2016 г. в условиях кризиса в РФ продолжается сокра щение производства основных строительных материалов, изделий и конструкций: кирпича на 17%, а по некоторым данным на 22%, газобетона на 9,1%. Производство стено вых материалов в общем по сравнению с 2015 г. снизилось на 16%, сократилось производство бетона, цемента и дру гих строительных материалов. В денежном выражении это сокращение произошло в 1,3–1,5 раза больше, что свиде тельствует также о снижении цен на строительные матери алы. Тенденция к сокращению объемов производства и падению цен во многом продолжает сохраняться и сейчас.
Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

A Complex Lime-Siliceous Binder for Improving Raw Strength of Silicate Brick Differences in the equipment of silicate brick factories built in 70s on the territory of the former USSR are considered. The present extension of the range of extruded products requires increasing their raw strength. There are three methods to reach this: increasing the lime consumption, additional charging of sands, and the use of a composite lime­siliceous binder. Possibilities to optimize the raw strength due to the correction of compositions of the lime­siliceous binder are considered. Research in the partial replacement of the sand for lime stone and loam with a clay content of 50% in the optimal composition of the lime­siliceous binder, I:P=1:1, is presented. The ultimate shear stress of lime stone, loam, and crushed sand has been determined separately and in the binder composition by the indirect method; their impact on raw and autoclaved strength has been also determined. It is established that the increase in the raw strength by 43% takes place when 50% of sand is replaced by loam, the replacement of 50% of sand with lime stone increase the raw strength by 2.3 times.

Keywords: silicate brick, lime stone, loam, lime­siliceous binder, adobe brick.

For citation: Kuznetsova G.V., Babushkina D.A., Gaynutdinova G.Kh. A complex lime­siliceous binder for improving raw strength of silicate brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 19–22. (In Russian).

References
1. Khvostenkov S.I. Development of production of a silicate brick in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 10, pp. 4–10. (In Russian).
2. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Influence of a Corrective Additive on Properties of a Lime-Siliceous Binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 12, pp. 12–14. (In Russian).
3. Shmit’ko E.I., Verlina N.A Press-Molding Processes and Their Influence on Adobe Brick Quality. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 10, pp. 5–8. (In Russian).
4. Khavkin L.M. Tekhnologiya silikatnogo kirpicha [Technology of a silicate brick]. Moscow: Ekolit. 2011. 384 p.
5. Vakhnin M.P., Anishchenko A.A. Proizvodstvo silikat- nogo kirpicha [Production of a silicate brick]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1983. 191 p.
6. Volodchenko A.N. Influence of clay minerals on properties of autoclave silicate materials. Innovations in science: Papers XXI of the international correspondence scientific and practical con- ference. Novosibirsk: SibAK. 2013, pp. 23–28. (In Russian).
7. Volodchenko A.N. Use of nonconventional clay raw ma- terials for receiving silicate materials on energy saving technology. Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya. 2015. No. 1. Vol. 4, pp. 644–647. (In Russian).
8. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Influence of Components of a Lime-Siliceous Binder on Cohesion of Molding Material for Pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 12, pp. 69–72. (In Russian).
9. Khokhryakov O.V., Bakhtin M.A. About dependence of water requirement of the portlandtsement and excipients on their specific surface area and content of supersoften- er. Материалы за 7-а международна научна практична конференция «Динамика и съвременната наука». Vol. 9. Respublika B”lgariya, 2011, pp. 56–60.
10. Tikhomirova I.N., Makarov A.V. Mechanical Activation of Lime-Quartz Binders. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 9, pp. 4–7. (In Russian).
G.S. SLAVCHEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (gslavcheva@yandex.ru) Voronezh State Technical University (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Statistical Analysis of Quality of Autoclaved Gas Concrete in Tasks of Improving the Efficiency of Its Production Results of the complex statistical analysis of the quality of gas concrete made for a year period of operation of the enterprise equipped with new foreign technological equipment are presented. Autoclaved gas concrete of average density D500 and strength grade B2.5 was used as an object of the statistical analysis, because concrete products of this brand are the most mass product which is the main demand of the consumer. It is revealed that the variability of properties identifies the need to ensure the excess reserve of production quality, for strength primarily. The degree of correlation interconnection of the key parameters in technology and basic properties of the gas concrete has been evaluated qualitatively. The intercon­ nection between the degree of variability of parameters of the technological process and excess quality of production, the probability of spoilage appearance are revealed statistically reliably. The ways of improving the production efficiency due to the use of the available reserve of products quality as well as by rationalization of technological parameters as a means of reducing production expenditures are proposed.

