Stroitel`nye Materialy №4

Table of contents

This topic was the subject of discussion by the participants of the scientific and technical seminar "Experience of reconstruction of the existing brick production", one of the permanent Events of KERAMTEX. The seminar was held on February 15, 2017 in Novosibirsk
Ju.V. TEREKHINA 1 , Engineer (; B.V. TALPA 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy); A.V. KOTLJAR 1 , Engineer
1 Don State Technical University (1, Gagarina Square, Rostov-on-Don, 344010, Russian Federation)
2 Southern Federal University (105/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russian Federation)

Mineralogical-Technological Peculiarities of Lithified Clay Rocks and Prospects for Their Use in Building Ceramic Production The high prospect of engagement clayey sediments, which are compact-ed and argilli-toptable clay, mudstone, totality, clay and carbonaceous shales, which are widespread on the territory of Russia, for the produc-tion of various products of building ceramics. The conditions of their formation and the associated features of their mineralogical composition. It describes the process of illitization pri- mary smectite–hydrologist clay. Gives a brief description of their technological properties and correlation with physical structure. Indicates that hydrology different degrees of crystallinity are miner- als–indicators of the degree of lithification of shale, which is confirmed by electron microscopic studies. Provides conditional classification clay raw mate-rials suitable for extrusion and compression molding technology products. Is the need to develop clear terminology, test methods and classifi-cation clay raw materials, reflecting its qualitative characteristics and technological properties. Keywords: building ceramic, argillous raw material, lithified clay rocks, hydromica, mineral-indicators, technology, mudstone, minerals.

For citation: Terekhina Ju.V., Talpa B.V., Kotljar A.V. Mineralogical-technological peculiarities of lithified clay rocks and prospects for their use in building ceramic production. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 8–10. (In Russian).

1. Kotlyar V.D., Kozlov A.V., Kotlyar A.V., Terekhina Yu.V. Features of solid clay rocks of the Eastern Donbass as raw material for producing wall ceramics. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 10, pp. 95–105. (In Russian).
2. Talpa B.V., Kotlyar A.V. Mineral-raw material base of lith- ified clay rocks of the South of Russia for production of building ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
3. Kotlyar A.V. Technological properties of claystone-like clays in clinker production. Vestnik TGASU. 2016. No. 2, pp. 164–175. (In Russian).
4. Talpa B.V., Kotlyar A.V., Lazareva Ya.V. Features of chemical compositions of argillite-like clays and argil- lites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 4, pp. 10–14. (In Russian).
5. Gavrilov Ju.O., Galkin V.A., Panov D.I., Talickij V.G. Litologo-mineralogichesky and structural and geological characteristics of a low-ersredneyursky complex of Greater Caucasus (area of the Terek River). Litologija i poleznye iskopaemye. 1999. No 1, pp. 58–77. (In Russian).
6. Gavrilov Ju.O., Sokolova A.L., Cipurskij S.I. Terrigenous deposits of Central Caucasus Mountains in various situa- tions the postdiagenet-icheskikh of transformations (low- er and average Yura). Litologija i poleznye iskopaemye. 1992. No. 6, pp. 42–66. (In Russian).
7. Osipov V.I., Sokolov V.N. Gliny i ih svojstva. Sostav, stroenie i formirovanie svojstv [Clays and their properties. Structure, structure and formation of properties]. Moscow: GEOS. 2013, 576 p.
8. Holodov V.N. New in knowledge of a katagenez. Infiltration and gravitational and brine catagenesis. Litologija i poleznye iskopaemye. 1982. No. 3, pp. 3–22. (In Russian).
9. Holodov V.N. Lisianyi catagenesis. Litologija i poleznye iskopaemye. 1982. No. 5, pp. 5–42. (In Russian).
A.D. PETELIN1, Director General, V.I. SAPRYKIN1, Chief Geologist; V.A. KLEVAKIN2, Chief Executive (, E.V. KLEVAKINA2, Engineer
1 «Cheljabinskoe rudoupravlenie» ZAO NP (9, Sovetskaja Street, Settlement Uvel’skij, 457000, Cheljabinskaja Region, Russian Federation);
2 «NANO KERAMIKA» OOO (18, A, 50 let SSSR Street, Pervoural’sk, 623100, Sverdlovskaja Region, Russian Federation)

Universality of Clays of the Nizhne-Uvelsky Deposit when Producing Ceramic Building Materials An increase in demand for white-burning and high-melting clays from enterprise-manufacturers of wall building materials is substantiated. The Chelyabinsk Mine Group is presented as a supplier of the high quality selective clay raw material with a sintering interval of 980–1300 о C which are produced in accordance with the technical specification of the consumers with variations of key indicators within 1%. Some properties of ceramic wall products produced on the basis of clays of the Nizhne-Uvelsky Deposit are presented. It is concluded that these clays are universal and suitable for production of fire-resistant products, ceramic tiles and high-quality wall ceramic materials – clinker and large-format blocks.

Keywords: white-burning clay, clay minerals, mineral composition, burning temperature, sintering interval, rotary excavator, stacker, averaging of composition, clinker brick, large-format blocks.

