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Stroitel`nye Materialy №3

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J.M. BAZHENOV1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Academician of RAACS, E.M. CHERNYSHOV2, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Academician of RAACS, D.N. KOROTKIKH2, Candidate of Technical Sciences
1 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
2 Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letija Oktjabrja street, Voronezh, 394006, Russian Federation)

Designing of modern concrete structures: determining principles and technological platforms
Problems of the formation of structures of modern high-technology concretes are complexly considered. Issues of technological platforms of concretes manufacture and their fundamental scientific base are discussed. Possibilities of the system-structural methodological approach when controlling the potential of concretes resistance to destruction are revealed. Parameters of compositions of typical structural groups of modern concretes with an analysis of their efficiency according to structural and economic indicators are systematized and generalized.

Keywords: modern high-technology concretes, paradigms and principles of structures designing, technological platforms, resistance to destruction, technical and economical efficiency of concretes.

References
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V.V. BABKOV1, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, S.N. SELIVERSTOV2, Technical Director, R.A. YUMAGULOV2, Head of Prospective Development Department
1 Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, 450062, Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)
2 «BASHBETON» Holding Company (4, Industrial’noye Hwy, 450027, Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)

Experience in production and use of reinforced concrete pre-stressed slabs of PND series of «BASHBETON» Holding Company for construction of roads in Western Siberia
Problems and possible ways of enhancement of a structure of a road reinforced concrete pre-stressed slab PDN with the purpose to increase its crack resistance under operating conditions are described. Results of the visual inspection of tens of kilometers of roads paved with precast concrete slabs in Western Siberia are reported. The most frequently occurring defects and damages in the slabs are described. To study the reasons for cracks formation in the course of operation, the analysis of stressed-strained state of slabs has been made with use of the programming and computing suite ANSYS 14.0. It is revealed that the existing scheme of location of operating pre-stressing reinforcement of 3.503.1-91(1) favors the development of transverse tensile stress in the slab’s end part and in zones adjoining it and may initiates the opening of longitudinal cracks in the process of operation under conditions of multiple, repeated impacts typical for operational conditions of the road slab. A structural conception of a new slab PDNmAtV7 based on the optimization of reinforcement with the purpose of reducing transverse tensile stresses near end surfaces of slabs caused by the preliminary squeezing by means of more uniform location of operating pre-stressing reinforcement along the cross-section is proposed. This solution is patented and implemented in the production. Improvement of bearing capacity and crack resistance of the road slab PDNmAtV7 has been achieved; it is very actual in connection with increasing the carrying capacity of transport and intensity of trucking and meets the requirement of a new GOST with increased motor-car loading. V.V. BABKOV, S.N. SELIVERSTOV, R.A. YUMAGULOV

Keywords: precast reinforced concrete slabs, road slabs, road construction.

V.G. SOLOVYEV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, A.F. BURYANOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, M.S. YELSUFYEVA, Еngineer Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Features of production of steel-fiber-concrete products and structures
Results of the research in optimization of steam treatment of steel-fiber-concrete products are presented. The actual heat conductivity coefficients of steel-fiber concrete, which are 0.8–3.6 W/(m.oC) at different coefficients of three-dimensional reinforcement and the geometrical factor of steel fiber, are experimentally determined. Mechanisms of the distribution of thermal flows and the numerical values of temperature gradients arising in steel-fiber concretes of different compositions in the process of heat and moisture treatment are revealed. The dependence of reducing the compressive strength of steel-fiber concrete under the age of 28 days on the temperature gradient arising along the section of the composite under the steam treatment. It is established that the destructive processes, which lead to the strength reduction, occur in steel-fiber concrete when the temperature gradient is over 0.6 oC/cm. On the basis of the established dependencies, recommendations for defining optimal modes of heat and humidity treatment of steel-fiber-concrete products when developing the manufacturing technology of massive monolithic and special structures made of steel-fiber concrete and hardening under natural conditions have been developed.

Keywords: steel-fiber concrete, heat and humidity treatment, heat conductivity coefficient, temperature gradient.

