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Stroitel`nye Materialy №10

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E.I. YuMASHEVA, Engineer-Technologist, L.V. SAPACHEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (ladavs@rambler.ru) OOO RIF “Stroymaterialy” (9, building 3, Dmitrovskoe Highway, 127434, Moscow, Russian Federation)

The house-building industry has to correspond to the social order of time the present stage of large-panel housing construction is important the correct and objective assessment of the direction of further development of this type of construction of houses.
The wrong choice of house-building system for the modernized or created enterprise can result in low competition of production and construction of low-demanded housing. Among the existing methods of construction of housing – panel, frame and monolithic, the most effective still remain a method of construction of housing from large panels: at cost – is 20-25% cheaper than others, on construction speed – more than twice. Even in the form of assembly and monolithic it is difficult to refer monolithic housing construction to industrial housing construction. For change of system of an opiraniye of plates of overlappings from a “narrow” step of cross walls for houses the house-keeper of a class with flight on a house facade no more than 4,2 m on a “wide” step with flight to 7 m are required the special previously strained products and forms. At a choice of house-building system for again under construction and modernized enterprises it is expedient to be guided by panel and frame system with application of multihollow plates of bezopalubochny formation and a framework on the first and underground floors of buildings. These and other questions were discussed by scientists and experts at the “Development of Large-panel Housing Construction in Russia — InterConPan-2014” conference, largest in the Russian Federation, in St. Petersburg in June, 2014.

Keywords: house-building industry, large-panel construction, house-building combine.

References
1. Nikolaev S.V. Solution of Housing Problem in the Russian Federation on the Basis of Reconstruction and Technical Re-equipment of Housing Construction Industrial Base. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [HousingConstruction].2010. No. 2, pp. 2–5. (In Russian).
2 Modernization of Panel Construction - the Locomotive of Economy-Class Housing. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [HousingConstruction].2011. No. 6, pp. 2–6. (In Russian).
3 Sokolov B.S., Mironova Yu.V., Gataullina D.R. Ways of Overcoming of Crisis Situation in Large- Panel Housing Construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 4–6. (In Russian)
4 Tikhomirov B.I., Korshunov A.N. Formless molding line is the ability to create a large-panel prefabrication plant with flexible technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 22–26. (In Russian).
5. Krasnova T.A., Baturin I.A. Issues of Improving the Surface Quality of Reinforced Concrete Products. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 25–27. (In Russian).
6. Bogomolov O.V. Experience of Energy Saving at Industrial Enterprises. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 28–29. (In Russian).

A.B. LOSKUTOV 1 , Head of Design-and-Engineering Department (pko@niiasbest.ru); V.N. SAPRYKIN 2 , Technical Director
1 OAO “NIIproektasbest” (7, Promyshlennays Street, Asbest, 624266, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russian Federation)
2 “Stroy Mix Service”, Group of Companies (18, Frontovykh Brigad Street, 620017, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)

Complex of Equipment of OAO “NIIproektasbest” for Producing Fillers for Concrete and Mortar Mixes

For the purpose of effective use of natural resources and improving the quality of concrete and mortar mixes, a sorting unit for fractioning of natural sand and rock fragmentation dust has been developed. The advantage of this unit is simplicity, reliability and small dimensions. It can be installed outdoors in close proximity to concrete mixing plant. The technical char acteristic and standard dimensions series are presented. Peculiarities of its operation with various types of feedstock in warm and cold seasons are shown on the example of the unit operation at the factory.

Keywords: fractioning, inertia screen, sorting, natural sand, fragmentation dust, concrete mix, mortar mix.

A.I. NIZHEGORODOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Irkutsk National Research State Technical University (83, Lermontov street, Irkutsk, 664074, Russian Federation)

Energy-saving technology of firing vermiculite conglomerates in the electrical module and triggers kilns with "zero" not electrified module
Energy-saving technology of firing vermiculite conglomerates in the electrical module and triggers kilns with “zero” not electrified module is examined. The final expanding of vermiculite is carried out not by an external source of heat radiation, as it is done mainly, but in a special “zero” module at the expense of the internal thermal energy, stored in the vermiculite and inert material. In flat space slotted of the “zero” module the radiant energy grain of sand is transferred on the vermiculite and with it comes the conductive heat transfer in the grains themselves from their outer layers to deep. This method of the recovery of thermal energy allows to replace the third-electric module on not electrified. It reduces the power consump tion by 33% and decreases a specific energy consumption of firing of vermiculite conglomerates.

Keywords: vermiculite conglomerate, expanded vermiculite, an inert material, electric kiln, the energy of heat absorption.