For citation: Petelin A.D., Saprykin V.I., Klevakin V.A., Klevakina E.V. Universality of clays of the Nizhne-Uvelsky deposit when producing ceramic building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 11–13. (In Russian).

1. Bobkova N.M. et al. Obshchaya tekhnologiya silikatov [General technology of silicates]. Minsk: Vyshjejshaja shkola. 2007. 301 p.
2. Semerikov I.S., Mihajlova N.A., Bashkatov N.N. Tehnologija stroitel’nyh keramicheskih materialov [Technology of construction ceramic materials]. Ekaterinburg: UGTU-UPI. 2008. P. 256.
3. Gomzyakov V.V., Klevakin V.A., Ivanova O.A. Perspectives of development of «Revdinskiy brick facto- ry» for 2007. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 2, pp. 39–41. (In Russian).
4. Petelin A.D., Saprykin V.I., Klevakin V.A., Klevakina E.V. Features of the use of nizhneuvelsky deposit clays in production of ceramic brick Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).
5. Kashcheev I.D., Gomzyakov V.V., Klevakin V.A. Manufacture of colored ceramic bricks. Vestnik UGTU- UPI. 2005. No. 14, pp. 186–188. (In Russian).
6. Semerikov I.S., Mikhailova N.A. Osnovy tekhnologii khudozhestvennoi keramiki [The basic technology of ar- tistic ceramics.]. Ekaterinburg: UGTU-UPI. 2005. 264 p.
A.A. NAUMOV, Candidate of Sciences(Engineering) ( Academia of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Don State Technical University (33, Zhuravleva Lane, Rostov-on-Don, 344000, Russian Federation)

Facing and Clinker Brick from Siliceous Raw Material of the Shevchenko Deposit Results of the study of possibilities to produce facing and clinker brick from opoka-like raw materials of the Shevchenko deposit by a semi-dry pressing method are presented. It is determined that only when grinding the gaize to less than 0.25 mm followed by granulation of the mass, the physico-mechanical and decorative properties of samples are significantly improved. It is established that the production of these products of red and yellow colour is possible when introducing correcting additives in the mass. A temperature interval for burn- ing of facing products is 1020–1050°C, for clinker products is 1050–1080°C. To produce clinker brick, high-melting clay of the Vladimirskoe deposit is additionally introduced in the mass composition.

Keywords: siliceous raw material, clinker brick, facing ceramic brick, semi-dry pressing, burning temperature.

For citation: Naumov A.A. Facing and clinker brick from siliceous raw material of the shevchenko deposit. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 14–17. (In Russian).

1. Kornilov A.V. Nonconventional types of nonmetallic raw materials for production of construction ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 2. pp. 50–51. (In Russian).
2. Kotlyar V.D. Stenovaya keramika na osnove kremnistykh opal-kristobalitovykh porod – opok [Wall ceramics based on siliceous opal-cristobalite rocks – molding]. Rostov- on-Don: Rostizdat. 2011. 277 p. (In Russian).
3. Kotlyar V.D., Ustinov A.V., Kovalev V.Yu., Terekhina Yu.V., Kotlyar A.V. Ceramic stones of compression moulding on the basis of gaizes and coal preparation waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 44–48. (In Russian).
4. Kornilov A.V., Permykov E.N. Ceramic materials out of lo- cal nontraditional types of non-ore raw materials. Razvedka i okhrana nedr. 2009. No. 10, pp. 61–65. (In Russian).
5. Kara-sal B.K., Sat D.Kh., Seren Sh.V., Mongush D.S. Wall ce- ramics from non-traditional raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 4, pp. 33–36. (In Russian).
6. Storozhenko G.I., Stolboushkin A.Yu., Mishin M.P. Perspectives of domestic production of ceramic bricks on the basis of waste of coal enrichment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 57–61. (In Russian).
7. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D. Theoretical bases of innovative technologies of building ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 88–92. (In Russian).
8. Talpa B.V. Prospects of development of mineral resourc- es for production of the light-burning wall ceramics in the south of Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).
9. Ashmarin G.D., Lastochkin V.G., Ilyukhin V.V., Minakov A.G., Tat’yanchikov A.V. Innovative technolo- gies of high-efficiency ceramic building products based on siliceous breeds. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 7, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).
10. Gurov N.G., Naumov A.A., Yundin A.N. Improvement of frost resistance of semidry pressing ceramic stone with a min- eral modifying additive. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 78–80. (In Russian).
11. Gurov N.G., Kotljarova L.V., Ivanov N.N. Production of a ceramic brick of light tones from the burning down is red clay raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy. [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 9, pp. 58–59. (In Russian).
JSC "NIISSTROMMASH" has been working in the machine-building industry since 1954. With his Dozens of successfully functioning and currently For the production of ceramic bricks
A.Yu. STOLBOUSНKIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, A.I. IVANOV1, Engineer (, D.V. AKST1, Engineer, O.A. FOMINA 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), M.P. MISHIN2 , Engineer (, V.A. SYROMYASOV1, Engineer
1 Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirov Street, Kemerovo Region, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)
2 REMSTROY-N OAO (54, Murmanskaya Street, Kemerovo Region, Novokuznetsk, 654002, Russian Federation)