References
1. Volkov V.I. Regulatory support for industrial use in construction steel fiber concrete. Vestnik grajdanskikh ingenerov. 2007, No. 4, pp. 45–49 (In Russian).
2. Carslaw G. Teploprovodnost’ tverdykh tel [Heat conduction of solids]. Moscow, Nauka, 1964, 488 p. (In Russian).
3. Ivlev M. A. The steel fiber concrete production jumpers residential and civil buildings. Izveystiya KGASU. 2010, No. 2(14), pp. 223–228 (In Russian).
4. Talantova K.V. Practice creation of designs based on steel fiber reinforced concrete with specified performance parameters. Izveystiya vuzov. Stroitelstvo. 2011. No. 10, pp. 112–118 (In Russian).
5. Latypov N.N. Steel fiber concrete in the production of road plates. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2009, No. 11, pp. 50–52 (In Russian).
6. Golovnev S.G., Yevseyev B.A. Koval S.B. Molodtcov M.V. Features electrothermal monolithic constructions of steel fiber concrete. Dep. VINITI. 1998, No. 1151, 8 p. (In Russian)

S.N. LEONOVICH, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Foreign Academician of RAACS, N.L. POLEIKO, Doctor of Technical Sciences Belarussian National Technical University (65, Nezavisimosty av., 220013, Minsk, Belarus)

Bonded strength of reinforcement with concrete modified by superplasticizer “S-3”
The results of the effect of the compressive strength and age of modified concrete with superplasticizer C-3 and its modifications to the bond with the reinforcement of various profiles and classes are presented. Established that the adhesive strength Rad of reinforcement and concrete significantly depends on its compressive strength Rc. This dependence is linear and is the same both for normal concrete and for modified concrete, although its numerical parameters are different. Particularly, with increasing of concrete compressive strength limit from 30 to 70 MPa the average value of adhesive strength Rad for smooth reinforcement in modified concrete increases in 1.5 times, and in the normal – 1.36 times. With increasing of compressive strength Rc adhesion strength of reinforcement with concrete increases, and its relative value Rad/Rc reduces, because along with it reduces the relative tensile strength Rt/Rc. Integral adhesion strength essentially depends on the tensile strength Rt and is determined by the mechanical engagement of free length of reinforcing bars with mortar part of concrete. Adhesion strength of periodic profile reinforcement with concrete is much higher. Also it can be seen the increase of adhesive strength Rad with decreasing of rods diameter, especially in periodic profile fittings. Thus, periodic profile surface relief does not affect the adhesive strength with concrete.

Keywords: modified concrete, modificator, class of concrete compressive strength, class of reinforcement, diameter, bonded strength, profile of reinforcement.

References
1. Madatyan S.A. The properties of reinforced concrete structures in Russia on the level of the best world’s standards. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2013. No. 5, рp. 2–5 (in Russian).
2. Madatyan S.A. New reinforcement steel by class A 600 C. Stroimetall. 2010. No. 5, рp. 7–10.
3. Madatyan S.A. Cold-deformed reinforcement by class B 500 C. Metizi. 2013. No. 2, рp. 20–25 (in Russian).
4. Tikhonov I.N. The estimation of reinforcement with different kinds of periodic profile of surface. Stroitel’nye materially [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 3, рp. 29–34.

M.I. KOZHUKHOVA1, Engineer; I. FLORES-VIVIAN2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S. RAO2, Master; V.V. STROKOVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), K.G. SOBOLEV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Belgorod State Technological University (V.G. Shukhov) (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA)

Complex siloxane coating for superhydrophobization of concrete surfaces
Traditional PC based concrete, generally, is hydrophilic material. This characteristic explains reduced durability, especially, for pavements. To produce the road concrete with waterrepellent properties the hydrogen siloxane emulsion is developed. Possibility of using of hydrogen-containing siloxane additives in complex with a small content of submicro-sized particles to provide with super-hydrophobic characteristics for concrete is considered. The technology of production and application of the emulsions for cement concrete, that allow forming and varying the hydrophobicity with directed designing of hierarchical roughness and the surface modification jointly. This fact gives opportunity to produce over-hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic concrete with water-repellent characteristics, high values of contact angle and low roll-off angle that can be used in road construction as material with good durability

Keywords: contact angle, hydrophobic concrete, superhydrophobicity.

References
1. Stefanidou M., Matziaris K.; Karagiannis G. Geosciences. 2013. No. 3, pp. 30–45.
2. Sobolev K., Flores, I., Hermosillo, R., Torres-Martínez L.M., Shah S. Proceedings of the ACI Session on Nanotechnology of Concrete: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives. Denver, CO. 2008. ACI SP-254. 93–120.
3. Marmur A. A. Guide to the Equilibrium Contact Angle Maze. In Contact Angle Wettability and Adhesion. Mittal, K. L., Ed.; Brill/VSP: Leiden, The Netherlands. 2009. Vol. 6, pp 3–18.4. Flores-Vivian I., Hejazi V., Kozhukhova M.I., Nosonovsky M., Sobolev K. Self-Assembling Particle-Siloxane Coatings for Superhydrophobic Concrete. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2013. No. 5, pp. 13284–13294.
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G.V. NESVETAEV1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, G.S. KARDUMYAN2, Candidate of Technical Sciences
1 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotsialisticheskaya str., 344022 Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation)
2 Research, Design and Technological Institute for Concrete and Reinforced Concrete named after A.A. Gvozdev (6, 2nd Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)

