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Stroitel`nye Materialy №1-2

Stroitel`nye Materialy №1-2
February, 2014

Reports of the VI International conference «Nanotechnologies in construction», 22–24 March, Cairo

Table of contents


G.I. YAKOVLEV1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, G.N. PERVUSHIN1, Doctor of Technical Sciences; Ja. KERIENE2, Doctor of Technical Sciences; I.S. POLIYANSKICH1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, I.A. PUDOV1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, D.R. CHAZEEV1, engineer, S.A. SENKOV3, Candidate of Technical Sciences
1 The M.T. Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russia);
2 The Gediminas Vilnius Technical University (Vilnius, Lithuania);
3 The Perm State National Research University (15, Bukireva Street, Perm, 614990, Russia)

Complex additive based on carbon nanotubes and silica fume for modifying autoclaved aerated gas silicate
The influence of complex additives based on dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in combination with MK- 85 silica fume on the structure and properties of autoclaved aerated gas silicate has been studied. Physical and chemical studies of the additive have shown its activity towards calcium hydroxide, which has improved the mechanical properties of autoclaved aerated concrete. The conducted studies of physical and mechanical properties (compressive strength and thermal conductivity) have shown the dependence of the properties of aerated concrete on the ratio of the used complex additives and technologies of their adding in the process of producing mortars.

Keywords: multi-walled carbon nanotubes, gas silicate, calcium silicate hydrate, silica fume.

Reference
1. Jadvyga Keriene, Modestas Kligys, Antanas Laukaitis, Grigory Yakovlev, Algimantas Spokauskas, Marius Aleknevicius. The influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes additive on properties of non-autoclaved and autoclaved aerated concretes. Construction and Building Materials. 2013. V. 49. Pр. 527–535.
2. Laukaitis A, Keriene J, Kligys M, Mikulskis D, Lekunaite L. Influence of amorphous nanodispersive SiO2 additive on structure formation and properties of autoclaved aerated concrete. Mater Sci (Med iagotyra) 2010;16(3):257–63.
3. Korzhenko A., Havel M., Gaillard P., Yakovlev G.I., Pervuchin G.N., Oreshkin D.V. Procede D’introduction de nanocharges carbonees dans un inorganique durcissable. Patent № 2 969 143. C 04 B 16/12 (2012.01), C 04 B 28/00. Bulletin 12/25 pub. 22.06.12.
4. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzhenko A., Buryanov A.F., Kerenem Ya. Maeva I.S., Khazeev D.R., Pudov I.A., Senkov S.A. Applying multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersion for producing silicate autoclaved aerated concrete. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No 2. Pp. 25–29.
5. Grigory Yakovlev, Grigory Pervushin, Irina Maeva, Jadvyga Keriene, Igor Pudov, Arina Shaybadullina, Alexander Buryanov, Alexander Korzhenko, Sergey Senkov. Modification of Construction Materials with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. 11th International Conference on Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques, MBMST 2013. Procedia Engineering 57 (2013). Pр. 407–413.
6. Pudov I.A. Nanomodification of Portland cement with aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes. Diss. ... Candidate of Technical Sciences. PhD. Kazan, 2013, 185 p.

G.I. YAKOVLEV1
, Doctor of Technical Sciences (gyakov@istu.ru), A.I. POLITAEVA1, bachelor, A.V. SHAIBADULLINA1, master, A.F. GORDINA1, master, T.A. ABALTUSOVA1, student; G.D. FEDOROVA2, Candidates of Technical Sciences (fedorovagd@mail.ru)
1 The M.T. Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7 Studencheskaya street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation);
2 The M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University (58, Belinskogo street, Yakutsk, 677000, Russian Federation)

Stability of aqueous dispersions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes
It was investigated the stability of aqueous dispersions of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using physico-chemical methods. It has been established that prolonged dispersing carbon nanotubes Masterbatch CW 2-45 in high-speed rotary mixer occurs bundle on the dispersion of MWCNTs and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC).If you delete a CMC from the surface of MWCNTs occurs re-coagulation nanotubes, which reduces the efficiency of dispersion in the modification of building materials and decreases their resistance in time.

Keywords: multi-walled carbon nanotubes, suspension, microstructure, IR spectral analysis, dispergation

References
1. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzhenko A., Bur’yanov A.F., Kerene Ya., Maeva I.S., Khazeev D.R., Pudov I.A., Sen’kov S.A. Applying multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersions in producing autoclaved silicate cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2. Pp. 25–30 (in Russian).
2. Maeva I.S., Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Bur’yanov A.F., Korzhenko A., Machyulaitis R. Modification of Anhydrite Compositions with Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 7. Рp. 25–27 (in Russian).
3. Pudov I.A., Yakovlev G.I., Lushnikova A.A., Izryadnova O.V. Hydrodynamical method of dispergating multiwalled carbon nanotubes while modifying mineral binders. Intellektual’nye sistemy v proizvodstve. 2011. No. 2. Рp. 285–293 (in Russian).
4. Maeva I.S., Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Bur’yanov A.F., Pustovgar A.P. Structuring anhydrate matrix with nano dispersed modifying additives. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 6. Рp. 4–5 (in Russian).
5. Kholmberg K., Iensson B., Kronberg B. i dr. Poverkhnostno- aktivnye veshchestva i polimery v vodnykh rastvorakh [Surfacants and polymers in aqueous solutions]. M.: BINOM. Lab. znanii, 2007. 528 p. (in Russian).
6. Deryagin B.V. Electromagnetic character of molecular forces. Priroda. 1962. No. 4. Рp. 16 (in Russian).
7. Rogovin Z.A. Khimiya tsellyulozy [Chemistry of cellulose]. M.: Khimiya, 1972. 520 p. (in Russian).

I.A. STAROVOYTOVA1, Candidate of Technical Sciences (irina-starovoitova@yandex.ru), V.G. KHOZIN1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, A.A. KORZHENKO2, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, R.A. KHALIKOVA1, engineer, E.S. ZYKOVA1
1 The Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1 Zelenaya str., Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)
2 Lacs Research center of “Arkema” Corporation (Lac, France)

Structure Formation in Organic-Inorganic Binders Modified with Concentrates of Multi-Layer Carbon Nano-tubes
Results of the structural investigation of hybrid binders modified with carbon nano-tubes (CNT) are presented. The phase structure of liquid binders was studied by the method of optical microscopy. The investigation of the phase structure of hardened composites and its elemental composition was conducted with the help of the scanning electron microscope. To study the kinetics of reactions occurring, identification of organic compounds generating and conversion level of – NCO-groups the method of IR-spectroscopy was used. CNTs, introduced into hybrid binders, concentrate on the inter-phase boundary that leads to the formation of a smaller quantity of polyurethane and consistent with the data of IR-spectroscopy. Introduction of CNTs into the composition of binders favors the intensification of hardening processes and leads to the formation of the more homogenous and fine dispersed phase structure of emulsions and hardened composites.

Keywords: organic-inorganic hybrid binders, modification, carbon nano-tubes, structure, microscopy, IR-spectroscopy.