Unsuccessful Experience in Restructuring the Unique Factory Manufactoring Bricks From Waste Coal and Possible Ways for its Renovation* In the conditions of a necessary transition to wastes-free technologies and rational use of mineral resources the experience of operation of a unique in the world practice factory produc- ing ceramic bricks from 100% of waste coal by the method of semi-dry molding in Novokuznetsk (Russia) is described. The main factors for decrease in the production volumes and the factory shutdown after more than 20 years of trouble-free operation are provided. The attempts to restructure the bricks manufacturing factory to production of coke and coal briquettes are considered. The examination results of chemical, mineralogical composition and technological properties of the current waste coal from different coal mines, located in the south of Kuzbass, at the Central Processing Plant “Abashevskaya” in Kemerovo region are given. The perspective scheme of the brick factory renovation including a complex processing of waste coal, irrespective of the residual carbon content in the wastes, is offered.

Keywords: waste coal, ceramic brick, semi-dry molding, factory renovation, coal briquettes, coal-dust fuel.

For citation: Stolboushkin A.Yu., Ivanov A.I., Akst D.V., Fomina O.A., Mishin M.P., Syromyasov V.A. Unsuccessful experience in restructuring the unique factory manufactoring bricks from waste coal and possible ways for its renovation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 20–24. (In Russian).

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6. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Berdov G.I. Complex resources sav- ing processing of mineral raw material in the production of construction materials. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zave- denii. Stroitel’stvo. 2011. No. 1, pp. 46–53. (In Russian).
7. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Storozhenko G.I. Waste coal as a raw material and energy base for factories producing ce- ramic wall materials Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 4, pp. 43–46. (In Russian).
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9. Storozhenko G.I., Stolboushkin A.Yu., Mishin M.P. Perspectives of the domestic production of ceramic brick from waste coal. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 57–61. (In Russian).
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"KOMAS" (Complex automated systems We) - was organized in 1992 on the basis of the Automation Laboratory of the head institute of the USSR in the field of the VNIPI Heatproject
The factory of construction ceramics "KETRA",is located in the Krasnoarmeysky district of the Chuvash Republic, is A branch of ZAO TUS, one of the largest construction and assembly enterprises in Chuvashia
I.A. ZHENZHURIST, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) ( Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Prospects of Microwave Sintering of a Alumo-silicate Composition Using Ceramic Technology Results of the study of sintering possibility of an ash-liquid glass composition produced on the basis of ash of the Thermal Power Station-2 of Kazan, consisting of 70% of glass phase and 15% of amorphous phase and ash of the Novo-Irkutsk TPP with 44% 0f crystal phase and 56% of amorphous phase are presented. Ashes consist of hollow vitrified spheres and contain minerals which are part of the burned ceramic material, quartz and mullite first of all. On the basis of samples produced by pressing from the powder on the basis of ash and liquid glass, results of the comparative analysis of strength of samples after heat treatment in the muffle furnace according to the traditional burning in the ceramic technology up to 1000 °C and heat treatment under conditions of microwave heating in the electric field of ultra-high frequency are shown. Samples past irradiation in the ultra-high frequency field have shown greater strength comparing with the sample after conventional thermal heating. The structure of the sintered material and differences in color of the samples of thermal roasting and heating in the UHF furnace are shown. On the basis of the early conducted study of the effect of UHF field on the alumo-silicate compositions taking into account the difference in content of the active amorphous phase part in the ash and differences in strength indicators, it is assumed that the alumo-silicate structure of (share of crystal and amorphous phases) impacts on its reaction ability during the sintering process.

Keywords: ash, liquid glass, UHW field, hollow vitrified spheres, alumo-silicate.

For citation: Zhenzhurist I.A. Prospects of microwave sintering of a alumo-silicate composition using ceramic technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).

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4. Znamensky L.G., Varlamov A.S. Low-temperature syn- thesis of mullite in ceramics on zol-gel to process at elec- tropulse impact on colloids. Ogneupory i tekhnicheskaya keramika. 2014. No. 4–5, pp. 2–5. (In Russian).
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8. Zhelezniy P.N., Zhenzhurist I.A., Khozin V.G. Cera- mic construction materials on the basis of local raw ma- terials and waste of power system of Tatarstan. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 8, pp. 54–55. (In Russian).
V.A. GURIEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, A.V. DOROSHIN, Engineer, K.M. VDOVIN, Engineer, Yu.E. ANDREEVA, Magistrand Orenburg State University (13, Pobedy Avenue, 460018, Orenburg, Russian Federation)

Porous Ceramics on the Basis of Low-Melting Clays and Slurries Results of the study of possibility to obtain porous wall ceramic materials from the masses on the basis of a composition of low-grade clay raw materials and non-plastic components according to the technology of making the initial raw mix porous and subsequent fixation of the porous structure by burning are presented. Compositions of masses ensuring the obtain- ing of necessary porosity and mechanical strength of a ceramic matrix on the basis of low-melting clays and slurries of different origin have been determined. The need to introduce the aluminum powder into the mass composition as an additional pore-forming additive in an amount of 0.1–1.3% depending on the amount of calcium hydroxide in the mixes is revealed. The reasonability to use the broken glass in an amount of 15–20% for accelerating the process of the ceramic matrix sintering has been determined.

