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Stroitel`nye Materialy №4

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V.F. KOREPANOVA, Chief Technologist, G.I. GRINFELD, engineer «LSR» – «Stenovye» OОO (40A, Oktyabrskaya Embankment, 193091, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Production of clinker brick at Nikol’sky Brick Factory of LSR Group
It is shown that after the start-up of the production line for manufacturing the clinker brick at the Nikol’sky Brick Factory of LSR Group it was necessary to make changes not only in the batch formulation, but also in production accessories. As a result of collaboration of specialists of «Tekton» and the factory, all technological stages were improved as soon as possible, and the factory started to manufacture the products of proper quality. The manufactured assortment of production is described. It is noted that an important element of introduction of a new material to the market is its technical support. Examples of the successful use of clinker products of domestic manufacture in Saint Petersburg are presented.

Keywords: LSR Group, Nikol’sky Brick Factory, clinker brick, facing brick, flowchart, colored masonry mix.

References
1. Gavrilov A.V., Grinfel’d G.I. A brief overview of the his tory, status and prospects of the market in Russia clinker. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 20–22. (In Russian).
2. Zhironkin P.V., Gerashchenko V.N., Grinfel’d G.I. History and prospects of ceramic wall materials industry in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 13–18. (In Russian).
3. Russia’s first production line of clinker ready for com mercial operation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 68–70. (In Russian).

A.A. NAUMOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.V. TRISHHENKO1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); N.G. GUROV2, General Director
1 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)
2 ZAO «Southern Scientific Research Institute of Building Materials» («YuzhNIIstrom») (105/1, Nansen Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344038, Russian Federation)

On the issue of improving quality and diversification of ceramic brick for operating factories of semi-dry pressing
Results of the study of suitability of Atyukhtinsk argillous raw materials for manufacturing ceramic brick using the method of compression molding are presented. It is determined that for producing the ceramic body of high frost-resistance it is necessary to introduce a mineral calcium-containing additive into the batch. Pilot lots of facing brick of red and pale yellow colors have been produced. Design works for technical re-equipment of Shakhtinsky brick factory have been done. Further steps for improving the quality of products manufactured are determined.

Keywords: ceramic brick, semi-dry pressing, compression molding, technical re-equipment, frost resistance, mineral modifying additive, mass treatment.

References
1. Gurov N.G., Naumov A.A., Ivanov N.N. Ways to im prove the frost resistance of brick dry pressing. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 3, pp. 40–42. (In Russian).
2. Gurov N.G., Naumov A.A., Jundin A.N. Improvement of frost resistance of semidry pressing ceramic stone with a min eral modifying additive. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 78–80. (In Russian).
3. Patent RF 2455257. Keramicheskaja massa [Ceramic mass]. Gurov N.G., Naumov A.A., Ivanov N.N., Gurov R.N. Declared 22.10.2009. Published 10.07.2012. Bulletin No. 19. (In Russian).
4. Gurov N.G., Kotljarova L.V., Ivanov N.N. Production of a ceramic brick of light tones from the burning down is red clay raw materials. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 9, pp. 58–59. (In Russian).
5. Naumov A.A., Jundin A.N. Frost-resistant ceramic brick of semidry pressing from clay raw materials of the Shakhty plant. Inzhenernyj vestnik Dona: scientific Internet-journal. 2012. No. 3, pp. 638–642. http://www.ivdon.ru/uploads/ article/pdf/2012_3_112.pdf_960.pdf (date of access 30.03.2014). (In Russian).
6. Shlegel’ I.F., Rukavicyn A.V., Andrianov A.V. The use of plants of “Kaskad” series in technique of semidry pressing of brick. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 4, pp. 58–59. (In Russian).
7. Kurnosov V.V., Vostrikova S.N., Miloserdov A.V., Experience of use of systems of heating with a wide range of regulation at modernization and building of ceramic productions. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 2, pp. 24–25. (In Russian).
8. Kondratenko V.A., Peshkov V.N., Slednev D.V. Problems of construction and reconstruction of brick productions. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 2, pp. 3–5. (In Russian).
9. Storozhenko G.I., Boldyrev G.V., Kuzubov V.A. Me chanochemical activation of raw materials as way of in crease of efficiency of a method of moist pressing. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 1997. No. 8, pp. 19–20. (In Russian).

B.V. TALPA, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy) Southern Federal University (105/42 Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russion Federation)

Prospects of development of mineral-raw material base for manufacture of wall ceramics becoming light color after burning in the South of Russia
The analysis of the state of mineral raw materials base for producing wall ceramics becoming light color after burning in the South of Russia is made; prospects of its development are defined. At present, the deposits of kaolin and hydromicaceous-kaolinite high-melting and refractory clays were found among Jurassic sediments in the North Caucasus and Neogene sediments in the Eastern Donbass. These clays are of low quality and their spread areas are limited. Siliceous and siliceous-carbonate-clay rocks of the Paleocene and Eocene widely spread in the South of Russia are recommended for expanding the raw material base of manufacturing of ceramics becoming light color after burning. It is established that fired materi als produced on their base have the low volume weight, enhanced thermo-physical properties and comfortability, high strength and light color of the ceramic body.
Keywords: clays, siliceous rocks, raw materials, ceramics becoming light color after burning.