Reference
1. Nizhegorodov A.I. Distinctive features of firing of vermiculite raw materials with high content of inert material in the electrical module and trigger kilns. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 1, pp. 8–9.(In Russian).
2. Nizhegorodov A.I. Tehnologii i oborudovanie dlya pererabotki vermikulita: optimalnoe frakcionirovanie, elektricheskij obzhig, doobogashchenie [Technologies and equipments for processing of vermiculite: an optimal rectification, electrical firing, beneficiation]. Irkutsk. IRSTU. 2011, 172 p.
3. Popov N.A. Proizvodstvo i primenenie vermikulita [Vermiculite production and application]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1964, 128 p.
4. Tikhonov Yu.M., Makbuzov A. I., Kolomiets I.V. Karatas- Altyntass vermiculite deposit and the technology of its firing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 11. Application Technology. No. 10, pp. 14–15. (In Russian).
5. Nizhegorodov A.I. The effectiveness of fire and electric modul and triggers kilns. Tehnologiya mashinostroeniya. 2010. No. 1, pp. 32–34. (In Russian).
6. Timchak V.M., Gusovsky V.l. Raschet nagrevatelnyh i termicheskih pechej [Calculation of heating and heat treatment kilns]. Moscow. Metallurgy. 1983, 480 p.
7. Nizhegorodov A.I. Improvement of the technology of vermiculite firing in electric module and trigger kilns. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 5, pp. 14–15. (In Russian).
8. Patent RF 120203. Tehnologicheskij kompleks dlya obzhiga i doobogashcheniya vermikulita [Technological complex for firing and beneficiation of vermiculite]. Nizhegorodov A.I. Declared 06.04.2012. Published 10.09.2012. Bulletin No. 25. (In Russian).
9. Telegin A.S., Shwidkiy V.S., Yaroshenko Yu.G. Teplo massoperenos [Heat and mass transfer]. Moscow. PBC Akademkniga. 2002, 455 p.
10. Nizhegorodov A.I. Narrowband fractionation as a factor of vermiculite concentrate quality. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 9, pp. 68–69. (In Russian).

A.A. LUKASH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (mr.luckasch@yandex.ru), N.P. LUKUTTSOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Bryansk State Engineering-Technological Academy (3 S.T. Dimitrova Avenue, 241037 Bryansk, Russian Federation)

Corrugated Cardboard Plate – Efficient Heat Insulating Material

A new heat insulating material, a corrugated cardboard plate, is offered. The presence of air layers inside it ensures good insulation properties. The possibility of using waste of goods packing provides the cheapness of manufacturing. The corrugated cardboard plate can be manufactured by gluing in thickness in the press. According to another method the corrugated cardboard plate is manufactured without the press unit and glue by means of connection with a stapler in thickness of lump waste. Each layer of the corrugated cardboard plate is assembled from strips (pieces) of the corrugated cardboard so that it is equal to the square of the finished plate. The next layer of corrugated cardboard strips is put on the previous one thus to overlap the joints between its strips. It is established that the corrugated cardboard plate is an efficient insulant for using in construction of domestic premises. The coefficient of its thermal conductivity is comparable with the thermal conductivity coefficients of traditional insulation materials as mineral wool, foam polystyrene, foam polyurethane and glass wool. The calculation of the thickness of insulant from corrugated cardboard has been made. An enclosing structure with the ceramic brick masonry of 0.12 m thickness, the unsulant from corrugated cardboard plate of 0.17 m thickness with the masonry from solid clay brick meets the sanitary-hygienic and construction requirements for heat transfer of enclosing structures by temperature drop under the condition of insulant tightness.

Keywords: corrugated cardboard, heat conductivity, construction, waste, plate.

References
1. Lukash A.A., Dyachkov K.A. Building articles made of veneer and grinded timber waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 1, pp. 54–55. (In Russian).
2. Lukash, A.A., Plotnikov V.V., Savenko V.G., Bota govsky M.V. New building materials – relief plywood and cellular laminwood. Stroitel’nye Materialy Construction Materials. 2006. No. 12, pp. 38–39. (In Russian).
3. Lukash, A.A. Plotnikov V.V., Botagovsky M.V. Cellular wall panels made of timber materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy Construction Materials. 2009. No. 2, pp. 72– 73. (In Russian).
4. Patent RF 2252865, IPC С1В27D1/06, В32В3/22. Sposob skleivaniya drevesnykh sloistykh materialov [The glueing method of laminated wood-based materials]. V.G. Savenko, A.A. Lukash; patentee – Bryansk State Engineering and Technology Academy. №2003135692/03. Declared 08.12.2003. Published 27.05.2005. Bulletin No. 15. 2 p. (In Russian).
5. Set of Rules 23-101-2004. Design of thermal protection of buildings. Instead of Set of Rules 23-101-2000. Entered 01.06.2004. Moscow: NIISF, 2004. 122 p. (In Russian).
6. Construction Norms and Rules 23-02-2003. Thermal protection of buildings. Instead of Construction Norms and Rules 23-01-99. Entered 01.10.2003. Moscow: NIISF RAASN, 2003. 36 p. (In Russian).
7. Set of Rules 131.13330.2012. Building climatology. Instead of Set of Rules 23-101-2000. Entered 01.01.2013. Moscow: NIISF, 2012. 88 p. (In Russian).