Keywords: porous ceramic materials, anthropogenic waste, drilling slurry, water treatment slurry, method of burnable additives.

For citation: Gurieva V.A., Doroshin A.V., Vdovin K.M., Andreeva Yu.E. Porous ceramics on the basis of low-melting clays and slurries. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 32–36. (In Russian).

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V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, K.S. YAVRUYAN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Don State Technical University (162, Socialisticheskaja Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)

Wall Ceramic Articles on the Basis of Fine-Disperse Products of Waste Pile Processing The high perspectivity of production of wall ceramic articles on the basis of fine-grained products of processing of waste piles with high content of a coal component is shown. Characteristics of these materials, which factually are the ready ceramic mixture as well as characteristics of articles produced depending on the burning temperature are presented. The interconnection between various properties of articles produced, compression strength limit of which are 10–19 MPa at low density, is established. Recommendations on main techno- logical parameters of the production are made. It is emphasized that the low cost of products are due to the exclusion of expenditures for raw materials related to the development and content of deposits, the practical absence of expenditures for mass preparation, products drying due to the heat extraction from the kiln, the absence of expenditures for fuel required for burning. It is indicated that when producing wall ceramic articles on the basis of fine-grained products of waste piles processing, additional sources of profits related to the reduction in capital and current expenditures for maintenance of waste piles and the use of surplus heat in different directions appear.

Keywords: wall ceramic, anthropogenic raw materials, waste piles, technology.

For citation: Kotlyar V.D., Yavruyan K.S. Wall ceramic articles on the basis of fine-disperse products of waste pile processing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 38–41. (In Russian).

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A.M. SALAKHOV1,4, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (; V.P. MOROZOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy); A.I. GUMAROV 1, Engineer; K.A. ARISKINA3 , Laboratory Technician; A.R. VALIMUKHAMETOVA3, Laboratory Technician; O.N. LIS 3, Laboratory Technician; M.V. PASYNKOV3 , Laboratory Technician.
1 Kazan Federal University. Institute of Physics (16a, Kremlyovskaya Street, 420008, Kazan, Russian Federation)
2 Kazan Federal University. Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies (4/5, Kremlyovskaya Street, 420008, Kazan, Russian Federation
3 University spin-off «Clinker ceramics of KFU» (18, Kremlyovskaya Street, 420008, Kazan, Russian Federation)
4 OAO «Alekseevskaya Keramika» (10, Kirpichnozavodskaya Street, town settlement Alekseevskoye, Republic of Tatarstan, 422900, Russina Federation)

Experience of Surface Treatment of Ceramic Materials of Construction Purpose The surface characteristics of various ceramic materials using atomic-force and laser microscopes have been investigated. Among various methods of surface treatment glazes were noted. The boundary zone of the glaze and the ceramic shard with the help of scanning electron microscopy have been investigated. The analysis of polymer coatings of bricks, their elemental composition are shown. Due to the heterogeneity of the structure and low hardness the problematic characteristics of polymer coatings are noted. The possibility of control- ling the color of the surface layer of the face brick by changing the burning atmosphere is shown. Positive experience of enterprises on surface processing of brick were noted. The results of magnetron sputter deposition of a thin film of titanium nitride on ceramic materials have been presented. It was suggested that this method should be used for surface treat- ment of building ceramics.

Keywords: ceramics, surface characteristics, glaze, engobe, polymer coating, mineral composition, magnetron sputtering, titanium nitride

For citation: Salakhov A.M., Morozov V.P., Gumarov A.I., Ariskina K.A., Valimukhametova A.R., Lis O.N., Pasynkov M.V. Experience of surface treatment of ceramic materials of con- struction purpose. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 42–46. (In Russian).