References
1. Hinckley D.N. Variability in «crystallinity» values among the Realign deposits of the coastal of the Gorgia and South Carolina. Proceedings 11th National Conference of clays and clay minerals. 1963, pp.123–128.
2. Bogatyrev B.A., Delitsyn I.S. Predtoarskii lateritnyi pro fil’ vyvetrivaniya na plato Bechasyn (Severnyi Kavkaz) [Predtoarsky lateritic weathering profile plateau Bechasyn (North Caucasus)]. In book Weathering crust (Vol. 16). Moscow: Nedra, 1978, pp. 161–171.
3. Talpa B.V., Boiko N.I., Kotlyar V.D. Opal-cristobalite rocks (flask) as a new raw material for ceramics. Izvestiya

V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Yu.V. TEREKHINA, Engineer, A.V. KOTLYAR, Engineer Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, 344022, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation)

Methods of testing lithoidal raw materials for producing wall ceramic products of compression molding (as a discussion)
Prospects of the production of wall ceramic product by the method of compression molding are shown. Methods of testing the lithoidal, no-swelling raw materials are offered for dis cussion. It is proposed to crush the raw material up to the fraction composition of 0–2.5 or 0–1.25 mm. These parameters are achievable under production conditions. At the same, the grain composition of crushed raw material has to approach the optimal one for the most dense packing of grains during the pressing. It is proposed to change the pressing pressure for tests from 10 up to 40 MPa with an interval of 5 or 10 MPa at different moisture of press-powders. For data treatment it is necessary to build compression curves reflecting the depen dence of compact density in recalculation for solid phase and strengths on the moisture of press-powder and pressing pressure. The test result should be the determination of depen dences of qualitative characteristics of samples on technological parameters and selection of the most acceptable options.

Keywords: ceramics, ceramic brick, lithoidal raw materials, compression molding, testing methods.

References
1. Ashmarin G.D., Kurnosov В.В., Belyaev S.E., Lastochkin B.G. Evaluation of the effectiveness of compression molding of ceramic building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
2. Ashmarin G.D., Lastochkin B.G., Kurnosov В.В. Theoretical bases and ways to improve the technology of compression molding of ceramic wall materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2009. No. 4, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).
3. Kotlyar V.D., Terehina Y.V., Nebejko Y.I. Prospects for the development of ceramic bricks dry pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 6–7. (In Russian).
4. Fernandez, J. Material Architecture. Emergent materials for innovative buildings and ecological construction. Netherlands: Architectural Press. 2006. 331 p.
5. Deplazes, А. Constructing architecture: materials, pro cesses, structures. EU.: Publishers for Architecture. 2005. 508 p.
6. Ashmarin G.D. Proizvodstvo keramicheskih stenovih izdilii metodom polysyhogo pressovania. Analiticheskii obzor [Production of ceramic wall products by dry press ing. Analytical review]. Moscow: VNII NTII HTIiEPSM ВНИИ НТИиЭПСМ. 1990. 58 p.
7. Shlegel’ I.F. Dry-pressed brick problem. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2005. No. 2, pp. 18–19. (In Russian).
8. Shlegel’ I.F. Some aspects of dry-pressed brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2012. No. 11, pp. 6–8. (In Russian).
9. Kotlyar V.D. Features pressing ceramic powders on the basis of the flasks in the production of ceramic wall. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Consrtuction Materials]. 2009. No. 12, pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
10. Popilskii R.A., Pivinskii Y.E. Pressovanie poroshkovih keramicheskih mass [Pressing powder porcelains]. Moscow: Metalyrgia. 1983. 176 p.
11. Kotlyar V.D. Compressibility powdery masses on the basis of flasks. Injenernii vestnik Dona. 2012. No. 3. http://www.ivdon.ru (date of access 12.03.2014). (In Russian).

N.D. YATSENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.P. ZUBEKHIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) South-Russian State Polytechnic University (Novocherkassk polytechnical institute) named after M.I. Platov (132 Prosveshcheniya Street, Novocherkassk, Rostov Region, 346428, Russian Federation)

Scientific bases of innovative technologies of ceramic bricks and the management of its properties depending on chemical and mineralogical composition of materials
The features of physico-chemical processes in low-temperature firing of the ceramic brick, providing formation of phase composition in different redox conditions and properties ready products.

Keywords: ceramic brick, redox firing, phase composition, lighting, low-temperature roasting, color, reflection coefficient, nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy.