E.V. FOMINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (fomina.katerina@mail.ru), N.I. KOZHUKHOVA, Engineer, J.V. PALSHINA, Engineer, V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.E. FOMIN, MA Student (fomin.alex@mail.ru) Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Effect of Mechanical Activation on Dimensional Parameters of Alumino-Silicate Rocks*

The change in the dimensional heterogeneity of mechanically activated alumino-silicate rocks of natural and anthropogenic genesis has been studied. It is established that all the ana lyzed natural raw alumino-silicate components differ in polymineral composition with a high content of amorphous silica. Differences in mineral-genetic characteristics of alumino-sili cate rocks, content of the amorphous component and preliminary thermal treatment influence on the variability of dimensional parameters of the raw material in the course of mechani cal activation. The kinetics of mechanical effect on the material due to the improvement of grindability, change in the granulometry with a significant increase in the specific surface was conducted. The results obtained make it possible to control dimensional parameters of the raw material in the course of mechanical activation that is an important factor of improving the activity and reaction capacity of the material as well as optimization of grinding conditions. The feasibility of using alumino-silicate rocks from the position of reducing the energy intensity at the technological stage of the raw material preparation – grinding – is shown.

Keywords: alumino-silicate raw material, dispersion, mechanical activation, dimensional heterogeneity.

References
1. Zhernovsky I.V., Strokova V.V. About problem of phase- size heterogeneity of mineral raw as factor of structural formation of construction materials. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno- stroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektu ra. 2013. No. 31-2, pp. 112–118. (In Russian).
2. Zhernovsky I.V., Strokova V.V., Bondarenko A.I., Kozhukhova N.I., Structural transformations of silica raw material in the course of mechanical activation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials] 2012. No. 10, pp. 56–59. (In Russian).
3. Lesivik V.S., Alfimova N.I., Yakovlev E.A., Sheichenko M.S. About problem of enhancement of efficiency of composite binders. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstven nogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2009. No. 1, pp. 30–33. (In Russian).
4. Nosova A.N., Fomina E.V. Thermal activation of opal- cristobalite rock – waste of Korkin’s coal mine. Technical sciences – from theory to practice: Proceeding of XXIV International virtual research and practice Conference. Novosibirsk. 2013. No. 24, pp. 106–111. (In Russian).
5. Khodyikin E.I., Fomina E.V., Nikolaenko M.A., Lebedev M.S. Rational areas of application of coal strip mine raw. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2009. No 3, pp. 125–128. (In Russian).
6. Fomina E.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Kozhukhova M.I. Estimation of efficiency of application of aluminosilicate raw in composite binders. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosu darstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2013. No. 4, pp. 31–35. (In Russian).
7. Voitovich E.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Zhernovsky I.V., Cherevatova A.V., Netsvet D.D. Concept of quality con trol of aluminum silicate binders of non-hydration hard ening. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 68–70. (In Russian).
8. Khodakov G.S. Tonkoe izmel’chenie stroitel’nykh mate rialov [Fine finding of construction materials]. Moscow: Stroizdat.1972. 240 p.
9. Lebedev M.S, Strokova V.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Potapo va I.Y. Change of properties of mineral powders prepared from aluminosilicate raw material under influence of thermal modification. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constru

N.I. MAKRIDIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Counsellor of RAACS, I.N. MAKSIMOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (maksimovain@mail.ru), E.A. TAMBOVTSEVA, MA Student Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (28, Germana Titova Street, Penza, 440028, Russian Federation)

Comparative Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of Rocks on the Loading Diagram

Results of the analysis of experimentally obtained graphic dependences of the quantity and character of changes of generated ultrasound impulses of the acoustic emission on the dia gram of loading of natural stone materials of different genesis are presented. The complex assessment of power, energetic, deformation, and acoustic parameters of the mechanical behavior of rocks makes it possible to offer the criterion of structural quality of fillers in the course of their selection for concretes of higher strength and reliability.

Keywords: rocks, acoustic emission, acoustic parameters, destruction process, crack resistance.

References
1. Leng F.F. Razrushenie kompozitov s dispersnymi chas titsami v khrupkoi matritse. V kn. Kompozitsionnye ma terialy. Tom 5. Razrushenie i ustalost’. [Destruction composites dispersed particles in the brittle matrix. In the book. Composite materials. Vol. 5 Destruction and fa tigue. Translated from English by ed. Cherepanov G.P.]. Moscow: Mir. 1978, pp 9–57.
2. An instrument for measuring the coefficient of internal fric tion type IKVT-2. Instructions. Leningrad: LETI, 1967. 32 p.
3. Karpenko N.I., Zaitsev Yu.V., Okolnikova G.E., Andrianov A.A. Experimental determination of physical and mechanical properties and fracture mechanics pa rameters of ultra high-strength concrete. Proceedings. Fundamental research RAASN on scientific support de velopment of architecture, urban planning and construc tion industry of the Russian Federation in 2010. Moscow Orel: RAASN. 2011, pp. 242–248. (In Russian)
4. Makridin N.I., Korolev E.V., Maksimova I.N. The acous tic emission method in building materials. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 3 / Nauka. No. 9, pp. 25–27. (In Russian).

