Stroitel`nye Materialy №7

Table of contents

A.V. GRINEVICH1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.A. KISELEV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), E.M. KUZNETSOV1, Engineer; A.F. BURIANOV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); A.I. RYASHKO1 , Engineer
1 OAO “Scientific Research Institute for Fertilisers and Insectofungicide named after professor Ya.V. Samoylov” (55/1, Leninsky Ave. 119333, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Hwy, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Gypsum Binder from α-СаSO4* 0,5Н2О – Waste of Extraction Phosphoric Acid Production
Results of the study of OAO “NIUIF” aimed at obtaining of gypsum binders directly from alfa-hemihydrate of calcium sulfate (alfa-HCS) – waste of wet-process phosphoric acid produced from Kola apatite concentrate and poor raw materials from Karatau (Koksu Deposit) without changing the phase composition of waste alfa-HCS by the dehydrate-hemihydrate method are presented. In relation to the Kola apatite concentrate a new variant of dehydrate-hemihydrate process with high tempearature dehydrate stage has been developed. Principal process scheme has been developed; characteristics of basic equipment have been defined; proposals for organization of production of gypsum binder of 150–200 ths tn per year capacity with organization of the dehydrate-hemihydrate process on the existing dehydrate system of wet-process phosphoric acid production at Balakovsky branch of OAO “Apatite”.

Keywords: wet-process phosphoric acid, phosphogypsum, dehydrate-hemihydrate process, gypsum binders, alfa-hemihydrate of calcium sulfate.

1. Evenchik S.D., Brodskii A.A. Tekhnologiya fosfornykh i kompleksnykh udobrenii. [Technology of phosphoric and complex fertilizers]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1987. 464 p.
2. Grinevich A.V., Kuznecov E.M., Davydenko V.V., Kerzhner A.M., Grinevich V.A., Kaleev I.A., Knizhencev I.A., Shibanov E.Ju., Perekrestov V.P. Experience of reconstruction of hemi-hydrate sys tems of production of WPA on JSC «Ammophos» and introductions of hemi-hydrate process on JSC «Balakovo mineral Fertilizers». Works NIUIF: collec tion of scientific works. Moscow: NIUIF. 2009, pp. 250–264. (In Russian).
3. Grinevich A.V., Kiselev A.A., Kuznecov E.M., Shibanov E.Ju., Didenko N.A. Development and deployment on JSC Ammophos of an advanced dihydrate way of receiv ing WPA with use of the COPEE RUST reactor. Works NIUIF: collection of scientific works. Moscow: NIUIF. 2009, pp. 277–287. (In Russian).
4. Becker P. Phosphates and Phosphoric Acid: Raw materi als – Technology, and Economics of the Wet-Process. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1989. 740 p.
5. Grinevich A.V., Klassen P.V., Karmyshev V.F. Modern industrial methods of production of wet phosphoric acid abroad. Himicheskaja promyshlennost’ za rubezhom. 1986. No. 1, pp. 1–31. (In Russian).
6. Patent RF №2333151. Sposob polucheniya ekstraktsionnoi fosfornoi kisloty [Way of receiving wet phosphoric acid]. Grinevich A.V., Kerzhner A.M., Grinevich V.A., Kuznecov E.M., Kiselev A.A., Declared 04.06.2007. Published 10.09.2008. Bulletin No. 25. (In Russian).
7. Kiperman Yu.A. Fosfaty v XXI veke [Phosphates in the XXI century]. Almaty-Taraz-Zhanatas. 2006. 208 p.
8. Eurasion patent № 015776. Sposob polucheniya ekstrakt sionnoi fosfornoi kisloty [Way of receiving wet phos phoric acid]. Grinevich A.V., Davydenko V.V., Kise lеv A.A., Kerzhner A.M., Kuznecov E.M., Grinevich V.A. Declared 21.07.2009. Published 30.12.2011. (In Russian).

I.V. BESSONOV 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); R.I. SHIGAPOV 2 , Engineer; V.V. BABKOV 3 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Ufimskaya gipsovaya kompaniya» (8, Proizvodstvennaya Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450069, Russian Federation)
3 Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)

Heat-Insulating Foamed Gypsum in Low-Rise Construction
Technical and technological aspects of receiving and application of heat-insulating foamed gypsum in designs of external walls are considered. An experience in construction and opera tion of low-rise houses with external walls from foamed gypsum is given. Physical and mechanical characteristics of the foamed gypsum received at the ETS-0.5 plant are investigated. Results of experimental definitions of thermo-technical indicators of foamed gypsum heat-insulating material are presented. Results of the full-scale study of dynamics of natural drying of a heat-insulation layer from foamed gypsum in external walls of houses are given. Suggestions about improvement of technology of monolithic low-rise housing construction with foamed gypsum application are developed.

Keywords: foamed gypsum, permanent formwork, heat-insulation layer, external walls, low-rise buildings.