Keywords: autoclaved gas concrete, statistical analysis, quality, spoilage of products, production efficiency.

For citation: Slavcheva G.S. Statistical analysis of quality of autoclaved gas concrete in tasks of improving the efficiency of its production. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 23–27. (In Russian).

References
1. Akulova I.I., Dudina N.A., Baranov E.V. Method and results of the assessment of the competitiveness of heat- insulating materials used in housing construction. Economy. Theory and practice: Materials of the International Scientific-practical Conference. Saratov. 2014, pp. 32–37. (In Russian).
2. Vishnevskiy A.A., Grinfel’d G.I., Smirnova A.S. The Russian market for autoclaved aerated concrete. Results of 2016. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 49–51. (In Russian).
3. Popov V.A., Chernyshov E.M. Possibilities of nanomodi- fying the structures of hydrothermal-synthesis hardening systems in control problems of resistance to decomposi- tion of autoclave concretes. Mechanics of destruction of concrete, reinforced concrete and other building materials: Materials of the 7-th International Scientific Conference. Voroneg. 2013. Vol. 2, pp. 246–251. (In Russian).
4. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S. Control over opera- tional deformability and crack resistance of macro-po- rous (cellular) concretes: Context of problem and issues of theory. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 105–112. (In Russian).
5. Chernyshov E.M., Neupokoev Yu.A., Potamoshneva N.D. Highly porous cellular concrete for effective insula- tion boards. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitek- turno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2007. No. 1, pp. 181–190. (In Russian).
6. Shinkevich E.S., Chernyshov E.M., Lutskin E.S., Tymnyak A.B. Multicriteria optimization of composition and properties of activated calc-siliceous composites. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi. 2013. No. 2, pp. 33–37. (In Russian).
7. Rudchenko D.G. On the role of gypsum stone in the for- mation of the phase composition of new formations of autoclaved cellular concrete. Budіvel’nі materіali, virobi ta sanіtarna tekhnіka. 2012. No. 43, pp. 47–54. (In Russian).
8. Loganina V.I., Uchaeva T.V. The issue of the quality control system at the construction industry manufactur- ers. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 1, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
9. Loganina V.I., Kruglova A.N. Evaluation of the reliabil- ity of quality control of construction products. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 9 (693), pp. 87–92. (In Russian).
10. Loganina V.I., Viryasova A.V. Estimation of the potential of the manufacturing process of the construction industry enterprises. Vestnik PGUAS: stroitel’stvo, nauka i obra- zovanie. 2016. No. 1 (1), pp. 44–46. (In Russian).
I.N. TIHOMIROVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. MAKAROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (Makarov_otc@bk.ru), M.A. KARPENKO, Bachelor Dmitry Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (20, Geroev Panfilovtcev Street, Moscow, 123480, Russian Federation)

Autoclave Silicate Materials Based on Wastes of Molding Masses of Foundry This work is devoted to the investigation of the possibility to obtain high­strength autoclave extruded products on the basis of wastes of molding masses according to the CHM­method used in casting in ferrous metallurgy. The issues, connected with the influence of the activity of the calc­quartz binder both on the phase composition of hardening products and on the final strength of the obtained material, are considered. With the help of x­ray diffraction and derivatographic analysis, it is found that the binder is mostly made up of low­basic calcium hydro­silicates and an explanation to this phenomenon is given. The optimal activity of both the binder and the molding mixture has been established. In the course of the work it was established that these wastes can be a very valuable raw material for manufacturers of autoclave hardening products.

Keywords: building materials, lime­quartz binders, autoclaving, anthropogenic waste.

For citation: Tihomirova I.N., Makarov A.V., Karpenko M.A. Autoclave Silicate Materials Based on Wastes of Molding Masses of Foundry. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).

