Sitemap

Stroitel`nye Materialy №6

Table of contents

A.V. SVINAREV1, Director; A.M. GLUSHKOV2, Director; V.D. TYSYACHUK3, Director, A.A. KUPRINA3, Process Engineer
1 OOO «Experimental plant «Ekostroymaterialy» (4-d, Zavodskaya Street, Dubovoe Township, Belgorod District, Belgorod Region, 308501, Russian Federation)
2 NPF «Technostrom» (96, Plehanova Street, Kaluga, 248000, Russian Federation)
3 OOO «Ekostroymaterialy» (5, Mikhailovskoe Highway, Belgorod, 308013, Russian Federation)

Technological Module TM-25 for Manufacturing Non-Autoclaved Fiber Foam Concrete Products

A new production line for manufacturing fibre-foam concrete products has been developed and launched with minimal capital investments. From the point of view of the automation level and quality of products manufactured this line is comparable with the lines for manufacturing autoclaved cellular concretes. Advanced technological solutions are used in this proj ect. To produce a fibre-foam-concrete mix the improved foam concrete mixers of SPBU-1000LUX type manufactured by OOO “Ekostroymaterialy” which ensure the obtaining of a micro-porous structure of the block are used. The principle of heat self-thermal treatment of fibre foam cement due to the internal energy potential of hydration of hardening cement in large-volume forms is used in the conveyer technology that reduces the energy consumption for production. The production of a small piece fibre foam concrete block of high strength with insignificant shrinkage, low water absorption and high frost resistance has been started. The technological module presented ensures the maximum reuse of forms, maximum use of technological equipment, stability of properties and quality of finished goods.

Keywords: fibre foam concrete products, conveyer technology, automated module.

References
1. Levchenko V.N., Grinfeld G.I. Autoclaved aerated con crete production in Russia: Prospects for Development subsector. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, рр. 12–14. (In Russian).
2. Bayev M. N., Schukina Yu.V. Advanced heat-insulating non-autoclaved foam-concrete. Polzunovskii Vestnik. 2011. No. 1, рр. 35–37. (In Russian).
3. Baranov I.M. Strength of non-autoclave foam concrete and possible ways of her increase // Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 1, pp. 26–30. (In Russian).
4. Perfilov V.A. Atkina A.B. Kusmartseva O.A. Compressive strength of cellular materials increased by application of modifying microreinforcing components. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 9, pp. 11–14. (In Russian).
5. Patent RF 2422408. Syr’evaya smes’ dlya izgotovleniya yacheistykh materialov i sposob ee prigotovleniya [Raw mix for production of cellular materials and her mixing meth od] / Perfilov V.A. Kotlyarevsky A.B. Kusmartseva O.A. Declared 30.04.2010. Published 27.06.2011. Bulletin No. 18. (In Russian).
6. Suleymanova L.A. Non-autoclaved aerated concrete at composite binding. Ibausil: 18. Internatinale Baustofftagung. Weimar. 2012. Вook. 2, pp. 2-0830–2-0835.
7. Morgun L.V. Smirnova P. V., Batsman M. O. Speed control of structurization of foam-concrete mixes by means of a temperature factor. Materials MNPK «Foam concrete-2007». SPb: SPbGYPS. 2007, pр. 48–56. (In Russian).
8. Lotov V.A. Driving force of process of hydration and ce ment curing. Collection of reports 3(11) International Meeting on chemistry and to technology of cement. Moscow. October 27–29, 2009, рр. 137–140. (In Russian).

I.F. ShLEGEL’, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Manager, S.G. MAKAROV Head of the Institute of New Technologies and Automation of the Building Materials Industry OOO «INTA-STORY» (100, First Putevaya Street, Omsk, 644113, Russian Federation, www. inta.ru)

Manufacture of Four-Sided Tongue-and-Groove Blocks

References
1. Shlegel’ I.F. Shaevich G.Ya., Makarov S.G., Shkur kin N.I. Questions forming foam concrete blocks. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 4, pp. 36–38

A.B. LIPILIN, General manager, N.V. KORENYUGINA, Chief Technologist «TECHPRIBOR» Plant (43, Pirogova Street, Schekino, 301247, Tula Region, Russian Federation)

Disintegrator of Wet Milling in Production of Non-Autoclaved Foam Concrete

The technology of improving the quality of raw material components for producing the non-autoclaved foam concrete is offered. Main effects of the preparation of raw material compo nents are listed; the description and principle of operation of equipment for their preparation are given. Results of the laboratory study of the optimization of influence of raw material components by means of their joint wet milling are presented.

Keywords: high-strength cellular concrete, foam concrete, disintegrator, raw materials, wet milling.

References
1. Sazhnev N.P., Goncharik V.N., Garnashevich G.S., Sokolovskii L.V. Proizvodstvo yacheistobetonnykh izdelii: teoriya i praktika [The production of cellular concrete products: theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko, 1999. 284 p.
2. Popov N.A., Orentlikher L.P., Deryugin V.M. Bystro tverdeyushchie legkie betony na tsemente mokrogo po mola [Rapid-lightweight concrete on the cement wet grinding]. Moscow: Gosstroiizdat, 1963. 148 p.
3. Khodakov G.S. Tonkoe izmel’chenie stroitel’nykh mate rialov [Fine grinding of construction materials]. Moscow: 1972. 240 p.