E.V. KOROLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Director Research and Education Center «Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology» (KorolevEV@mgsu.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Thermodynamic Condition of Preserving the Layer of Binding Materials

Methods for the calculation of the thickness of the layer of binder between the particles of the disperse phase (filler) are presented; they are used for forecasting the influence of its characteristics on the properties of composite materials. It is shown that the parameters of the disperse phase significantly influence on the internal stress state of the material and parameters of its conditions. The thermodynamic condition for the preservation of the layer of binder on the disperse phase surface is established.

Keywords: binder, thermodynamic condition, layer, interphase boundary, sedimentation, composite material.

References
1. Bazhenov Yu.M., Danilov A.M., Gar’kina I.A., Koro lev E.V., Sokolova Yu.A. Sistemnyi podkhod k razrabotke i upravleniyu kachestvom stroitel’nykh materialov [Systematic approach to developing and managing the qual ity of building materials]. Moscow: Paleotip. 2006. 188 p.
2. Bazhenov Yu.M., Danilov A.M., Gar’kina I.A., Koro lev E.V. Sistemnyi analiz v stroitel’nom materialovedenii [System analysis in building materials]. Moscow: MGSU. 2012. 432 p.
3. Bormotov A.N., Proshin I.A., Korolev E.V. Matema ticheskoe modelirovanie i mnogokriterial’nyi sintez kompozitsi onnykh materialov [Mathematical modeling and multi-criteria synthesis of composite materials]. Penza: PGTA. 2011. 352 p.
4. Korolev E.V., Bazhenov Yu.M., Al’bakasov A.I. Radiatsionno-zashchitnye i khimicheski stoikie sernye stroitel’nye materialy [Radiation-protective and chemi cally resistant sulfur construction materials]. Penza – Orenburg: IPK OGU. 2010. 364 p.
5. Bobryshev A.N., Kozomazov V.N., Babin L.O. Sinergetika kompozitsionnykh materialov [Synergetics composite materials]. Lipetsk: NPO ORIUS. 1994. 152 p.
6. Ermilov P.I. Dispergirovanie pigmentov [Dispersion of pigments]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1971. 298 p.
7. Rusanov A.I. Fazovye ravnovesiya i poverkhnostnye yav leniya [Phase equilibria and surface phenomena]. Leningrad: Khimiya, 1967. 388 p.
8. Popel S.I. Poverkhnostnye yavleniya v rasplavakh [Surface phenomena in melts]. Moscow: Metallurgiya. 1994. 432 p.
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10. Veitsman E.V. Kvazitonnaya teoriya mezhfazovoi oblas ti razdela i ee prilozheniya [Kvaziton theory of interfacial area section and its applications]. Moscow: Energo atomizdat. 1999. 144 p.
11. Korolev E.V., Inozemtcev A.S. Effectiveness of physical effects for dispersing nanosized modifiers. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 76–79. (In Russian).

S.V. FEDOSOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS, President (prezident@ivgpu.com); V.G. KOTLOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Counsellor of RAACS (KotlovVG@volgatech.net); R.M. ALOYAN 1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAACS, Rector; F.N. YASINSKI 3, Doctor of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics); M.V. BOCHKOV1 , Engineer
1 Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (20, Mart 8th Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)
2 Volga State University of Technology (3, Lenin Square, Yoshkar-Ola, Republic of Mari El, 424000, Russian Federation)
3 Ivanovo State Power Engineering University (34, Rabfakovskaya Street, Ivanovo, 153003, Russian Federation)

Simulation of Heat-Mass Transfer in the Gas – Solid System at Dowel Joints of Timber Structures Elements. Part. 4. Simulation and Numerical Realization of Processes of Condensation, Evaporation and Mass Conductivity of Moisture
On the basis of mathematical models of heat and mass transfer previously developed and expounded in the works [1–3], the methodology of concrete calculations of the kinetics and dynamics of moisture transfer in the wood of dowel joint with due regard for the stages of moisture condensation in the dowel and mass transfer of moisture to the wood layers adja cent to the dowel is presented. The kinetics of water condensation in the dowel, when the air temperature reaches the dew point and then reduces, is described. For the case of natural convection characterized by the value of mass transfer Sherwood number (Sh=2), the results of model analyses, which determine the bulk quantity of moisture condensed in the dowel and diffused during this time into the internal layers of wood, are presented. In the perspective, the monitoring of cyclicity of temperature-humidity parameters of the environment makes it possible to exercise the monitoring of temperature-humidity characteristics of the dowel wood for developing recommendations on periodic maintenance of bearing structures.

Keywords: dowel connection, wood, mass transfer, condensation, micro-processes method.