References
1. Aldoshin S. M., Anoshkin I.V., Grachev V.P. Increase of properties of epoxy polymers by small additives funktsionalizirovannykh of carbon nanoparticles. Sb. scientific works of the International forum on Rusnanotech nanotechnologies’ 08. Moscow, on December 3–5, 2008. T. 1. Рp. 410–412 (in Russian).
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4. Yakovlev G. I. Pervushin G. N., Korzhenko And. A.F. Tall weeds, Cyrene I. Mayeva I.S. Hazeev D. R., Poods I.A., Senkov S. A. Application of dispersions of multilayered carbon nanotubes by production of a silicate gas concrete of autoclave curing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2. Рp. 25–29 (in Russian).
5. Roveri N. Geoinspired synthetic chrysotile nanotubes. N. Roveri, G. Falini, E. Foresti, G. Fracasso, I.G. Lesci and P. Sabatino. J. Mater. Res. Vol. 21. No. 11. 2006. Рp. 2711–2725.
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12. Hozin V. G., Starovoytova I.A., Maysuradze N. V., Zykova E.S. Halikova R. A. Korzhenko A.A. Trineeva V.V., Yakovlev G.I. Nanomodifying polymeric binding for constructional composites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2. Рp. 4–10 (in Russian).
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J. EBERHARDSTEINER, Dr. Professor (josef.eberhardsteiner@tuwien.ac.at), O. LAHAYNE, Dipl.-Phys. Dr. techn., (Olaf.Lahayne@tuwien.ac.at) Institute for Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Vienna University of Technology (13 Karlplatz, Vienna, 1040, Austria)

Nano-Tests on Concrete Samples with and without Nanotubes

References
1. Yakovlev G., Pervushin G., Maeva I., Keriene Ja., Pudov I., Shaybadullina A., Buryanov A., Korzhenko A., Senkov S. Modification of Construction Materials with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. 11th International Conference on Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques, MBMST 2013. Procedia Engineering 57 (2013) 407–413.
2. Saez de Ibarra Y., Gaitero J.J., Erkizia E., Campillo I. Atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation of cement pastes with nanotube dispersions. Physica Status Solidi (a) 203, (2006). Pp. 1076–1081.
3. Vandamme M., Ulm F.-J. Nanoindentation investigation of creep properties of calcium silicate hydrates. Cement and Concrete Research. 52 (2013). Pp. 38–52.

G.N. ALEKSANDROV, Master’s Degree Student, G.D. FEDOROVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences The M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University (58, Belinskogo street, Yakutsk, 677000, Russian Federation)

Microscopic research of multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersion1
Results of multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersion research (further MCNT) with use as surfactant of the multifunctional modifier PFM-NLK concrete are given. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of carbon multiwalled nanotubes in dispersion by means of nuclear and power and scanning electronic microscopes are received.

Keywords: multiwalled carbon nanotubes, dispersion, surfactant, ultrasound, microscopy scanning, probe

References
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2. Makar J., Margeson J., Luh J. Carbon nanotube-cement composites – early results and potential applications. 3rd International Conference on Construction Materials: Performance, Innovation and Structural Implications, Vancouver, B.C., Aug. 22–24, 2005. Pp. 1–10.
3. Li G.Y., Wang P.M., Zhao X. Mechanical behavior and microstructure of cement composites incorporating surface- treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Carbon. 2005. Vol. 43. Pp. 1239–1245.
4. Metaxa Z.S., Konsta-Gdoutos M.S. and Shah S.P. Carbon nano reinforced concrete. ACI Special Publications Nanotechnology of Concrete: The Next Big Thing is Small SP. 2009. Vol. 267. No. 2. Pp. 11–20.
5. Shah S.P., Konsta-Gdoutos M.S., Metaxa Z.S., Mondal P. Nanoscale Nodification of Cementitions Naterials. Nanotechnology in Construction. 2009. Pp. 125–130.
6. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzhenko A., etc. Modification of cement concrete by multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2. Pp. 47–51 (in Russian).
7. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzhenko A. ect. Applying multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersions in producing autoclaved silicate cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2. Pp. 25–29 (in Russian).
8. Gabidulin M.G., Rakhimov R.Z., Khuzin A.F., Seleymanov N.M., Khantimirov S., Gabidulin B.M., Rakhimov M.M., Nizembaev A.Sh., Khorev N.M. Manufacturing technology of CNT-based nanomodififier and its effect on the strength of cement stone. Nanotechnology for Green and Sustainable Construction: collection of works IV of the International conference (on March 23–27, 2012, Cairo, Egypt). Publishing house of IZhGTU, 2012. Pp. 30–34.
9. Tolchkov Y.N., Mikhalev Z.A., Tkachev A.G., Popov A.I. Modification of construction materials by carbon nanotubes: actual directions of working out of industrial technologies. Nanotechnologies in construction: scientific Internet magazine. 2012. No 6. Pp. 57–66. URL: http// www.nanobuild.ru (in Russian).
10. Fedorova G.D., Savvina A.E., Yakovlev G.I. Estimation of the multifunctional modifier of PFM-NLK concrete as surfactant carbon nanotubes dispersion. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2. Pp. 48–51.

A.S. INOZEMTCEV, Candidate of Technical Sciences (InozemcevAS@mgsu.ru), E.V. KOROLEV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, director, research and educational center «Nanotechnology» The Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Structuring and properties of the structural high-strength lightweight concretes with nanomodifier BisNanoActivus1
Paper presents the result of research of influence complex nanoscale modifier BisNanoActivus to structuring process in volume of high-strength lightweight concrete and at the cement stone and filler contact faces. Research have showed that application of nanotechnology allows to control the processes of structuring the interface «cement stone – hollow microsphere » due to nanomodification of surface of hollow filler with «BisNanoActivus». Complex nanoscale modifier has activity to cement and products of hydration and it has strengthens boundary that increase the physic and mechanical characteristics of developed high-strength lightweight concretes. Research of operational properties shows that developed preparation technology of high-strength lightweight concretes allows to get material with increased characteristics. Analysis of technical and economical efficiency by generalized criterion of quality shows that the using of nanomodification technology for lightweight concrete increases the criterion of technical and economical efficiency.

Keywords: high-strength lightweight concrete, structural lightweight concrete, nanoscale modifier, nanotechnology.

References
1. Ming K.Y., Hilmi B.M., Bee C.A., Ming C.Y. Effects of heat treatment on oil palm shell coarse aggregates for high strength lightweight concrete. Materials & Design. 2014. Vol. 54. Pp. 702–707.
2. Bogas J.A., Gomes A. Compressive behavior and failure modes of structural lightweight aggregate concrete – Characterization and strength prediction. Materials & Design. 2013. Vol. 46. Pp. 832–841.
3. Oreshkin D.V., Belyaev K.V., Semenov V.S., Kretova U.E. Hollow microspheres is effective filler in construction and plugging solutions. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 9. Pp. 50–51 (in Russian).
4. McBride S.P., Shukla A., Bose A. Processing and characterization of a lightweight concrete using cenospheres. Journal of materials science. 2002. Vol. 37. Pp. 4217–4225.
5. Bazhenov Yu.M., Korolev E.V. Nanotechnology and nano-modification in building materials. Foreign and domestic experience. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2007. No. 2. Pp. 17–22 (in Russian).
6. Inozemtcev A.S., Korolev E.V. Hollow microspheres is an efficient filler for high-strength lightweight concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 10. Pp. 80–83 (in Russian).
7. Korolev E.V., Grishina A.N. Synthesis and study of nanoscale additive to enhance the foams stability with synthetic blowing agents for foam concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2. Pp. 30–33 (in Russian).
8. Korolev E.V., Inozemtcev A.S. Preparation and research of the high-strength lightweight concrete based on hollow microspheres. Advanced Materials Research. 2013. Vol. 746. Pp. 285–288.
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11. Lucia F.-C., Torrens-Martin В., Morales L.M., Sagrario M.-R. Infrared Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Building and Construction Materials, InTech. 2012. 510 p.
12. Plyusnina I.I. Infrakrasnye spektry silikatov [Infrared spectra of silicates]. M.: MGU. 1967. 192 p. (in Russian).
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14. Korovkin M.V. Infrakrasnye spektry silikatov [Infrared spectroscopy of carbonate minerals]. Tomsk: Izd-vo Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2012. 80 p. (in Russian).
15. Sagrario M.-R., Lucia F.-C. Raman Spectroscopy: Application to Cementitious Systems. Construction and Building: Desigh, Materials, and Techniques. Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (CSIC). 2011. Pp. 233–244.
16. Machovic V., Kolar F., Prochazka P.P., Peskova S., Kuklik P. Raman Spectroscopy Study of Interfacial Transition Zone in Cement Composite Reinforced by PP/PE and Basalt Fibres. Acta Geodynamica et Geomaterialia. 2006. Vol. 3. Iss. 3. Pp. 63–67.
17. Peskova S., Machovic V., Prochazka P.P. Raman Spectroscopy Structural Study of Fired Concrete. Ceramics – Silikaty. 2011. No. 55. Pp. 410–417.
18. Inozemtcev A.S., Korolev E.V. Peculiar rheological properties of high-strength lightweight concretes having hollow microspheres. Vestnik MGSU. 2013. No. 6. Pp. 100–108 (in Russian).
19. Bazhenov Yu.M., Garkina I.A., Danilov A.M., Korolev E.V. Sistemnyi analiz v stroitel’nom materialovedenii: monografiya [System analysis in building materials: monograph]. M.: MGSU. 2012. 152 p. (in Russian).
20. Korolev E.V. Principle of implementation nanotechnology in building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6. Pp. 60–64 (in Russian).
21. Inozemtcev A.S., Korolev E.V. Economic prerequisites for applications of high-strength lightweight concrete. Nauchno-tekhnicheskii vestnik Povolzh’ya. 2012. No. 5. Pp. 198–205 (in Russian).

