Table of contents
Production of clinker brick at Nikol’sky Brick Factory of LSR Group
V.F. KOREPANOVA, Chief Technologist, G.I. GRINFELD, engineer
«LSR» – «Stenovye» OОO (40A, Oktyabrskaya Embankment, 193091, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation)
It is shown that after the start-up of the production line for manufacturing the clinker brick at the Nikol’sky Brick Factory of LSR Group it was necessary to make changes not only in the
batch formulation, but also in production accessories. As a result of collaboration of specialists of «Tekton» and the factory, all technological stages were improved as soon as possible,
and the factory started to manufacture the products of proper quality. The manufactured assortment of production is described. It is noted that an important element of introduction of a
new material to the market is its technical support. Examples of the successful use of clinker products of domestic manufacture in Saint Petersburg are presented.
Keywords: LSR Group, Nikol’sky Brick Factory, clinker brick, facing brick, flowchart, colored masonry mix.
1. Gavrilov A.V., Grinfel’d G.I. A brief overview of the his
tory, status and prospects of the market in Russia clinker.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2013.
No. 4, pp. 20–22. (In Russian).
2. Zhironkin P.V., Gerashchenko V.N., Grinfel’d G.I.
History and prospects of ceramic wall materials industry
in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials].
2012. No. 5, pp. 13–18. (In Russian).
3. Russia’s first production line of clinker ready for com
mercial operation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction
Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 68–70. (In Russian).
On the issue of improving quality and diversification of ceramic brick for operating factories of semi-dry pressing
A.A. NAUMOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.V. TRISHHENKO1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); N.G. GUROV2, General Director
1 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)
2 ZAO «Southern Scientific Research Institute of Building Materials» («YuzhNIIstrom») (105/1, Nansen Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344038, Russian Federation)
Results of the study of suitability of Atyukhtinsk argillous raw materials for manufacturing ceramic brick using the method of compression molding are presented. It is determined that
for producing the ceramic body of high frost-resistance it is necessary to introduce a mineral calcium-containing additive into the batch. Pilot lots of facing brick of red and pale yellow
colors have been produced. Design works for technical re-equipment of Shakhtinsky brick factory have been done. Further steps for improving the quality of products manufactured are
Keywords: ceramic brick, semi-dry pressing, compression molding, technical re-equipment, frost resistance, mineral modifying additive, mass treatment.
1. Gurov N.G., Naumov A.A., Ivanov N.N. Ways to im
prove the frost resistance of brick dry pressing. Stroitel’nye
materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 3, pp. 40–42.
2. Gurov N.G., Naumov A.A., Jundin A.N. Improvement of
frost resistance of semidry pressing ceramic stone with a min
eral modifying additive. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 78–80. (In Russian).
3. Patent RF 2455257. Keramicheskaja massa [Ceramic
mass]. Gurov N.G., Naumov A.A., Ivanov N.N., Gurov
R.N. Declared 22.10.2009. Published 10.07.2012.
Bulletin No. 19. (In Russian).
4. Gurov N.G., Kotljarova L.V., Ivanov N.N. Production of
a ceramic brick of light tones from the burning down is
red clay raw materials. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2005. No. 9, pp. 58–59. (In Russian).
5. Naumov A.A., Jundin A.N. Frost-resistant ceramic brick
of semidry pressing from clay raw materials of the Shakhty
plant. Inzhenernyj vestnik Dona: scientific Internet-journal.
2012. No. 3, pp. 638–642. http://www.ivdon.ru/uploads/
article/pdf/2012_3_112.pdf_960.pdf (date of access
30.03.2014). (In Russian).
6. Shlegel’ I.F., Rukavicyn A.V., Andrianov A.V. The use of
plants of “Kaskad” series in technique of semidry pressing
of brick. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials].
2010. No. 4, pp. 58–59. (In Russian).
7. Kurnosov V.V., Vostrikova S.N., Miloserdov A.V.,
Experience of use of systems of heating with a wide range
of regulation at modernization and building of ceramic
productions. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2004. No. 2, pp. 24–25. (In Russian).
8. Kondratenko V.A., Peshkov V.N., Slednev D.V. Problems
of construction and reconstruction of brick productions.
Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 2,
pp. 3–5. (In Russian).
9. Storozhenko G.I., Boldyrev G.V., Kuzubov V.A. Me
chanochemical activation of raw materials as way of in
crease of efficiency of a method of moist pressing.
Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 1997.
No. 8, pp. 19–20. (In Russian).
Prospects of development of mineral-raw material base for manufacture of wall ceramics becoming light color
after burning in the South of Russia
B.V. TALPA, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy)
Southern Federal University (105/42 Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russion Federation)
The analysis of the state of mineral raw materials base for producing wall ceramics becoming light color after burning in the South of Russia is made; prospects of its development are
defined. At present, the deposits of kaolin and hydromicaceous-kaolinite high-melting and refractory clays were found among Jurassic sediments in the North Caucasus and Neogene
sediments in the Eastern Donbass. These clays are of low quality and their spread areas are limited. Siliceous and siliceous-carbonate-clay rocks of the Paleocene and Eocene widely
spread in the South of Russia are recommended for expanding the raw material base of manufacturing of ceramics becoming light color after burning. It is established that fired materi
als produced on their base have the low volume weight, enhanced thermo-physical properties and comfortability, high strength and light color of the ceramic body.