References
1. Fedosov S.V., Kotlov V.G., Aloyan R.M., Jasinski F.N., Bochkov M.V. Simulation of heat-mass transfer in the gas-solid system at dowel joints of timber structures ele ments. Part. 1. General physical and mathematical problem. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 86–91. (In Russian).
2. Fedosov S.V., Kotlov V.G., Aloyan R.M., Jasinski F.N., Bochkov M.V. Simulation of heat-mass transfer in the gas-solid system at dowel joints of timber structures ele ments. Part 2. Dynamics of temperature fields at arbitrary law of changes of air environment temperature. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 73–79. In Russian).
3 Fedosov S.V., Kotlov V.G., Aloyan R.M., Jasinski F.N., Bochkov M.V. Simulation of heat-mass transfer in the gas-solid system at dowel joints of timber structures ele ments. Part 3. Dynamics and kinetics of moisture trans fer. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 9, pp. 63–69. (In Russian).
4 Fedosov S.V. Teplomassoperenos v tekhnologicheskikh protsessakh stroitel’noi industrii [Heat and mass transfer in technological processes in construction industry]. Ivanovo: PresSto. 2010. 364 p.
5 Kasatkin A.G. Osnovnye protsessy i apparaty khimiches koi tekhnologii [Basic processes and devices of chemical technology]. Moscow: State Research and Engineering Publishing House of chemical literature. 1961. 830 p.
6 Comissarov Y.A., Gordeev L.S., Vent D.P. Protsessy i apparaty khimicheskoi tekhnologii [The processes and apparatuses of chemical technology]. Moscow: Khimiya. 2011. 1229 p.
7 Ugolev B.N. Drevesinovedenie i lesnoe tovarovedenie [Wood science and forestry merchandising]. 2-nd ed. Moscow: Publishing Center Academy, 2006. 272 p.

A.A. STENIN, Engineer (01_ac@bk.ru), A.M. AYZENSHTADT, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry), A.A. SHINKARUK, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry), M.L. DEMIDOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), M.A. FROLOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov ( 22, Severnaya Dvina Embankment, 163002 Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation)

A Mineral Modifier of a Surface for Protection of Wood Building Materials
The article analyzes results of the X-ray structural analysis and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) of the mineral fire protection filler. SEM shows that the thickness of the protection film is 300-400 microns, and the film possesses a heterogeneous structure. The surface layer contains a saponite-containing material, the middle layer – crystal basalt neo-formations, and the deep layer is a carbonated calcium oxide (calcite). This structure of the filler makes it possible to improve the fire protection and hydro-physical properties of wooden products that leads to an increase in their service life. Application of the protection film on the timber is made with the help of an autoclaved unit which makes it possible to alternate the vacuum- pressure regime for a more complete and uniform penetration of the mineral filler into the timber pores. The article presents the technological scheme of the autoclaved unit.

Keywords: basalt, saponite, mineral filler, modified surface of timber.

References
1. Stenin A.A., Aizenshtadt A.M., Shinkaruk A.A., Makho va T.A. Formation of fireproof properties of construction materials from wood with use of a high-disperse basalt filler. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 47–49. (In Russian).
2. Lomakin A.D. Protection of glued wooden designs indus trially. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 111–115. (In Russian).
3. Lomakin A.D. Deep impregnation of wood by means of protection from biodestruction and ignition. Stroitel’ nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 72–74. (In Russian).
4. Korol’chenko A.Ja., Korol’chenko O.N. Sredstva ogne zashhity [Means of fire protection]. Moscow: Pozhnauka. 2009. 560 p.
5. Korol’chenko A.Ja., Korol’chenko O.N. Sredstva ogne- i biozashhity [Means fire – and bioprotection]. Moscow: Pozhnauka. 2009. 250 p.
6. Petrova E.A. Decrease in combustibility of wood. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 11, pp. 59–61. (In Russian).
7. Lomakin A.D. Zashchita derevyannykh konstruktsii [Protection of wooden constructions]. Moscow: Stroimaterialy. 2013. 424 p.
8. Aseeva R.M., Serkov B.B., Sivenkov A.B. Gorenie drevesiny i ejo pozharoopasnye svojstva [Burning of wood and its fire-dangerous properties]. Moscow: Akademija GPS MChS Rossii. 2010. 262 p.

R.V. LESOVIK, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), D.M. SOPIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), G.G. IL’INSKAYA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.A. BOGUSEVICH, Engineer, R.M. GAYNUTDINOV, Engineer Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, 308012, Belgorod, Russian Federation)

Electric Heating of Concrete Mixes on the Basis of Composite Binders
At present, practically in all regions of the Russian Federation, the specialists are faced, to a greater or lesser extent, with the problem of replacement of expensive foreign components by local raw materials with the purpose of reducing the self-cost of concrete and improving technical-and-economic indexes. The compositions of a composite binder with the use of anthropogenic sand, waste of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzite, are offered. A possibility of increasing the efficiency of concreting at negative temperatures due to the use of composite binders and fine concretes on the basis of anthropogenic raw materials of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly is considered.

Keywords: composite binders, fine concrete, siftings of quartzitic sandstone crushing, waste of wet magnetic separation, winter concreting.