References
1. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D., Verevkin K.A. Influence of ox idation-reduction conditions of roasting on phase composition of oxides of iron and color ceramic brick. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2011. No. 8, pp. 8–11. (In Russian).
2. Kotlyar V.D. Stenovaia keramika na osnove kremnistykh opal–kristobalitovykh porod – opok [Wall ceramics based on siliceous rock opal-cristobalite – flasks]. Rostov оn Don: Rostizdat, 2011. 277 p. (In Russian).
3. Kornilov A.V. Causes different effects of limy clays on the strength properties of ceramics. Steklo i keramika. 2005. No. 12, pp. 30–32. (In Russian).
4. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D. Theoretical bases of in novative technologies of construction ceramics // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 89–92. (In Russian).
5. Luginina I.G. Khimiya i khimicheskaya tekhnologiya neorganicheskikh vyazhushchikh materialov [Chemistry and chemical technology of inorganic binders]: 2 PM. Belgorod: BSTU, 2004. Part 1, 240 p.

I.A. ZHENZHURIST, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Kazan State University of Architecture and Construction (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Prospective directions of nano-modification in building ceramics
The assessment of the possibility to use the hydrosols of silica and aluminum oxides as modifying additives to clay raw materials is made. Introducing these modifiers into clay suspen sions leads to increase of clay swelling, change of solution pH and, after burning, to improvement of strength of samples made of refractory and bentonite clay. The influence of the ultra-high frequency field on the microstructure of bentonitic clay, quartz sand and diatomite treated with hydrosol of aluminum oxide, the change of plasticity of Novonikolaevskoy and Kalininskoy clays treated with hydrosols of aluminum oxide are shown.

Keywords: nano-disperse particles, hydrosols of silica and aluminum, electromagnetic field of ultra-high frequency.

References
1. Korolev E.V. Principle of Realization of Nanotechnology in Building Materials Science. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 60–64. (In Russian).
2. Gerasin V.A., Zubova T.A., Bakhov F.N., Barannikov A.A., Merekalova N.D., Korolev Yu.M., Antipov E.M. The structure of the polymer nanocomposites/Na + – mont - morillonite received by melt mixing. Rossiiskie nanotekh nologii. 2007. Vol. 2. No. 9, pp. 90–05. (In Russian).
3. Leont’ev L.B., Shapkin N.P., Leont’ev A.L., Shkura tov A.L., Vasil’eva V.V. Influence of mineral and organic-mineral mixtures tribochemical characteristics of fric tion pairs. Neorganicheskie materialy. 2013. Vol. 49. No. 9, pp. 961–965. (In Russian).
4. Rowles M.O., Connor B. Chemical optimisation of the compressive strength of aluminosilicate geopolymers syn thesised by sodium silicate activation of metakaolinite. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2003. Vol. 13, pp. 1161– 1165.
5. Knotko A.V., Kravchenko S.S., Putlyaev V.I. Features of formation of geo polymer alumosilicate materials. Neorganicheskie materialy. 2013. Vol. 49. No. 5, pp. 521–527. (In Russian).
6. Zhenzhurist I.A., Zaripov V.M., Mubarakshin L.F., Hozin V.G. Influence the nanokhispersnykh of particles of hydrosols of oxides of silicon and aluminum on struc turization of clay minerals in the water environment. Steklo i keramika. 2010. No, 7. pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
7. Zhenzhurist I.A. Activation of aluminosilicate complex Nurlatsky additives bentonite and alumina hydrosol elec tromagnetic field. Liteinoye proizvodstvo. 2013. No. 3, pp. 9–11. (In Russian).
8. Zhenzhurist I.A, Karasyova I.P. Zavisimost of technical characteristics on Nizhneuvelsky clay from additives of hydrosols of aluminum and influence of an electromag netic field. Ogneupory i tekhnicheskaya keramika. 2013. No. 3, pp. 50–54. (In Russian).
9. Zhenzhurist I.A., Bogdanov A.N. Influence of additives of hydrosols of aluminum and electromagnetic field on structure and technological properties of clay minerals. Steklo i keramika. 2013. No. 11, pp. 24–28. (In Russian).
10. Pushkarev O.I., Shumyacher V.M., Mal’ginova G.M. Microwave processing powders of refractory compounds microwave electromagnetic field. Ogneupory i tekhniches kaya keramika. 2005. No. 1, pp. 7–9. (In Russian).
11. Park S.S., Meek T.T. Characterization of ZrO2–Al2O3 composites sintered in a 2,45 GHz electromagnetic field. Journal of Materials Science. 1991. Vol. 26, pp. 6309–6313.
12. Sergiyevich O.A., Dyatlova E.M., Malinovsky G.N., Barantseva C.E., Popov R.Yu. Features of chemical and mineralogical structure and property of kaolins of the Belarusian fields. Steklo i keramika 2012. No. 3, pp. 25–31. (In Russian).

Yu.V. TEREKHINA, Engineer, V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. KOTLYAR, Engineer Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)

The use of quality management tools in production of ceramic brick
The problems of production quality and production organization arising at brick factories and the use of up-to-date tools of quality management in production of wall ceramic materials, such as the cause-and-effect diagram of Ishikawa, a control form, control charts, histogram, Pareto diagram, a scattergram for solution of enterprise’s tasks are con sidered. Examples of the use of quality management tools at stages of product life cycle, their role in formation of finished product quality, assessment of production condi tions, assessment of decision-making and development of efficient, corrective actions at the brick factory are also considered. It is shown that the efficiency of tools is estimat ed by system usage over time, it reflects the effectiveness of actions taken, makes it possible to reveal new factors and processes which are in need of working out and improvement.