I.V. ZHERNOVSKY, Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, M.S. OSADCHAYA, engineer, A.V. CHEREVATOVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences, V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences, The V.G. Shukhov Belgorod State Technological University (46 Kostyukova str., Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Aluminum-Silicate Nano-Structured Binder on the Basis of Granite Raw Materials
The possibility of producing aluminum-silicate nano-structured binders of geo-polymerization hardening on the basis of felsic intrusive rocks is considered. It is established that in the course of mechano-chemical activation of aluminum-silicate raw materials in the aqueous medium the formation of initial reaction components for generating geo-polymeric binders without external alkaline activation takes place.

Keywords: mechanical activation, granite screening dust, nano-structured binder, aluminum-silicate gel, geo-polymerization, nano-size zeolitization

References
1. Kalashnikov V.I. Perspektivy razvitiia geopolimernykh viazhushchikh [Prospects of development of the geopolymeric knitting]. Sovremennoe sostoianie i perspektiva razvitiia stroitel'nogo materialovedeniia. Vos'mye akademicheskie chteniia RAASN [Current state and prospect of development of construction materials science. Eighth academic readings RAACN]. Samara 20– 24 september 2004. Pp. 193–196 (in Russian).
2. Strokova V.V., Zhernovskii I.V. Some topical issues of the interdisciplinary direction «Nanosystems in Construction Materials Science». Vestnik Tsentral'nogo regional'nogo otdeleniia Rossiiskoi akademii arkhitektury i stroitel'nykh nauk: sb. nauch. st. RAASN [Messenger of the Central regional office of the Russian academy of architecture and construction sciences: collection of scientific articles of RAACN]. Voronezh: VGASU. 2011. Pp. 99–105 (in Russian).
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4. Kalashnikov V.I., Khvastunov V.L., Makridin N.I., Kartashov A.A. New geopolymeric materials from the rocks, activated by small additives of slag and alkalis. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 6. Pp. 93–95 (in Russian).
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V.B. PETROPAVLOVSKAYA1, Candidate of Technical Sciences; A.F. BURYANOV2, Doctor of Technical Sciences; T.B. NOVICHENCOVA1, Candidate of Technical Sciences; G.I. YAKOVLEV3, Doctor of Technical Sciences
1 The Tver State Technical University (22 Af. Nikitin, Tver, 170026, Russian Federation)
2 The Moscow State University Of Civil Engineering (26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
3 The M.T. Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7 Studencheskaya street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)

The modified gipsym materials of condensation solidification
The possibility of regulation of process of composition of by optimization of grain addition and replacement of part bonder by the high-dispersible mineral component was researched in this operation. Effect of research of the marble addition on conductance and a solubility of disperse systems are given. The binary raw mixes from powders of a dihydrate of sulfate calcium were prepared. Application of mineral addition allows to increase strength of crystallization structures on the basis of a dihydrate of sulfate of calcium. Also energy efficiency of process increases.

Keywords: sulfate calcium, high-dispersible mineral component, condensation hardening, composite materials, binary mix.

References
1. Belov V.V., Buryanov A.F., Jakovlev G.I., Fisher H.-B., Petropavlovskaya V.B., Maeva I.S., Novichenkova T.B. Modification of structure and properties of structural composites on the basis of sulfate calcium. Monograph., Edited by А. Buryanov, M.: De Nova, 2012. 196 p. (in Russian).
2. Jakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Maeva I.S., Korzhenko A., Buryanov A.F., Machjulajtis R. Modification of anhydrite compositions by multilayer carbon nanotubes. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 7. Pp. 25–27 (in Russian).
3. Buryanov A.F., Petropavlovskaya V.B., Novichenkova T.B. Increase of energy efficiency of mineral bonder. Dry structural blends. 2010. No. 1. Pp. 14–16 (in Russian).
4. Belov V.V., Petropavlovskaya V.B., Kedrova N.G. Role of an additive of a microcalcite in disperse systems on the basis of dehydrate. Vestnik Central regional office RAACN: periodical scientific edition. 2010. Release 14. Vol. 2. Pp. 3–9 (in Russian).

A.R.GAITOVA1, engineer, I.I. AHMADULINA1, engineer, T.V. PECHENKINA1, Сandidate of Technical Sciences, A.N. PUDOVKIN2, Сandidate of Technical Sciences, I.V. NEDOSEKO1, Doctor of Technical Sciences
1 The Ufa State Petroleum Technical University (1, Kosmonavtov street, Ufa, 450062, Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)
2 The Orenburg State University Kumertausky branch (3B, 2nd Lane Soviet, Kumertau, 453300, Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)

Nanostructural aspects of hydration and hardening gypsum ang slag gypsum compositions on based plaster dihydrate
The mechanism of hardening of binary systems based on polyhydrate dehydrate and calcium sulfate. The conditions under which there is the possibility of establishing contacts between particles crystallization of calcium sulfate dehydrate. Found that the formation of crystalline concretion between particles of gypsum dehydrate necessary distance is not more than three dimensions of the molecules of calcium sulfate. Upon hydration of the combined system consisting of hemihydrates and calcium sulfate dehydrate, possibly significant increase in the distance between the particles dehydrate gypsum to the size of tens and even hundreds of times higher than the intermolecular dimensions. Mechanism of structure combined systems is fouling particles dehydrate gypsum crystals formed by the hydration of the original binder based on calcium sulfate hemihydrates. Analytical dependences describing the processes of dissolution and the initial formation of new phases. The kinetics of the hydration process of these systems depending on the percentage of constituents. An explanation for their increased strength and water resistance, as compared with coagulation plaster systems. The mechanism of structure formation and gypsum cement gypsum and slag compositions with a high content of gypsum dehydrate in their composition. It is shown that the increased water resistance compositions gypsum and slag basis due to the formation of ettringite- threesulfat hydrosulfoalyuminat form calcium in the early stages of hydration, as well as hydro calcium low and medium basicity in the later stages of hardening. Shows the compositions and performance strength and water resistance vibro pressed samples of compositions based on plaster dehydrate. Using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy the nanostructure and chemical composition of samples hardened stone and gypsum and slag basis.

Keywords: nanostructure, hydration, hardening, dehydrate, hemihydrate, gypsum dehydrate, molding composition, crystallisation, dissolution, sulphate binder slag, calcium silicate, calcium gidrosulfoalyuminat.