References
1. Serdyukova A.A. Rakhimbayev Sh. M. Influence of low ered temperatures on kinetics of curing of cement sys tems. Тhe Messenger of the Belgorod state technological university of V.G. Shukhov. 2012. No. 3, рр. 49–52. (In Russian).
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3. Sadovich M. A. Metody zimnego betonirovaniya [Methods of winter concreting]. Bratsk: Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training BRGU, 2009. 104 p. (In Russian).
4. Lesovik V.S., Alfimova N.I., Yakovlev E.A. Sheychenko M.S. To a problem of increase of efficiency composite knitting. Тhe Messenger of the Belgorod state technological university of V.G. Shukhov. 2009. No. 1, рр. 30–33. (In Russian).
5. Lesovik V.S., Vishnevskaya YA.YU., Alfimova N.I. Energoyemkost of processes of synthesis composite knit ting depending on genesis of a kremnezemsoderzhashchy componen. Тhe Messenger of the Belgorod state techno logical university of V.G. Shukhov. 2011. No. 3, рр. 53–56. (In Russian).
6. Fedosov S.V., Bobylyov V.I. Mitkin Yu.A. Zakinchak G.N., Sokolov A.M. electrothermal treatment of con crete by currents of various frequency. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 6, pp. 2–7. (In Russian).
7. Fedosov S.V., Krylov B.A. Bobylyov V.I. Pyzhikov A.G. Krasnoselskikh N. V., Sokolov A.M. application of elec trothermal treatment of ferroconcrete products on poly gon installations. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 35–38. (In Russian)

V.P. SELYAEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (ntorm80@mail.ru), V.A. NEVEROV, Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics), L.I. KUPRIYASHKINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), O.G. MASHTAEV, Engineer Mordovia State University named after N.P. Ogarev (68, Bolshevistskaya Street, Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation)

Natural and Artificial Micro-silica as Fillers for Vacuum Insulation Panels

The complex studies of the structure and properties of some natural and artificial micro-silica with the purpose to find a suitable material for fillers of vacuum insulation panels have been conducted. The parameters of the non-homogeneities of nano-meter scale of amorphous silicon dioxide particles are determined. The comparative analysis of studied dispersions with a powder-filler of foreign production is made. Experimental samples of the vacuum insulation panels were made, their efficient heat conductivity was measured. Recommendations for the production of powder-fillers from local mineral raw materials are given.

Keywords: natural diatomite, disperse micro-silica, vacuum insulation panel.

References
1. Dul’nev G.N., Zarichnyak Yu.P. Teploprovodnost’ smesei i kompozitsionnykh materialov [Thermal conduc tivity of composite materials and mixtures thereof]. Spravochnaya kniga. Leningrad: Energiya. 1974. 264 p.
2. Selyaev V.P., Osipov A.K., Neverov V.A., Mashtaev O.G., Sidorov V.V. Polystructural model the thermal conduc tivity of the material on the basis of particulate fume. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2012. Vol. 2(13), pp. 5–11. (In Russian).
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6. Selyaev V.P., Neverov V.A., Mashtaev O.G., Sido rov V.V. Microstructure of heat insulation materials on the basis of fine-dispersed mineral powders. Stroitel’ nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 8, pp. 79–80. (In Russian).
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8. Selyaev V.P., Neverov V.A., Kupriyashkina L.I., Osi pov A.K., Udina O.A. Diatomite Middle Volga. Structure and properties. Science, Technology and Higher Education April 17th, 2013. Westwood, Canada. Vol. II. 2013, pp. 218–227.
9. Korolev L.V., Lupanov A.P., Pridatko Yu.M. Dense packing of polydisperse particles in composite building materials. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2007. No. 6, pp. 109–114. (In Russian).
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V.S. GRYZLOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gryvs@mail.ru), A.I. FOMENKO1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), N.M. FEDORCHUK 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), N.S. BUSYGIN1 , Engineer, Kh.Kh. TURGUMBAEVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), T.I. BEYSEKOVA 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.Z. LAPSHINA2 , Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry)
1 Cherepovets State University (5, Lunacharsky Prospect, Cherepovets, 162600, Vologda Region, Russian Federation)
2 Kazakh National Technical University named after K.I. Satpayev (22a, Satpaev Street, Almaty, 050013, Republic of Kazakhstan)

Electrothermophosphoric Slags as a Basis of Binding Composites

Results of the study of composite binders on the basis of electrothermophosphoric slags of Novodzhambul Phosphorous Plant of “Kazphosphate” LLC are presented. It is established that the chemical composition of slags doesn’t depends on the time of year and the place of sample taking. The feasibility of practical using these slags for producing low-clinker bind ers with a relatively low heat conductivity and high heat resistance is shown. On the basis of a detailed study of the mineralogical composition of binders with the use of phosphoric slag by the X-ray diffraction method in the course of stage-by-stage heat treatment, the conclusion about the possibility of their use in concretes and mortars for special purposes is made.

Keywords: electrothermophosphoric slags, low-clinker binder, X-ray diffraction method, heat conductivity, heat resistance.