Keywords: brick, quality, quality management tools, cause-and-effect diagram of Ishikawa, control form, control charts, histogram, Pareto diagram, scattergrams.

References
1. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Yu.V. Quality management at the organization of production of a brick of ceramic moist pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 4, pp. 26–27. (In Russian).
2. Terekhina Yu.V., Kotlyar V. D., Serebryanaya I.A., Cherenkova I.A., Control leaf of quality – the instrument of collecting and the analysis of data by production of a brick ceramic. Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona. Scientific Internet-journal 2013. No. 4, http://www.ivdon.ru/magazine/archive/ n4y2013/2109 (date of access 15.03.2014). (In Russian).
3. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Yu. V., Nebejko Yu. I. Prospects of development of production of a ceramic brick of moist pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials] 2011. No. 2, pp. 6–7. (In Russian).
4. Etethen, G. Total Quality Management. New-York, 1995. 286 p.
5. Atkinson, A. Measure for measure: Realizing the power of the balanced scorecard. CMA Management. September 2000. pp. 22–28.
6. Efimov V.V. Sredstva i metody upravleniya kachestvom. [Means and methods of control over quality]. Moscow: KNORUS. 2012. 232 p. (In Russian).
7. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Yu.V. Control system of quality at brick-works. Collection of works XIX of the International conference of students, graduate students and young scientists “Modern equipment and technologies”. Tomsk: TPU. 2013. Vol. 3, pp. 160–161. (In Russian).
8. Kotlyar V.D. Stenovaya keramika na osnove kremnistykh opal-kristobalitovykh porod – opok [Wall ceramics based on siliceous rocks opal-cristobalite – flasks]. Rostov-on- Don. Rostizdat. 2011. 277 p. (In Russian).

А.YU. STOLBOUSHKIN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), А.I. IVANOV1, Engineer; S.V. DRUZHININ2, Director-General; V.N. ZORYA 1, Engineer, V.I. ZLOBIN1 , Engineer
1 Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirova Street, Kemerovo region, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Spetzremont» (Building 6, 28, Rudokoprovaya Street, Kemerovo region, Novokuznetsk, 654063, Russian Federation)

Pore structure characterristics of wall ceramics made from waste coal

The investigation results of the pore structure of wall ceramic materials made from waste coal by scanning electron microscopy, petrography and mercury porosimetry are provided. Chemical, mineral, material composition and the con-tent of fine fractions of technogenic raw materials and additives are given. It was established that shapes and sizes of pores are significantly affected by number of carbonaceous particles in the waste as well as by fineness of grind, formation method of matrix structure of mudbricks, composition of the corrective additives and other factors. The features of the porous texture of the ceramic crock are identified, majority of the frost resistant pores have sizes of 0,04–4,4 µm, and macropores formed mainly on the grain boundaries are partially or completely filled with amorphized material – a product of solid state reactions during firing, which positively affects the water absorption and frost resistance of products.

Keywords: waste coal, wall ceramic material, pore structure, ceramic matrix composite, frost resistance.

References
1. Pavlov V.F. Physico-chemical processes in high-speed burning and their regulation. Keramicheskaya promysh lennost’. 1982. No. 2, pp. 30–45. (In Russian)
2. Rasskazov V.F., Ashmarin G.D., Livada A.N Production of building materials with use of techno genic waste. Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 1, pp. 5–9. (In Russian)
3. Storozhenko G.I., Stolboushkin A.Yu., Mishin M.P. Prospects of the domestic production of ceramic bricks from coal enrichment waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 57–61. (In Russian)
4. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Stolboushkina O.A., Ivanov A.I. et al. Pilot factory testing of technology ceramic matrix composite from coaly argillites enrichment waste. Waste Management – the basis of restoring the ecological balance of industrial regions of Russia: the fourth collection of reports of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Novokuznetsk. 2012, pp. 176–181. (In Russian)
5. Everett D.H. Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units: Appendix II: Definitions, terminology and symbols in colloid and sur face chemistry – part 1: Colloid and surface chemistry. Pure Applied Chemistry. 1972. No. 31, pp. 577–638.
6. Wilson S.J., Stacey M.H. The porosity of aluminum ox ide phases derived from well-crystallized boehmite: cor related electron microscope, adsorption, and porosimetry studies. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 1981. Vol. 82. No. 2, pp. 507–517.
7. Tikhov S.F., Fenelonov V.B., Sadykov V.A. Fe2O3/Al porous ceramics obtained by oxidation of aluminum powder at hydrothermal conditions, followed by thermal dehydration. Composition and characteristics of com posites. Kinetika i kataliz. 2000. Vol. 41. No. 6, pp. 907– 915. (In Russian)
8. Morokhov I.D., Trusov L.I., Chizhik S.L. Ul’tradispersnye metallicheskie sredy [Superdispersed metal media]. M.: Atomizdat. 1977. 212 p.