On the application of cement concrete for road and airfield pavements
Quantitative parameters of basic composition factors ensuring the possibility to obtain (when using qualitative materials) cement concretes for road and airfield pavements when the value of W/C not more than 0.34 are determined. Proposals on the adjustment of the normative requirements to the value of compressive strength class of these concretes not below В45 are formulated on the basis of the analysis of five key normative documents. Ratios of tensile strength at bending and compressing are clarified on the basis of results of the study of concretes with compression strength within the range of 40–120 MPa. It is shown that concretes of Btb 5.2, prospective for airfield pavements, require special solutions for regulating the value of elasticity modulus, which predetermines the relevance of research in this direction..

Keywords: concrete for road and airfield pavements, normative requirements, ratio of tensile and compression strengths at bending, frost resistance, modulus of elasticity.

References
1. Nesvetayev G.V. Zakonomernosti deformirovaniya i prognozirovanie stoikosti betonov pri silovykh i temperaturnykh vozdeistviyakh (metodologiya i printsipy retsepturno-tekhnologicheskogo regulirovaniya) [Regularities of deformation and forecasting of firmness of concrete at power and temperature influences (methodology and the principles of prescription and technological regulation)]: Thesis of Candidate of Technical Sciences. Rostov-on-Don:
2. Nesvetayev G.V. Betony. Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 2013. 381 p.

N.N. CHERNOUSOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, R.N. CHERNOUSOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, A.V. SUKHANOV, engineer, Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya str., Lipetsk, 398600, Russian Federation)

Simulation of Operation Mechanics of Fine Graded Cement-Sand Concrete at Axial Tension
Investigations of strength and deformation properties of fine graded sandy concretes (FSC) with the purpose to reveal the most suitable dependences for expression of the curvature parameters of the diagram of FSC tensile in the course of axial tension through the compressive and tensile strengths of concrete were conducted. Studies were conducted on the experimental samples in the form of «eights», their compositions were added with the fiber as an elastic element. The samples were tested in a specially designed device which made it possible to carry out the quasi-static loading and determine the tensile deformation of the sample. In the course of analysis of experimental data new dependencies for calculating the curvature parameters of the diagram of FSC tension were obtained, adjustment coefficients for these dependencies, values of which are recommended to use in calculations according to the diagram technique, were selected.

Keywords: axial tension, fine graded sandy concrete, tension diagram, curvature parameters

References
1. Babkov V.V., Nedoseko I.V., Distanov R.Sh., Ivlev M.A. Fedotov Yu.D., Strugovets I.B., Latypov M.M. Steelfiberconcrete in the manufacture and construction of road use. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 10, рp. 40–45 (In Russian).
2. Chernousov N.N., Chernousov R.N., Sukhanov A.V. Modeling of strength and deformation properties of finegrained sand- cement concrete under axial tension and compression. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 10, рp. 12–14 (In Russian).
3. Karpenko N.I., Karpenko S.N., Petrov A.N. Few iterative approach to a physically non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete with cracks. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 6, рp. 7–9 (In Russian).
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7. Abu-Lebdeh T., Hamoush S., Heard W., Zornig B. Effect of matrix strength on pullout behavior of steel fiber reinforced very-high strength concrete composites. Construction and Buildings Materials. 2011. No. 25, рp. 39–46.
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I.M. BARANOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, OOO «NTTS EMIT» (Structure 2, 13, Ostapovsky Drive, Moscow, 109316, Russian Federation)

Problems of Standardization of Properties of Magnesia Binders for Construction Purposes and Their Resolution1
A refined version of the technical requirements for the new GOST on a magnesium binder for building purposes, which, through the control of the content of medium-crystallized magnesium oxide in binders, improve their quality factors and ensure the greater water resistance and durability of magnesia products.