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6. Shigapov R.I., Babkov V.V., Haliullin M.I. Foamed gypsum use in low construction. Izvestiya KGASU. 2014. No. 2, pp. 45–50. (In Russian).
7. Pustovgar A.P., Gagulayev A.V. Heat physical characteristics designs from modified gypsum-cell concret. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 7, pp. 34–35. (In Russian).
8. Patent RF 2373049. Porizatsionnyi smesitel’ dlya prigotovleniya yacheistykh smesei [The Mixer for porization for preparation of cellular mixes]. Yefimov P.A. declared 04.05.2008. Published 20.11.2009. Bulletin No. 32. (In Russian).
9. Bessonov I.V. Characteristics of moisture transfer of foamed gypsum. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012 . No. 7, pp. 34–37. (In Russian).

M.S. GARKAVI1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. ARTAMONOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), E.V. KOLODYAZHNAYA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); A.F. BURIANOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 ZAO “Ural-Omega” (structure 7, 89, Lenina Avenu, Magnitogorsk, 455037, Chelyabinskaya Oblast, Russian Federation);
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Composite Anhydrite-Slag Binder of Centrifugal-Impact Grinding
Anhydrite binders are an alternative to clinker cement due to the low energy consumption of their production. The basis of these binders is natural anhydrite or anthropogenic products containing waterless calcium sulphate. Hydraulic activity of anhydrite is ensured with its fine grinding and the use of hardening activators. As an activator of anhydrite hardening in this work, the waste aluminous slag, in chemical composition of which alumina oxide (50–75%) and calcium oxide (15–25%) prevail, are used. It is established that the hardening of the composite anhydrite binder is defined by its grain composition and concentration of defects on the particles surface. Ensuring the predominant particle size of 15 microns with high content of surface active centers is reached by grinding of components of the composite binder in a centrifugal-impact mill. Mechanical activation and mechanical-chemical interaction of anhydrite and aluminous slag takes place in this mill. It is shown that when the content of aluminous slag in the composition of composite binder is up to 30%, the content of ettringite in the structure of the artificial stone increases that leads to its strength growth.

Keywords: anhydrite binder, hydraulic activity of anhydrite, centrifugal-impact mill, mechanical activatio

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V.B. PETROPAVLOVSKAYA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), T.B. NOVICHENKOVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); A.F. BURIANOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); H.-B. FISHER3, Doctor-Еngineer; K.S. PETROPAVLOVSKY1, Еngineer
1 Tver State Technical University (22, Afanasiya Nikitina Embankment, 170026, Tver, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)
3 Bauhaus-Universität Weimar (8, Geshvister-Sholl Street, Weimar, 99423, Germany)

Self-Reinforcing Gypsum Composites
With the purpose to improve physical and mechanical characteristics of gypsum materials and products the possibility of their self-reinforcement due to the formation of crystal of fibrous ettringite in the gypsum matrix has been studied. Results of the study of influence of pore liquid alkalinity on the morphology of ettringite crystals obtained are presented. Solutions of aluminum sulphate and calcium hydroxide were used as a complex additive. It is established that the solution of aluminum sulfate is a factor regulating the quantity of ettringite generated. Processes of crystallization of disperse systems are also studied. An analysis of microstructure of modified gypsum stone shows that in case of the use of the complex additive the composite structure consists of tabular crystals of gypsum and needle-shaped crystals of ettringite. It is established that the use of the complex additive on the basis of aluminum sulfate and calcium hydroxide makes it possible to increase the strength of gypsum materials by over 80% without significant loss of density.

Keywords: gypsum matrix, ettringite, modifying additive.

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considering raw materials genesis. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 4, pp. 3–11. (In Russian).
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V.N. DEREVYANKO1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.G. CHUMAK1, Еngineer; V.E. VAGANOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Prydniprovs’ka State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (24a, Chernyshevskogo Street, 49600, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine)
2 Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs (87, Gorkogo Street, 600000, Vladimir, Russian Federation)

Impact of Nanoparticles on Processes of Hydration of Hemihydrate Gypsum

Study of mechanisms of structure formation of gypsum binders with the use of nano-modifying additives makes it possible to control the processes of production of gypsum materials and products made of them with the specified complex of properties. Studies in the field of modification of a gypsum binder matrix have been conducted; the influence of multi-layered carbon nanotubes on hydration processes, structure and physical-mechanical properties of composites obtained has been studied.

Keywords: nanomodofication, structure formation, gypsum binders, carbon nanotubes.

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9. Maeva I.S., Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Bur’yanov A.F., Pustovgar A.P. Structuring of anhydrite matrix with nanodisperse modifying additives. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 6, pp. 4–5. (In Russian).
10. Gordina А.F., Tokarev Yu.V., Yakovlev G.I., Keriene Ya., Spudulis E. Differences in forming the structure of gypsum binder modified by carbon nanotubes and lime. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 34–37. (In Russian).
11. Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Voytovich E.V. Peculiarities of phase formation in a composite nanostructured gypsum binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 9–11. (In Russian).