A.P. ZUBEKHIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. VERCHENKO1, Engineer; A.A. GALENKO2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 South-Russian State Polytechnic University named after M.I. Platov (132, Prosveshcheniya Street, Rostov Region, Novocherkassk, 346428, Russian Federation)
2 Shahtinsky Institute (branch) of the South-Russian State Polytechnic University named after M.I. Platov (1, Lenina Square, Rostov region, Shakhty, 346500, Russian Federation)

Manufacture of ceramic granite on the basis of zeolite-containing batches
Results of the study of possibility to use the zeolite tuff as a ceramic flux in ceramic-granite batch are presented. To determine the ability of zeolite tuff to prove its required fluxing impact on ceramic batches, its derivatographic analysis in comparison with the traditionally used material in this technology – feldspar – has been made. Data received make it possible to suppose that zeolite is a more fusible material thermic reactions in which progress at lower temperature and this favours the intensification of the process of ceramic granite sintering when zeolite tuff is used in its composition. The conducted analysis of phase transformations taking place in the course of heating of feldspar and zeolite tuff shows the identity of pass ing reactions and forming phases that indicate the possibility to use zeolite tuff as a flux in ceramic granite manufacturing. On the basis of data obtained the optimal batch composition of ceramic granite has been developed on the basis of zeolite-containig batches; its after-burning physical-mechanical properties have been studied.

Keywords: ceramic granite, batch, zeolite, feldspar, derivatographic study.

References
1. Lewicka E. Conditions of the feldspathic raw materials supply from domestic and foreign sources in Poland // Gospodarka surowcami mineralnymi. 2010. T. 26, pp. 5–19.
2. Grebenyuk A.N., Strekozov S.N, Kozar’ N.A. Aspects of development of the mineral resource base of feldspar in region of the Priazov’e // Naukovі pratsі UkrNDMІ NAN Ukraini. 2009. No. 5, pp. 200–205. (In Russian).
3. Lewicka E., Wyszomirski P. Polish feldspar raw materials for the domestic ceramic tile industry – current state and prospects. Materia y ceramiczne. 2010. No. 4 (62), pp. 582–585.
4. Vel’cheva M.I. Current state and development of the pegmatite field Linnavaara (Northern Ladoga Karelia). Materials XVII youth scientific conference dedicated K.O. Krattsa «Geology, Minerals and geoecology North-West of Russia». Petrozavodsk. 2006, pp. 19–20. (In Russian).
5. Solodskii N.F., Shamrikov A.S., Pogrebenkov V.M. Mineral’no-syr’evaya baza Urala dlya keramicheskoi, ogneupornoi i stekol’noi promyshlennosti. Spravochnoe posobie [Mineral resources base of the Urals for ceramic, refractory and glass industries. Handbook]. Tomsk: TPU. 2009. 179 p.
6. Tarasov A.G., Larichkin V.A. Gosudarstvennyi balans zapasov poleznykh iskopaemykh RF na 1 yanvarya 2008 g.: Tseolity. [State balance of mineral reserves at 1st of January, 2008: Zeolites]. Moskow: Rosgeolfond. 2008. 32 p.
7. E.L. Zonkhaeva. Environmental aspects of the use of natural zeolite tuffs. New and innovative types of mineral deposits and Trans Baikal region: Materials of All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference. Ulan-Ude. EKOS. 2010, p. 79. (In Russian).
8. Nazarenko O.B., Zarubina R.F. Use of Badinsky zeolite to remove phosphates from wastewater. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2013. Т. 322. No. 3, pр. 11–14. (In Russian).

V.A. GUR’EVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); V.V. PROKOF’EVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Orenburg State University (13, Pobedi Аvenue, Orenburg, 460018, Russian Federation)
2 St. Petersburg State University of Civil Engineering (4, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya Street, St. Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation)

Structural and phase characteristics of building ceramics based of industrial magnesium raw materials and low-grade clay
Shows the influence of man-made magnesium silicates on structural-phase changes based on ceramic stone malokomponentnoy charge, consisting of non-plastic frame forming com ponent (magnesium-technogenic raw materials) and binder (low grade clay). By electron microscopy and X-ray analysis, the physical and chemical nature of the processes occurring in the low-temperature synthesis conditions constructed ceramics

Keywords: industrial materials, magnesium silicates, low-grade clay, building ceramics

References
1. Prokofievа V.V., Bagautdinov Z.V. Magnezial’nye si likaty v proizvodstve stroitel’noj keramiki [Magnesium silicates in the production of building ceramics]. St. Petersburg: Zolotoy Orel. 2005. 160 p.
2. Gurieva V.A. Fiziko-himicheskie issledovanija ispol’zovanija dunitov v dekorativno-otdelochnoj keramike [Physico chemical studies on the use of dunite in decorative finishing ceramic]. Orenburg: IPK GOU OSU. 2007. 133 p.
3. Avgustinik A.I. Keramika [Ceramics]. Leningrad: Stroyizdat. 1975. 592 p.
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5. Boki G.P. Kristallohimija [Crystal chemistry]. Moscow: Vischaya Shkola. 1984. 296 p.
6. Brown M., Dollimor D., Galway A. Reakcii tverdyh tel [Reactions of solids]. New York: Wiley. 1983. 360 p.
7. Bozenov P.I., Prokofjeva W.W., Gurjewa W.A. Magnesium – silicate Rohstoffbasis für die Baukeramik – Production. Erster internotionfler Kongress fur die silikat – keramic hen Werstoffe. Nurnberg. 1990, р. 45.