Keywords: magnesium binders, magnesite, dolomite, brucite, periclase

References
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6. Zyryanova V.N. Vodostoikie kompozitsionnye magnezial’nye vyazhushchie veshchestva na osnove prirodnogo i tekhnogennogo syr’ya [Waterproof composite magnesian knitting substances on the basis of natural and technogenic raw materials] Diss… d-r techn. siens. Tomsk. 2010. 36 p. (In Russian).
7. Korneev V.I., Sizonenko A.P., Medvedeva I.N., Novikov E.P. Especially hardening magnesian knitting. Part 1. Tsement. 1997. No. 2, рp. 25–28 (In Russian).
8. Korneev V.I., Sizonenko A.P., Medvedeva I.N., Novikov E.P. Especially hardening magnesian knitting. Part 2. Tsement. 1997. No. 4, рp. 33–36 (In Russian).
9. Chernykh T.N., Kramar L.Ya., Trofimov B.Ya. Properties magnesian knitting from brusitovy breed and their interrelation with the sizes of crystal. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 1, рp. 52–53 (In Russian).
10. Chernykh T.N., Kramar L.Ya., Trofimov B.Ya. i dr. Influence of degree of a crystallization of a periclase on properties of the magnesian knitting. Vestnik BGTU. 2005. No. 9, рp. 47–50 (In Russian).
11. Kramar L.Ya. About requirements of the standard to magnesian knitting construction appointment. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 1, рp. 54– 56 (In Russian).

A.A. ORLOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, T.N. CHERNYKH, Candidate of Technical Sciences, L.Ya. KRAMAR, Doctor of Technical Sciences, South Ural State University (National Research Unversity) (76, Lenina Ave, Chelyabinsk, 454080, Russian Federation)

Magnesium oxychloride boards: Problems of Production, Use and Prospects of Development
Results of the study of production of magnesium oxychloride boards (MOB) and their use for interior finishing are presented. An analysis of the normative base and reasons restraining the growth of production of magnesium oxychloride boards is conducted. These reasons are technologies insufficiently efficient and unadapted to Russian conditions; the absence of integrated normative documents for production and use of magnesium oxychloride boards; deficiency of a magnesium binder in RF; instability of magnesium oxychloride cement properties produced in Russia; swelling and buckling of MOB in the course of lasting and/or repetitive wetting and low durability when operating under wet conditions; release of harmful and hazardous substances under fire conditions; lack of specially developed complete systems of MOB installation. Ways to improve the quality of materials and technologies of their production are proposed. It is shown that MOB have a very high potential for development and improvement of their quality, and modification of their structure and properties is a promising direction of works in the field of building materials science.

Keywords: magnesium oxychloride boards, MOB, magnesium binder, modification.

References
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2. TU 5710-001-60765559–2009 Listy steklomagnievye «MAGELAN» [Magnesium oxychloride boards «MAGELAN »]. OOO «ChajnaKingdom». 2009. 22 р. (in Russian).
3. TU 574200-001-30986470–2013 Listy SML-Plast dlja naruzhnoj i vnutrennej otdelki [The boards MOB-Plast for external and internal finishing]. OOO «Novye tehnologii». 2013. 13 р. (In Russian).
4. El-Gammal M.A., El-Alfy A.M., Mohamed N.M. Using magnesium oxide wallboard as an alternative building fa ade cladding material in modern cairo buildings. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2012. Volume 8. Issue 4. Pр. 2024–2032.
5. JC 688–2006 Steklomagnievyj list. Tehnicheskie uslovija i metody ispytanij [Magnesium oxychloride boards. Specifications and test methods]. KNR: Gosudarstvennyj komitet KNR po razvitiju i reformam. 2006. 9 р. (In Russian).
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10. Chernyh T.N., Kramar L.Ja., Trofimov B.Ja. Properties magnesian knitting from brusitovy breed and their interrelation with the sizes of crystals of a periclase. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 1, рp. 52–53 (In Russian).
11. Kramar L.Ja., Chernyh T.N., Trofimov B.Ja. Features of curing of the magnesian knitting. Cement i ego primenenie. 2006. No. 9, рp. 58–61 (In Russian).
12. Kramar L.Ja., Chernyh T.N., Orlov A.A. i dr. Magnezial’nye vjazhushhie iz prirodnogo syr’ja [Magnesian knitting from natural raw materials]. Moscow. Pero. 2012. 147 p. (In Russian).
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15. Samchenko C.B., Belimova O.A., Ljutikova T.A. Vlijanie mikrokremnezema na svojstva vodostojkih magnezial’nyh vjazhushhih [Influence of microsilicon dioxide on properties of the waterproof magnesian knitting]. Jekspress-obzor VNIIJeSM. Serija 1. Cementnaja promyshlennost’, 1999. Vol. 4, рp. 15–20 (In Russian).
16. Deng Dehua, Zhang Chuanmei. The effect of aluminate minerals on the phases in magnesium oxychloride cement. Cement and Concrete Research. 1996. Volume 26. Issue 8. P. 1203–1211.
17. Deng Dehua. The mechanism for soluble phosphates to improve the water resistance of magnesium oxychloride cement. Cement and Concrete Research. 2003. Vol. 33. Issue 9. P. 1311–1317.
18. Sudakas L.G. Fosfatnye vjazhushhie sistemy [Phosphatic knitting systems]. Spb.: RIA «Kvintet». 2008. 260 p. (In Russian).
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20. Ved’ E.I., Bocharov V.K., Zharov E.F. Studying of products of curing of waterproof oksikhloridny cement on the basis of the caustic dolomite and alyumo-and the ironphosphatic of additives. ZhPH, 1975. No. 12, рp. 2607–2611 (In Russian).
21. Zimich V.V., Kramar L.Ja., Trofimov B.Ja. Decrease in hygroscopicity and water resistance increase chlorine of a magnesian stone by introduction of trivalent iron. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 5, рp. 58–61 (In Russian).
22. Zimich V.V., Kramar L.Ja., Trofimov B.Ja. Influence of different types of zatvoritel on hygroscopicity of a magnesian stone. Vestnik JuUrGU. Serija «Stroitel’stvo i arhitektura». 2008. Vyp. 6. No. 12(112), рp. 13–15 (In Russian).
23. Samchenko S.V., Ljutikova T.A., Kuznecova T.V. Influence of different types of solvent on hygroscopicity of a magnesian stone. Mezhdunarodnaja nauchno-tehnicheskaja konferencija «Kachestvo, bezopasnost’, jenergo- i resursosberezhenie v promyshlennosti stroitel’nyh materialov i stroitel’stve na poroge ХХI veka». Belgorod: BelGTASM. 2000, рp. 285– 288 (In Russian).
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27. Orlov A.A., Trofimov B.Ja., Chernyh T.N. i dr. Complete system for internal finishing by magnesian materials. Vestnik JuUrGU. Serija «Stroitel’stvo i arhitektura». 2011. Vypusk 13. No. 35(252), рp. 33–37 (In Russian).