References
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2. Polak A.F., Babkov V.V., Kapitonov S.M., Anvarov R.A. Pattern formation and strength combined water binding plaster systems. Izvestiya vuzov. Construction and architecture. 1991. № 8. Pp. 60–64 (in Russian).
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4. Petropavlovskaya V.B., Novichenkova T.B., Poleonova J.J., Burianov A.F. Unburned modified gypsum composites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 5. Pp. 76–79 (in Russian).
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6. Mirsaev R.N., Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Yunusova S.S., Ahmadulina I.I., Shayakhmetov U.Sh. Pattern formation and hardening pressurized compositions based on calcium sulfate dihydrate. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 6. Pp. 6–9 (in Russian).
7. Mirsaev R.N., Babkov V.V., Yunusov S.S., Nedoseko I.V. Fosfogipsovye otkhody khimicheskoi promyshlennosti v proizvodstve stenovykh izdelii [Phosphogypsum waste chemical industry in the production of wall products]. M.: Himiya. 2004. 173 p. (in Russian).
8. Mirsaev R.N., Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Pechenkina T.V. Experience in the production and operation of gypsum wall products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 3. Pp. 78–81 (in Russian).

A.V. KOROCHKIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Chief Engineer OOO “TransProekt”, Department of Designing of Motor Roads (24 Sovetskaya str., Pervomaysky Community, Korolev, Moscow REG, 141070, Russian Federation)

Steadiness of Asphalt Concrete Layers of Rigid Road Pavement against Displacement
The issue of designing and methods of calculation of different variants of road pavements with simultaneous improvement of transport-operation qualities of the pavement under conditions of real operation of the structure which at present are not enough studied is considered. Existing and prospective algorithms of the assessment of pavement resistance to displacement are also analyzed. Parameters, characteristic of the object studied are presented; experimental studies are considered in details. The comparison of results with technical and design solutions offered in normative documents are made. Conclusions about the ways of the further development of road pavement designing are formulated.

Keywords: cement concrete, asphalt concrete, durability, shear, calculation

References
1. Metodicheskie rekomendacii po proektirovaniju zhestkih dorozhnyh odezhd [Methodical recommendations about designrigid road clothes]. M.: Informavtodor. 2004 (in Russian).
2. GOST 9128–2009. Smesi asfal’tobetonnye dorozhnye, ajerodromnye i asfal’tobeton [Mixes asphalt concrete road, airfield and asphalt concrete]. M.: 2010 (in Russian).
3. ODN 218.1.052–2002 Ocenka prochnosti nezhestkih dorozhnyh odezhd [Assessment of durability of nonrigid road clothes]. M.: Informavtodor. 2003 (in Russian).
4. Kushinskij V.A., Rad’kov N.V., Igoshin D.G., Sulimova A.N. Rekomendacii po ustrojstvu zashhitnyh sloev iznosa po membrannoj tehnologii na avtomobil’nyh dorogah s zhestkimi dorozhnymi odezhdami [Recommendations about the device of protective layers of wear about membrane technology on highways with rigid road clothes]. Minsk: 1999 (in Russian).
5. Tehnicheskie rekomendacii po ustrojstvu i priemkev jekspluataciju dorozhnyh pokrytij s uchetom trebovanij mezhdunarodnyh standartov po rovnosti [Technical recommendations about the device and acceptance for operation of pavings taking into account requirements of the international standards for flatness]. M. TR 134-03, 2003 (in Russian).

M.A. VYSOTSKAYA1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, D.K. KUZNETSOV1, Candidate of Technical Sciences; D.E. BARABASH2, Doctor of Technical Sciences
1 The V.G. Shukhov Belgorod State Technological University (46 Kostyukova str., 308012 Belgorod, Russian Federation)
2 Air Force Military Educational and Scientific Center “Air Force Academy” (54a Starykh Bolshevikov str., Voronezh, 394064, Russian Federation)

Peculiarities of Structure Formation of Bitumen-Mineral Compositions with the Use of Porous Raw Materials
Criteria of selecting porous mineral powders for asphalt binders are proposed. Geometrical characteristics and topology of surfaces of mineral powders of different compositions are considered. The decisive influence of the porosity of mineral powders on their structuring capacity in respect of bitumen is revealed. Physical-mechanical characteristics of asphalt binders containing mineral powders of different compositions are defined. Interconnection of powder porosity and possibility of generation of adsorption-solvate shells on the boundary of bitumen--porous is shown. The efficiency of using porous mineral powders with a high content of acid sites for generating dense structures of asphalt concretes is proved.

Keywords: porous powder, specific surface, acid sites, adsorption-solvate shells.

References
1. Sall M., Tkachenko G.A. Introduction of a porous component in fine-grained road concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 2. Pp. 29–31 (in Russian).
2. Borisenko Ju.G., Borisenko O.A. Use of a ceramsite dust as a part of light asphalt concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 9. Pp. 46–49 (in Russian).
3. Borisenko Ju.G., Soldatov A.A., Jashin S.O. The bituminous and mineral compositions modified by high-disperse eliminations of crushing of expanded clay. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 1. Pp. 62–63 (in Russian).
4. Tanabe K. Tverdye kisloty i osnovanija [Firm acids and bases]. M.: Mir. 1973. 183 p. (in Russian).
5. Zhelezko T.V., Zhelezko E.P. Structure and properties of the asphalt knitting. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 1997. No. 3. Pp. 35–42 (in Russian).
6. Ryb’ev I.A. Asfal’tovye betony [Asphalt concrete]. M.: Vysshaja shkola. 1969. 399 p. (in Russian).
7. Rudenskij A.V., Galkin A.S. Research of deformation properties of the asphalt knitting. Dorogi i mosty. 2008. No. 20/2. Pp. 262–272 (in Russian).
8. Rudenskij A.V. Modern method of design of composition of asphalt concrete on the asphalt knitting. Dorogi i mosty. 2009. No. 21/1. Pр. 201–207 (in Russian).

Yu.G. BORISENKO, Candidate of Technical Sciences, M.Ch. IONOV, Candidate of Economic Sciences, S.O. KAZARYAN, engineer, E.V. GORDIENKO, engineer, The North-Caucasus Federal University (1 Pushkin str., Stavropol, 355028, Russian Federation)

Crushed Stone-Mastic Asphalt Concretes Modified with Highly Dispersed Siftings of Claydite and Perlite Crushing
Results of the experimental study of physical-and-mechanical properties of crushed stone-mastic asphalt concretes (CMSC) modified with stabilizing additives on the basis of highly dispersed siftings of claydite and perlite crushing are presented. The possibility of modifying the mineral filler of CMSC with highly dispersed siftings of claydite crushing and, as a result, the possibility to solve the problem of mix stabilization and mineral filler saving are shown. The combined analysis of the experimental data makes it possible to come to conclusion about prospectiveness of using the zeolite and perlite powders as fillers for efficient asphalt binders.

Keywords: crushed stone-mastic asphalt concrete, stabilizing additive, siftings of claydite and perlite crushing, road pavement

References
1. Kiriukhin G.N., Smirnov E.A. Pokrytiia iz shchebenochnomastichnogo asfal’tobetona [Coverings from stone-mastic asphalt concretes]. M.: Elit. 2009. 176 p. (in Russian).
2. Kostin V.I. Shchebenochno-mastichnyi asfal’tobeton dlia dorozhnykh pokrytii [Stone-mastic asphalt concretes for pavings]. N. Novgorod.: NNGASU. 2009. 66 p. (in Russian).
3. Danil’ian E.A., Asel’derov B.Sh., Pechenyi B.G. Optimization of quality of asphalt concrete with discontinuous granulometry of fillers. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 1. Pp. 54–55 (in Russian).
4. Savel’ev A.N. Influence of injection of polymers into the composition of a complex additive on properties of stonemastic asphalt concretes. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 10. Pp. 36–37 (in Russian).
5. Yadykina V.V., Kutsyna N.P. Application of fibrous waste of the industry in production of stone-mastic asphalt concretes. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 5. Pp. 28–29 (in Russian).
6. Yadykina V.V., Gridchin A.M., Tobolenko S.S. A stabilizing additive for crushed stone-mastic asphalt concrete from industrial waste. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 8. Pp. 64–66 (in Russian).
7. Iliopolov S.K., Mardirosova I.V., Chernov S.A., Darmodekhin P.O. The modified stone-mastic asphalt concrete mix dispersno-reinforcing additive of «FORTA». Naukovedenie. 2012. No. 3. Pp. 1–9 (in Russian).
8. Aminov Sh.Kh., Strugovets I.B., Khannanova G.T., Nedovenko I.V., Babkov V.V. Use of a pyritic candle end as a mineral filler in asphalt concrete. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 9. Pp. 42–43 (in Russian).