Keywords: clays, siliceous rocks, raw materials, ceramics becoming light color after burning.
1. Hinckley D.N. Variability in «crystallinity» values among
the Realign deposits of the coastal of the Gorgia and
South Carolina. Proceedings 11th National Conference of
clays and clay minerals. 1963, pp.123–128.
2. Bogatyrev B.A., Delitsyn I.S. Predtoarskii lateritnyi pro
fil’ vyvetrivaniya na plato Bechasyn (Severnyi Kavkaz)
[Predtoarsky lateritic weathering profile plateau Bechasyn
(North Caucasus)]. In book Weathering crust (Vol. 16).
Moscow: Nedra, 1978, pp. 161–171.
3. Talpa B.V., Boiko N.I., Kotlyar V.D. Opal-cristobalite
rocks (flask) as a new raw material for ceramics. Izvestiya
Methods of testing lithoidal raw materials for producing wall ceramic products of compression molding (as a discussion)
V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Yu.V. TEREKHINA, Engineer, A.V. KOTLYAR, Engineer
Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, 344022, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation)
Prospects of the production of wall ceramic product by the method of compression molding are shown. Methods of testing the lithoidal, no-swelling raw materials are offered for dis
cussion. It is proposed to crush the raw material up to the fraction composition of 0–2.5 or 0–1.25 mm. These parameters are achievable under production conditions. At the same, the
grain composition of crushed raw material has to approach the optimal one for the most dense packing of grains during the pressing. It is proposed to change the pressing pressure for
tests from 10 up to 40 MPa with an interval of 5 or 10 MPa at different moisture of press-powders. For data treatment it is necessary to build compression curves reflecting the depen
dence of compact density in recalculation for solid phase and strengths on the moisture of press-powder and pressing pressure. The test result should be the determination of depen
dences of qualitative characteristics of samples on technological parameters and selection of the most acceptable options.
Keywords: ceramics, ceramic brick, lithoidal raw materials, compression molding, testing methods.
1. Ashmarin G.D., Kurnosov В.В., Belyaev S.E., Lastochkin
B.G. Evaluation of the effectiveness of compression
molding of ceramic building materials. Stroitel’nye
Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 8–9.
2. Ashmarin G.D., Lastochkin B.G., Kurnosov В.В.
Theoretical bases and ways to improve the technology of
compression molding of ceramic wall materials.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2009.
No. 4, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).
3. Kotlyar V.D., Terehina Y.V., Nebejko Y.I. Prospects for
the development of ceramic bricks dry pressing.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2011.
No. 2, pp. 6–7. (In Russian).
4. Fernandez, J. Material Architecture. Emergent materials
for innovative buildings and ecological construction.
Netherlands: Architectural Press. 2006. 331 p.
5. Deplazes, А. Constructing architecture: materials, pro
cesses, structures. EU.: Publishers for Architecture. 2005.
6. Ashmarin G.D. Proizvodstvo keramicheskih stenovih
izdilii metodom polysyhogo pressovania. Analiticheskii
obzor [Production of ceramic wall products by dry press
ing. Analytical review]. Moscow: VNII NTII HTIiEPSM
ВНИИ НТИиЭПСМ. 1990. 58 p.
7. Shlegel’ I.F. Dry-pressed brick problem. Stroitel’nye
Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2005. No. 2,
pp. 18–19. (In Russian).
8. Shlegel’ I.F. Some aspects of dry-pressed brick.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2012.
No. 11, pp. 6–8. (In Russian).
9. Kotlyar V.D. Features pressing ceramic powders on the
basis of the flasks in the production of ceramic wall.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2009.
No. 12, pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
10. Popilskii R.A., Pivinskii Y.E. Pressovanie poroshkovih
keramicheskih mass [Pressing powder porcelains].
Moscow: Metalyrgia. 1983. 176 p.
11. Kotlyar V.D. Compressibility powdery masses on the
basis of flasks. Injenernii vestnik Dona. 2012. No. 3.
http://www.ivdon.ru (date of access 12.03.2014).
Scientific bases of innovative technologies of ceramic bricks and the management
of its properties depending on chemical and mineralogical composition of materials
N.D. YATSENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.P. ZUBEKHIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
South-Russian State Polytechnic University (Novocherkassk polytechnical institute) named after M.I. Platov (132 Prosveshcheniya Street, Novocherkassk,
Rostov Region, 346428, Russian Federation)
The features of physico-chemical processes in low-temperature firing of the ceramic brick, providing formation of phase composition in different redox conditions and properties ready
Keywords: ceramic brick, redox firing, phase composition, lighting, low-temperature roasting, color, reflection coefficient, nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy.
1. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D., Verevkin K.A. Influence of ox
idation-reduction conditions of roasting on phase composition
of oxides of iron and color ceramic brick. Stroitel’nye materialy
[Construction materials]. 2011. No. 8, pp. 8–11. (In Russian).