V.V. EFREMENKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), First Deputy Director, V.A. BABANIN, Deputy Director ZAO «Stromizmeritel’» (59-E, Gordeevskaya Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603116, Russian Federation)

ZAO “STROYIZMERITEL” – a Complex Approach to Designing, Reconstruction and Construction of Building Materials Enterprises
Issues of the complex designing, reconstruction and construction of building materials enterprises are considered. The main attention is paid to the area connected with manufacturing and modernizing of quickly erected plants for producing different sorts of concrete including foam concrete, fibre concrete and asphalt concrete. A list of the basic works on designing and adoption of such plants which have a block-module design in summer and winter versions is presented. A wide range of technological equipment among which a special place is occupied by tensometric weight batchers of inert materials, cement, mineral powder, water, bitumen, and also chemical and stabilizing additives is presented. Advantages of the decen tralized control systems built with the help of locally programmed controllers the use of which makes it possible not only to realize adaptive algorithms of efficient control, but timely to make the diagnostic of conditions of actuating mechanisms and to forecast pre-emergency and emergency situations.

Keywords: concrete, quickly erected plants, tensometric weight batchers, automated control systems, designing, adoption

V.N. MORGUN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); L.V. MORGUN2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), K.I. KOSTYLENKO2, Engineer
1 Academy of Architecture and Arts of the Southern Federal University (105/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russian Federation)
2 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)

Structural Evolution of a Disperse Gas Phase when Producing Foam Concrete Mix

An analysis of the dynamics of saturation of foam concrete mixes with the disperse gas phase shows that it includes two, different by their physical nature, stages understanding of the content of which is very important for producing high-quality foam concretes. The mechanism of formation of a coarse disperse gas phase in the structure of foam concrete mixes is considered and scientifically substantiated. The regularity of its formation is proved. The inevitability of increasing the dispersion of the gas phase at the second stage of mixing is scien tifically substantiated. There is a list of structural processes taking place in the structure of the foam concrete mix at the second stage of its preparation.

Keywords: surfactants, disperse gas phase, foam concrete mix.

References
1. Shakhova L.D. Tekhnologiya penobetona. Teoriya i praktika. [Technology of foam concrete. Theory and practice.] Monograph. Moscow: ASV. 2010. 248 p.
2. Pertsev V.T., Tkachenko T.F. Foam materials of not au toclave concreting. Technology and application. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2012. No. 5, pp. 57–60. (In Russian).
3. Baranov I.M. Practical methods of definition of rational compositions special concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 87–93. (In Russian).
4. Zolotareva N.L., Shmit’ko E.I., Poyarkova T.N. Stability of the gas phase and the structure of porous concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 4, pp. 20–21. (In Russian).
5. Morgun V.N. About nanoscale features of the evolution of surfactants in foam concrete mixes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. Supplement Nauka. 2007. No. 9, pp. 20–21. (In Russian).
6. Shakhova L.D. Some aspects of researches of structuriza tion of non-autoclaved cellular concrete hardening. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. Supplement Nauka. 2003. No. 2, pp. 4–7. (In Russian).
7. Morgun L.V. Penobeton. [Foam concrete.] Monograph. Rostov-on-Don: RGSU. 2012. 154 p.
8. Petrova G.P. Anizotropnye zhidkosti. Biologicheskie struktury. [Anisotropic fluid. Biological structures]. Moscow: Physical faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 2005. 112 p.

L.G. GERASIMOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), M.V. MASLOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.A. PAK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), R.N. SUKHORUKOVA, Engineer Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw Materials named after I.V. Tananaev Kola Science Center RAS (26a, «Academic town», Apatity, 184209, Murmansk region, Russian Federation)

The use of Color Fillers when Producing Wall Blocks from Polystyrene Gas Concrete

Construction industry uses a large number of white and color fillers and pigments for protective and decorative purposes. As a rule, these materials are quite expensive. From this point of view, colored materials (fillers) produced from anthropogenic waste are of interest. Used catalysts and sorbents are among the most problem anthropogenic waste. Often their regenera tion is impossible, storage in dumps of the enterprises harms the environment due to the presence of toxic elements in them, and storage in the form of secondary raw materials requires material costs. The article gives the data on utilization of used sorbents with obtaining color pigments which were used for producing wall blocks from polystyrene gas concrete.

Keywords: anthropogenic waste, color fillers, wall blocks, protective coats.

References
1. Azhikina Yu.V., Seryogin A.N. Modern technologies in spent vanadium catalyst recovery. Mir Udobreniy I Pestitsydov. 1997. No. 4, pp. 43–45. (In Russian).
2. Gerasimova L.G., Nikolaev A.I. Recovery of industrial solid wastes to obtain pigments and other inorganic mate rials. Ekologiya promyshlennogo proizvodstva. 2007. No. 2, pp. 34–43. (In Russian).
3. Gerasimova L.G., Maslova M.V., Okhrimenko R.F. Pigment production in comprehensive processing of spent aluminium-cobalt molybdenum catalysts. Lakokrasochnaya promyshlennost’. 2008. No. 10, pp. 16– 20. (In Russian).
4. Gerasimova L.G., Skorokhodova O.N. Napolniteli dlya lakokrasochnoi promyshlennosti [Fillers for the paint and-varnish industry]. Moscow: LKM-Press. 2010. 224 p.
5. Bobkov S.P. Modern approaches to mechanical activa tion studies. Intercollegiate Proceedings Processes in dis persive environment. Ivanovo. 1997, pp. 28–37. (In Russian).
6. Gerasimova L.G., Maslova M.V., Shchukina E.S. The role of mechanical activation in production of pigment filler from titanite. Zhurnal Prikladnoy Khimii. 2010. Vol. 83, No. 12, pp. 1953–1959. (In Russian).
7. Kalinskaya T.V., Drinberg A.S. Tsvetnye pigmenty [Colouring pigment]. Moscow: LKM-Press, 2013. 360 p.
8. Boinovich L.B., Umel’yanenko A.M. Hydrophobic ma terials and coatings: principles of production, properties and application. Uspekhi Khimii. 2008. Vol. 77. No. 7, pp. 619–638. (In Russian).
9. Pak А.А., Sukhorukova R.N. Technological features of wall multilayered products from polystyrene gas con crete. Izvestiya Vuzov. Stroitelstvo. 2010. No. 5 (617), pp. 30–34. (In Russian).
10. Pak A.A., Sukhorukova R.N. Ways of improving of cold- resisting properties of enclosing structures in buildings. Zhilishchnoye Stroitelstvo [Housing Construction]. 2009. No. 8, pp. 30–32. (In Russian).