V.V. BABKOV1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, R.Sh. DISTANOV1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, V.A. IVLEV2, Candidate of Technical Sciences, I.B. STRUGOVETS3, Candidate of Technical Sciences, chief engineer; M.E. NESTERENKO4, design engineer
1 The Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1 Kosmonavtov street, Ufa, Bashkortostan, 450062, Russian Federation)
2 MBU «Service of the Customer and Technical Supervision on Improvement of the City District the City of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan» (84 Ibragimov Boulevard, Ufa, Bashkortostan, 450006, Russian Federation)
3 OAO «Bashkiravtodor» (128a Kirov street, Ufa, Bashkortostan, 450078, Russian Federation)
4 Design and engineering firm «Moshe Pear» (Haifa, Israel)

The Use of Arched Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Short-Span Structures in the Construction of Earthfill Bridges and Available Reinforcement Options
A promising direction in the construction of small culverts are sediment -span arched bridges that allow to replace culverts and -span girder bridges, which have a set of advantages of these structures and excluding their disadvantages. Improving the reliability and durability of structures arched bridges sediment can be achieved with the use of steel fiber reinforced concrete structures having a high fatigue strength and impact resistance, high crack resistance, frost resistance, water resistance compared to standard concrete as a component of concrete. One of the most effective ways to address the objectives of strengthening reinforced concrete, including steel fiber reinforced concrete structures, improve operational reliability and durability is to strengthen the links of curved arches of bridges sediment carbon fibers.

Keywords: steel fiber reinforced concrete arch structures, crack, carbon fiber.

References
1. Babkov V.V., Strugovets I.B., Nedoseko I.V., Distanov R.Sh. i dr. Steel fiber concrete construction in the road building of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2006. No. 3. Pp. 50–53 (in Russian).
2. Babkov V.V., Komokhov P.G., Aminov Sh.Kh., Nedoseko I.V., Distanov R.Sh. i dr. Steel fiber concrete in the production and application of structures filling arch bridges and culverts on roads. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2008. No. 6. Pp. 64–67 (in Russian).
3. Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Aminov Sh.Kh., Distanov R.Sh. i dr. Culverts and Sediment-span arch bridges based steel fiber concrete in road construction. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2009. No. 2. Pp. 4–6 (in Russian).
4. Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Ivlev V.A., Distanov R.Sh., Strugovets I.B. Fiberconcrete in manufacturing concrete products (Part I). Mir dorog. 2011. No. 55. Pp. 33–36 (in Russian).
5. Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Ivlev V.A., Distanov R.Sh., Strugovets I.B. Road sediment arched bridges based steel fiber concrete (Part II). Mir dorog. 2011. No. 56. Pp. 54–56 (in Russian).

A.A. STRUKOV1, General Director; A.V. KOCHETKOV2, Doctor of Technical Sciences, S.Yu. ANDRONOV3, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director
1 OOO «DorTekhInvest» (40 Khoroshevskoye Hwy, Moscow, 123007, Russian Federation)
2 The Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29 Komsomolsky Ave, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
3 The Volga Educational-Research Center «Volgodortrans» (77 Politekhnicheskaya str., Saratov, 410054, Russian Federation) The Use of Ferment Stabilizer “Dorzin” in Road Construction
Issues of the use of the ferment stabilizer “Dorzin” in road construction is considered; it makes it possible to significantly reduce the use of mineral binders and stone materials. In the course of construction of complicated objects this preparation can be effectively combined with other soil stabilizers. This organic product obtained by fermentation of sugar beet treacle is an ecologically safe material which can be used within the wide range of weather and climatic conditions. It shows the positive qualities when strengthening especially finely dispersed soils containing not less than 15–20 mass% of particles passing through the sieve of 0.13 mm. Effect of its use is based on the impact of components of the stabilizer on the active part of soil with accounting of colloid and clay particles. The preparation is a strong catalyst and surfactant, it sharply reduces the quantity of firmly bound water in soil that ensures higher values of density under equal conditions of compacting. Its use in designing road pavements makes it possible to reduce volumes of stone materials applied (crushed stone and sand) and mineral binders.

Keywords: ferment stabilizer Dorzin, reduction of mineral binders and stone materials consumption, surfactants, increase of density.

References
1. Stolyarov V.V., Zverkova E.E., Anikin Yu.M. Evaluation of reliability of non-rigid pavements based on the general laws of distribution of elastic moduli. Dorogi i mosty. 2013. T. 1. No. 29. Pp. 153–176 (in Russian).
2. Kokodeeva N.E. Principles of Technical Regulation When Designing the Road Pavement of Non-rigid Type with the Use of Geomaterials (on the basis of the risk theory). Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 1. Pp. 25–27 (in Russian).
3. Kochetkov A.V., Kokodeeva N.E., Rapoport P.B., Rapoport N.V., Shashkov I.G. State of modern methodological support design and construction of pavements. Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Okhrana okruzhayushchei sredy, transport, bezopasnost’ zhiznedeyatel’nosti. 2011. No. 1. Pp. 65–74 (in Russian).
4. Kokodeeva N.E., Kochetkov A.V., Yankovskii L.V., Arzhanukhina S.P. Methodological framework for the assessment of risk with regard to the requirements of technical regulations. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2012. No. 6 (35). Pp. 130–138 (in Russian).
5. Kokodeeva N.E., Kochetkov A.V., Yankovskii L.V. Methodical approaches implementing the principles of technical regulation in the road sector. Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Okhrana okruzhayushchei sredy, transport, bezopasnost’ zhiznedeyatel’nosti. 2011. No. 1. Pp. 44–56 (in Russian).
6. Kokodeeva N.E., Talalai V.V., Kochetkov A.V., Yankovskii L.V., Arzhanukhina S.P. Methodological framework for the assessment of technical risks in the road sector. Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Urbanistika. 2011. No. 3. Pp. 38–49 (in Russian).
7. Kokodeeva N.E. Methodological framework for the assessment of technical risks. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Tekhnicheskie nauki. 2012. No. 28. Pp. 126 (in Russian).
8. Kokodeeva N.E. Provision of Safety of Auto-Roads Taking the Theory of Risk into Account. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 11. Pp. 80–81 (in Russian).
9. Kokodeeva N.E., Stolyarov V.V. Tamozhennyi soyuz: normativnoe obespechenie. Standarty i kachestvo. 2011. No. 8. Pp. 22–27 (in Russian).
10. Vasil’ev Yu.E., Borisov Yu.V., Kokodeeva N.E., Karpeev S.V. Technical regulation in the road sector. Vestnik Moskovskogo avtomobil’nodorozhnogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2011. No. 3. Pp. 103–108 (in Russian).
11. Kokodeeva N.E., Stolyarov V.V., Vasil’ev Yu.E. Tekhnicheskoe regulirovanie v dorozhnom khozyaistve [Technical regulation in the road sector]. Saratov: Saratovskii gos. tekhnicheskii un-t., 2011. 232 p. (in Russian).
12. Kokodeeva N.E., Stolyarov V.V. Technical Regulation – yes! Standarty i kachestvo. 2011. No. 8. P. 17 (in Russian).