2. Kotlyar V.D. Stenovaia keramika na osnove kremnistykh
opal–kristobalitovykh porod – opok [Wall ceramics based on
siliceous rock opal-cristobalite – flasks]. Rostov оn Don:
Rostizdat, 2011. 277 p. (In Russian).
3. Kornilov A.V. Causes different effects of limy clays on the
strength properties of ceramics. Steklo i keramika. 2005.
No. 12, pp. 30–32. (In Russian).
4. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D. Theoretical bases of in
novative technologies of construction ceramics //
Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2014.
No. 1–2, pp. 89–92. (In Russian).
5. Luginina I.G. Khimiya i khimicheskaya tekhnologiya
neorganicheskikh vyazhushchikh materialov [Chemistry
and chemical technology of inorganic binders]: 2 PM.
Belgorod: BSTU, 2004. Part 1, 240 p.
Prospective directions of nano-modification in building ceramics
I.A. ZHENZHURIST, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
Kazan State University of Architecture and Construction (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)
The assessment of the possibility to use the hydrosols of silica and aluminum oxides as modifying additives to clay raw materials is made. Introducing these modifiers into clay suspen
sions leads to increase of clay swelling, change of solution pH and, after burning, to improvement of strength of samples made of refractory and bentonite clay. The influence of the
ultra-high frequency field on the microstructure of bentonitic clay, quartz sand and diatomite treated with hydrosol of aluminum oxide, the change of plasticity of Novonikolaevskoy and
Kalininskoy clays treated with hydrosols of aluminum oxide are shown.
Keywords: nano-disperse particles, hydrosols of silica and aluminum, electromagnetic field of ultra-high frequency.
1. Korolev E.V. Principle of Realization of Nanotechnology in
Building Materials Science. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction
materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 60–64. (In Russian).
2. Gerasin V.A., Zubova T.A., Bakhov F.N., Barannikov A.A.,
Merekalova N.D., Korolev Yu.M., Antipov E.M. The
structure of the polymer nanocomposites/Na
+ – mont
morillonite received by melt mixing. Rossiiskie nanotekh
nologii. 2007. Vol. 2. No. 9, pp. 90–05. (In Russian).
3. Leont’ev L.B., Shapkin N.P., Leont’ev A.L., Shkura
tov A.L., Vasil’eva V.V. Influence of mineral and organic-mineral mixtures tribochemical characteristics of fric
tion pairs. Neorganicheskie materialy. 2013. Vol. 49.
No. 9, pp. 961–965. (In Russian).
4. Rowles M.O., Connor B. Chemical optimisation of the
compressive strength of aluminosilicate geopolymers syn
thesised by sodium silicate activation of metakaolinite.
Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2003. Vol. 13, pp. 1161–
5. Knotko A.V., Kravchenko S.S., Putlyaev V.I. Features of
formation of geo polymer alumosilicate materials.
Neorganicheskie materialy. 2013. Vol. 49. No. 5,
pp. 521–527. (In Russian).
6. Zhenzhurist I.A., Zaripov V.M., Mubarakshin L.F.,
Hozin V.G. Influence the nanokhispersnykh of particles
of hydrosols of oxides of silicon and aluminum on struc
turization of clay minerals in the water environment.
Steklo i keramika. 2010. No, 7. pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
7. Zhenzhurist I.A. Activation of aluminosilicate complex
Nurlatsky additives bentonite and alumina hydrosol elec
tromagnetic field. Liteinoye proizvodstvo. 2013. No. 3,
pp. 9–11. (In Russian).
8. Zhenzhurist I.A, Karasyova I.P. Zavisimost of technical
characteristics on Nizhneuvelsky clay from additives of
hydrosols of aluminum and influence of an electromag
netic field. Ogneupory i tekhnicheskaya keramika. 2013.
No. 3, pp. 50–54. (In Russian).
9. Zhenzhurist I.A., Bogdanov A.N. Influence of additives
of hydrosols of aluminum and electromagnetic field on
structure and technological properties of clay minerals.
Steklo i keramika. 2013. No. 11, pp. 24–28. (In Russian).
10. Pushkarev O.I., Shumyacher V.M., Mal’ginova G.M.
Microwave processing powders of refractory compounds
microwave electromagnetic field. Ogneupory i tekhniches
kaya keramika. 2005. No. 1, pp. 7–9. (In Russian).
11. Park S.S., Meek T.T. Characterization of ZrO2–Al2O3
composites sintered in a 2,45 GHz electromagnetic field.
Journal of Materials Science. 1991. Vol. 26, pp. 6309–6313.
12. Sergiyevich O.A., Dyatlova E.M., Malinovsky G.N.,
Barantseva C.E., Popov R.Yu. Features of chemical and
mineralogical structure and property of kaolins of the
Belarusian fields. Steklo i keramika 2012. No. 3, pp. 25–31.