References
1. Usov B.A., Okol’nikova G.E., Akimov S.Yu. Ecology and production of construction materials. Sistemnye tekh- nologii. 2015. No. 17, pp. 84–105. (In Russian).
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3. Shabanov D.N., Ivanenko A.M. Structure formation of the silicate brick received from waste of the foundry in- dustry. Vestnik Polotskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2011. No. 8, pp. 73–76. (In Russian).
4. Matulis B. Yu., Matulite V.B. Influence of caustic sodium on processes of formation of the autoclave cementing substance. Institut VNII Teploizolyatsiya: sbornik trudov. Vilnius, 1976. Issue 8, pp. 131–140. (In Russian).
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6. Kaftayeva M.V., Rakhimbayev I.Sh. To a question of phase composition of a hydrosilicate binding autoclave gas con- crete. Mezhdunarodnyi zhurnal prikladnykh i fundamen- tal’nykh issledovanii. 2013. No. 10, pp. 370–372. (In Russian).
7. Fedosov S.V., Akulova M.V., Potemkina O.V., Eme- lin V.Yu., Belyakova N.A. Issledovaniye of change of phase composition of foam concrete with adding of liquid glass and a cullet by the Thermal method. Izvestiya Yugo- Zapadnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2013. No. 5, pp. 173–180. (In Russian).
8. Harchenko E.A., Svidersky V.A., Glukhovsky I.V. Synthesis and properties of the low-main hydrosilicates of calcium of unstable crystalline structure. International Scientific and Practical Conference “WORLD SCIENCE”. 2015. No. 3 (3), Vol. 1, pp. 50–54. (In Russian).
9. Akulova M.V., Potemkin O.V., Yemelin V.Yu., Kolle- rov A.N. Influence of liquid glass on the thermal stability of cement aggregates. Privolzhskii nauchnyi zhurnal. 2013. No. 1, pp. 17–21. (In Russian).
V.N. DERKACH, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (v-derkatch@yandex.ru), I.E. DEMCHUK, Engineer Branch of Republican Unitary Enterprise «Institute BelNIIS», «Scientific-Technical Center» (267/2, Moskovskaya Street, Brest, 224023, Republic of Belarus)

Strength and Deformability of Stone Masonry Made of Cellular Concrete Blocks of Autoclaved Hardening with Polyurethane Joints. Part 3. Strength and Deformability at Shear Results of the experimental research in the shear and diagonal compression of stone masonry samples made of cellular­concrete blocks with thin­layer polyurethane joints are presented. On the basis of the experimental studies, peculiarities of the destruction of experimental samples have been revealed; values of the initial strength of the stone masonry at shear as well as values of the shear module and ultimate values of the angle of shear deformations of the stone masonry have been obtained. It is established that under the impact of shear load in the plane of horizontal polyurethane joints, the destruction of the masonry occurs as a result of exhaustion of strength of the block material for shear. The comparison of the results obtained with the results of the experimental study of the stone masonry made of cellular­concrete blocks with thin­layer polymer­cement joints is made. The difference in the nature of destruction of samples of stone masonry on the polymer­cement adhesive solution and on the adhesive foam as well as their strength and deformation characteristics at shear are shown.

Keywords: stone masonry, cellular­concrete blocks, polyurethane glue, shearing strength, shear module, angle of shear deformations.

For citation: Derkach V.N., Demchuk I.E. Strength and deformability of stone masonry made of cellular concrete blocks of autoclaved hardening with polyurethane joints. Part 3. Strength and deformability at shear. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 32–35. (In Russian).

References
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Ya.I. VAYSMAN1, Doctor of Sciences (Medicine), A.A. KETOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (alexander_ketov@mail.ru), Yu.A. KETOV 1, Engineer; S.A. MAZUNIN2 , Doctor of Sciences (Chemestry), V.L. CHECHULIN2, Engineer
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolsky Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 Perm State National Research University (15, Bukireva Street, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)

The defined color cellular glass production using a limited set of pigment Cellular glass using as heat insulation material is constrained by its high cost and corresponding low competitiveness in comparison with other insulation materials. The hydrated gas producing mechanism allows to obtain cellular glass blocks of white color that can be colored with durable and stable inorganic pigments during manufacture process. The combination of facing and heat insulation properties in a single product significantly improves material consumer properties and increase its market opportunities. However, the presence of addition­ al facing properties needs in directional obtaining the desired color characteristics of the product. The possibility of obtaining cellular glass blocks with specific surface color using a limited number of ceramic pigments is discussed. The task of pigments choosing is solving using the traditional for physical­chemical analysis space of Gibbs triangle.

Keywords: cellular glass, color model, ceramic pigments

For citation: Vaysman Ya.I., Ketov A.A., Ketov Yu.A., Mazunin S.A., Chechulin V.L. The defined color cellular glass production using a limited set of pigment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 36–41. (In Russian).