1. Casasola R., Rincon J. Ma, Romero M. Glass-ceramic glazes for ceramic tiles: a review, Received: 18 July 2011 / Accepted: 19 September 2011 / Published online: 4 October 2011.
2. Krasnikov G.Ya., Zaitsev N.A. Sistema kremnii – dioksid kremniya submikronnykh SBIS [The silicon-silicon dioxide system of submicron VLSI]. Moskow: Tekhnosfera, 2003. 384 p.
3. Simonis H. Ceramische Erfahrungen Glasuren Eigenschaften, Fehler und Beseitigungen, besondere Oberflachen 1994. Gruppo Editoriale Faenza Editrice S.p.A. pp. 28–29.
4. Kharybina Yu.V., Pitak O.Ya., Pitak I.V. Development of decorative coatings for facial ceramic products. Vostochno- evropeiskii zhurnal peredovykh tekhnologii. 2013. No 6, pp. 56–58. (In Russia).
5. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D., Rat’kova V.P. Angobes based on red-burning low-melting clays. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 3, pp. 40–41. (In Russia).
6. Kotlyar V.D., Novikova A.S., Terekhina Yu.V. Technology and design of ceramic bricks with a decorative polymer coat- ing with the effect of “ombr”. Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona. Scientific Internet-journal, 2013. No. 4. http://www.iv- (date of ac- cess 20.03.2017) (In Russia).
7. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Yu.V., Kotlyar A.V. Properties, applications and requirements for clinker bricks. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 72–74. (In Russia).
8. Gorshkov V.S., Savel’ev V.G., Abakumov A.B. Vyazhu- shchie, keramika i steklokristallicheskie materialy: Struktura i svoistva [Binders, ceramics and glass-crystal- line materials: Structure and properties]: Sprav. Posobie. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1994. 564 p.
9. Krasnokutskiy Yu.I., Vereshchak V.G. Poluchenie tugo- plavkikh soedinenii v plazme [Production of refractory compounds in plasma]. Kiev: Vishcha shkola. 1987. 200 p.
10. Yuryev Y.N., Mikhnevich K.S., Krivobokov V.P., Side- lyov D.V., Kiselyova D.A. The properties of titanium nitride films, obtained by magnetron sputtering. Izvestiya Samarskogo nauch- nogo tsentra RAN. 2014. No. 4 (3), pp. 672–676. (In Russia).
11. Gotman I., Gutmanas E.Y., Hunter G. (2011). Wear- resistant ceramic films and coatings, in Ducheyne, P. (ed.), Comprehensive Biomaterials. 2011. Vol. 1, pp. 127–155.
G.I. GRINFEL’D1, Engineer, A.A. VISHNEVSKIJ2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), P.P. PASTUSHKOV 3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.N. KOZLOV, Engineer
1 LSR. Stenovye, ООО (40 a, Oktjabr’skaja Embankment, Sankt-Peterburg, 193091, Russian Federation)
2 Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N.Yeltsi (19, Mira Street, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russian Federation)
3 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)

Brick Facades. Correct Technical Solutions and Examples of Successful Realization Reasons for the statistically low quality of brick facades designed in the 2000s are described. The list of impacts on the brick facing of multilayered walls with floor-by-floor support, accounting of which is not prescribed by regulations, but which have had a direct effect on the integrity of the brick facade facing is presented. Recommendations to reduce the influ- ence of these impacts on facing layers are made. The need and method for accounting of the output of initial moisture from the inner layers of walls in the first seasons of operation are described. An overview of the technical solutions, the implementation of which provides the trouble-free operation of brick facades of buildings with a bearing frame is done. The classi- fication of suspended facade systems which are finished with stone masonry is presented; examples of the successful realization of brick facades with due regard for all the require- ments which became mandatory from 2012 are also presented.

Keywords: ceramic brick, wall materials, brick masonry, brick facing, multi-layer enclosing structures, masonry defects, leaning of facing masonry, temperature deformations, flexible connections, normative requirements.

For citation: : Grinfel’d G.I., Vishnevskij A.A., Pastushkov P.P., Kozlov A.N. Brick facades. Correct technical solutions and examples of successful realization. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 47–50. (In Russian).

1. Grinfeld G.I. Dialectics of specified requirements for re- sistance of enclosing structures to heat transfer. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 1, pp. 22–24. (In Russian).
2. Ishchuk M.K. Requirements for multi-layer walls with flexible connections. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
3. Ishchuk M.K. Otechestvennyi opyt vozvedeniya zdanii s naruzhnymi stenami iz oblegchennoi kladki [Domestic experience in the erection of buildings with external walls of lightweight masonry]. Moscow: RIF «Stroimaterialy». 2009. 360 p.
4. Orlovich R.B., Naichuk A.Ya., Derkach V.N. Anisotropy of the strength of masonry from masonry elements with slotted vertical voids. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy. 2010. No. 3, pp. 35–38. (In Russian).
5. Code of Regulations 15.13330.2012 “Updated version of SNiP II-22–81* Stone and reinforced-stone construc- tions”. (In Russian).
6. SNiP II-22–81* “Stone and reinforced-stone construc- tions”. (In Russian).
7. Order of the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation No. 821/pr dated November 18, 2016. On approval of Amendment No. 1 to JV 15.13330.2016 “SNiP II-22–81* Stone and reinforced-stone constructions”. (In Russian).
8. Orlovich R.B., Rubtsov N.M., Zimin S.S. On the work of anchors in multi-layered enclosing structures with an outer brick layer. Inzhenerno-stroitel’niy zhurnal. 2013. No. 1, pp. 3–11. (In Russian).
9. Code of Regulations 50.13330.2012 “Updated version of SNiP 23-02–2003” Thermal protection of buildings”. (In Russian).
10. Grinfeld G.I., Vishnevskiy A.A. Brick and stones with high emptiness in the cladding of external walls. Stroitel’stvo unikal’nykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy. 2016. No. 11, pp. 22–36. (In Russian).
11. Saenko E.G., Korepanova V.F., Grinfeld G.I. Capabilities of facade clinker brick of «LSR» brand to substitute im- port. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 4, pp. 60–63. (In Russian).
V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Development Strategy of the Industry Till 2030 Has Been Approved How to ensure its implementation with high-qualified engineers, if their graduation in Russia was stopped? To provide personnel for the Strategy of innovation development of the building industry of the Russian Federation till 2030 and for the Strategy of development of building materi- als industry for the period till 2020 and for further perspective till 2030, it is proposed to start at the regional civil engineering university the training of high-qualified engineers on the basis of a 6-year education plan with advanced programs in natural sciences (physics, chemistry, mathematics) and in special disciplines with the obligatory research work with a yearly – beginning from the third course – two-month job training. The education is to be completed with a graduating research work or an innovative project on a topic actual to the construction industry. The employment of such engineers at advanced enterprises or design institutions should be realized on a contract basis with decent salaries and social benefits.