The use of quality management tools
in production of ceramic brick
Yu.V. TEREKHINA, Engineer, V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. KOTLYAR, Engineer
Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)
The problems of production quality and production organization arising at brick factories and the use of up-to-date tools of quality management in production of wall ceramic
materials, such as the cause-and-effect diagram of Ishikawa, a control form, control charts, histogram, Pareto diagram, a scattergram for solution of enterprise’s tasks are con
sidered. Examples of the use of quality management tools at stages of product life cycle, their role in formation of finished product quality, assessment of production condi
tions, assessment of decision-making and development of efficient, corrective actions at the brick factory are also considered. It is shown that the efficiency of tools is estimat
ed by system usage over time, it reflects the effectiveness of actions taken, makes it possible to reveal new factors and processes which are in need of working out and
Keywords: brick, quality, quality management tools, cause-and-effect diagram of Ishikawa, control form, control charts, histogram, Pareto diagram, scattergrams.
1. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Yu.V. Quality management at
the organization of production of a brick of ceramic moist
pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2011. No. 4, pp. 26–27. (In Russian).
2. Terekhina Yu.V., Kotlyar V. D., Serebryanaya I.A.,
Cherenkova I.A., Control leaf of quality – the instrument of
collecting and the analysis of data by production of a brick
ceramic. Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona. Scientific Internet-journal
2013. No. 4, http://www.ivdon.ru/magazine/archive/
n4y2013/2109 (date of access 15.03.2014). (In Russian).
3. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Yu. V., Nebejko Yu. I. Prospects
of development of production of a ceramic brick of moist
pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]
2011. No. 2, pp. 6–7. (In Russian).
4. Etethen, G. Total Quality Management. New-York,
1995. 286 p.
5. Atkinson, A. Measure for measure: Realizing the power
of the balanced scorecard. CMA Management. September
2000. pp. 22–28.
6. Efimov V.V. Sredstva i metody upravleniya kachestvom.
[Means and methods of control over quality]. Moscow:
KNORUS. 2012. 232 p. (In Russian).
7. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Yu.V. Control system of quality
at brick-works. Collection of works XIX of the International
conference of students, graduate students and young scientists
“Modern equipment and technologies”. Tomsk: TPU. 2013.
Vol. 3, pp. 160–161. (In Russian).
8. Kotlyar V.D. Stenovaya keramika na osnove kremnistykh
opal-kristobalitovykh porod – opok [Wall ceramics based
on siliceous rocks opal-cristobalite – flasks]. Rostov-on-
Don. Rostizdat. 2011. 277 p. (In Russian).
Pore structure characterristics of wall ceramics made from waste coal
The investigation results of the pore structure of wall ceramic materials made from waste coal by scanning electron microscopy, petrography and mercury porosimetry are provided.
Chemical, mineral, material composition and the con-tent of fine fractions of technogenic raw materials and additives are given. It was established that shapes and sizes of pores are
significantly affected by number of carbonaceous particles in the waste as well as by fineness of grind, formation method of matrix structure of mudbricks, composition of the corrective
additives and other factors. The features of the porous texture of the ceramic crock are identified, majority of the frost resistant pores have sizes of 0,04–4,4 µm, and macropores
formed mainly on the grain boundaries are partially or completely filled with amorphized material – a product of solid state reactions during firing, which positively affects the water
absorption and frost resistance of products.
Keywords: waste coal, wall ceramic material, pore structure, ceramic matrix composite, frost resistance.
А.YU. STOLBOUSHKIN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), А.I. IVANOV1, Engineer; S.V. DRUZHININ2, Director-General;
1, Engineer, V.I. ZLOBIN1
1 Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirova Street, Kemerovo region, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Spetzremont» (Building 6, 28, Rudokoprovaya Street, Kemerovo region, Novokuznetsk, 654063, Russian Federation)
1. Pavlov V.F. Physico-chemical processes in high-speed
burning and their regulation. Keramicheskaya promysh
lennost’. 1982. No. 2, pp. 30–45. (In Russian)
2. Rasskazov V.F., Ashmarin G.D., Livada A.N
Production of building materials with use of techno
genic waste. Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 1, pp. 5–9.
3. Storozhenko G.I., Stolboushkin A.Yu., Mishin M.P.
Prospects of the domestic production of ceramic bricks
from coal enrichment waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 57–61. (In
4. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Stolboushkina O.A., Ivanov A.I. et
al. Pilot factory testing of technology ceramic matrix
composite from coaly argillites enrichment waste. Waste
Management – the basis of restoring the ecological balance
of industrial regions of Russia: the fourth collection of reports
of the International Scientific and Practical Conference.
Novokuznetsk. 2012, pp. 176–181. (In Russian)
5. Everett D.H. Manual of Symbols and Terminology for
Physicochemical Quantities and Units: Appendix II:
Definitions, terminology and symbols in colloid and sur
face chemistry – part 1: Colloid and surface chemistry.
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ide phases derived from well-crystallized boehmite: cor
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Vol. 82. No. 2, pp. 507–517.