V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.V. NELUBOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), N.S. DANAKIN, Doctor of Sciences (Sociology), V.A. VASNEVA, lead specialist Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shoukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Experience of Implementation of Continuous Training of Specialists «School – University – Enterprise» in the Field of Nanosystems in Building Materials
The concept of creating a unified scientific and educational and working environment in the triad «School–University–Enterprise» on the basis of cyclic circularity of continuous educa tional process was proposed. The basic aims and issues of the system in common and for each subsystem separately were presented. It is shown that the basis for the formation of a complex of fundamental knowledge of students is an interdisciplinary approach that is used in the creation of educational subject modules. Innovative educational technology which application provides training were presented. Chronology of stages of forming interdisciplinary system in Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shoukhov on the example of training of specialists, bachelors, masters and highly qualified personnel in the field of nanosystems in building materials was organized.

Keywords: training of personnel, nanosystems, continuing education, interdisciplinary

References
1. Strokova V.V., Gridchin A.M., Lesovik V.S. Consortium as an instrument of development of profile nanosystems in building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 8, pp. 9–11. (In Russian).
2. Gridchin A.M., Lesovik V.S., Ospishhev P.I. Innovative complex in infrastructure of Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shoukhov. Innovation University and innovative education: models, experience, perspectives: Proceedings of the conference. Moscow. 2003, pp. 38–41. (In Russian).
3. Gridchin A.M., Lesovik V.S., Sevost’janov V.S., Ospishhev P.I., Fomin V.N. Management of multi-level organization of vocational education in Educatio nal Research and Innovation Complex of BSTU named after V.G. Shoukhov. Innovative technologies in con tinuing professional education: a collection of research papers based on the All-Russian Scientific and Practi cal Conference. Novocherkassk. 2004, pp. 30–33. (In Russian).
4. Shutenko A.I., Ospishhev P.I. Social and cultural deter mination of innovative development of higher education. Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal prikladnyh i fundamental’nyh issledovanij. 2013. No. 9, pp. 109–111. (In Russian).

E.V. KOROLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Director Research and Education Center «Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology» Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Assessment of Primary Nano-materials Concentration for Modification of Building Composites

The article presents models of mechanisms of influence of primary nano-materials on the structure formation of building materials: Model № 1 is a supposition about compacting and strengthening influence of primary nano-materials on the substance of matrix material of a composite which arise under the action of physical-chemical potential of particles; Model № 2 – primary nano-materials are centres of crystallization; Model № 3 – primary nano-materials are barriers which prevent the amalgamation and recrystallization of crystals of the com posite matrix material. The assessment of concentration and sizes of primary nano-materials, introduction of which ensures the formation of material structure with nano-size parame ters, is made. It is shown that to form the structure of material with characteristic sizes of structural elements not over 100 nm, the primary nano-material should have the size less than 100 nm and their concentration should be near 10% by volume. The dependences characterizing the intensive dependence of the nano-materials concentration on their sizes are estab lished for each model. The goals of studies in the field of using primary nano-materials in the building material science are formulated.

Keywords: primary nano-materials, nano-size modifier, assessment of concentration, building composite, nano-technologies.

References
1. Korolev E.V. Principle of realization of nanotechnology in building materials science. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 60–64. (In Russian)
2. Veitsman E.V. Kvazitonnaya teoriya mezhfazovoi oblasti razdela i ee prilozheniya [Quasi-ton interphase regions theory and its applications]. Moscow: Energoatomizdat. 1999. 144 p.
3. Yudovich M.E., Ponomarev A.N., Velikorussov P.V., Emelin S.V. Regulation properties of ductility and strength concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 1, pp. 56–58. (In Russian)
4. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Krutikov V.A., Makarova I.S., Machyulaitis R., Fisher Kh.-B., Bur’yanov A.F. Gas concrete based ftorangidrita modi fied carbon nanostructures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 70–72. (In Russian).
5. G.I. Yakovlev, G.N. Pervushin, A.F. Buryanov, V.I. Ko-dolov, V.A. Krutikov, H.-B. Fisher, Ya. Kerene Modification of porous cement matrixes with carbon nanotubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 3, pp. 99–102. (In Russian).
6. Tolmachev S.N., Belichenko E.A., Kholodny A.G. Technological, mechanical and structural characteris tics of cement systems with carbon colloidal particles. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 96–100. (In Russian).
7. Lukuttsova N.P. Nanomodifying additives to concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 101–104. (In Russian).
8. Gabidullin M.G., Khuzin A.F., Rakhimov R.Z., Tkachev A.G., Mikhaleva Z.A., Tolchkov Yu.N. Ultrasound treatment is an efficient method of disper sion of carbon nanotubes in a volume of a building com posite. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 57–59. (In Russian).