References
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2. Maslennikova G.N., Pishch I.V. Keramicheskie pigmenty [Ceramic pigments]. Moscow: Stroymaterialy. 2009. 224 p.
3. Platov Yu.T., Platova R.A. Instrumental specification of chromatic characteristics of structural materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 66–72. (In Russian).
4. Bertulis A.V., Glezer V.D. Prostranstvennoe tsvetovoe zrenie [Space color vision]. Leningrad: Nauka. 1990. 145 p.
5. Hubel D.H. Glaz, mozg, zrenie [Eye, Brain and Vision]. Moscow: Mir. 1990. 239 p.
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7. Platova R.A., Kondrukevich A.A., Platov Y.T. Applica- tion of Neodymium Oxide to Increase the White- ness of Porcelain. Glass and Ceramics. 2011. No. 12, pp. 393–398. (In Russian).
8. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Pigments and volume coloring. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 12, pp. 14–17. (In Russian).
9. Duguev S.V., Ivanova V.B., Satvaldinov K.Zh. Practical aspects of import substitution of the pigmenting materials in structural branch of Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construc- tion Materials]. 2015. No. 6, pp. 61–64. (In Russian).
10. Vaisman I., Ketov A., Ketov I. Cellular glass obtained from non-powder preforms by foaming with steam. Ceramics International. 2016. No. 42, pp. 15261–15268.
11. Anosov V.Ya., Ozerova M.I., Fialkov Yu.Ya. Osnovy fiziko-khimicheskogo analiza [Bases of the physical and chemical analysis]. Moscow: Nauka. 1976. 504 p.
12. Vaisera S.S., Puchka O.V., Lesovik V.S., Bessonov I.V., Sergeev S.V. Efficient Acoustic Glass Composites. Stroitel’nye Materialy. [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 6, pp. 28–31. (In Russian). 13. Volodchenko V.N., Lesovik V.S. Prospects of extension of the nomenclature of silicate materials of autoclave concreting. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 9, pp. 34–37. (In Russian).
I.F. SHLEGEL, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (info@inta.ru) Institute of New Technologies and Automation of Building Materials Industry (OOO «INTA-STORY») (100, 1st Putevaya Street, 644113, Omsk, Russian Federation)

On the Rational Use of Clinker Bricks
V.G. KUZNETSOV, President, General Director (ppfp_astiki@mail.ru), I.P. KUZNETSOV, Commercial Director (astik_kp@mail.ru) OOO «As-Tik KP» (16, Teterinsky Lane, Moscow, 109004, Russian Federation)

To the Issue of Reliable and Efficient Application of PPFP-Astiki at Equipment Operating with Damp Materials The efficiency of PPFP­Astiki depends on their proper selection to specific mining­geological and mining­engineering conditions of operation of the equipment. In this connection, the questionnaire for fill in is sent to the enterprise desiring to get anti­sticking plates. Further, on the basis of the questionnaire, the strength of materials is evaluated according to the scale of professor M.M. Protodiakonov and the selection of raw materials for producing the required type of an anti­sticking plate is made, and according to the methodology of OOO “As­Tik KP”, its thickness is determined for providing the warranty period of work after putting it into operation. This principle of selection of PPFP­Astiki and determination of the plate optimal thickness make it possible to solve reliably and efficiently the problems relating to the elimination of sticking of wetted materials on the working surfaces of the equipment.

Keywords: PPFP­Astiki, sticking of material, anti­sticking plates, coefficient of strength of material, operational conditions.

For citation: Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P. To the issue of reliable and efficient application of ppfp­astiki at equipment operating with damp materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 45–48. (In Russian).