O.V. IZRYADNOVA1, Master, G.I. YAKOVLEV1, Doctor of sciences (Engineering), I.S. POLYANSKIKH1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); H.-B. FISHER2, Doctor-Engineer; S.A. SENKOV3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Izhevsk State Technical University Named after M.T. Kalashnikov (7, Studencheskaya Street, 426000, Izhevsk, Russian Federation)
2 Bauhaus-Universität Weimar (8, Geshvister-Sholl Street, Weimar, 99423, Germany)
3 Perm State National Research University (15, Bukireva Street, 614990, Perm, Russian Federation)

Change of Morphology of Crystal Hydrates at Incorporation of Ultra- and Nano Disperse Modifiers Structures into Gypsum Cement-Pozzolana Binders

A possibility to use the micro-silica in combination with carbon nanostructures as modifiers favoring the change of morphology of new formations in the structure of gypsum cementpozzolana compositions is considered. The influence of a complex additive on the basis of ultra-and nano-disperse modifiers on physical-mechanical properties of compositions is shown. It is established that the incorporation of carbon nano-systems in combination with micro-silica and Portland cement influences on the formation of the structure of gypsum crystals. Data of physical-technical tests show the growth of strength in the course of compression by 42% and improvement of water resistance by 39%. The obtained data prove the prospectivity of modification of gypsum binders with ultra-and nano-disperse additives.

Keywords: gypsum cement-pozzolana binders, morphology, dispersion, crystalline hydrate, multilayer nano-tubes, micro-silica.

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A.R. GAYFULLIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), M.I. KHALIULLIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), R.Z RAKHIMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAACS Kazan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Composition and Structure of Composite Gypsum Binder Stone with Lime and Hybrid Mineral Additive
The influence of a hybrid mineral additive which includes anthropogenic products – claydite dust and granulated blast-furnace slag in quantities of 20 and 30% of building gypsum mass – on the composition, structure and basic physical and mechanical properties of artificial stone on the basis of composite gypsum binder has been investigated. The incorporation of the hybrid mineral additive in combination with additives of lime and superplasticizer into the composition of building gypsum makes it possible to produce the artificial stone with more dense and fine-grained structure comparing with an initial binder without additives. The appearance of low-basic calcium hydro-silicates which fill the porous space, compact the stone structure, create additional contacts in the basic matrix, protect splices of gypsum crystals against dissolution is observed. The part of closed pores in the porous structure of stone on the basis of composite gypsum binder increases. Due to the incorporation of hybrid mineral additive the artificial stone on the basis of composite gypsum binder after 28 days of hardening under normal conditions has the compression strength of 30.5 Mpa, and softening index of 0.92.

Keywords: claydite dust, blast-furnace slag, hybrid mineral additive, composite gypsum binder, artificial gypsum stone.

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S.A. NEKRASOVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), M.S. GARKAVI2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); E.N. BULDYZHOVA3, Master
1 Magnitogorsk State Technical University (38, Lenina Avenue, 455000, Magnitogorsk, Russian Federation)
2 ZAO “Ural-Omega” (Structur 7, 19, Lenina Avenue, 455037, Magnitogorsk, Russian Federation)
3 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Dry Building Mixes on the Basis of Stabilized Gypsum Binder
The accumulated experience in production and application of dry gypsum mixes shows that basic technical properties of gypsum solutions depend on the type of gypsum binder which is used in the compositions of dry mixes. In the course of storing of ready gypsum binder under different humidity conditions the change of its properties takes place. One of the efficient methods for improving building-technical properties is artificial aging of gypsum binders under rational conditions. An influence of the artificially aged gypsum binder on properties of plaster and putty dry building mixes has been studied. It is established that the process of artificial aging of the gypsum binder under rational conditions makes it possible to reduce the consumption of functional additives and improve the properties of dry gypsum mixes.

Keywords: aging of gypsum binder, dry building mixes, artificial aging of gypsum binder

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3. Nekrasova S.A., Garkavi M.S., Troshkina E.A., Fisher H.-B. Influence of artificial ageing conditions on the properties of gypsum binders. 2 Weimar Gypsum Conference. Weimar. 2014, pp. 295–301.
4. Altykis M.G. Experimental and theoretical fundamentals of composites and multiphase gypsum binders for dry construction mixtures and materials. Dr. Diss. (Engineering). Kazan. 2003. 435 p. (In Russian).
5. Fisher H.-B. Nizkoobozhzhennye calcium sulfate hemihydrate and water absorption. Zement i ego primenenie. 2005. No. 4, pp. 39–42. (In Russian).
6. Garkavi M., Nekrasova S., Melchaeva O., Garkavi S., Fischer H.-B., Nowak S. Thermodynamic explanation of rational conditions of the “aging” of plaster binder: 18 ibausil. Internationale Baustofftagung. Weimar. 2012. pp. 1-0741-0748.
7. Dergunov S.A. Integrated approach to designing formulations of dry building mixes general construction purposes. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Samara. 2006. 206 p. (In Russian).