A.F. GORDINA1, Engineer, I.S. POLYANSKIKH1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Yu.V. TOKAREV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); A.F. BUR’YANOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); S.A. SEN’KOV3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Izhevsk State Technical University named after Kalashnikov (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, Udmurt Republic, 426069, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yarosskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
3 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolskiy Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)

Waterproof Gypsum Materials Modified by Cement, Microsilica, and Nanostructures

Differences in forming the structure of a gypsum binder when using multilayer carbon nanostructures, cement, and microsilica introduced simultaneously or separately are established; their influence on the physical-mechanical properties of the material obtained are also defined. The optimal ratio of the components introduced together (cement - 20%, microsilica - 3%, multilayer carbon nanotubes – 0,005%), resulting in increased compressive strength of samples at the age of 14 days by 95% and flexural strength by 81% is revealed. In the process, the coefficient of softening increases up to 0,99 (a control composition – 0,76). This improvement of physical-mechanical properties in the course of joint introduction of additives takes place due to the formation of the dense, tight structure of crystals with increasing the density of inter-phase surface.

Keywords: gypsum binder, multilayer carbon nanotubes, microsilica, cement, morphology.

References
1. Hela R., Marsalova J. Possibilities of nanotechnology in concrete. The II International Conference «Nanotechnology for green and sustainable construction». Cairo (Egypt). 14–17 march 2010, pp. 8–15.
2. Brykov A.S., Kamaliev R.T., Mokeev M.V. Influence of ultradispersed silica on the hydration of Portland cement. Zhurnal prikladnoi khimii. 2010. Vol. 83. No. 2, pp. 211–216. (In Russian).
3. Yakovlev G.I.; Kerene J.; Mayeva I.S.; Khazeev D.R.; Pudov I.A. Influence of the dispersions of multilayer carbon nanotubes on the structure of silicate gas concrete of autoclave hardening. Intellektual’nye sistemy v proizvodstve. 2012. No. 2, pp. 180–186. (In Russian).
4. Jakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Maeva I.S., Korzhenko A., Bur’janov A.F., Machjulajtis R. Modification anhydrite compositions multilayer carbon nanotubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2010. No. 7, pp. 25–27. (In Russian).
5. Jakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Maeva I.S., Kerene Ja., Pudov I.A., Shajbadullina A.V., Korzhenko A., Bur’janov A.F., Sen’kov S.A. Modification of Construction Materials with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Procedia Engineering. Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques. 2013. No. 57, pp. 407–413.
6. Gordina A.F., Tokarev Ju.V., Jakovlev G.I., Kerene Ja., Spudulis Je. Difference in forming the structure of gypsum binder modified with carbon nanotubes and lime // Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 34–38. (In Russian).
7. Gordina A.F., Tokarev Ju.V., Jakovlev G.I., Kerene Ja., Sychugov S.V., Ali El Sayed Mohamed Evaluation of the Influence of Ultradisperse Dust and Carbon Nanostructures on the Structure and Properties of Gypsum Binders. Procedia Engineering. Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques. 2013. No. 57, pp. 334–342.
8. Volzhenskiy A.V., Rogovoi M.M., Stambulko V.I. Gipsocementnye i gipsoshlakovye vjazhushhie [Gypsumcement and gypsum-slag binders]. Moscow: State publishing house of literature on construction, architecture and construction materials, 1960. 168 p.

N.K. SKRIPNIKOVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); N.A. SAZONOVA2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (2, Solyanaya Square, Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation)
2 Angarsk State Technical Academy (60, Chaikovskogo Street, Irkutsk region, Angarsk, 665835, Russian Federation)

Strength of Cement Stone on the Basis of a Nano-Structured Binding Agent
The use of the nano-structured binding agent (NBA) produced on the basis of cement clinker which is synthesized under conditions of low-temperature plasma makes it possible to increase the compression strength of cement stone by 16–68%, bending tensile strength by 46%. Increasing the strength of samples is connected with the technological feature of cement clinker synthesis which influences on the mineralogical composition of the binding agent, its structure, partial amorphization. In the process of NBA hydration the low-basic, tobermorite-like compounds and hydrogarnet which significantly influence on the cement stone strength are mainly formed.

Keywords: cement stone, nano-structured binding agent, low-temperature plasma, cement, clinker.