References
1. V.N. Yarmakovsky, N.I. KARPENKO, V.A. Il’ichev. About Development of Building Materials Production on the Basis of Secondary Industrial Products (SIPs). Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No.4, pp. 36–42. (In Russian).
2. .K. Sarsenbaev, T.A. Momyshev, T.U. Iskakov, N.B. Sarsenbaev, T.S. Aubakirova. Production of Slag-Alkali Binders and Concretes on Their Base. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 11, pp. 56–58. (In Russian).
3. A.V. Artamonova, G.I. Nosov. Binding Agents on the Basis of Electric Furnace Steelmaking Slag. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 5, pp. 16–17. (In Russian).
4. E.A. Shlyakhova, A.F. Akopyan . Estimation of the Limits of Applicability of Raw Material for Production of Slag Alkali Binders. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 11, pp. 28–29. (In Russian).
5. Gryzlov V. S. Formirovanie struktury shlakobetonov [Structure formation Slag Concreat]. Lambert Academic Publishing Saarb Ucken Deutchland. 2012. 347 с.

L.I. LEONT’EV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAS, O.Yu. SHESHUKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (ferro1960@mail.ru), V.S. TSEPELEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), M.A. MIKHEENKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.V. NEKRASOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), D.K. EGIAZAR’YAN, Engineer Institute of Metallurgy, Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (101, Amundsena Street, 620016, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation)

Technological Features of Steelmaking Slag Processing in Building Materials and Products*
The main types of slag generated by the steel industry, features of their chemical and mineralogical compositions are considered. Physical-chemical conditions of the slag formation are described. It is shown that under conditions of the oxidizing melting the slag containing significant amounts of iron oxide and small amounts of calcium oxide is formed, but under con ditions of reduction melting the slag containing significant amounts of calcium oxide and small amounts of iron oxide is formed. Features of the phase compositions of slag are shown. An analysis of now existing methods of processing of steelmaking slag and features of the processing of self-flaking, high-lime, refined slags are presented. The correction of the phase composition of self-flaking slag at the moment of melting is the most prospective methods of their stabilization. The results of such slag stabilization are presented. The possibility of giving binding properties to the slag by mixing of different types of liquid slag is shown. Results and technical features of the steelmaking slag processing in building materials and products are presented and described.

Keywords: slag, phase composition, slag crushed stone, mineral binders, partition plate.

References
1. Demin B.L., Smirnov L. A., Sorokin Y.V., Shcherba kov E.N., Kulezneva L.P., Matsiuk L.T. New design of drum type for processing of slag melts. Works of scientific and practical Conference with international participation “The perspectives of development of metallurgy and me chanical engineering using the completed fundamental re search and research and development”. Ekaterinburg. 2013, рр. 63–70. (In Russian).
2. Demin B.l., Sorokin Y.V., Shcherbakov E.N., Sharafut dinov R.Y. Technical Solutions for Processing of Self disintegrating Stainless Steel Slags. Proceeding of Intern. Congress “Fundamentals of processing technologies and re cycling of industrial wastes.” Ekaterinburg. 2012, рр. 236– 240. (In Russian).
3. Durinck D., Jones P.T. Arnout S. Blanpain B. Stainless Steel Slag Valorisation: on Volume Stability and Disintegration. Materials of 1st International Slag Valorisation Symposium. Leuven. 2009, рр. 81–92.
4. Patent of RF 2505504. Composite Waterproof Gypsum Binder. Mikheenkov M.A., Mamaev S.A., Stepanov A.I., Zuev M.V. Pretention 13.07.2012. Published 27.01.2014. Bulletin No. 3. (In Russian).

I.A. STAROVOYTOVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (irina-starovoitova@yandex.ru), A.V. DROGUN2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), E.S. ZYKOVA 1, Engineer, A.N. SEMENOV2 , Engineer, V.G. KHOZIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), E.B. FIRSOVA2, Engineer
1 Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)
2 OOO “NPF “Rekon” (25/22, Kremlevskaya Street, 420111, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Colloidal-Chemical Stability of Water Dispersion of Epoxy Resins
Results of the study of colloidal-chemical stability of epoxy resins in water solutions of surfactants are presented in this work. Prescription-technological parameters of the dispersion obtaining were optimized according to the criterion of stability and structural parameters of the systems under laboratory conditions. High efficiency of using the mixed surfactant (block copolymer of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, and polycarboxylic ether) for dispersion of epoxy resins in the water medium is established. In particular, the use of the mixed surfactant makes it possible to reduce the average size of particles of the disperse phase by 2–2.5 times in comparison with the basic formula. On the basis of results of testing the process of dis- persion obtaining under production conditions, the possibility to “transfer” laboratory parameters to the industrial dissolvers with getting similar results is demonstrated.