7. Tikhov S.F., Fenelonov V.B., Sadykov V.A. Fe2O3/Al
porous ceramics obtained by oxidation of aluminum
powder at hydrothermal conditions, followed by thermal
dehydration. Composition and characteristics of com
posites. Kinetika i kataliz. 2000. Vol. 41. No. 6, pp. 907–
915. (In Russian)
8. Morokhov I.D., Trusov L.I., Chizhik S.L. Ul’tradispersnye
metallicheskie sredy [Superdispersed metal media].
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Manufacture of ceramic granite on the basis of zeolite-containing batches
A.P. ZUBEKHIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. VERCHENKO1, Engineer; A.A. GALENKO2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 South-Russian State Polytechnic University named after M.I. Platov (132, Prosveshcheniya Street, Rostov Region, Novocherkassk, 346428, Russian Federation)
2 Shahtinsky Institute (branch) of the South-Russian State Polytechnic University named after M.I. Platov (1, Lenina Square, Rostov region, Shakhty,
346500, Russian Federation)
Results of the study of possibility to use the zeolite tuff as a ceramic flux in ceramic-granite batch are presented. To determine the ability of zeolite tuff to prove its required fluxing
impact on ceramic batches, its derivatographic analysis in comparison with the traditionally used material in this technology – feldspar – has been made. Data received make it possible
to suppose that zeolite is a more fusible material thermic reactions in which progress at lower temperature and this favours the intensification of the process of ceramic granite sintering
when zeolite tuff is used in its composition. The conducted analysis of phase transformations taking place in the course of heating of feldspar and zeolite tuff shows the identity of pass
ing reactions and forming phases that indicate the possibility to use zeolite tuff as a flux in ceramic granite manufacturing. On the basis of data obtained the optimal batch composition
of ceramic granite has been developed on the basis of zeolite-containig batches; its after-burning physical-mechanical properties have been studied.
Keywords: ceramic granite, batch, zeolite, feldspar, derivatographic study.
1. Lewicka E. Conditions of the feldspathic raw materials
supply from domestic and foreign sources in Poland //
Gospodarka surowcami mineralnymi. 2010. T. 26, pp. 5–19.
2. Grebenyuk A.N., Strekozov S.N, Kozar’ N.A. Aspects of
development of the mineral resource base of feldspar in
region of the Priazov’e // Naukovі pratsі UkrNDMІ NAN
Ukraini. 2009. No. 5, pp. 200–205. (In Russian).
3. Lewicka E., Wyszomirski P. Polish feldspar raw materials
for the domestic ceramic tile industry – current state and
prospects. Materia y ceramiczne. 2010. No. 4 (62),
4. Vel’cheva M.I. Current state and development of the
pegmatite field Linnavaara (Northern Ladoga Karelia).
Materials XVII youth scientific conference dedicated K.O.
Krattsa «Geology, Minerals and geoecology North-West of
Russia». Petrozavodsk. 2006, pp. 19–20. (In Russian).
5. Solodskii N.F., Shamrikov A.S., Pogrebenkov V.M.
Mineral’no-syr’evaya baza Urala dlya keramicheskoi,
ogneupornoi i stekol’noi promyshlennosti. Spravochnoe
posobie [Mineral resources base of the Urals for ceramic,
refractory and glass industries. Handbook]. Tomsk: TPU.
2009. 179 p.
6. Tarasov A.G., Larichkin V.A. Gosudarstvennyi balans
zapasov poleznykh iskopaemykh RF na 1 yanvarya
2008 g.: Tseolity. [State balance of mineral reserves at
1st of January, 2008: Zeolites]. Moskow: Rosgeolfond.
2008. 32 p.
7. E.L. Zonkhaeva. Environmental aspects of the use of
natural zeolite tuffs. New and innovative types of mineral
deposits and Trans Baikal region: Materials of All-Russian
Scientific and Practical Conference. Ulan-Ude. EKOS.
2010, p. 79. (In Russian).
8. Nazarenko O.B., Zarubina R.F. Use of Badinsky zeolite
to remove phosphates from wastewater. Izvestiya
Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2013. Т. 322.
No. 3, pр. 11–14. (In Russian).
Structural and phase characteristics of building ceramics based of industrial magnesium raw materials and low-grade clay
V.A. GUR’EVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); V.V. PROKOF’EVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Orenburg State University (13, Pobedi Аvenue, Orenburg, 460018, Russian Federation)
2 St. Petersburg State University of Civil Engineering (4, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya Street, St. Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation)
Shows the influence of man-made magnesium silicates on structural-phase changes based on ceramic stone malokomponentnoy charge, consisting of non-plastic frame forming com
ponent (magnesium-technogenic raw materials) and binder (low grade clay). By electron microscopy and X-ray analysis, the physical and chemical nature of the processes occurring in
the low-temperature synthesis conditions constructed ceramics
Keywords: industrial materials, magnesium silicates, low-grade clay, building ceramics
1. Prokofievа V.V., Bagautdinov Z.V. Magnezial’nye si
likaty v proizvodstve stroitel’noj keramiki [Magnesium
silicates in the production of building ceramics]. St.
Petersburg: Zolotoy Orel. 2005. 160 p.