References
1. Kuz’mina V.P. Mechanical activation of cement. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 5, pp. 7–9. (In Russian).
2. Sekulic Z., Popov S., Duricic M., Rosic A. Mechanical activation of cement with addition of fly ash. Materials Letters. 1999. No. 39, pp. 115–121.
3. Girshtel’ G.B., Glazkova S.V., Levitskii A.V. Building materials modified with nanoparticles. Tekhnologii betonov. 2013. No. 6, pp. 48–51. (In Russian).
4. Kong D., Du X., Weia S., Zhang H., Yang Y. Influence of nano-silica agglomeration on microstructure and properties of the hardened cement-based materials. Construction and Building Materials. 2012. No. 37, pp. 707–715.
5. Bazhenov M.I., Kharchenko A.I. Investigation of some properties of cements with the addition of fine. Nauchnotekhnicheskii vestnik Povolzh’ya. 2012. No. 5, pp. 83–85. (In Russian).
6. Pavlenko N.V., Bukhalo A.B., Strokova V.V., Nelyubova V.V., Sumin A.V. Modified binder using nanocrystalline composites components for cellular. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 20–24. (In Russian).
7. Berdov G.I., Il’ina L.I., Mashkin I.A. Effect of wollastonite on the strength of cement stone of long-term storage of portland cement. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 1, pp. 48–49. (In Russian).
8. Lesovik V.V., Potapov V.V., Alfimova N.I., Ivashova O.V. Improving the efficiency of binding by using nano-modifiers. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 60–62. (In Russian).
9. Nochaiya T., Chaipanich A. Behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the porosity and microstructure of cement-based materials. Applied Surface Science. 2011. No. 257, pp. 1941–1945.
10. Gabidullin M.G., Khuzin A.F., Suleimanov N.M., Togulev P.N. Influence of additives nanomodifier based on carbon nanotubes for strength to cement. Izvestiya KazGASU. 2011. No. 2, pp. 185–189. (In Russian).
11. Berdov G.I., Aronov B.L. Ekspressnyi kontrol’ i upravlenie kachestvom tsementnykh materialov [Express control and quality management of cementitious materials]. Novosibirsk: Novosibirskiy universitet, 1992. 252 p.
12. Volokitin G.G., Skripnikova N.K., Pozdnyakova N.A., Volokitin O.G., Lutsenko A.V. High-temperature method of manufacturing the cement clinker low-temperature plasma and electric warm up (Joule heating). Vestnik TGASU. 2008. No. 4(21), pp. 106–112. (In Russian).
13. Skripnikova N.K., Sazonova N.А., Volokitin G.G. Synthesis of cement clinker using low-temperature plasma. European Science and Technology. Materials of the V international research and practice conference. Munich, 3–4 October, 2013. Vol. 1, pp. 476–480.
14. Glasser F. Production and properties of some cements made by plasma fusion. Cement and concrete research. 1975. Vol. 5, pp. 55–61.
15. Skripnikova N.K., Sazonova N.A. Features of nanostructured matrix model of cement clinker under plasmachemical synthesis. Vestnik IrGTU. 2013. No. 8, pp. 33–37. (In Russian).
16. Volkonskii B.V., Makashev S.D., Shteiert N.P. Tekhnologicheskie, fiziko-khimicheskie i khimicheskie issledovaniya tsementnykh materialov [Technological, physical-chemical and chemical studies of cementitious materials]. L.: Stroiizdat, 1972. 304 p.

L.A. VAYSBERG1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAS; E.E. KAMENEVA2, Candidate of Technical Sciences
1 «Mechanobr-Tekhnika» Research and Engineering Corporation (22, Line 3, Vasilevsky Island, 199106, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)
2 Petrozavodsk State University (33, Lenin Street, Petrozavodsk, 185910, Russian Federation)

Study of Composition and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Secondary Crushed Stone from Crushed Concrete

Results of the study of physical-mechanical properties of secondary crushed stone obtained as a result of concrete fragments crushing are presented. It is established that the secondary crushed stone contains grains of the mineral filler different by their composition and properties as well as their aggregates with cement-sand stone, and aggregates of cement-sand stone. The mineral filler is presented by rocks of different genetic types and metallurgical slag. It is shown that the presence of grains different by their compositions and properties is a reason for the non-homogeneity of strength characteristics of the secondary product. As a whole, the mineral filler saves properties of the primary crushed stone. The reduction of strength characteristics and frost resistance of the secondary crushed stone is connected with the presence of cement-sand stone. The increase in the size of fractions improves the quality of the secondary crushed stone. Differences in compositions and properties of the secondary crushed stone should be taken into account when selecting screening-and-crushing equipment, layout solution of a crushing scheme, as well as when selecting directions of the use and determining the price for some fractions of fineness.

Keywords: secondary crushed stone, concrete fragments, physical-mechanical properties.

References
1. Oleinik P.P., Oleinik S.P. Organizatsiya sistemy pererabotki stroitel'nykh otkhodov [Organization of recycling construction waste]. Moscow: MGSU, 2009. 251 p.
2. Dvorkin L.I., Dvorkin O.L. Stroitel'nye materialy iz otkhodov promyshlennosti [Construction materials from the waste industry]. Rostov-on Don: Feniks, 2007. 368 p.
3. Bibik M.S., Semenyuk S.D. Influence of physical and mechanical characteristics of recycled crushed concrete rubble from different classes by compressive strength properties of the concrete mix and concrete. Vestnik Belorussko-Rossiiskogo universiteta. 2010. No. 3(28), pp. 128–134. (In Russian).
4. Murtazaev S.A.Yu., Salamanova M.Sh., Formation of the structure and properties of concrete on aggregate concrete breakage. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2008. No. 5, pp. 25–28. (In Russian).
5. Rakhimov R.Z., Rakhimova N.R., Fatykhov G.A. By slag comprehensive utilization of scrap in the production of concrete slag-alkaline binders. Izvestiya KazGASU. 2011.No. 2, pp. 218–223. (In Russian).
6. Ye Zhengmao, Chang Jun, Lu Lingchao, Huang Shifeng, Chen Xin. Modification of the intermediate transition zone sulfoalyuminatnom solution on cement. Guisuanyuan xuebao. J. Chin. Ceram. Soc. 2006. No. 4, pp. 511–515.
7. Vaisberg L.A., Kameneva E.E. Investigation of the structure of the pore space gneiss-granite by X-ray microtomography computer. Obogashchenie rud. 2013. No. 3, pp. 37–41. (In Russian).
8. Vaysberg L.A., Kameneva E.E., Aminov V.N. Assessment of technological capabilities of control over crushed stone quality in the course of disintegration of building rocks. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 30–34. (In Russian).