Keywords: water dispersion of epoxy resins, oiling agents, stability, dispersity, colloidal-chemical stability

References
1. Patent US 4933381. Resin compatible size composition for small diameter glass fibers. Tomas P. Khager. Declared 27.08.1987. Published 12.06.1990.
2. Patent EP 0620805 A1. Size composition. Leonard J. Adzima, Martin C. Flautt.; Declared 08.11.1993. Published 26.10.1994.
3. Tuisov A.G., Belousov A.M. Investigation of the effect of the type of lubricant on the strength properties of fiber glass rod. Polzunovskii vestnik. 2008. No. 1–2, pp. 97–98. (In Russian).
4. Gurtovnik I.G., Sokolov V.I., Trofimov N.N., Shalgu nov S.I. Radioprozrachnye izdeliya iz stekloplastikov [Radiotransparent products of fiberglass]. Moscow: Mir. 2003. 368 p.
5. Patent RF 2432330. Steklyannye niti, pokrytye zamasli vatelem, soderzhashchim nanochastitsy [Glass filaments coated a lubricant containing nanoparticles]. Muaro Patrik. Declared 18.12.2006. Published 27.01.2010. Bulletin No. 3. (In Russian).
6. Shinkareva E. V., Koshevar V. D., Budeiko N. L. Stability and structural and rheological properties of emulsions of epoxy oligomer. Laki i kraski. 2009. No. 5, pp. 18–22. (In Russian).
7. Jianfeng Yu, Hongxia Pan, Xiaodong Zhou. Preparation of waterborne phosphated acrylate–epoxy hybrid disper sions and their application as coil coating primer. Journal of Coatings Technology and Research. 2014. Vol. 11. Is. 3, pp. 361–369.
8. Patent RF 2165946. Sposob polucheniya vodoemul’sionnoi epoksidnoi kompozitsii [A method for producing an aque ous emulsion of epoxy composition]. Amirova L.M., Mangusheva T.A., Saifutdinov R.Kh., Shapaev I.I., Prokhorov A.A.; Declared 16.07.1999. Published 27.04.2001. Bulletin № 12. (In Russian).
9. Gang Fu, Lin Han, Hong Kuang, Chunming Fu, Milin Zhang, Bin Zhang. Preparation and Properties of Solid Waterborne Epoxy Resin Dispersion. Polymer Materials Science & Engineering. 2011. Is. 3, рр. 147–149.

S.V. BASTRYGINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (bastr_sv@chemy.kolasc.net.ru), L.G. GERASIMOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw Materials named after I.V. Tananaev Kola Science Center RAS (26a, «Academic town», Apatity, 184209, Murmansk region, Russian Federation)

Fine Disperse Tails of Copper-Nickel Ore Concentration are Raw Materials to Produce Composite Pigments for Paint-and-Lacquer Materials
Possibilities to use the fresh and old tails of copper-nickel ore concentration to obtain composite pigments for construction purposes are considered. It is established that the fresh tails have inhomogeneous granulometric composition and additional grinding is necessary for their use in the composition of paint-and-lacquer materials. Old tails are characterized by the predominance of fine-disperse material, in which the content of talc in attachments to chlorites and hydrochlorites reaches 80% and more. To increase the content of talc in stale tails the magnetic separation and acid treatment are conducted. Additional preparation (mechanical activation) of the talc-containing product and optimization of conditions of putting of flat ting component on its cover surface (compounds of Fe, Ni, Co et al.) favorably influence on the quality and expand the sphere of application of the pigment filler in the building and paint-and-lacquer industries.

Keywords: pigments, paint-and-lacquer materials, talc, process waste.

References
1. Gerasimova L.G., Skorohodova O.N. Napolniteli dlja lakokrasochnoj promyshlennosti [Fillers for the paint- and-varnish industry]. Moscow: OOO LKM-press. 2010. 223 p.
2. Nikolaev A.I., Bryljakov Ju.E., Gerasimova L.G., Vasil’eva N.Ja. Himicheskaja pererabotka mineral’nyh koncentratov Kol’skogo poluostrova [Chemical process ing of mineral concentrates of the Kola Peninsula]. Apatity: KNC RAN. 2003. 196 p.
3. Gerasimova L.G. Pigmenty i napolniteli iz prirodnogo titansoderzhashhego syr’ja i tehnogennyh othodov [Pigments and fillers from natural titanium-containing raw materials and anthropogenic wastes]. Apatity: KNC RAN, 2001. 96 p.
4. Kalinskaja T.V., Drinberg A.S. Cvetnye pigmenty [Colou ring agents]. Moscow: OOO LKM-press. 2013. 360 p.
5. Gerasimova L.G., Nikolaev A.I., Vasil’eva N.Ja. Building paints based on alumosilicate pigment fillers. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Costruction materials]. 2000. No. 1, pp. 27–28. (In Russian).
6. Gerasimova L.G. Recovery of by-products in pigment and filler production. Lakokrasochnaja promyshlennost’. 2012. No. 6, pp.28–33 (In Russian).
7. Gerasimova L.G. Producing a titanium-containing pig ment filler from titanite. Lakokrasochnaja promyshlen- nost’. 2010. No. 8, pp. 36–38 (In Russian).
8. Kuleshova I.D. Talkon microtalc from Irkutsk – new fillers for paint and varnish materials. Lakokrasochnye materialy i ih primenenie. 2002. No. 12, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
9. Kochergin A.V., Krasnobaj N.G. Situation at the market of iron-oxide pigments and pigmented fillers and possible use of natural minerals. Lakokrasochnye materialy i ih primenenie. 2003. No. 1, pp. 3–14 (In Russian).
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