V.G. KUZNETSOV1, President, T.N. NOVIKOVA1, General Director, I.P. KUZNETSOV1, Commercial Director; E.V. KOCHETOV2, Candidate of Technical Sciences
1 «As-Tik KP» OOO (16, Teterinskiy, Moscow, 109004, Russian Federation);
2 The Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26 Yaroslavskoye Hwy, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Enhancement of Efficiency of Using Mountain-Transport and Technological Equipment of Non-Ferrous Metallurgy Enterprises on Wetted Sticky Materials
The experience in operation of mining-transport and technological equipment at the enterprises confirms that when it works in humid sticky rocks and raw materials the performance of equipment falls sharply and the number of unplanned downtime associated with the need to clean working surfaces from adhered masses increases. Domestic and foreign experience in combating sticking acting under different mining-geological, mining-technical, temperature-climatic conditions shows that the most effective means to eliminate (reduce) the sticking is polymer anti-adhering lining plates (PPFP) made of low, medium, high and over high-molecular polymers, such as «PPFP-Astika» (Russia), «Supralen» (Germany), «Tivar» (USA), «Trelleborg» (Sweden) and others The accumulated positive experience of using PPFP-Astika at the enterprises of construction materials industry, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy is recommended for wide introduction at the enterprises of other mining and processing industries of Russia, CIS and Baltic countries.

Keywords: mining-transport and technological equipment, materials, sticking, polymer anti-adhering lining plate – Astiki.

References
1. Kuznetsov V.G., Novikova T.N., Kuznetsov I.P., Kochetov E.V. i dr. Polimernye protivonalipaiushchie futerovochnye plastiny-Astiki – effektivnoe reshenie problemy ustraneniia nalipaniia uvlazhnennykh materialov na rabochie poverkhnosti oborudovaniia [Polymeric antisticking futerovochny plastiny-Astiki – an effective solution of the problem of elimination of sticking of the humidified materials on working surfaces of the equipment]. M.: OOO «Nadezhda na Iartsevskoi». 2013. 79 p. (in Russian).
2. Kuznetsov V.G. Expansion of technological capabilities of use of a gravitational rotor at working off of sticky rocks // Ugol’. 1989. No. 6. Pp. 32–33 (in Russian).
3. Kuznetsov V.G., Il’chenko S.V. Oblitsovochnye listy iz SVMPE protiv nalipaniia uvlazhnennogo materiala na gorno-dobyvaiushchem i transportnom oborudovanii [Facing sheets from SVMPE against sticking of the humidified material on the mining and transport equipment]. Zarubezhnyi opyt. Promyshlennost’ stroitel’nykh materialov Moskvy. 1992. No. 2. Pp. 31–33 (in Russian).
4. Eirikh V.M., Zhukov V.P., Mikhailov E.I., Kuznetsov V.G. i dr. Experience of application of polymeric antisticking lining plates at the mountain enterprises of the industry of construction materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 10. Pp. 87–88 (in Russian).
5. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P., Kopylov S.V. i dr. The correct selection of polymeric polymeric antisticking lining plates – pledge of effective operation of processing equipment. Gornyi zhurnal. 2008. No. 4. Pp. 80–81 (in Russian).
6. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P. Increase of efficiency of the equipment at production, delivery and processing of cement raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 12. Pp. 14 (in Russian).
7. Kuznetsov V.G., Novikova T.N., Kuznetsov I.P. Enhancement of efficiency of the use of production equipment at transportation and reloading of wetted iron-ore concentrate and fluxed damp pellets. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 1. Pp. 22–23 (in Russian).
8. Kuznetsov V.G., Novikova T.N., Kochetov E.V., Kuznetsov I.P. Increase of efficiency of use of the mining- transport equipment of heavy mechanical engineering during the work on the humidified sticky breeds. Tiazheloe mashinostroenie. 2012. No. 4. Pp. 36–38 (in Russian).
9. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P. Improvement of quality of let-out finished goods. Standarty i kachestvo. 2012. No. 8. Pp. 92–93 (in Russian).
10. Kuznetsov V.G., Kuznetsov I.P., Borodin A.A. i dr. Factory Production of Bunkers Equipped with Efficient Means of Struggle with Adhering of Materials – PPFPAstiki. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 5. Pp. 54–56 (in Russian).
11. Kuznetsov V.G., Kochetov E.V., Mordukhovich I.L. Increase in technical productivity of walking draglines due to reduction of sticking of soil in ladles. Ugol’. 1989. No. 11. Pp. 31–32 (in Russian).

A.P. ZUBEKHIN, Doctor of Technical Sciences, N.D. YATSENKO, Candidate of Technical Sciences The M.T. Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (Novocherkassk Polytechnic Institute) (132 Prosveshcheniya Str., Novocherkassk, Rostov Region, 346428, Russian Federation)

Theoretical bases of innovative technologies of construction ceramics
The effect of iron-containing impurities in low-melt raw materials on physical-mechanical and decorative properties of ceramic construction materials is shown. Technological methods of control over the formation of the phase composition of burnt ceramics are described. They are an optimal combination of temperature and a burning medium, introduction of carbonate additives. The method of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy (NGRS) makes it possible to determine qualitative and quantitative indicators both of independent iron-containing phases and in the form of solid solutions and in the glass phase. Recommendations for manufacturing products with specified technical-operational properties are formulated.

Keywords: innovative technologies, wall ceramics, phase composition, low-temperature burning, reducing burning, colour, whiteness, reflection coefficient, nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy.

References
1. Kotlyar V.D. Stenovaia keramika na osnove kremnistykh opal–kristobalitovykhporod – opok [Wall ceramics on the basis of siliceous disgraces-kristobalitovykh of breeds – molding]. Rostov-on-Don: JSC «Rostizdat». 2011. 277 p. (in Russian).
2. Ashmarin G.D., Livada A.N. Expansion of a source of raw materials – an important factor of development of branch ceramic wall materials. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2008. No. 4. Pp. 22–24 (in Russian).
3. Vakalova T.V., Pogrebenkov V.M. Rational use of natural and technogenic raw materials in ceramic technologies. Stroitel’nyematerialy [Construction materials]. 2007. No. 4. Pp. 58–61 (in Russian).
4. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D., GolovanovaS.P., Deeva A.S. Soft porcelain on the basis of not enriched raw materials with high estetiko-consumer properties. Scientific researches of nanosystems and resource-saving technologies in building industry [Nauchnye issledovaniia nanosistem I resursosberegaiushchie tekhnologii v stroiindustrii: Sbornik dokladov mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii]. Belgorod: BSTU. 2007. Ch. 2.: Resursosberegaiushchie tekhnologii stroitel’nykh ikompozitsionnykh materialov [Resource-saving technologies of construction and composite materials]. Pp. 75–77 (in Russian).
5. Galperina M.K. Not enriched vollastonitovy breeds for production of ceramic tiles. Steklo i keramika. 1987. No. 10. Pp. 17–19 (in Russian).
6. Mukhopadhyay T.K., Prasad S.D., Dan T.K. Studyon Improrument of Thermomechahical Properties of Red Clay Wareswith Additionof Wollastonite. Research and Industry. 1995. v. 40. No. 4. Pp. 306–310.
7. Brykov A.S. [Khimiia silikatnykh I kremnezem soderzhashcikh viazhushchikh materialov]. Chemistry silicate and silica containing the of knitting materials SPb: SPbSTU (TU). 2011. 147 p. (in Russian).
8. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D., Verevkin K.A. Ceramic brick on the basis of various clays: phase structure and properties. Stroitel’nyematerialy [Construction materials]. 2010. No. 11. Pp. 47–49 (in Russian).
9. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D., Verevk K.A. Influence of oxidation-reduction conditions of roasting on phase composition of oxides of iron and color ceramic brick. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2011. No. 8. Pp. 8–11 (in Russian).

O.V. KAZ’MINA1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, M.A. DUSHKINA1, engineer, V.I. VERESHCHAGIN1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, S.N. WOLLAND2, Candidate of Technical Sciences
1 The Tomsk National Research Polytechnic University (30 Lenina Ave,. Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation)
2 Technical University (5 Karolinenplaz, 64289, Darmstadt, Germany)

Use of dispersive screenings of mortar sands for obtaining foamglass-crystal materials*
It is established that the eliminations of construction sand with the content of SiO2 about 70 wt. % and particle size less than 60 μm are suitable for the production of a foamglass-crystal material on the basis of the low-temperature frit, which was synthesized at the temperature 900oC. The obtained foamglass-crystal material exceeds foamglass (by 3 times) and clayite (by 1,5 times) by strength and is characterized by low value of water absorption (0,1%).