A.G. EVGEN’EVA, engineer, Moscow State Automobile and Road Technical University (64, Leningradsky Avenue, 125319, Moscow, Russian Federation Features of assessing asphalt concrete material for execution of works according to cold recycling technology

Issues connected with the pre-design assessment of a regenerated material are considered. An algorithm of work execution according to the technology of cold recycling is presented.

Main types of instructions for designing the composition of asphalt grained concrete mixes are shown. Priority of the information on the detailed evaluation of a road pavement layer as a structural material, and also the priority of information about the state of the surface of existing pavement from the point of view of its operation characteristics are determined. Two principally different methods of selecting the asphalt concrete material for laboratory study and further design of the asphalt-grained concrete mix composition are presented. The scheme of asphalt concrete material sampling is considered. As a result, the proposed algorithm of pre-design assessment makes it possible to receive more objective information on the state of regenerated asphalt concrete that facilitates the problem of designing compositions of asphalt-granular concrete mixes.

Keywords: cold recycling, pre-design assessment, sampling of asphalt concrete material.

References
1. Evgen’eva A.G. Instability of the composition and properties of the asphalt. Dorogi Rossii XXI veka. 2012. No. 1, pp. 43–45. (In Russian).
2. Vas’kov V.A. Cold regeneration. Dorogi Rossii XXI veka. 2011. No. 2, p. 49. (In Russian).
3. Krupin N. Victory over segregation. Avtomobil’nye dorogi. 2013. No. 8, pp. 48–49. (In Russian).
4. Cold recycling technology. Berlin: Wirtgen GmbH, 2012. 367 p.
5. David L., Kim J., Jahr C., Chen D., Heitzman M. Long Term Performance of Cold In-Place Recycled Roads in Iowa. Greater Iowa Asphalt Conference. February 2007. P. 44.
6. Pavement recycling. Paris: PIARC, 2003. 148 pр.
7. Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovsky V.N. Main ways of resource energy saving at construction and operation of buildings. Part 1. Resource-energy saving at the stage of producing of building materials, wall products and enclosing structures. Stroite’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 12–21. (In Russian).
8. Belyaev P.S., Malikov O.G., Merkulov S.A., Polushkin D.L., Frolov V.A. Solution of Utilization Problem of Polymer Wastes by Their Use in the Process of Modification of a Road Binder. Stroite’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 10, pp. 38–40. (In Russian).

O.D. SAMARIN, Candidate of Sciences (Enginering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Calculation of specific heat losses through non-linear thermotechnical inhomogeneities when using the revised edition of SNiP 23-02–2003

Features of determining additional heat losses through the external angle of a building and window jambs according to requirements of SP 50.13330.2012 are considered. Bases of the SP methodology for calculating the specific heat loss through the mentioned linear thermotechnical inhomogeneities are presented. Results of numerical calculations of temperature fields of these elements with the use of existing programs and programs developed by the author for the computer and their comparison with the methodology and parameters set in SP are given. It is noted that the approach to the calculation of additional heat losses based on the use of the notion of shape factor is the most developed one. An analysis of data obtained is made, the relation between the shape factor and specific heat losses of linear elements of enclosures is established, engineering recommendations for their calculations with due regard for possible extreme events are offered.

Keywords: specific heat losses, linear element, shape factor, resistance to heat transfer.

References
1. Gagarin V.G., Dmitriev K.A. Account of thermal nonuniformities during estimation of thermal performance of building enclosures in Russia and European countries. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 14–16. (In Russian).
2. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Theoretical reasons for calculation of reduced thermal resistance of building enclosures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2010. No. 12, pp. 4–12. (In Russian).
3. Carslaw H.S., Jaeger J.C. Conduction of heat in solids. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press. USA. 1986. 520 p.
4. Dylewski Robert, Adamczyk Janusz. Economic and ecological indicators for thermal insulating building investments. Energy and Buildings. 2012. No. 54, pp. 88–95.
5. Samarin O.D. Teplofizika. Energosberezhenie. Energoeffektivnost [Thermal physics. Energy saving. Energy efficiency]. Мoscow: ASV. 2011. 296 p.
6. Samarin O.D. Calculation of temperature on the internal surface of the external corner of a building with modern level of thermal performance. News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction. 2005. No. 8, pp. 52–56. (In Russian).
7. Samarin O.D. Substantiation of reducing the heat protection of enclosures with the use of an actualized version of SNiP 23-02–2003. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 46–48. (In Russian).

V.S.ROYFE, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivniy proezd, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Development of the Method of Nondestruktive Control Heattechnical Condition of Proteсting Construktions of Buildings

The new metod of nondestructive control of heattechnical condition of protecting constructions of buildings which basis the technique developed earlier by the author which is based on sharing of two nondestructive physical control methods - dielkometric (electric) and thermovision (thermal) is described. The new metod allows to determine in natural conditions in the experimental-rated way the specified resistance to a heat transfer of a surveyed construction at the same time with quantitative determination of the actual values of humidity and heat conductivity of separate layers, including an inside heat-insulation layer. The example of practical realization of the described metod is given.

Keywords: protecting constructions, heat-shielding properties, nondestructive control.