Keywords: strategy of 2030, construction industry, innovative development, engineering-construction elite, civil engineering higher educational institutions, education.

For citation: Khozin V.G. Development strategy of the industry till 2030 has been approved. How to ensure its implementation with high-qualified engineers, if their graduation in Russia was stopped? Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 51–54. (In Russian).

1. Nevezhin V.A. Zastol’nye rechi Stalina: Dokumenty i materialy [Stalin’s drinking speeches: Documents and materials]. Moscow: AIRO-XX; Saint-Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin. 2003, pp. 89.
2. Shestopalova O.N., Okuneva T.V. The role of the univer- sity in the educational and professional trajectories of modern youth. Vestnik of the Ural State University of Railway Engineering. 2016. No. 2 (30), pp. 100–107. DOI: 10.20291 / 2079-0392-2016-2-100-107. (In Russian).
3. Margolin A. How to keep prices. Argumenty i fakty. 2017. No. 6, p. 5. (In Russian).
4. Chuikov A. Brain column of the bologna system. Argu- menty nedeli. 2016. No. 34 (525), p. 3. (In Russian).
5. Il’ichev V.A., Kolchunov V.I., Bakaeva N.V. Contem- porary architectural-construction education in light of solving problems of safety of life activity environment. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 3, pp. 3–9. (In Russian).
6. Korolev E.V. Economics of the educational process: the main parameters and results of modeling. Integratsiya obrazovaniya. 2015. Vol. 19. No. 3, pp. 59–69. DOI: 10.15507/Inted.080.019.201503.059. (In Russian).
P.G. EREMEEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, I.I. VEDYAKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( TSNIISK named after A.V. Kucherenko, JSC Research Center of Construction (6, bldg. 5, Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Design and Erection of Metal Structures of Large-Span Unique Buildings and Facilities When designing unique facilities, the problems, going beyond current regulations, arise. The development of modern technologies during the last decades, which determined the appearance of new forms, materials, methods of designing and construction, causes new and complex problems. The consequence of novelty and innovations, when changing even main principles of the traditional design and construction, is failures that are caused by single and combined reasons often without precedents. The novelty of technical solutions requires the deep special knowledge, experience in designing of such facilities from an engineer-designer. To provide the quality and high reliability (safety, functionality, and durability) of large-span unique structures, it is necessary to ensure the scientific-technical support of their design and construction, the complex of works of scientific-methodic, expert-control, information-analytical, and organization character with due regard for the use of non-standard design solutions, materials and structures. Examples of the use of modern spatial systems in the construction practice with some recommendations on their design are presented. Issues of ensuring the safety of large-span structures from an avalanche-like (progressive) col- lapse in case of emergency impacts as well issues of the technical monitoring during their erection and operation are outlined.

Keywords: metal structures, unique large-span structures, scientific support of design, progressive collapse, monitoring, unique large-span buildings.

For citation: Eremeev P.G., Vedyakov I.I. Design and erection of metal structures of large-span unique buildings and facilities. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 55–58. (In Russian).

1. Eremeev P.G Metal designs of coverings of unique wide- span constructions. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2007. No. 3, pp. 19–21. (In Russian).
2. remeev P.G. Sovremennye stal’nye konstruktsii bol’she- proletnykh pokrytii unikal’nykh zdanii i sooruzhenii [Modern steel structures of wide-span coverings of unique buildings and constructions]. Moscow: ASV. 2009. 336 p.
3. Otstavnov V.A., Lebedeva I.V. Snow loads of a covering. Montazhnye i spetsial’nye raboty v stroitel’stve. 2005. No. 3, pp. 56–59. (In Russian).
4. Popov N.A. Rekomendatsii po utochnennomu dinamiches- komu raschetu zdanii i sooruzhenii na deistvie pul’satsionnoi sostavlyayushchei vetrovoi nagruzki [Recommendations about the specified dynamic calculation of buildings and constructions on action of the pulsation component of wind loading]. Moscow: Gosstroi Rossii. 2000. 75 p.
5. Odesskiy P.D., Kulik D.V. Stal of new generation in unique constructions. Moscow: Intermet Engineering, 2005. 176 p.
6. Eremeev P.G. Unique wide-span metal designs of coverings. from the Olympic Games 1980 in Moscow till 2014 in Sochi. Vestnik NITs Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 11 (34), pp. 93–102. (In Russian).
7. Sysoyeva E. V. Scientific approaches to calculation and design of wide-span designs. Vestnik MGSU. 2017. T. 12. No. 2 (101), pp. 131–141. (In Russian).
T.A. MUKHAMEDIEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( ), B.S. SOKOLOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) NIIZHB named after A.A. Gvozdev, JSC Research Center of Construction (6, bldg 5, 2nd Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)