References
1. Kuznetsov V.G., Novikova T.N., Kuznetsov I.P. i dr. Polimernye protivonalipayushchie futerovochnye plasti- ny – Astiki – effektivnoe reshenie problemy ustraneniya nalipaniya uvlazhnennykh materialov na rabochie pover- khnosti oborudovaniya [Polymer anti-lamination lining plates – Astiki – an effective solution to the problem of eliminating the sticking of moistened materials on the working surfaces of equipment]. Moscow: OOO «Na- dezhda na Yartsevskoi». 2013. 79 p.
2. Kuznetsov V.G., Zatkovetskii V.M., Kuznetsov I.P. and al. Polymer lining plates – an effective solution to the problem of sticking moistened materials on the working surfaces of process equipment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 5, pp. 32–34. (In Russian).
3. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P. Determination of the thickness of the polymer anti-lamination lining plate for various operating conditions of the equipment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 5, pp. 13–14. (In Russian).
4. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P. Kopylov S.V., Sitni- kov S.N. and etc. Correct selection of polymer anti-lam- ination lining plates is a guarantee of efficient operation of technological equipment. Gornyi zhurnal. 2008. No. 4, pp. 80–81. (In Russian).
5. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P., Kopylov S.V. Estimation of economic efficiency of introduction of polymer anti-lamination lining plates. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 9, p. 48. (In Russian).
6. Kuznetsov V.G., Novikova T.N., Kuznetsov I.P., Kochetov E.V. Efficient operation of process equipment in the factory pelletizing JSC «Mikhailovsky GOK» when working on moist raw materials. Gornyi zhurnal. 2013. No. 12, pp. 71–73. (In Russian).
7. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P., Borodin A.A. i dr. fac- tory production of bunkers equipped with efficient means of struggle with adhering of materials – PPFP-Astiki. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 5, pp. 54–56. (In Russian).
8. Kuznetsov V.G., Kochetov E.V., Kuznetsov I.P. Improvement of quality of working surfaces of techno- logical equipment at the design and manufacturing stages due to the use of an effective means of combating the sticking of raw materials PFPP-Astiki. Mekhanizatsiya stroitel’stva. 2015. No. 1, pp. 29–31. (In Russian).
9. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P., Lyapunov A.V., Blyudenov A.P., Gontarenko B.Yu. The use of polymeric materials to eliminate the buildup of wet magnetitic con- centrate on work surfaces of equipment on enrichment plant AO «EVRAZ KGOK». Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 6, pp. 59–60. (In Russian).
10. Kuznetsov V.G., Kiselev N.N., Kochetov E.V., Kuznetsov I.P. Reducing the Influence of Stickiness of Rocks and Raw Materials on Working Efficiency of Equipment Due To Application of PPFP-Astiki. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 1–2, pp. 99–103. (In Russian).
11. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P. Sealing arrangement made of PPFP-Astiki for receiving hoppers of belt con- veyers. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 60–62. (In Russian).
A.V. USHEROV-MARSHAK, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Professor Kharkiv National University of Civil Engineering and Architecture (40, Sumskaya Street, 61000, Kharkiv, Ukraine)
Physico-Chemical Era of Building Materials Science. Kharkiv Scientific-Technological School
D.V. ORESHKIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (dmitrii_oreshkin@mail.ru) Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences (4, Kryukovskiy Tupik, Moscow, 111020, Russian Federation)

Environmental Problems of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Re-Sources when Large-Scale Utilization of Man-Made Mineral Resources and Waste in the Production of Building Materials

The article deals with the environmental problems of the territories of the Russian Federation. They are connected with the reduction of the available inventory of mineral resources of the Earth at increasing number of man­made waste (MMW), increasing occupied by dumps and landfills of land areas as well as the negative impact on the environment. The author gives an environmental assessment of phosphogypsum, recycling of bards, whey, sodium thiosulfate, fine white marble and waste drilling mud. In the article scientific foundations of the integrated methodologies of environmental assessment of MMW and their recycling in the production of building materials and products were elaborated, the possibility of using these stated wastes as raw materials for their production, while addressing environmental concerns of the territories, was justified. In the article inventory and classification analyses of man­ made waste were held. These tests include grain, microstructure, x­rayphase, chemical and physico­technical researches, as well as danger classification of MMW. The ways of recy­ cling of man­made waste and quantification of prospects of implementing such technology were specified.

Keywords: environmental problems of the territories, the resource approach, utilization of man­made wastes in the production of building materials and products, volumes of waste.

For citation: Oreshkin D.V. Environmental problems of comprehensive exploitation of mineral resources when large­scale utilization of man­made mineral resources and waste in the production of building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 55–63. (In Russian).