References
1. Gagarin V.G., Dmitriyev K.A. The accounting of heattechnical not uniformity at an assessment of a heatshielding of protecting designs in Russia and the European countries. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, рр. 14–16. (In Russian).
2. Levin E.V., Okunev A.Yu., Umnyakova N.P., Choubin I.L. Osnovy sovremennoj stroitel'noj termografii. [Bases of a modern construction termografiya]. Moscow: NIISF RAACS. 2012. 176 p.
3. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V., etc. Heat-shielding of external walls of buildings with facing from a bricklaying. AVOK. 2009. No, 6, pp. 48–55. (In Russian).
4. Royfе V.S. To justification of a choice of a nondestructive method of an assessment of heat-shielding properties of construction materials. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pр. 22–23. (In Russian).
5. Royfe. V.S. Physical meaning of correlation between the thermo- and electro-physical characteristics of nonmetallic materials. Measurement Techniques. 2012. Vol. 55. No. 2, рр. 193–198.
6. Royfe V.S. Express-metod of complex nondestructive control of heattechnical condition of protecting designs of buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011 . No. 1, pр. 24–26. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2497106. Sposob nerazrushajushhego kontrolja teplotehnicheskih kachestv ograzhdajushhih konstrukcij zdanij. [Metod of nondestructive control of heattechnical qualities of protecting designs of buildings]. Royfe V.S. Declared 22.05.2012. Published 27.10.2013. Bulletin No. 30. (In Russian).

S.N. LEONOVICH1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), N.L. POLEYKO1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), L.S. KURASH2, Head, Production and Technical Department
1 Belarusian National Technical University (65, Nezavisimosti Ave., 220013, Minsk, Republic of Belarus)
2 OAO “Nerudprom” (72, Asanalieva Street, 220024, Minsk, Republic of Belarus)

The Use of Coarse Aggregate Produced by OAO “Nerudprom” for Concrete Preparation

Previously existing normative-technical documents recommended to use crushed gravel and gravel as a coarse aggregate for concretes of C12/15 class, especially in housing construction. The refusal of manufacturing enterprises to use crushed gravel and gravel as coarse aggregate for concrete mix is not economically feasible and unjustified. As a result of the comparative studies conducted it is established that the use of gravel as coarse aggregate in concretes is justified for low-grade concretes with compression strength of up to C12/15 class where the requirements for frost resistance and water-tightness are not presented. It is permissible to use gravel in concretes of C18/22.5- C20/25 classes with requirements to concretes of F100 and W4 grades.

Keywords: crushed granite, crushed gravel, gravel, frost resistance, concrete, concrete class, water-tightness.

References
1. Starchukov D. S. Concrete of the accelerated curing with additives of strong substances of the inorganic nature. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2011. No. 14, рр. 22–24. (In Russian).
2. Zager I.Yu. Yashinkina A.A. Andropova L.N. Comparative assessment of products of crushing of rocks of fields of nonmetallic construction materials of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 5, рр. 84–86. (In Russian).
3. Dobshits L.M. Magomedeminov I.I. Determination of frost resistance of large filler for heavy concrete. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2012. No. 4, рр. 6–19. (In Russian).
4. Petrov V.P., Tokareva S. A. Porous fillers from industry waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 46–50. (In Russian).

O.B. RUDAKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry); E.A. KHOROKHORDINA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry); CHAN HAI DANG, engineer, Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Thin-layer chromatography and colorimetry for control of phenol index of finishing building materials

Methods for control of the phenol index in finishing building materials with the use of thin-layer chromatography in combination with digital colorimetry have been improved. The chromaticity of chromatographic zones revealed at the same time with two chromophoric reagents in the color model RGB is registered with the help of the scanning device. On the basis of colorimetric measuring results the radar charts are built; their geometric parameters (square, perimeter, and coefficient of closeness of linear array of a figure) are used both for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Methods were tested on model solutions and real objects for analyzing water wash-outs from various samples of finishing materials (wallpaper, polymeric tiles, panels, linoleum). They make it possible to define the phenol content lower the level of MAC with acceptable relative error (up to 10%). The use of the tandem of thinlayer chromatography and digital colorimetry improves the identification information value of the sum of analytic signals. The intensity of three color components of two color reactions which depend not only on the phenol concentration but also on their nature is taken into account along with parameters of chromatographic retaining in identification. These methods of control are notable for the simplicity of ways of sample preparation, low cost of a single analysis and can be used at low-budget laboratories.

Keywords: finishing building materials, phenol index, thin-layer chromatography, liquid extraction, digital colorimetry, color model RGB.