A.A. GALENKO 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); M.V. PLESHKO 2 , engineer
1 Shahtinsky Institute (branch) of the South-Russian State Polytechnic University named after M.I. Platov (1, Lenina Square, Rostov region, Shakhty, 346500, Russian Federation)
2 Rostov State Transport University (2, Square Rostovskogo Strelkovogo Polka Narodnogo Opolcheniya, Rostov-on-Don, 344038, Russian Federation)

Ceramic tile for interior finishing of walls with the use of anthropogenic raw materials
An analysis of the contemporary situation at the finishing building materials market as well as raw materials base for their production is made. A new anthropogenic raw material, waste of mine water sedimentation, is offered; preliminary complex study of it is carried out; the study makes it possible to conclude that this material has high reaction capacity and stability of chemical and mineralogical compositions. Compositions of masses for manufacturing the ceramic tile for interior finishing of walls with the use of quick one-firing have been devel oped with the use of a new component; an optimal ratio of raw components has been determined. Mechanisms of the formation of phase composition and structure of ceramic stone have been determined with the use of x-ray phase, differential-thermal and electron-microscopic methods; it makes it possible to establish the positive influence of mine water sedi mentation waste not only on after-firing properties but also on the intensification of sintering process due to the activation of liquid-phase processes. Features of the influence of this raw material on colorimetric properties of burnt stone are revealed.

Keywords: finishing materials, ceramic stone, waste, tile.

References
1. Solodkii N.F., Shamrikov A.S. Raw materials and ways of increase of production efficiency of construction ceramics. Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 1, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).
2. Ashmarin G.D., Kurnosov V.V., Lastochkin V.G. The power- and resource-saving technology of ceramic wall materials. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 4, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
3. Buruchenko A.E., Musharapova S.I. Construction ce ramics with use of loams and waste of aluminum produc tion. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 12, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).
4. Adylov G.T., Menosmanova G.S., Riskiev T.T., Rumi M.Kh., Faiziev Sh.A. Prospects of expansion of a source of raw materials for ceramic production. Steklo i kerami ka. 2010. No. 2, pp. 29–31. (In Russian).
5. Il’ina V.P., Lebedeva G.A. Use of waste of enrichment of alkaline syenites of the Eletyozersky field for production of ceramic tiles. Steklo i keramika. 2010. No. 7, pp. 3–6. (In Russian).
6. Sal’nik V.G., Sviderskii V.A., Chernyak L.P. Expansion of a source of raw materials for production of sanitary ceramics. Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 1, pp. 34–38. (In Russian).
7. Pavlunenko L.E. Alkaline kaolins of Ukraine – complex raw materials for ceramic industry . Steklo i keramika. 2010. No. 6, pp. 27–29. (In Russian).
8. Argynbaev T.M., Stafeeva Z.F. Perspective kaolinsoder zhashchy products of JSC «Plast-Rifey». Steklo i kerami ka. 2010. No. 3, pp. 37. (In Russian).

A.A. SEMENOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Director, “GS-Expert” ООО (18, office 207, 1st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Lane, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Building materials industry of the Republic of Crimea
The current state of building materials industry of the Republic of Crimea is described. It is shown that over 200 enterprises of building materials industry operate on the territory of the Republic of Crimea. Main product groups: non-metallic building materials, cement, ready-mix concrete, reinforced concrete products and structures, ceramic brick. Brief qualitative and quantitative characteristics of each group are presented.

Keywords: industry of Crimea, building materials, non-metallic building materials, cement, ready-mix concrete, reinforced concrete products and structures, ceramic brick.

E.M. CHERNYSHEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAABS, O.V. ARTAMONOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry), G.S. SLAVCHEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Conceptions and bases of nano-modification technologies of building composites structures. Part 2: On the problem of conceptual models of nano-modifying the structure

Conceptual models of the kinetics of structure formation heterogeneous processes at basic transitions of the evolution routes for the formation of a solid phase are proposed. They make it possible to present the phenomena of the phase origin, the growth of particles, their agglomerations, spontaneous and self-organized transformations in time as the object and purpose of nanotechnology control. Approaches to the substantiation of conditions of the nano-modifying effect on the kinetics and energy of structure formation at nano- and micro levels with appropriate effects of changes and regulation of the structure and properties of composites are determined. Factors of the direct nano-modification of structural elements at the level of individual crystals and crystalline aggregate are considered. It is shown that their action at the level of cementing substance structure is indirect and changes the volume ratio of morphological differences, zoning and clustering of the microstructure in it.

Keywords: conceptual models, hardening system, building composite, nano-modification of structure.