2. Gurieva V.A. Fiziko-himicheskie issledovanija ispol’zovanija
dunitov v dekorativno-otdelochnoj keramike [Physico
chemical studies on the use of dunite in decorative finishing
ceramic]. Orenburg: IPK GOU OSU. 2007. 133 p.
3. Avgustinik A.I. Keramika [Ceramics]. Leningrad:
Stroyizdat. 1975. 592 p.
4. Ваbushkin V.I., Matveev G.M. Mchedlov-Petro
syan O.P. Termodinamika silikatov [Thermodynamics of
silicates]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1986. 407 p.
5. Boki G.P. Kristallohimija [Crystal chemistry]. Moscow:
Vischaya Shkola. 1984. 296 p.
6. Brown M., Dollimor D., Galway A. Reakcii tverdyh tel
[Reactions of solids]. New York: Wiley. 1983. 360 p.
7. Bozenov P.I., Prokofjeva W.W., Gurjewa W.A.
Magnesium – silicate Rohstoffbasis für die Baukeramik
– Production. Erster internotionfler Kongress fur die silikat
– keramic hen Werstoffe. Nurnberg. 1990, р. 45.
Ceramic tile for interior finishing of walls with the use of anthropogenic raw materials
, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); M.V. PLESHKO
Shahtinsky Institute (branch) of the South-Russian State Polytechnic University named after M.I. Platov (1, Lenina Square, Rostov region, Shakhty,
346500, Russian Federation)
Rostov State Transport University (2, Square Rostovskogo Strelkovogo Polka Narodnogo Opolcheniya, Rostov-on-Don, 344038, Russian Federation)
An analysis of the contemporary situation at the finishing building materials market as well as raw materials base for their production is made. A new anthropogenic raw material, waste
of mine water sedimentation, is offered; preliminary complex study of it is carried out; the study makes it possible to conclude that this material has high reaction capacity and stability
of chemical and mineralogical compositions. Compositions of masses for manufacturing the ceramic tile for interior finishing of walls with the use of quick one-firing have been devel
oped with the use of a new component; an optimal ratio of raw components has been determined. Mechanisms of the formation of phase composition and structure of ceramic stone
have been determined with the use of x-ray phase, differential-thermal and electron-microscopic methods; it makes it possible to establish the positive influence of mine water sedi
mentation waste not only on after-firing properties but also on the intensification of sintering process due to the activation of liquid-phase processes. Features of the influence of this
raw material on colorimetric properties of burnt stone are revealed.
Keywords: finishing materials, ceramic stone, waste, tile.
1. Solodkii N.F., Shamrikov A.S. Raw materials and ways of
increase of production efficiency of construction ceramics.
Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 1, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).
2. Ashmarin G.D., Kurnosov V.V., Lastochkin V.G. The
power- and resource-saving technology of ceramic wall
materials. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials].
2010. No. 4, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
3. Buruchenko A.E., Musharapova S.I. Construction ce
ramics with use of loams and waste of aluminum produc
tion. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials].
2010. No. 12, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).
4. Adylov G.T., Menosmanova G.S., Riskiev T.T., Rumi
M.Kh., Faiziev Sh.A. Prospects of expansion of a source
of raw materials for ceramic production. Steklo i kerami
ka. 2010. No. 2, pp. 29–31. (In Russian).
5. Il’ina V.P., Lebedeva G.A. Use of waste of enrichment of
alkaline syenites of the Eletyozersky field for production
of ceramic tiles. Steklo i keramika. 2010. No. 7, pp. 3–6.
6. Sal’nik V.G., Sviderskii V.A., Chernyak L.P. Expansion
of a source of raw materials for production of sanitary
ceramics. Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 1, pp. 34–38.
7. Pavlunenko L.E. Alkaline kaolins of Ukraine – complex
raw materials for ceramic industry . Steklo i keramika.
2010. No. 6, pp. 27–29. (In Russian).
8. Argynbaev T.M., Stafeeva Z.F. Perspective kaolinsoder
zhashchy products of JSC «Plast-Rifey». Steklo i kerami
ka. 2010. No. 3, pp. 37. (In Russian).
Building materials industry of the Republic of Crimea
A.A. SEMENOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Director,
“GS-Expert” ООО (18, office 207, 1st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Lane, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)
The current state of building materials industry of the Republic of Crimea is described. It is shown that over 200 enterprises of building materials industry operate on the territory of the
Republic of Crimea. Main product groups: non-metallic building materials, cement, ready-mix concrete, reinforced concrete products and structures, ceramic brick. Brief qualitative and
quantitative characteristics of each group are presented.
Keywords: industry of Crimea, building materials, non-metallic building materials, cement, ready-mix concrete, reinforced concrete products and structures, ceramic brick.
Conceptions and bases of nano-modification technologies of building composites structures.