Innovative Production of Gypsum on GIPS AD

1. Wetegrove H. The Claudius Peters Homogenizer: Cost cutting plaster production technology. Global Gypsum Magazine. 2009 Nov./Dec., pp. 24–26.
2. Hilgraf P. Quality improvement of β-plasters. Cement Lime Gypsum (ZKG). 2011. No. 6, pp. 38–50.
3. Lübbert B. Packing Machines for Gypsum. Global Gypsum Conference. Las Vegas, 17–18 October 2011.

L.I. SYCHEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), D.V. AMELINA, Еngineer University of Chemical Technology of Russia named after D.I. Mendeleev (9, Miusskaya Square, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Influence of Heat Treatment on Building-Technical Properties of Products of Gypsum Dehydration
The composition and quantity of products of gypsum stone dehydration within the temperature interval of 140–350оC are determined. The interconnection of the composition of multiphase gypsum binder with its building-technical properties is shown. The specific surface of gypsum binder changes step-by-step in accordance with phase transitions taking place in the course of its production. The increase in time of heat treatment of gypsum stone leads to the significant change of the phase composition of gypsum binder and the increase of the part of soluble anhydrite. The influence of the soluble anhydrite on properties of multiphase gypsum binder is determined. The appearance of soluble anhydrite in products of heat treatment of gypsum stone does not lead to the increase in the specific surface and normal consistency but prolongs the time of gypsum binder setting. It is shown as the phase composition of gypsum binders changes when storing under natural conditions.

Keywords: multiphase gypsum binder, soluble anhydrite, products of gypsum dehydration.

1. Nowak S., Fischer H.-B. Mechanismen der Alterung – Wasserdampfaufnahme und Auswirkung auf die Reaktivität von Calciumsulfatbindemitteln. 1 Weimarer Gipstagung. 2011, pp. 25–34.
2. Trettin R., Pritzel C. Bildung von Anhydrit und totgebrannten Gips. Weimar Gypsum Conference. 2014, pp. 47–54.
3. Gontar YU.V., Chalovа A.I., Buryanov A.F. Dry-mixes mortars on the basis mixes on the basis of plaster and anhydrite [Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi na osnove gipsa i angidrita]. M.: De Nova, 2010, pp. 62–66.
4. Lesovik V.S., Chernysheva N.V., Klimenko V.G. Structurization processes the gupsumcontaining of composites taking into account raw materials genesis. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2012 . No. 4, pp. 3–11. (In Russian).
5. Klimenko V. G. Anhydrite solidification activating agent based on plaster prebaking products. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2011 . No. 4, pp. 21–28. (In Russian).

N.V. CHERNYSHEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

The Use of Anthropogenic Raw Materials for Increase of Water Resistance of a Composite Gypsum Binder
Results of pilot studies of a composite gypsum binder of increased water resistance with an active mineral additive from anthropogenic raw materials– waste of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzite (waste of WMS) are presented. The model of structure formation of the composite gypsum binder, consisting in a fast set of system durability is offered. At the first stage (in 2 h) the fast set of system durability is carried out due to the synthesis of large crystals of the calcium sulfate dehydrate, which is at the same time executes the function of regulation of early stiffening. At the following stage (to 7 days) in the earlier created structure, as a result of hydration of clinker minerals, the formation of a new type of microstructure organized in a define way due to the crystallization growth of slightly soluble mineralizing micro-dimensional low-basic calcium hydrosilicates compacting the structure takes place. In the general gel-like mass, thread-like formations of different morphology and sizes are formed. The structure consolidation plays a large role at this stage. Crystallization of earlier created objects favours the self-consolidation of the system of different morphogenetic types of micro-dimensional crystal formations which form is set at the precrystallization (second) stage. In parallel, new formations of the second generation of calcium hydrosilicate are formed due to interaction of Portland cement segregated in the course of hydration of alite with X-ray amorphous particles of mineral additives, which depend on genetic peculiarities of silica, with their following self-organization.

Keywords: composite gypsum binder, mineral additives, waste of WMS, structurization.