References
1. Grassi N. Destrukcija i stabilizacija polimerov [Degradation and stabilization of polymers]. Moscow: Мir. 1988. 446 pр. (In Russian)
2. Pakharenko V.A., Pakharenko V.V., Yakovlev R.A. Plastmassy v stroitel’stve [Plastics in construction]. Sankt-Peterburg: Nauchnye osnovy i tehnologii. 2010. 350 pр. (In Russian).
3. Khorokhordina E.A., Phan Vinh Thinh, Rudakov O.B., Podolina E.A. Control of free phenols in construction polymers. Herald VGU. Series: Chemistry. Biology. Pharmacy. 2008. No. 1.Pp. 47–54. (In Russian).
4. Averko-Antonovich I.Y., Bikmullin R.T. Metody issledovanija struktury i svojstv polimerov [Methods of research structure structure and properties of polymers]. Kazan: KSTU. 2002. 604 pр. (In Russian)
5. Vernigorova V.N., Makridin N.I., Sokolov Y.A. Sovremennye himicheskie metody issledovanija stroitel’nyh materialov [Modern chemical research methods of building materials]. Moscow: Himija. 2003. 224 pр.
6. Rudakov O.B., Vostrov I.A., Fedorov S.V., etc. Sputnik hromatografista. Metody zhidkostnoj hromatografii [Satellite chromatografista. Liquid chromatography techniques]. Voronezh: Vodolej. 2004. 528 pр.
7. Larionov O.G. Rukovodstvo po sovremennoj tonkoslojnoj hromatografii [Modern Instruction Thin-layer chromatography]. Moscow: Himija. 1994. 311 p.
8. Baydicheva O.V., Bocharnikova I.V., Rudakov O.B., Khripushin V.V. Application skanermetrii quality control of finishing materials. Scientific Bulletin VGASU. Series: Physical and chemical problems of building materials. 2008. Vol. 1. Рp. 100–105. (In Russian).
9. Rudakov O.B., Khorokhordina E.A., Grosev E.N., etc. Digital colorimetric quality control of construction materials. Scientific Herald VGASU. Series: Physical and chemical problems of building materials and high technology. 2013. No. 7, рp. 104–120. (In Russian).
10. Rudakov O.B., Rudakov L.V., Kudukhov I.G., etc. Improvement of the method for determining phenols color reactions with the use of digital technology. Analitika i kontrol’. 2012. Vol. 16. No. 4. Рp. 570–579. (In Russian).

A.V. NOSOV, engineer, T.N. CHERNYKH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), L.Ya. KRAMAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), South Ural State University (National Research University) (76, Lenina Ave., 454080, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation)

Efficiency of Various Additives-Intensifiers in the Process of Dolomites Burning

The article presents the results of the study of influence of various additives-intensifiers on the dolomite decomposition. Features of influence of various additives-intensifiers on the dolomite burning are studied with the use of the methods of differential-thermal and X-ray phase analyzes. It is established that the most efficient intensifiers of burning are additives which are able to form the melt before MgCO3 decarbonization and preserve the liquid phase till the completion of this process. On the basis of studies conducted and integrating the reported data the classification of additives-intensifiers for dolomite burning according to the mechanisms of their action are proposed. The first group of intensifiers are additives which form the melts and don’t enter into ion-exchange reactions with dolomite; the second group are additives which form the intermediate connections with dolomite components, produce low-melt eutectics, and are more acceptable for Portland cement production; the third one are additives which are able to enter into the ion-exchange reactions destabilizing the crystalline lattice of the rock without forming the liquid phase, but these additives are less efficient comparing with the first group.

Keywords: dolomite, dolomite binder, burning, additives-intensifiers of burning

References
1. Shelikhov N.S., Rakhimov R.Z., Morozov V.P. Features of formation active phase MgO in the dolomitic cement. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 10, pp. 32–33. (In Russian).
2. Falikman W.R., Sorokin Ju.W., Weiner A.Ja., Baschlykow N.F., Bernstein L.G., Smirnow W.A. Magnesium Caustic Dolomite Concrete. Industrieboden. 5 Internationales Kolloquium. Ostfildern/Stuttgart. 2003, pp. 186–191.
3. Galai H., Pijolat M., Nahdi K., Trabelsi-Ayadi M. Mechanism of growth of MgO and CaCO3 during a dolomite partial decomposition. Solid State Ionics. V. 178. 2007, pp. 1039–1047.
4. Kuz’menkov M.I., Marchik E.V., Mel’nikova R.Ya. Intensification of decarbonization process dolomite salt additives. Work under GKPNI «Chemical reagents and materials». Minsk: BSTU. 2009. 192 p.
5. Chernykh T.N., Orlov A.A., Kramar L.Ya., Trofimov B.Ya., Perminov A.V. Lowering the temperature of obtaining magnesia astringent of brucite. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2013. No. 3, pp. 29–35. (In Russian).
6. Ponomarev I.F., Grach’yan A.N., Zubekhin A.P. Influence mineralizing on the process of clinker. Tsement. 1964. No. 4, pp. 3–5. (In Russian).
7. Kolovos K., Loutsi P., Tsivilis S., Kakali G. The effect of foreign ions on the reactivity of the CaO–SiO2–Al2O3– Fe2O3 system: Part I. Anions. Cement and Concrete Research. V. 31. I. 3. 2001, pp. 425–429.
8. Kolovos K., Tsivilis S., Kakali G. The effect of foreign ions on the reactivity of the CaO–SiO2–Al2O3–Fe2O3 system: Part II: Cations. Cement and Concrete Research. V. 32. I. 3. 2002, pp. 463–469.
9. Volkonskii B.V., Konovalov P.F., Makashev S.D. Mineralizatory v tsementnoi promyshlennosti [Mineralizers in the cement industry]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1963. 192 p.
10. Avgustinik A.I. Keramika [Ceramics]. Leningrad: Stroiizdat. 1975. 573 p.
11. Budnikov P.P., Matveev M.A., Yanovskii V.K., Kharitonov F.Ya. Spekanie vysokochistoi okisi magniya s dobavkami [Sintering of high purity magnesium oxide with additives]. Neorganicheskie materialy. 1967. Vol. 3. No. 5, pp. 840–848. (In Russian).
12. Kukolev G.V. Khimiya kremniya i fizicheskaya khimiya silikatov [Silicon chemistry and physical chemistry of silicates]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1966. 462 p.
13. Vaivad A.Ya., Gofman B.E., Karlson K.P. Dolomitovye vyazhushchie veshchestva [Dolomite binders]. Riga: Nauka. 1958. 240 p.
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary Baltimix 2019 interConPan_2018 EIRICH masa