Part 2: On the problem of conceptual models of nano-modifying the structure
Conceptual models of the kinetics of structure formation heterogeneous processes at basic transitions of the evolution routes for the formation of a solid phase are proposed. They
make it possible to present the phenomena of the phase origin, the growth of particles, their agglomerations, spontaneous and self-organized transformations in time as the object and
purpose of nanotechnology control. Approaches to the substantiation of conditions of the nano-modifying effect on the kinetics and energy of structure formation at nano- and micro
levels with appropriate effects of changes and regulation of the structure and properties of composites are determined. Factors of the direct nano-modification of structural elements at
the level of individual crystals and crystalline aggregate are considered. It is shown that their action at the level of cementing substance structure is indirect and changes the volume
ratio of morphological differences, zoning and clustering of the microstructure in it.
Keywords: conceptual models, hardening system, building composite, nano-modification of structure.
E.M. CHERNYSHEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAABS, O.V. ARTAMONOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry),
G.S. SLAVCHEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering),
Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)
1. Artamonova O.V., Chernyshov E.M. Concepts and bases
of technologies of nanomodification of building compos
ite structures. Part 1. General problems of fundamentali
ty, main direction of investigations and developments.
Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013.
No. 9, рp. 82–85. (In Russian).
2. Chernyshov E.M. Nanotechnology research building
composites: general propositions, main directions and
results. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: nauchnyi internet-
zhurnal. 2009. No. 2, рp. 1–15. http://www.nanobuild.
ru/magazine/nb/Nanobuild_2_2009.pdf. (In Russian).
3. Chernyshov E.M., D’yachenko E.I., Makeev A.I.
Neodnorodnost’ struktury i soprotivlenie razrusheniyu
konglomeratnykh stroitel’nykh kompozitov: voprosy ma
terialovedcheskogo obobshcheniya i razvitiya teorii:
monografiya [Heterogeneity of the structure and fracture
resistance conglomerate construction composites: synthe
sis and materials science questions of the theory: a mono
graph]. Voronezh: VGASU. 2012. 98 p.
4. Korotkikh D. N., Artamonova O.V., Chernyshov E.M.
On the requirements for nano-modifying additives for
high-strength cement concrete. Nanotekhnologii v
stroitel’stve: nauchnyi internet-zhurnal. 2009. No. 2,
pp. 42–49. http://www.nanobuild.ru/magazine/nb/
Nano1build_2_2009.pdf. (In Russian).
5. Korolev E.V., Kuvshinova M.I. Ultrasound parameters
for the homogenization of disperse systems with na
noscale modifiers. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2010. No. 10, pp. 85–88. (In Russian).
6. Pukharenko Yu.V., Aubakirova I.U., Nikitin V.A.,
Staroverov V.D. Structure and properties of nano-modi
fied cement systems. International Congress «Science and
Innovation in Construction «SIB-2008». Modern problems
of building materials and technologies. Voronezh. 2008.
Vol. 1. Book. 2, pp. 424–429. (In Russian)
Structure of interporous partitions in foam concrete mixes
V.N. MORGUN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); L.V. MORGUN2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Academy of Architecture and Arts of the Southern Federal University (105/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russian Federation)
2 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotsialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)
Features of the mass transfer of disperse particles of gas and solid phases in the course of mixing of raw components of foam concrete mixes are specified. Features of the mass trans
fer in viscous-plastic structures of the obtained materials in dependence on the form of components of the solid phase are considered. An analysis of the influence of the hydration pro
cess which takes place between the mineral binder and water on the aggregative stability of obtained mixes is made. It is theoretically substantiated and experimentally confirmed that
the speed of formation of clusters which form interporous partitions depends on the form of disperse components of the solid phase. The presence of fibrous inclusions (fibre) leads to
increasing the aggregative stability of mixes due to the shortening of the period of formation of strong ties between the watered particles of the solid disperse phase.
Keywords: foam concrete, fibrous foam concrete, reinforcement, interporous partitions, structure formation.
1. Morgun V.N. About nanoscale features of the evolution
of surfactants in foam concrete mixes. Stroitel’nye mate
rialy. 2007. No. 9. Supplement Nauka. № 10, pp. 20–21.
2. Deryagin B.V., Churaev N.V., Muller V.M. Poverkh
nostnye sily [The surface forces]. Nauka. Moscow: 1985.
3. Morgun V.N. Theoretical substantiation of foam con
crete structure design patterns. Materials of the interna
tional congress «Science and Innovation in the construction
of SIB-2008». Voronezh. 2008. Vol. 1, pp. 333–337.
4. Smirnov B.M. Fizika fraktal’nykh klasterov [Physics of
fractal clusters]. Nauka. Moscow: 1991. 136 p.
5. Zimon Ya.S. Adgeziya pyli i poroshkov [Adhesion of a
dust and powders]. Moscow: 1963. 416 p.
6. Morgun V.N. Influence of the form components on the
intensity of interparticle interactions in foam concrete
mixes. Tekhnologii betonov. 2009. No 2(31), pp. 54–66.
7. Mandelbrot B. Les Objects Fractal. Flammanon. France:
1995. 200 p.