Keywords: foamglass-crystal material, eliminations of sand, strength, thermal insulation, glass frit.

References
1. Odabai-Fard V.V., Petrov I.V. Solution of environmental problems in Germany at development of non-ore raw materials deposition. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 9. Рp. 52–54 (in Russian).
2. Schmitz M., Röhling S., Dohrmann R. Waschschlamm Ein vernachlässigtes heimisches Rohstoffpotenzial. Gesteins Perspektiven. 2012. No. 8. Рр. 16–18.
3. Kaz’mina O.V., Vereshchagin V.I., Abiyaka A.N. Prospects of using fine quartz sands in foam glass ceramic materials. Steklo i keramika. 2008. No. 9. Рp. 28–30 (in Russian).
4. Kaz’mina O.V., Vereshchagin V.I., Abiyaka A.N., Popletneva Yu.V. Estimation of glass viscosity and glass ceramic compositions in temperature interval of their foaming. Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 7. Рp. 6–9 (in Russian).
5. Kaz’mina O.V., Vereshchagin V.I., Semukhin B.S., Abiyaka A.N. Low-temperature synthesis of the quenched cullet from the silica-based batch in production of foam materials. Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 10. Рp. 5–8 (in Russian).
6. Kaz’mina O.V., Vereshchagin V.I., Abiyaka A.N. Widening of raw material basis for obtaining of foam crystalline materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 7. Рp. 54–56 (in Russian).

I.Ya. GNIPP, Candidate of Technical Sciences, S.I. WAYTKUS, Candidate of Technical Sciences The Gediminas Vilnius Technical University (28 Linkmyanu str., 08217 Vilnius, Lithuania)

Deformability of Mineral Wool Slabs Under Long-Time Compression
Results of the study of creeping of mineral wool (MW) slabs under compressive stresses σс within the relative interval of 0,25σс/σ10%0,6 are presented. According to the experimental data the field of linear creeping at σс/σ10%0,35 is established. The dependence of compliance Ic of mineral wool slabs at creeping on the value of compliance ε0/σс under compressing stress σс=0,35σ10% is revealed. The change in compliance at creeping Ic during the time is accounted by the coefficient mi. The possibility of prognostic assessment of creeping deformation of mineral wool slabs under the permanent compression stress of σс=0,35σ10% for advance of 10 years according to empiric dependences for Ic and mi is presented.

Keywords: mineral wool slabs, long time compression, creeping deformation, linear creeping field, porecasting.

References
1. EN 13162:2008 E. Thermal insulating products for building. Factory made mineral wool (MW) products. Specification. CEN. 2008.
2. EN 1606:1996+AC:1997+A1:2006 E. Thermal insulating products for building applications. Determination of compressive creep. CEN, 2006 (GOST R EN 1606-2010. Izdelija teploizoljacionnye, primenjaemye v stroitel’stve. Metod opredelenija polzuchesti pri szhatii. P. 16).
3. Horvath J.S. Mathematical modelling of the stress-straintime behaviour of geosynthetics using the Findley equation: general theory and application to EPS–block geofoam. Manhattan College Research report No. CE/GE–98–3. New-York. USA. May 1998.
4. Gnip I.Y.; Vaitkus S. Kersulis V. Vejelis S. Analytical description of the creep of expanded polystyrene (EPS) under long-term compressive loading. Polymer Testing 30:2011. Pp. 493–500.
5. EN 13500:2004+AC:2006. Thermal insulation products for builfing – Exstremal thermal insulationcomposite systems (ETICS) based on mineral wool. Specification. CEN. 2006.
6. Kobelev V.N., Kovarskij L.M., Timofeev S.I. Raschet trehslojnyh konstrukcij: Spravochnok [Calculation of three-layer designs]. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1984. 304 p. (in Russian).
7. Gnip IJ, Kersulis V., Vaitkus S., Vejelis S. Predicting the deformability of mineral wool slabs under constant compressive stress. Construction and Building Materials. 2009:23; 1928–1934.
8. Gnip I., Vaitkus S., Kersulis V., Vejelis S. Long-term prediction of creep strains of mineral wool slabs under constant compressive stress. Mech Time Depend Mater (2012)16:31-46. DOI 10. 1007/s11043-011-9152.
9. EN 826:1996 E. Thermal insulating products for building applications. Determination of compression behaviour. CEN, 1996.
10. Gnip I.Ja., Vajtkus S.I., Kershulis V.I., Vejalis S.A. Deformativnost of polystyrene polyfoam at short-term compression. Mehanika kompozitionnih materialov. 2007. T.43. No. 5. Pp. 639–656 (in Russian).
11. Ajvazjan S.A. Statisticheskoe issledovanie zavisimostej. Primenenie metodov korreljacionnogo i regressionnogo analizov i obrabotka rezul’tatov jeksperimenta [Statistical research of dependences. Application of methods of correlation and regression analyses and processing of results of experiment]. M.: Metallurgija. 1968. 228 p. (in Russian).
12. StatSoft, Inc.(2010). Electronic Statistics Textbook. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. (Electronic Version) http://www.statsoft. com/textbook/.
13. Bergonner S., Hild F., Rieunier J-B. Roux S. Strain heterogeneities and local anisotropy in crimped glass wool. J.Mat Science 2005:40:5949-5954.
14. Chetyrkin E.M. Statisticheskie metody prognozirovanija [Statistical methods of forecasting]. M.: Statistika. 1977. 200 p. (in Russian).

E.M. CHERNYSHOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Academician of RAACS; G.S. SLAVCHEVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences The Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84 20-letiya Oktyabrya str., Voronezh, 394006, Russian Federation) Control over Operational Deformability and Crack Resistance of Macro-porous (Cellular) Concretes:

Context of Problem and Issues of Theory
The scientific generalization of the problem of operational moist and carbonizing deformation of macro-porous silicate and cement concretes is presented. The mechanism of moist deformations is considered through the change of stress condition of the material as a result of action of binding forces of its hard phase and the porous space with water. The introduction of the model of probable and actual deformation of structure of cellular concrete in the course of dehydration is substantiated. The mechanism of carbonizing deformations is revealed within the frame of macro-kinetics of physical and chemical heterogeneous processes of interaction of the structure with air carbon dioxide. It is shown that the measure of deformation and destruction of the material depends on the degree of carbonization and the value of its gradient on the size of the building structure. Structural factors of control over the operational deformation of macro-porous (cellular) concrete are formulated; the system of prescribed–technological factors of their regulation is presented.

Keywords: cellular concretes, moist shrinkage, carbonizing shrinkage.