1. Lesovik V.S. Architectural geonik. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 1, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
2. Lesovik V.S. Povyshenie jeffektivnosti proizvodstva stroitel’nyh materialov s uchetom genezisa gornyh porod [Improving the efficiency of the production of building materials with regard to the genesis of rocks]. Moscow: АSV. 2006. 526 p.
3. Lesovik V.S., Chernysheva N.V., Eleyan Issa Jamal Issa, Drebezgova M.Y. Еffective composite gypsum binders on the basis of raw materials from the middle east countries. Advances in Natural anl Applied Scienes. 2014. No. 8, рр. 363–372.
4. Korovyakov V.F. Prospects for production and use in construction waterproof gypsum binders and products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 67–68. (In Russian).
5. Lesovik V.S., Chernysheva N.V., Klimenko V.G. Structure formation processes of gypsum-containing composites based on the genesis of raw materials. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 4, pp. 3–11. (In Russian).
6. Petropavlovskaya V.B., Bur’yanov A.F., Novichenkova T.B. Low power gypsum materials and products based on industrial wastes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 7, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
7. Belov V.V., Bur’yanov A.F., Yakovlev G.I., Petropavlovskaya V.B., Fisher H.-B., Maeva I.S., Novichenkova T.B. Modifikacija struktury i svojstv stroitel’nyh kompozitov na osnove sul’fata kal’cija [Modification of the structure and properties of building composites based on calcium sulfate]. Moscow: De Nova. 2012. 196 p.

I.V. ZHERNOVSKY1, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), A.V. CHEREVATOVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), E.V. VOYTOVICH1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); A.D. KSENOFONTOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kosyukova Street, 308012, Belgorod, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (1, Leninskie Gory, 119991, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Heat Resistance of Composite Binder of CaO-SO3-SiO2-H2O System

Issues of thermal transformation of a phase composition of gypsum and composite nano-structured gypsum binder are considered. It is shown that the formation of silicate and sulfosilicate mineral phases in the CaO-SO3-SiO2-H2O system favours the decrease of crystal phase volume in the binder under the thermal impact that increases the resistance of material to destructive processes at high temperature. In particular, the change of the volume of crystal phases at thermal phase transformation of the sulfosilicate calcium binder at T=1000оC is close to the unit in contrast to the gypsum binder when almost a four-fold reduction of crystal phases volume is observed that is a reason for destructive processes. It is concluded that it is reasonable to expand the CaO-SO3-H2O binding system up to CaO-SO3-SiO2-H2O by means of incorporation of reactive silica, for equalization, due to the formation of sulfur-silicate and silicate phases of calcium, molecular volumes of binder in the initial state and after thermal effects which lead to dehydration and desulfatation transformation of the phase composition.

Keywords: composite sulfosilicate binder, heat resistance, thermal transformation, transformation of phase composition, optimal-structured matrix, hydroxyellestadite, buffer new formations, nano-structured binder, reactive silica

1. Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Voytovich E.V. Peculiarities of Phase Formation in a Composite Nanostructured Gypsum Binder. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 9–11. (In Russian).
2. Ramachandran V.S. Primenenie differentsial’nogo termicheskogo analiza v khimii tsementov [Application of Differential Thermal Analysis in cement chemistry]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1977. 408 p.
3. Shestak Y. Teoriya termicheskogo analiza: Fizikokhimicheskie svoistva tverdykh neorganicheskikh veshchestv [Theory of chemical analysis: Physical and chemical properties of nonorganic solids]. Moscow: Mir. 1987. 456 p.
4. Cherevatova A.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Strokova V.V. Mineral’nye nanostrukturirovannye vyazhushchie. Priroda, tekhnologiya i perspektivy primeneniya [Mineral nanostructured binders. Nature, technology and prospective of application]. Saarbrucken: LAM LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG. 2011. 170 p.
5. Solovyov L.A. Full-profile refinement by derivative difference minimization. Journal of Applied Crystallography. 2004. No. 37, pp. 743–749.
6. Yamnova N.A., Zubkova N.V., Eremin N.N., Zadov A.E. Crystal structures of larnite β-Са2SiO4 and lime-olivine as natural α- and β-polymorphous modifications of dicalcium orthosilicate. Features of structural transformations glaserite-arcanite-olivine. Working Papers V Intrernational Symposium: Mineral Diversity. Research and Preservation. Earth and Man Foundation. Sofia, Bulgaria. 2009, pp. 181–192.

A.V. KOCHETKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician, Member of the Presidium of the Russian Transport Academy, Chief Expert of FGUP “ROSDORNII”, L.V. YANKOVSKY, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolsky Avenue, 614990, Perm, Russian Federation)

Prospects of Development and Actual Problems of Road Science

Road science has a positive influence on the operation of road facilities. A number of comprehensive studies on the improvement of normative-technical base which made it possible to lay, at the modern level, claims to the development of technological processes, road building materials, methods for their testing and execution of works were carried out. Road science actively participates in forming directions of development and improvement of road facilities. State, branch and regional road programs previously approved have been developed with its participation. However, the scientific potential of road facilities is realized not fully, its coordination and concentration on main directions are insufficient. It is necessary to develop the road science with due regard for selected critical components on the basis of development and implementation of medium-term target programs and annual plans of scientific research, development of new equipment and implementation of achievements of scientific-technical progress.

Keywords: road science, prospects of development, innovative activity, automobile roads, fundamental and applied studies.