Structure and properties of synthesised alumosilicates1
, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), S.N. KISLITSYNA
, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering);
, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy); M.A. SADOVNIKOVA
Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (28, Germana Titova Street, 440028, Penza, Russian Federation)
Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, 308012, Belgorod, Russian Federation)
An additive in dry lime building mixes on the basis of synthetic aluminosilicates synthesized from liquid glass in the presence of aluminium sulphate is proposed as a structuring addi
tive. Optimum ratio of the components, pH of mix, density and module of liquid glass are determined. Phase and mineralogical compositions of the additive are established. Information
on regularities of the structure formation of lime compositions with additives of synthesised alumosilicates is presented. It is shown that supplementation of aluminosilicates contrib
utes to accelerated strengthening. High activity of aluminosilicates, more than 350 mg/g, is revealed. The increase in the quantity of chemically combined lime in lime compositions in
the presence of synthesized aluminosilicates, increase in durability of lime compositions under compression by 27,93–52,72% are established.
Keywords: dry lime building mixes, synthesis of alumosiicates, structure formation, durability
1. Loganina V.I., Makarova L.V., Kislicina S.N., Sergeeva
K.A. Increase the water resistance of coatings based on lime
finishing compositions. Izvestija vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij.
Stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 1 (637), pp. 41–47. (In Russian).
2. Loganina V.I., Makarova L.V., Sergeeva K.A. Properties
of composites with lime silicate-containing fillers.
Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012.
No. 3, pp. 30–35. (In Russian).
3. Loganina V.I., Kislicyna S.N., Makarova L.V.,
Sadovnikova M.A. Rheological properties of the calcare
ous cementitious composite with synthetic zeolite.
Izvestija vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij. Stroitel’stvo. 2013.
No. 4, pp. 37–42. (In Russian).
4. Volzhenskii A.V., Stambulko V.I., Ferronskaya A.V.
Gipsotsementno-putstsolanovye vyazhushchie, betony i
izdeliya [Gypsum cement-pozzolanic binders and co
crete products]. M.: Stroiizdat. 1971. 324 p.
5. Pushcharovskii D.Yu. Rentgenografiya mineralov
[Roentgenography of minerals]. M.: Geoinformmark.
2000. 288 p.
6. Solovyov L.A. Full-profile refinement by derivative dif
ference minimization. Journal of Applied Crystallography.
2004. No. 37, pp. 743–749.
7. Appen A.A. Himija stekla [Chemistry of glass]. Leningrad:
Khimiya, 1974. 352 p.
8. Zhernovskij I.V., Strokova V.V., Miroshnikov E.V.,
Buhalo A.B., Kozhuhova N.I., Uvarova S.S. Certain
Possibilities to Use the Complete XPA in Tasks of Building
Materials Science. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2010. No. 3, pp. 102–105. (In Russian).
Hypothetic value of creep deformation of polystyrene plastic foam under the constant compressing stress
on the basis of initial experimental period of deforming
I.Ya. GNIPP, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.I. VAYTKUS, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (28, Linkmyanu Street, 082217 Vilnius, Lithuania)
Results of the study of foam polystyrene slabs(EN 13163) creep under the ultimate level of compressing stress CS(10) – (60–250) kPa at static specific load σс=(0,25 and 0,35)σ10%
are presented. On the basis of an experiment, tn=7 days, and mathematical-statistical analysis of data of lasting experiments (122, 535 and 1826 days) it is possible to assess
the hypothetic value of creep deformation for advance of 10 years using experimental values εс(tn=7 days) (or Ic(tn=7 days) according to the regression equation) or the empiric
equation for coefficient mt taking into account the creep deformation developing in time.
Keywords: polystyrene plastic foam, compressing during 7 days, creep deformation, flexibility when creep, prediction.
1. EN 13163:2008 E. Thermal insulation products for build
ings – Factory made products of expanded polystyrene
(EPS) – Specification. European Committee for
Standardization. 2008. 48 p.
2. GOST R EN 1606-2010 E. Insulating products, primeyan
yaemye in construction. Method for determination of com
pressive creep. Moscow: Standartinform, 2010. 16 p. (In
3. EN 14933:2007 E. Thermal insulating and light weight
products for civil engineering applications – Factory
made products of expanded polystyrene (EPS) –
Specification. European Committee for Standardization.
2007. 32 p.
4. Gnip I.Y., Vaitkus S., Kersulis V., Vejelis S. Experiments
for the long-term prediction of creep strain of expanded polystyrene under compressive stress. Polymer Testing.
2010. No. 29, pp. 693–700.
5. Gnip I.Ya., Kershulis V.I., Vaitkus S.I., Veyalis S.A.
Prediction deformability styrofoam with prolonged com
pression. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials].
2005. No. 6, pp. 7–11. (In Russian).
6. Veyalis S., Gnip I.Ya., Vaitkus S. and Kershulis V.
Deformability of expanded polystyrene EPS 200 under
long-term compression. Mechanics of Composite
Materials. 2010. Vol. 46. No. 5, pp. 505–512.
7. EN 826:1996 E. Thermal insulating products for building
applications. Determination of compression behaviour.
British-Adopted European Standard. 1996. 15 p.
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rialov [Diagnosis of stiffness and strength of materials].
Riga: Zinatne, 1968. 320 p.
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Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. W.H. Freeman
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