References
1. Telichenko V.I., Oreshkin D.V. Material aspects of geo- ecological and environmental safety in construction. Ecologiya urbanizirovannyx territoriy. 2015. No. 2, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
2. Meshhyarikov Yu.G., Kolev N.A., Fedorov S.V., Suchkov V.P. Production of phosphogypsum for cement industry and building products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 5, pp. 104–106. (In Russian).
3. Meshhyarikov Yu.G., Fedorov S.V. Promyshlennaya pererabotka fosfogipsa [Industrial processing of phospho- gypsum]. Saint Petersburg: Stroyizdat SPb. 2007. 104 p.
4. Ivochkina M.A. Study technogenic sediments in phos- phogypsum dumps during the processing of the original formation of the various raw materials deposits. Inzhenernyj vestnik Dona Electronic journal. 2013. No. 1. http://www.ivdon.ru/magazine/archive/nly2013/1535 (date of access 14.04.2017) (In Russian).
5. Trubeckoj K.N., Kaplunov D.R. etc. Kompleksnoe osvoe- nie mestorozhdenij i glubokaya pererabotka mineral’nogo syr’ya [Integrated development and deep processing of mineral raw materials]. Moscow: Nauka. 2010. 437 p.
6. Chanturiya V.A., Chaplygin N.N., Vigdergauz V.E. Strategy of reduction, reuse and recycling of mining and industrial production in researches of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Sovremennye problemy kompleks- noy pererabotki prirodnogo i tekhnogennogo syr’ya. 2005, pp. 230–235. (In Russian).
7. Chaplygin N.N. Osnovaniya ecologicheskoj teorii kom- pleksnogo osvoeniya nedr [Founding ecological theory of integrated development of mineral resources]. Moscow: IPKON RAN. 2006. 102 p.
8. Tkach S.A., Telichenko V.I. Addressing environmental challenges in the process of disposing of waste in the pro- duction of man-made aerated concrete. Ecologiya urban- izirovannyx territorij. 2016. No. 2, pp. 39–44. (In Russian).
9. Tkach E.V., Tkach S.A., Serova R.F, Stasilovich E.A. Getting modified concrete products on the base of indus- trial wastes and secondary raw materials. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2015. No. 1–2, pp. 83–88. (In Russian).
10. Solov’yov V.I., Serova R.F., Tkach S.A. Researches of porosity of a cement stone, modified complex organomin- eral modifiers. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2014. No. 8 (Part 3), pp. 590–595. (In Russian).
11. Zemlyanushnov D.Yu., Sokov V.N., Oreshkin D.V., Skanavi N.A. Recycling of fine marble processing wastein the production of front ceramics. Vestnik IrGTU. 2014. No. 9 (92), pp. 122–126. (In Russian).
12. Zemlyanushnov D.Yu., Sokov V.N., Oreshkin D.V. Using fine marble processing waste in the technology of facing ceramics. Nauchno-tekhnicheskii vestnik Povolzh’ya. 2014. No. 4, pp. 108–114. (In Russian).
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S.I. PIMENOV, Engineer (3.14manon@mail.ru), R.A. IBRAGIMOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (rusmag007@yandex.com) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Influence of Mineralogical Composition of Cement When Activating It on Physical-Technical Properties of Heavy Concrete To intensify the hardening of cement compositions, various methods for activation of a binder are increasingly used in modern investigations. The mechanical­chemical activation of cement in the water media is one of efficient methods for activating the binder and its improvement is an actual task. The article presents the results of the study of influence of the mineralogical composition of Portland cement, subjected to the mechanical­chemical activation in the water media in the rotary­pulsed apparatus, on the physical­technical properties of heavy concrete. It is established that the use of Portland cements of different productions does not influence on the technological properties of the concrete mix produced from the acti­ vated cement suspension, but influences on the kinetics of hardening of heavy concrete when using the Portland cement containing the increased amount of the aluminate phase.

Keywords: mechano­chemical activation, Portland cement with sludge, superplasticizer, additive on polycarboxylate base.

For citation: Pimenov S.I., Ibragimov R.A. Influence of mineralogical composition of cement when activating it on physical­technical properties of heavy concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 64–67. (In Russian).