1. Arzhanukhina S.P., Sukhov A.A., Kochetkov A.V., Karpeev S.V. Normative state support of innovation road sector. Kachestvo. Innovatsii. Obrazovanie. 2010. No. 9, pp. 40–44. (In Russian).
2. Karpeev S.V., Sukhov A.A., Arzhanukhina S.P., Kokodeeva N.E. Economic efficiency of activity of road services operating control authorities in the field of adoption of new technologies, technique and materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 5, pp. 4–7. (In Russian).
3. Arzhanukhina S.P., Sukhov A.A., Kochetkov A.V. Regulatory and methodological support the development of innovation in the road sector. Innovatsii. 2011. No. 7, pp. 90–93. (In Russian).
4. Khodzhaeva N.B. Analysis of the problems of development of innovative activities in the road sector. Vestnik Saratovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2013. Vol. 2. No. 2(71), pp. 258–262. (In Russian).
5. Zel’tser R.I. An innovative approach to reducing the cost of road construction and maintenance of roads. Innovatsii v zhizn’. 2013. No. 1(3), pp. 28–38. (In Russian).

A.G. EVGEN’EVA, Engineer Moscow State Automobile and Road Technical University (64, Leningradsky Avenue, Moscow, 125319, Russian Federation)

Rehabilitation of Motor-Roads of the Far Eastern Federal District after Water-flood of 2013

Issues associated with the restoration of motor roads network of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD) after water-flood of 2013 are considered. The information about the length of destroyed sections of federal motor roads, motor roads of regional and local significance is presented. The description of three stages of restoration of the road network of the region is given. The necessity of the use of technology of cold/hot regeneration of road pavement for a speedy recovery of transport links in FEFD is represented. Examples of the successful use of cold recycling on the road of FEFD are presented as a technical efficient and resource saving technology. The amount of repair-restoring works for 2014 and examples of successful application of modern methods for motor roads repair are presented. Technical possibilities of modern recyclers are shown.

Keywords: cold recycling, water-flood, repair, normative state, thin-layers.

1. Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. Causes of a catastrophic flood occasion on the Amur river in 2013. Official press-release 10.09.2013. (Date of application 12.06.2014). (In Russian).
2. MinTrans RF: Meeting of the operation group on the issues of the DFO transport infrastructure rehabilitation. ID=21274. (Date of application 12.06.2014). (In Russian).
3. Rosavtodor: Meeting on the issues of the DFO transport infrastructure rehabilitation. 157/387/7070.html. (Date of application 12.06.2014). (In Russian).
4. Verbatim report. Meeting on the issues of the progress works in the field of DFO transport infrastructure rehabilitation. (Date of application 12.06.2014). (In Russian).
5. Rudenskii A.V. Options for energy savings during the production and usage of road-construction materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 10, pp. 16–18. (In Russian).
6. Merenkova E. German quality for Russian roads. Napravlenie – Dal’nii Vostok. 2013. No. 10 (49). http://ndv. info/magazineArticles/show/?id_magazine=36&id_ magazineArticle=481 (Date of application 12.06.2014). (In Russian).
7. Karpenko O. Development of the road network in DVFO – key development point for the region. DFObzor. 2013. No. 12, pp. 7. avtomobilnyix-dorogdvfo.html (Date of application 12.06.2014). (In Russian).
8. Rosavtodor: information of the press relations service of FKU DSD «Far East» html (Date of application 12.06.2014). (In Russian).
9. Wide panorama of the «narrow» issue. Avtomobil’nye dorogi. 2013. No. 10 (983) http://www.avtodorogi-magazine. ru/2013-10-10/magistral/panorama.html (Date of application 12.06.2014). (In Russian).
10. Pototskii V. Strategic benchmark – applied science. Napravlenie – Dal’nii Vostok. 2013. No. 4 (43). http://ndv. info/magazineArticles/show/?id_magazine=30&id_ magazineArticle=328 (Date of application 12.06.2014). (In Russian).

B.A. BONDAREV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.B. BONDAREV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), R.Yu. SAPRYKIN1, Еngineer, F.N. KORVYAKOV1, Еngineer
1 Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, 398600, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)
2 OOO “LipetskNITSstroyproekt” (15, Balmochnykh Street, 398002, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)

Method of Structural Diagrams and Vibrocreep of Polymeric Composite Materials
It is shown that in the course of development of vibrocreep deformations which develop in materials under cyclic loadings it is possible to mark out three stages: transient, steady-state and accelerated (avalanche). Depending on the loading level and coefficient of cycle asymmetry the development of vibrocreep deformations may be different. It is concluded about possibility to use the structural diagrams of a material for analyzing the resistance of polymer concrete to long-term static loads as well as about the possibility to construct structural diagrams according to the results of cyclic tests; it is determined that the vibrocreep of polymer concrete elements under the cyclic compression follows the general laws of the theory of viscoelastic bodies creep.

Keywords: vibrocreep, structural diagrams, polymeric composite materials, polymer concrete, static loads, cyclic loads.