References
1. Artamonova O.V., Chernyshov E.M. Concepts and bases of technologies of nanomodification of building compos ite structures. Part 1. General problems of fundamentali ty, main direction of investigations and developments. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, рp. 82–85. (In Russian).
2. Chernyshov E.M. Nanotechnology research building composites: general propositions, main directions and results. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: nauchnyi internet- zhurnal. 2009. No. 2, рp. 1–15. http://www.nanobuild. ru/magazine/nb/Nanobuild_2_2009.pdf. (In Russian).
3. Chernyshov E.M., D’yachenko E.I., Makeev A.I. Neodnorodnost’ struktury i soprotivlenie razrusheniyu konglomeratnykh stroitel’nykh kompozitov: voprosy ma terialovedcheskogo obobshcheniya i razvitiya teorii: monografiya [Heterogeneity of the structure and fracture resistance conglomerate construction composites: synthe sis and materials science questions of the theory: a mono graph]. Voronezh: VGASU. 2012. 98 p.
4. Korotkikh D. N., Artamonova O.V., Chernyshov E.M. On the requirements for nano-modifying additives for high-strength cement concrete. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: nauchnyi internet-zhurnal. 2009. No. 2, pp. 42–49. http://www.nanobuild.ru/magazine/nb/ Nano1build_2_2009.pdf. (In Russian).
5. Korolev E.V., Kuvshinova M.I. Ultrasound parameters for the homogenization of disperse systems with na noscale modifiers. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 10, pp. 85–88. (In Russian).
6. Pukharenko Yu.V., Aubakirova I.U., Nikitin V.A., Staroverov V.D. Structure and properties of nano-modi fied cement systems. International Congress «Science and Innovation in Construction «SIB-2008». Modern problems of building materials and technologies. Voronezh. 2008. Vol. 1. Book. 2, pp. 424–429. (In Russian)

V.N. MORGUN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); L.V. MORGUN2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Academy of Architecture and Arts of the Southern Federal University (105/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russian Federation)
2 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotsialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)

Structure of interporous partitions in foam concrete mixes
Features of the mass transfer of disperse particles of gas and solid phases in the course of mixing of raw components of foam concrete mixes are specified. Features of the mass trans fer in viscous-plastic structures of the obtained materials in dependence on the form of components of the solid phase are considered. An analysis of the influence of the hydration pro cess which takes place between the mineral binder and water on the aggregative stability of obtained mixes is made. It is theoretically substantiated and experimentally confirmed that the speed of formation of clusters which form interporous partitions depends on the form of disperse components of the solid phase. The presence of fibrous inclusions (fibre) leads to increasing the aggregative stability of mixes due to the shortening of the period of formation of strong ties between the watered particles of the solid disperse phase.

Keywords: foam concrete, fibrous foam concrete, reinforcement, interporous partitions, structure formation.

References
1. Morgun V.N. About nanoscale features of the evolution of surfactants in foam concrete mixes. Stroitel’nye mate rialy. 2007. No. 9. Supplement Nauka. № 10, pp. 20–21. (In Russian).
2. Deryagin B.V., Churaev N.V., Muller V.M. Poverkh nostnye sily [The surface forces]. Nauka. Moscow: 1985. 398 p.
3. Morgun V.N. Theoretical substantiation of foam con crete structure design patterns. Materials of the interna tional congress «Science and Innovation in the construction of SIB-2008». Voronezh. 2008. Vol. 1, pp. 333–337.
4. Smirnov B.M. Fizika fraktal’nykh klasterov [Physics of fractal clusters]. Nauka. Moscow: 1991. 136 p.
5. Zimon Ya.S. Adgeziya pyli i poroshkov [Adhesion of a dust and powders]. Moscow: 1963. 416 p.
6. Morgun V.N. Influence of the form components on the intensity of interparticle interactions in foam concrete mixes. Tekhnologii betonov. 2009. No 2(31), pp. 54–66. (In Russian).
7. Mandelbrot B. Les Objects Fractal. Flammanon. France: 1995. 200 p.

V.I. LOGANINA 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), S.N. KISLITSYNA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); I.V. ZHERNOVSKY 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy); M.A. SADOVNIKOVA 1 , Engineer
1 Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (28, Germana Titova Street, 440028, Penza, Russian Federation)
2 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, 308012, Belgorod, Russian Federation)

Structure and properties of synthesised alumosilicates1
An additive in dry lime building mixes on the basis of synthetic aluminosilicates synthesized from liquid glass in the presence of aluminium sulphate is proposed as a structuring addi tive. Optimum ratio of the components, pH of mix, density and module of liquid glass are determined. Phase and mineralogical compositions of the additive are established. Information on regularities of the structure formation of lime compositions with additives of synthesised alumosilicates is presented. It is shown that supplementation of aluminosilicates contrib utes to accelerated strengthening. High activity of aluminosilicates, more than 350 mg/g, is revealed. The increase in the quantity of chemically combined lime in lime compositions in the presence of synthesized aluminosilicates, increase in durability of lime compositions under compression by 27,93–52,72% are established.