New in Rating of Steel Fiber Concrete and Calculations of Steel Fiber Concrete Structures Principles of the classification and the system of specified strength characteristics of steel fiber concrete proposed in a draft code of rules “Steel Fiber Concrete Structures. Design Rules” are outlined. Main differences in the methods for calculation of steel fiber concrete structures outlined in the draft code of rules from the provisions of the existing SP 52-104–2006 “Steel Fiber Concrete Structures” are considered. The scheme of the bending test of a steel fiber concrete beam-sample is shown. Diagrams of the deformation of steel fiber concrete in the course of compression and tension, the scheme of forces and the plot of stresses in the section normal to the longitudinal axis of a bended steel fiber concrete ele- ment of rectangular cross-section when calculating its strength with reinforcement and without reinforcement are presented. The attention is focused on the fact that when determining the curvatures under short-term loading, the diagrams of short-time deformation of compressed and tension steel fiber concrete are used for calculation; when determining the curva- tures under long-term loading, the diagrams of long-lasting deformation of steel fiber concrete with calculated characteristics for limit states of the second group are used.

Keywords: steel fiber concrete, strength, limit force method, non-linear deformation model, fiber concrete structures, bending elements strength, tensile and compressed zones, rod reinforcement, calculation methods.

For citation: Mukhamediev T.A., Sokolov B.S. New in rating of steel fiber concrete and calculations of steel fiber concrete structures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 59–64. (In Russian).

1. Volkov I.V., Belyaeva V.A. Stalefibrobetonnye konstruktsii zdanii i sooruzhenii. [Stalefibrobetonnye of a structure of build- ings and constructions]. Moscow: VNIINTPI, 1990. 59 p.
2. Rabinovich F.N. Kompozity na osnove dispersno armirovannykh betonov. Voprosy teorii i proektirovanii, tekhnologiya, konstruktsii [Composites on the basis of dis- persno the reinforced concrete. Questions of the theory and design, technology, design]. Moscow: DIA, 2011. 646 p.
3. Shugayev V.V., Sokolov B.S., Gagua N.I., Stolypina L.I., Levina S.G. Spatial designs from the gnutoformovannykh of the disperse reinforced elements. Seminar materials “Spatial designs”. Moscow, 1991. P. 192–200.
4. Johnston C.D. Steel fiber reinforced mortar and con- crete: review of mechanical properties. Fiber Reinforced Concrete SP 44. Detroit: American Concrete Institute, 1974, pp. 127–142.
5. Dixon J., Mayfield B. Concrete reinforced with fibrous wire. Journal of the Structural Division, 1971. Vol. 5. No. 3, pp. 73–76.
6. Kar N.J., Pal A.K. Strength of fiber reinforced concrete. Journal of the Structural Division. 1972. Vol. 98. No. ST-5, pp. 1053–1068.
7. Mukhamediyev T.A. Calculation for durability of the designs bent the fibrobetonnykh by method of extreme efforts. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenii, 2016. No. 5, pp. 12–18. (In Russian).
8. Mukhamediyev T.A. To a question of calculation the fi- brobetonnykh of designs. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2017. No. 1, pp. 16–20. (In Russian).
S.B. KRYLOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, L.A. TITOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.I. ZVEZDOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) NIIZHB named after A.A. Gvozdev, JSC Research Center of Construction (6, bldg 5, 2nd Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Calculation of Dimensions of Self-Stressing Concrete Inserts When Constructing Jointless Reinforced Concrete Structures of Great Length

When erecting the structures of great length made of Portland cement concrete, temperature-shrinkage joints are executed. The large number of joints in structures over 100 m is not technological when foundation slabs of ceiling floors are used in such facilities as warehouses, shopping centers, hotel complexes. That’s why the technology of erection of jointless structures of large length has been developed. The whole surface is divided into hooks and inserts. Hooks are strips of 30–50 m width and inserts are made of self-stressing concrete. After stabilization of shrinkage deformations of conventional concrete, inserts are concreted. When inserts are enlarging, the elastic compression of hooks concrete takes place that pro- vides the seamlessness and crack resistance of the structure as a whole. The magnitude of shrinkage and enlargement deformations depends on many technological and structural fac- tors. Methods for calculation of the required size of inserts with due regard for these factors impact has been developed.

Keywords: concrete, shrinkage, reinforcing, temperature-shrinkage joints, deformation, jointless reinforced concrete structures, stabilization of shrinkage deformations.

For citation: Krylov S.B., Titova L.A., Zvezdov A.I. Calculation of dimensions of self-stressing concrete inserts when constructing jointless reinforced concrete structures of great length.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 65–67. (In Russian).