B.A. BONDAREV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.B. BONDAREV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), R.Yu. SAPRYKIN1, Еngineer, F.N. KORVYAKOV1, Еngineer, V.I. KHARCHEVNIKOV3, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, 398600, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)
2 OOO “LipetskNITSstroyproekt” (15, Balmochnykh Street, 398002, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)
3 Voronezh State Forestry Engineering Academy (8, Timiryazeva Street, 394087, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Forecasting the Cyclic Durability of Railway Sleepers Made of Timber-Glass-Fibre Composite Material

The most typical defects and damages of wooden and reinforced concrete sleepers are presented. The complex approach to the solution of the problem of reliability and workability of elements of railway sleeper designs has been developed. This approach includes the analysis of conditions of railway sleeper materials, determination of parameters, location and sizes of defects in the materials of the design has been developed. Methods for elimination of reasons for possible defects in the design of a railway sleeper made of timber-glass-fibre composite material are proposed. On the basis of experimental studies the values of coefficients of operational conditions of studied polymeric composite materials at different coefficients of asymmetry of cycles of load application have been obtained.

Keywords: durability, timber-glass-fibre composite material, polymeric composite materials.

1. Kondrashhenko V.N., Harchevnikov V.I., Stоrodubceva T.N., Bondarev B.A. Drevesnosteklovoloknistye shpaly [Wood glass-fiber cross ties]. Moscow: Sputnik. 2009. 302 p.
2. Bondarev B.A., Harchevnikov V.I. Vynoslivost’ kompozitsionnykh materialov v konstruktsiyakh zheleznodorozhnykh shpal. [Endurance of composites in designs of railway cross ties]. Lipetsk: LGTU. 2002. 220 p.
3. Borkov P.V., Komarov P.V., Bondarev A.B., Bondarev B.A. The accelerated method of prediction of longevity of polymeric composites. Nauchnyj vestnik VGASU. Stroitel’stvo i arhitektura. 2013. No. 3 (31), pp. 46–51. (In Russian).
4. Bondarev B.A., Borkov P.V., Komarov P.V., Bondarev A.B. The pilot studies of cyclic longevity of polymeric composites. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovanija. 2012. No. 6, pp. 20–25. (In Russian).
5. Bondarev A.B., Komarov P.V., Lifincev O.I. Resistance of polymer and glass-fiber polymer concrete constructions long and cyclic loads. Nauchnyj vestnik VGASU. Stroitel’stvo i arhitektura. 2009. No. 1 (3), pp. 92–97. (In Russian).

V.S. LESOVIK, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding member of RAACS, L.Kh. ZAGORODNYUK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), D.A. BELIKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.Yu. SHCHEKINA, Engineer, A.A. KUPRINA, Engineer Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhova (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Efficient Dry Mixes for Repair and Restoration Works

On the basis of literature data and accumulated experience, the classification of dry building mixes for repair and restoration works is offered. In the course of development of repair and restoration compositions with preset operational properties main propositions of geonik and the law affinity structures formulated within the frame of this scientific direction are used. The law affinity structures is based on cause-and-effect relations, their interaction which determine properties of the common system as a whole. Dry repair heat-protective solutions have been developed with due regard for the law affinity structures. Expanded perlite sand is used as a filler. Complex organic-mineral modifier which makes it possible to control the processes of structure formation in the course of repair mixes hardening and add increased chemical activity to the system has been obtained. Repair compositions on the basis of raw material recourses of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly and the developed complex organic-mineral modifier are offered. Microphotographies of contact zones of repair compositions on various bases are presented Results of the electronic microscopic studies are fully confirmed by results of physical-mechanical tests which testify high density and strength of contacts of repair compositions with the base.

Keywords: dry mixes for repair and restoration works, geonik, law affinity structures.

1. Ovchinnikov I.I. Migunov V.N., Skachkov Yu.P. Stresscorrosion fracture of reinforced concrete construction at joint action of chloride corrosion and carbonization. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 2 (13), pp. 72–78. (In Russian).
2. Rosenthal N.K. Problems of corrosion damage of concrete. Beton i zhelezobeton. No. 6, pp 29-31. (In Russian).
3. Selyaev V.P., Neverov V.A., Oshkina L.M., Selyaev P.V., Sorokin E.V. Kechutkina E.L. Resistance of cement concretes to sulfate corrosion. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 12, pp. 26–31. (In Russian).
4. Rakhimbayev Sh. M., Tolypina N. M. estimating method of cement composites corrosion resistance.Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2012 . No. 3. pp. 23–24. (In Russian).
5. Lesovik V.S., Belentsov Y.A., Kuprina A.A. Geonik provisions using for structural design, working under dynamic and seismic loads conditions. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 2–3, pp. 121–126 (In Russian).
6. Lesovik V.S. Architectural geonik. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 1. pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
7. Lesovik V.S., Zagorodnuk L.H., Shkarin A.V., Belikov D.A., Kuprina A.A. Creating effective insulation solutions, taking into account the law of affinity structures in construction materials. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2013. № 24 (11). pp. 1496–1502.
8. Lesovik V.S., Zagorodnyuk L.Kh., Chulkova I.L. Law affinity structures in materials science. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2014. No. 3. Part 2, pp. 267–271. (In Russian).
9. Uniform state register of cultural heritage (monuments of history and culture) of the Russian Federation and the state accounting objects of historical and cultural value. (Date of access 25.02.2014).