Keywords: dry lime building mixes, synthesis of alumosiicates, structure formation, durability

References
1. Loganina V.I., Makarova L.V., Kislicina S.N., Sergeeva K.A. Increase the water resistance of coatings based on lime finishing compositions. Izvestija vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij. Stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 1 (637), pp. 41–47. (In Russian).
2. Loganina V.I., Makarova L.V., Sergeeva K.A. Properties of composites with lime silicate-containing fillers. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 3, pp. 30–35. (In Russian).
3. Loganina V.I., Kislicyna S.N., Makarova L.V., Sadovnikova M.A. Rheological properties of the calcare ous cementitious composite with synthetic zeolite. Izvestija vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 4, pp. 37–42. (In Russian).
4. Volzhenskii A.V., Stambulko V.I., Ferronskaya A.V. Gipsotsementno-putstsolanovye vyazhushchie, betony i izdeliya [Gypsum cement-pozzolanic binders and co crete products]. M.: Stroiizdat. 1971. 324 p.
5. Pushcharovskii D.Yu. Rentgenografiya mineralov [Roentgenography of minerals]. M.: Geoinformmark. 2000. 288 p.
6. Solovyov L.A. Full-profile refinement by derivative dif ference minimization. Journal of Applied Crystallography. 2004. No. 37, pp. 743–749.
7. Appen A.A. Himija stekla [Chemistry of glass]. Leningrad: Khimiya, 1974. 352 p.
8. Zhernovskij I.V., Strokova V.V., Miroshnikov E.V., Buhalo A.B., Kozhuhova N.I., Uvarova S.S. Certain Possibilities to Use the Complete XPA in Tasks of Building Materials Science. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 3, pp. 102–105. (In Russian).

I.Ya. GNIPP, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.I. VAYTKUS, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (28, Linkmyanu Street, 082217 Vilnius, Lithuania)

Hypothetic value of creep deformation of polystyrene plastic foam under the constant compressing stress on the basis of initial experimental period of deforming
Results of the study of foam polystyrene slabs(EN 13163) creep under the ultimate level of compressing stress CS(10) – (60–250) kPa at static specific load σс=(0,25 and 0,35)σ10% are presented. On the basis of an experiment, tn=7 days, and mathematical-statistical analysis of data of lasting experiments (122, 535 and 1826 days) it is possible to assess the hypothetic value of creep deformation for advance of 10 years using experimental values εс(tn=7 days) (or Ic(tn=7 days) according to the regression equation) or the empiric equation for coefficient mt taking into account the creep deformation developing in time.

Keywords: polystyrene plastic foam, compressing during 7 days, creep deformation, flexibility when creep, prediction.

References
1. EN 13163:2008 E. Thermal insulation products for build ings – Factory made products of expanded polystyrene (EPS) – Specification. European Committee for Standardization. 2008. 48 p.
2. GOST R EN 1606-2010 E. Insulating products, primeyan yaemye in construction. Method for determination of com pressive creep. Moscow: Standartinform, 2010. 16 p. (In Russian).
3. EN 14933:2007 E. Thermal insulating and light weight products for civil engineering applications – Factory made products of expanded polystyrene (EPS) – Specification. European Committee for Standardization. 2007. 32 p.
4. Gnip I.Y., Vaitkus S., Kersulis V., Vejelis S. Experiments for the long-term prediction of creep strain of expanded polystyrene under compressive stress. Polymer Testing. 2010. No. 29, pp. 693–700.
5. Gnip I.Ya., Kershulis V.I., Vaitkus S.I., Veyalis S.A. Prediction deformability styrofoam with prolonged com pression. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 6, pp. 7–11. (In Russian).
6. Veyalis S., Gnip I.Ya., Vaitkus S. and Kershulis V. Deformability of expanded polystyrene EPS 200 under long-term compression. Mechanics of Composite Materials. 2010. Vol. 46. No. 5, pp. 505–512.
7. EN 826:1996 E. Thermal insulating products for building applications. Determination of compression behaviour. British-Adopted European Standard. 1996. 15 p.
8. Latishenko V.A. Diagnostika zhestkosti i prochnosti mate rialov [Diagnosis of stiffness and strength of materials]. Riga: Zinatne, 1968. 320 p.
9. Malmeister A.K., Tamuzh V.P., Teters G.A. Soprotivlenie zhestkikh polimernykh materialov [Resistance rigid poly meric material]. Riga: Zinatne, 1978. 398 p.
10. Aivazyan S.A. Statisticheskoe issledovanie zavisimostei. Primenenie metodov korrelyatsionnogo i regressionnogo analizov i obrabotka rezul’tatov eksperimenta [Statistical study of addictions. Application of the methods of corre lation and regression analysis and processing of the ex perimental results]. Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1968. 228 p.
11. Sokal R.R., Rohlf F.J. Biometry. The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. W.H. Freeman and Company. New York. 1998. 887 p.
12. Chetyrkin E.M. Statisticheskie metody prognozirovaniya [Statistical methods for forecasting]. Moscow: Statistika, 1977. 200 p.
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2021