1. Barabanshchikov Yu.G., Arkharov A.A., Ternovsky M.V. Beton with the lowered shrinkage and creep. Stroitel’stvo unikal’nykh zdanii i sooruzhenii. 2014. No. 7 (22), рр. 52–165.
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7. Karpenko N.I. Obshchie modeli mekhaniki zhelezobeto- na [General models of mechanics of reinforced concrete]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1996. 416 p.
8. Hodzhayev S.A. Features of physicomechanical proper- ties of the straining concrete in combined and monolithic designs. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2001. No. 4, pp. 20–23.
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10. Zvezdov A.I., Titov M.Yu. Concrete with the compen- sated shrinkage for construction of crack-proof designs of big extent. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2001. No. 4, pp. 17–20.
M.R. NURTDINOV, Engineer (, А.F. BUR’YANOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.G. SOLOV’EV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Improving the Efficiency of the Use of Composite Glass Plastic Fiber in Concretes Results of the research in improving the properties of fiber concretes disperse reinforced with composite glass plastic fiber are presented. Improving the efficiency of glass plastic fiber is reached due to the modification of a concrete matrix with an expanding additive up to 15% and water soluble resin up to 2% of the cement mass. The efficiency of additives introduc- tion is assessed according to values of the extraction load of some fibers from the concrete matrix; these values are determined according to the specially developed methods. The interrelation between numerical values of loads of fiber extraction and strength characteristics of fiber concrete has been established. It is determined that the maximum load in the course of extraction of composite glass plastic fiber is increased by 75% when the cement matrix is modified with the expansion agent RD and water soluble resin DEG-1 that leads to improving the tensile strength, when the fiber concrete is bended, by 31.1%.

Keywords: composite glass plastic fiber, extraction load, concrete, expansion agent, water soluble epoxy resin.

For citation: Nurtdinov M.R., Bur’yanov A.F., Solov’ev V.G. Improving the efficiency of the use of composite glass plastic fiber in concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 68–71. (In Russian).

1. Nurtdinov M., Solovyev V., Panchenko A. Influence of composite fibers on the properties of heavy concrete. MATEC Web of Conferences. 2016. November. Vol. 86, Article number 04026. Doi: matecconf/20168604026.
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4. Solov’ev V.G., Bur’yanov A.F., Elsuf’eva M.S. Features of production of steel fiber concrete products and struc- tures. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 18–21. (In Russian).
5. Solov’ev V.G., Bur’yanov A.F., Fisher Kh.-B. Features of the formation of the structure of steel fiber concrete during heat treatment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 9, pp. 43–46. (In Russian).
6. Elsuf’eva M.S., Solov’ev V.G., Bur’yanov A.F. Application of expanding additives in steel fiber concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 60–63. (In Russian).
7. Elsuf’eva M.S., Solov’yev V.G., Buryanov A.F., Nurtdinov M.R., Kakuasha V.A. Evaluation of early changes in the properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete with expanding additives. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 7, pp. 21–23. (In Russian).
8. Nurtdinov M.R., Bur’yanov A.F. Influence of water- soluble DEG-1 epoxy together with super- and hyper- plasticizer on properties of fine-grained concrete. The collection of abstracts of reports of the international scien- tific and technical conference “High strength cement con- cretes: technologies, structures, economics (VBB-2016)”. Kazan: KazGASU. 2016, pp. 47. (In Russian).
O.V. KRIVOSHAPKINA, Engineer, (, N.I. KONSTANTINOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.A. MERKULOV, Engineer, A.Yu. SHEBEKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) FGBU «The Badge of Honour All-Russian Research Institute for Fire Protection, Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia) (12, mkr. VNIIPO, Balashikha, 143900 Moscow Region, Russian Federation)

Assessment of Flame Ability to Spread on the Surface of Paint-and-Lacquer Coating Methods for assessing the flame spread on the surface of paint-and lacquer coatings (PLC) relating to construction materials according to domestic normative documents and foreign standards are considered. Experimental assessment studies of a flammability group, flame spread index and linear speed of flame propagation (LSFP) on the surface of various types of PLC used as finishing and protective coatings in buildings and structures have been conducted. An analysis of test results has been made, dependences of fire danger indicators on the composition and thickness of coatings have been established, the most fire dangerous composite PLC used for finishing of premises of buildings and structures have been revealed. The necessity to determine LSFP for conducting calculations of fire development dynamics in premises of buildings and structures as well as for the calculation of forces and means for fire distinguishing is shown.

Keywords: paint-and lacquer coatings, flame spread on surface of material, flammability group, index of flame spread, linear speed of flame spread.

For citation: Krivoshapkina O.V., Konstantinova N.I., Merkulov A.A., Shebeko A.Yu. Assessment of flame ability to spread on the surface of paint-and-lacquer coating. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 72–76. (In Russian).

1. Kaverinsky V.S. A few strokes to the image of the paint and varnish industry. Lakokrasochnye materialy i ikh primenenie. 2014. No. 4, pp. 14–17. (In Russian).
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5. Aseeva R.M., Zaikov E.G. Gorenie polimernykh materialov [Combustion of polymer materials]. Moscow: Nauka. 1981. 280 p.
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9. Livshits M.L., Pshiyalkovskiy B.I. Lakokrasochnye materialy [Paints and varnishes materials]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1982. 360 p.
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СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2020 osm21