S.V. FEDOSOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS, President; V.G. KOTLOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Counsellor of RAACS; R.M. ALOYAN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAACS, Rector; F.N.YASINSKI3, Doctor of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics); M.V.BOCHKOV1, Engineer
1 Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (20, Mart 8th Street, Ivanovo,153037, Russian Federation)
2 Volga State University of Technology (3, Lenin Square, Yoshkar-Ola, Republic of Mari El, 424000, Russian Federation)
3 Ivanovo State Power Engineering University (34, Rabfakovskaya Street, Ivanovo, 153003, Russian Federation)

Simulation of Heat-and-Mass Transfer in Gas-Solid System at Nailed Connection of Timber Structures Elements. Part 1. General Physical-Mathematical Statement of Problem

A physical-mathematical boundary problem of heat and substance mass (moisture) transfer in elements of timber structures connected by a metal dowel and operating in the air environment with variable thermo-physical parameters (temperature and relative humidity) at moisture phase transitions (evaporation, condensation) is formulated. Boundary problems of heat-and-humidity conductivity in timber based on the differential equations in partial derivatives of parabolic type with boundary conditions of the first and second kinds are taken as a basis of mathematical models of studied processes of heat-and-mass transfer. Basic peculiarity of the proposed calculation algorithm is an account of considerable non-linearity of the function which determines the initial distribution of temperatures and moisture contents.

Keywords: nailed connection, timber structures elements, heat-and-moisture transfer, gas-solid system.

1. Nekrasov A.S., Golubev V.K. Effektivnost’ kompleksnogo ispol’zovaniya dereva v stroitel’stve [Effectiveness of the integrated use of wood in construction]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1985. 334 p.
2. Titunin A.A., Zaitseva K.V. Proektirovanie i proizvodstvo stroitel’nykh materialov iz drevisiny. Kompleksnyi podkhod. [Design and manufacture of building materials from hardwood. Integrated approach]. Kostroma: KGTU, 2009. 185 p.
3. Lykov A.V., Mikhailov Yu.A. Teoriya teplo- i massoperenosa [Theory of heat and mass transfer]. Moscow- Leningrad: Gosenergoizdat, 1963. 536 p.
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5. Ugolev B.N. Drevesinovedenie i lesnoe tovarovedenie. 2-e izd [Wood Science and Forestry merchandising. 2nd ed.]. Moscow: Akademiya, 2006. 272 p.
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7. Aloyan R.M., Fedosov S.V., Mizonov V.E. Teoreticheskie osnovy matematicheskogo modelirovaniya mekhanicheskikh i teplovykh protsessov v proizvodstve stroitel’nykh materialov [Theoretical foundations of the mathematical modeling of mechanical and thermal processes in the manufacture of building materials]. Ivanovo: IGEU – IGASU, 2011. 256 p.
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9. Sazhin B.S., Sazhin V.B. Nauchnye osnovy termovlazhnostnoi obrabotki dispersnykh i rulonnykh materialov [Scientific basis Vapor processing of disperse and roll materials]. Moscow: Khimiya, 2012. 716 p.

D.V. ORESHKIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.S. SEMENOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Modern Materials And Sistems In The Construction Are Perspective Direction Of Teaching Of Construction Specialties

The methodical questions of teaching of disciplines “Construction Materials”, “Modern materials and systems in the construction” in construction engineering institutions are considered. The necessity of teaching of discipline “Modern materials and systems in the Construction” to the students who are training in ICC faculty is proved. The main competences formed at students at studying of this discipline are given in article. Methodical instructions are given to the teacher.” Universal definition of concept “construction system” is formulated. Definition of concept “complete construction system” is offered. Experience of teaching of discipline “Modern materials and systems in construction” in the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering is considered. The list of lectures, methodical bases of settlement and graphic work are provided. It is shown that a such scheme of teaching in higher education institutions is the perspective direction and gives the chance to train the qualified experts in construction branch.

Keywords: construction materials, construction systems, modern materials, construction education, industrial and civil engineering.

1. Oreshkin D.V. Problems of building materiology and production of building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 11, рp. 6–8. (In Russian).
2. Gagarin V.G., Dmitriev K.A. Accounting heat engineering heterogeneities when assessing the thermal protection of enveloping structures in Russia and European Countries. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, рp. 14–16. (In Russian).
3. Gagarin V.G., Pastushkov P.P. Quantitative assessment of energy efficiency of energy saving measures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, рp. 7–9. (In Russian).
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El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2021