References
1. Slen’kov V.A., Minakov Yu.A., Kononova O.V., Anisimov S.N., Smirnov A.O., Leshkanov A.Yu. The effectiveness of the use of plasticizing additives in the production of heavy concrete. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obra- zovaniya. 2015. No. 2, p. 244. (In Russian).
2. Kirsanova A.A., Kramar L.Ya. Organomineral modifiers on the basis of meta-kaolin for cement concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 54–56. (In Russian).
3. Selyaev V.P, Nizina T.A., Balbalin A.V. Analysis of the influence mechanical activation on the properties of ce- ment mixtures with multifunctional additives. Vestnik VRO RAASN. 2014. Vol. 17, pp. 203–208. (In Russian).
4. Ibragimov R.A., Izotov V.S. Influence of mechanical- chemical activation of a binder on physical-chemical properties of heavy-weight concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 17–19. (In Russian).
5. Gusev B.V., In I.L.S., Krivoborodov Yu.R. Activation of slag Portland cement hardening. Tekhnologii betonov. 2012. No. 7-8 (72-73), pp. 21–24. (In Russian).
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7. Ibragimov R.A., Pimenov S.I., Kiyamov I.K., Mingazov R.H., Kiyamova L.I. Comparison of the effect of super- plasticizing admixtures on the processes of cement hydra- tion during mechanochemical activation. EasternEuropean Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2016. Vol. 4. No. 6 (82), pp. 56–63.
8. Gusev B.V. Nanostructuring of concrete materials. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 1, pp. 7–10. (In Russian).
9. Gur’yanov G.A., Klimenko E.A., Vasil’eva O.Yu. Improved cooking process and the quality of concrete through activation analysis methods cement. Transport. Transportnye sooruzheniya. Ekologiya. 2015. No. 1, pp. 23–40. (In Russian).
10. Glukharev N.F. Sukhoe izmel’chenie v usloviyakh elek- troneitralizatsii [Dry milling under electrical neutraliza- tion]. Saint Petersburg: Publishing house of Polytechnic University. 2014. 192 p.
11. Sovalov I.G., Khayutin Yu.G. Metody aktivatsii tsementov i vliyanie aktivatsii na svoistva betonov [Activation methods of cement and the influence of activation on properties of concrete]. Moscow: TsBTI NIIOMTP. 1963. 41 p.
12. Rakhimov R.Z., Rakhimova N.R., Stoyanov O.V. Geopolymers. Vestnik kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo uni- versiteta. 2014. Vol. 17. No. 23, pp. 189–196. (In Russian).
13. Rakhimov R.Z., Rakhimova N.R., Khaliullin M.I., Gaifullin A.R. Industrial wastes and environmental safety of construction and municipal economy. Nauchnyi zhur- nal stroitel’stva i arkhitektury. 2015. No. 2, pp. 97–102. (In Russian).
14. Kalashnikov V.I., Tarakanov O.V., Kuznetsov Yu.S., Volodin V.M., Belyakova E.A. Concrete of a new genera- tion on the basis of dry fine-grained powder mixtures. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2012. No. 8, pp. 47–53. (In Russian).
15. Kalashnikov V.I. What is the powder-activated concrete of new generation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 10, pp. 70–71. (In Russian)
N.A. MITINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (mitinana@tpu.ru), V.A. LOTOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (valotov@tpu.ru) National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (30, Lenina Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation)

Formation of Cement Stone Structure at Hydration and Hardening of a Hydrocarbonate Magnesium Binder Results of the study of the structure formation process when hardening a new water­resistant hydraulic magnesium substance – a hydrocarbonate magnesium binder – are presented. Improvement of the water resistance and giving hydraulic properties to the magnesium cement is connected with the use of a principally new gauging liquid – magnesium bicarbonate. The use of this solution allows hardening of a magnesium composition not only in the air but also in water. The water­resistance coefficient which corresponds to the coefficient of hydration hardening is up to 3.6. When gauging magnesium binders with the water solution of magnesium bicarbonate, main products of hardening are magnesium hydroxide and mag­ nesium hydrocarbonates, Magnesium hydrocarbonates are insoluble in water that provides the improved water resistance of magnesium compositions and the possibility of their hard­ ening and maturing in water.

Keywords: magnesium binder, water resistance, hardening in water, magnesium bicarbonate solution, magnesium hydrocarbonates.

For citation: Mitina N.A., Lotov V.A. Formation of cement stone structure at hydration and hardening of a hydrocarbonate magnesium binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 68–73. (In Russian).

References
1. Svit T.F. Thermogravimetric study of the products of hydration and hardening of sulfomagnesian binders. Polzunovskiy vestnik. 2010. No. 3, pp. 100–103. (In Russian).
2. Zimich V.V., Kramar L.Ya., Trofimov B.Ya. Fall in hygro- scopicity and rise of water resistance of chlormagnezic stone by injection of trivalent iron. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 5, pp 58–61. (In Russian).
3. Zimich V.V., Kramar L.Ya., Chernykh T.N., Pudovikov V.N., Perminov A.V. Features of the influence of the addi- tion of iron hydroxide sol on the structure and properties of magnesia stone Vestnik YuUrGU. Seriya «Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura». 2011. Vol. 13. No. 35, pp. 25–32. (In Russian).
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9. Patent RF 2374176. Sposob polucheniya ul’tradispersnykh poroshkov karbonatov [Method for obtaining ultrafine carbonate powders]. Smirnov A.P., Lotov V.A., Arkhipov V.A., Prokhorov A.N., Reznikov I.V. Declared 04.04.2006. Published 27.11.2009. Bulletin No. 33. (In Russian).
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11. Lotov V.A., Kutugin V.A. Upravlenie protsessami formirovaniya dispersnykh struktur [Management of the processes of formation of dispersed structures]. Tomsk: TPU Publishing House. 2013. 336 p.
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N.A. GALCEVA, Engineer (galcevanadezda@mail.ru), A.F.BURIANOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (rga-service@mail.ru), V.G. SOLOVIEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (s_vadim_g@mail.ru), D.I. TKACHENKO, Magister Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Shosse, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