References
1. Rakhimbaev Sh.M., Degtev I.A., Tarasenko V.N., Anikanova T.V. To question of decrease in shrinkable deformations of products from foam concrete. Izvestiia vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2007. No. 12. Рp. 41–44 (in Russian).
2. Shakhova L.D., Samborskii S.A., Palalane Zh.A. Reasons of deformation shrinkages of foam concrete . Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 3. Pp. 84–86 (in Russian).
3. Shinkevich E.S. Crack resistance and deformativnost complex the activated limy and silicic composites. Sovremennoe promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo, 2011. Vol. 7. No. 4. Pp. 205–213.
4. Sinitsa M.S., Sezeman G.V., Chesnauskas V. Influence of moisture content of autoclave cellular concrete on its operational properties. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 12. Pp. 52–55 (in Russian).
5. Kurzanov A.D., Golubev V.A. Durability of autoclave cellular concrete and ways of its increase. Master’s Journal. 2013. No. 1. Pp. 183–191.
6. Pavlenko N.V., Cherevatova A.V., Strokova V.V. Features of receiving rational steam structure of foam concrete on the basis of the nanostructured knitting. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 10. Pp. 32–34 (in Russian).
7. Kuznetsova T.B., Frenkel’ D.Ia., Krivoborodov Iu.R. Portlandtsement modifying for elimination of shrinkage of concrete. Tsement i ego primenenie. 2007. No. 4. Pp. 54–55 (in Russian).
8. Falikman V.R., Sorokin Iu.V., Vainer A.Ia., Bashlykov N.F. Gidroksilsoderzhashchy organic expanding additives for decrease in deformations of shrinkage of concrete. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 8. Pp. 9–12 (in Russian).
9. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V., Khimich A.O. Not autoclave low-shrinkable cellular concrete for monolithic designs. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 3. Pp. 21–22 (in Russian).
10. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S. Moist state and regularities of manifestation of constructional properties of construction materials at operation. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2007. No. 4. Pp. 70–77 (in Russian).
11. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S. The physical and chemical nature of interrelation of properties of construction materials with their moist state. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2008. No. 1. Pp. 87–92 (in Russian).
12. E. M. Chernyshov, V. V. Vlasov, E. I. Bautina. Prognozirovanie polnogo i ostatochnogo resursov ograzhdaiushchikh konstruktsii iz iacheistogo betona [Forecasting of full and residual resources of protecting designs from cellular concrete]. Rostov-na-Donu. 2007. 121 p. (in Russian).
13. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S., Potamoshneva N.D., Makeev A.I. Poros concrete for heateffective houses. Izvestiia vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2002. No. 5. Pp. 22–24 (in Russian).
14. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S., Potamoshneva N.D., Makeev A.I. Poros concrete for heateffective houses (part 2). Izvestiia vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2003. No. 9. Pp. 32–38 (in Russian).
15. Slavcheva G.S., Novikov M.V., Chernyshov E.M. Assessment the deformativnykh of properties the porizovannykh of concrete at long action of loading. Izvestiia Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriia: Stroitel’stvo i transport. 2007. No. 3–15. Pp. 136–141 (in Russian).
16. Slavcheva G.S. Operational deformability and hygrometric characteristics cement porizovannykh of concrete as function of their structure. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2008. No. 1. P. 79 (in Russian).
17. Chernyshov E.M., Fedin A.A., Potamoshneva N.D., Kukhtin Iu.A. Silicate: modern flexible technology of a material and products. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 4. Pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

E.S. GLAGOLEV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, R.V. LESOVIK, Doctor of Technical Sciences, S.V. KLYUEV, Candidate of Technical Science, V.A. BOGUSEVICH, Enginer The V.G. Shukhov Belgorod State Technological University (46 Kostyukova str., Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Deformation Properties of Fine-Grained Concrete
Issues of determining deformation properties of fine concrete are considered. Creep and shrinkage deformations are experimentally defined. The object of the study is high-strength fine concrete with a binder of low water requirement (VNV-80) with the use of high-density packing of a filler. It is shown that the change in creep and shrinkage deformations depending on the composition of components of fine concrete after 180 days of testing considerably differs depending on compositions of concrete. High-strength fine concrete produced by means of optimization of a concrete mix due to the use of a composite binder and high-density packing of a filler from dust of quartz sandstone crushing enriched with quartz sand is accompanied by reducing the creep deformation comparing with traditional fine-grained concrete without dense packing of the filler by 43.5% and approaches the value of concrete with largesize filler and equals to 38.4610-5.

Keywords: high-strength concrete, shrinkage, creep.

References
1. Lesovik R.V. Technogenic sand in road construction. Stroitel'nye materialy [Сonstruction materials]. 2009. No. 12. Pp. 34–35 (in Russian).
2. Lesovik V.S., Alfimova N.I., Jakovlev E.A., Shejchenko M.S. To a problem of increase of efficiency of the composite knitting. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudartvennogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shuhova. 2009. No. 1. Pp. 30–33 (in Russian).
3. Kljuev A.V., Rakitchenko K.S. The KMA technogenic sand as effective filler for fine-grained фибробетонов. Belgorodskaja oblast' proshloe, nastojashhee i budushhee: materialy nauchn.-prakt. konf. Belgorod: Izd-vo BGTU, 2012. Ch. 1. Pp. 400–403 (in Russian).
4. Kljuev A.V., Lesovik R.V. Technogenic sand as raw materials for production fibrous concrete. Innovacionnye materialy tehnologii; sbornik dokladov Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoprakticheskoj konferencii: Belgorod, 11–12 oktjabrja 2011 g. Belgorod: BGTU, 2011. Ch. 3. Pp. 283–285 (in Russian).
5. Lesovik V.S. Povyshenie jeffektivnosti proizvodstva stroitel'nyh materialov s uchetom genezisa gornyh porod [Increase of production efficiency of construction materials taking into account genesis of rocks]. M.: ASV, 2006. 524 p. (in Russian).
6. Urhanova L.A., Efremenko A.S. Concrete of Improved Strength on the Basis of a Composite Binder. Stroitel'nye materialy [Сonstruction materials]. 2012. No. 1. Pp. 32–34. (in Russian).

R.Kh. MUKHAMETRAKHIMOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, V.S. IZOTOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, The Kazan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering ( 1 Zelenaya str., Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Peculiarities of Hydration Process of a Modified Mixed Binder for Fiber-Cement Slabs
Peculiarities of the hydration process of the modified mixed binder for fiber-cement slabs with the use of methods of differential-thermic, X-ray phase analyses, IR-spectroscopy and raster scanning electronic microscopy are considered. It is established that in the samples of the fiber-cement matrix on the basis of modified mixed binder the deeper hydration of the silicate phase, in the main, takes place, more dense and fine-crystalline structure mainly presented by low basic hydro-silicates of calcium is formed and this fact causes the formation of more dense and homogenous structure with higher indices of physical-mechanical properties and durability.

Keywords: mixed binder, fiber-cement, hydration.

References
1. Gamalii E.A., Trofimov B.Ia., L.Ia. Kramar. Structure and properties of a cement stone with additives of mikrosilika and polikarboksilatny plasticizer // Vestnik Iuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura. 2009. No. 16. Pp. 29–35 (in Russian).
2. Liuk k., Liakhovski E.E. The changes which are occurring with mineral additives in cement stone for twentyyear period // Tsement i ego primenenie. 2011. No. 1. Pp. 116–123 (in Russian).
3. Batrakov V.G. Povyshenie dolgovechnosti betona dobavkami kremniiorganicheskikh polimerov [Increase of durability of Concretes Modified by Silicoorganic Compounds]. M.: Izd. Stroiizdat. 1968. 135 p. (in Russian).
4. Batrakov V.G. Modifitsirovannye betony [Modified Concretes]. M.: Stroiizdat. 1998. 768 p. (in Russian).
5. Batrakov V.G. Povyshenie dolgovechnosti betona dobavkami kremniiorganicheskikh polimerov. [Increase of durability of Concretes Modified by Silicoorganic Compounds]. M.: Kniga po Trebovaniiu. 2013. 69 p. (in Russian).
6. Batrakov V., Kaprielov S. Durability of Concretes Modified by Silicoorganic Compounds // CANMET/ACI Int.Sump. on Advances in Concr. Technology. LasVegas June 11–14, 1995. Supplementary papers. Pp. 609–624.
7. Mukhametrakhimov R.Kh., Izotov V.S. Research of influence of Silicoorganic additives on properties of fibrocement plates // Izvestiia KGASU. 2011. No. 4 (18). Pp. 254–259 (In Russian).
8. Mukhametrakhimov R.Kh., Izotov V.S. Improvement of physicomechanical properties and durability fibrotcement plates on the cellulose fibers base // Izvestiia vuzov. Stroitel'stvo. 2012. No. 9 (677). Pp. 101–107 (In Russian).
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