A Modified Binder on the Basis of Synthetic Anhydrite for Stowing Mixtures Results of the study of modification of the synthetic anhydrite of calcium sulfate obtained at interaction of the concentrated H2SO4 and ground limestone for the use when preparing stowing mixtures are presented. The optimal composition of the modified anhydrite binder with 2.5% of Portland cement and 1% of calcium sulfate of the anhydrite mass meeting the requirements for stowing mixtures concerning their technological and physical­mechanical properties has been determined. The influence of a plasticizer on the structure formation of the developed modified binder as well as the optimal content of the anhydrite and calcium sulfate dehydrate in the hardened system, which provides maximal physical­mechanical prop­ erties, have been determined.

Keywords: synthetic anhydrite, modified binder, plasticizer, structure, physical­mechanical properties.

For citation: Galceva N.A., Burianov A.F., Soloviev V.G., Tkachenko D.I. A modified binder on the basis of synthetic anhydrite for stowing mixtures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 8, pp. 74–76. (In Russian).

References
1. Grinevich A.V., Kiselev A.A., Kuznetsov E.M., Bur’yanov A.F. Production of Synthetic Anhydrite Calcium Sulfate from Concentrated Sulfuric Acid and Flour Limestone. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 16–19. (In Russian).
2. Burianov A.F., Ivanitskiy V.V. Properties and rational ranges of application plaster and anhydrite knitting with various reference water requirement. Increase in produc- tion efficiency and use of plaster materials and products: The collection of materials of the All-Russian seminar with the international participation. Moscow. 2002, pp. 230–232. (In Russian).
3. Ivanitskiy V.V., Burianov A.F. Investigation of the prop- erties of gypsum and anhydrite binder as a basic material for self-leveling floor screeds. Science and technology of silicate materials – the present and the future: Collection of works of the International scientific and practical confer- ence. Moscow. 2003, pp. 317–320. (In Russian).
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5. Burianov A.F., Petrachenko V.V. Hydration of anhydrite binder. Concrete and reinforced concrete in the third mil- lennium: Materials of the fourth international conference. Rostov-na-Donu. 2006, pp. 89–95. (In Russian).
6. Burianov A.F., Petrachenko V.V. Influence of additives on hydration of anhydrite knitting. Concrete and rein- forced concrete in the third millennium: Materials of the fourth international conference. Rostov-na-Donu. 2006, 96–104. (In Russian).
7. Gainutdinov A.K., Gontar’ Yu.V., Bur’yanov A.F. Application anhydrite and the gipsoangidritovykh of the dry structural blends knitting for production. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi. 2007. No. 1, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
8. Burianov A.F, Gontar Y.V., Chalova A.I. On the use of gypsum and anhydrite binders in dry mixes for the instal- lation of floor bases. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi. 2010. No. 1, pp. 11–13. (In Russian).
9. Maeva I.S., Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Bur’ya- nov A.F., Pustovgar A.P. Structuring of Anhydrite Matrix with Nanodisperse Modifying Additives. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 6, pp. 4–5. (In Russian).
10. Maeva I.S., Yakovlev G.I., Izryadnova O.V., Buryanov A.F., Fisher H.B. Processes of hydration anhydrite knitting at introduction of dispersible mineral additives. Problems and achievements of a structural complex Stroikompleks-2010: materials of the International scientific and technical confer- ence. Izhevsk. 2010, pp. 222–225. (In Russian).
11. Gontar’ Y.V., Chalova A.I., Burianov A.F. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi na osnove gipsa i angidrita [Dry build- ing mixtures based on gypsum and anhydrite] Moscow: De-Nova. 2010. 214 p.
12. Pustovgar A.P., Vasilik P.G., Bur’yanov A.F. Features of the Use of Hyperplasticizers in Dry Building Mixes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 12, pp. 61–64. (In Russian).
13. Buryanov A.F. Modification of structure and properties of materials on the basis of plaster and anhydrite ultra- and nanodispersible additives. Stroitel’nye materialy, iz- deliya i sanitarnaya tekhnika. 2011. No. 41, pp. 91–95. (In Russian).
14. Burianov A.F. Composites on the basis of plaster and anhydrite, the modified ultra- and nanodispersible addi- tives. Collection of works of the International scientific conference “Integration, Partnership and Innovations in Structural Science and Education”. Moscow. 2011. Vol. 2, pp. 17–21. (In Russian)
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