N.D. SEREBRENNIKOVA1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Head of Building materials’ durability and sealing laboratory, S.I. BOYARINOV1, senior researcher, Building materials’ durability and sealing laboratory; S.I. FEDOTOV2, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Head of Innovations in construction department, DuPont Science and Technologies, Ltd, G.V. AFANASIEVA2, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, specialist in business development, Tyvek®
1 SUE “NIIMosstroy” (8, Vinnitskaya Street, Moscow, 119122, Russian Federation)
2 DuPont Science and Technologies, Ltd (Structure 3, 17a, Krylatskaya Street, Moscow, 127614, Russian Federeation)

The impact of exposure to ultraviolet radiation and cyclical influences of temperature on the durability of microporous polymeric materials for construction of roofing and wall structures
Comparative tests of different types of diffusion membranes with the use of the artificial aging method by means of exposure to ultraviolet radiation and cyclic influence of different temperatures are presented. The dependence of strength indexes and waterproofing properties on time of exposure is shown. On the basis of experimental data it is established that the durability (service life) of wind-protective membranes made of flash-spunbond polyethylene (produced in Luxemburg) is over 20 years of operation. The following wind-protective membranes – a three-layer microporous membrane of Russian production and three-layer microporous membrane with two layers of spunbond polypropylene of foreign production – are insufficiently resistant to climatic influences. Durability of these membranes according to the results of accelerated tests is less than 10 years. The difference in the results of accelerated aging of polymeric materials is associated with different structure, thickness of a functional layer and the presence/ absence of antioxidants and UV-stabilizers, which protect the polymer from destruction under the influence of temperature and UV- radiation. In connection with this it is reasonable and actual to determine the stability of polymeric membranes used in construction of roofs and wall enclosing structures to the UV-radiation and high temperature.

Keywords: diffusion membrane, durability, UV-radiation, temporary roof.

References
1. P. Vink and Th.J. van Veen The Mechanism of U.V. Stabilization of polypropylene films by 2-Hydroxy-4- octyloxybenzophenone. European Polymer Journal. Vol. 14, pp. 533–537.
2. L. Audouin, S. Girois, L. Achimsky and J. Verdu. Effect of temperature on the photooxidation of polypropylene films. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 1998. Vol. 60, pp. 131–143.
3. Abdelkader Dehbi, Amar Bouaza, Ahmed Hamou, Boulos Youssef, Jean Marc Saiter. Artificial ageing of trilayer polyethylene film used as greenhouse cover under the effect of the temperature and the UV-A simultaneously. Materials & Design. 2010. Vol. 31. No. 2, pp. 864–869.
4. J.W. Chin, T. Nguyen, X. Gu, E. Byrd, J. Martin. Accelerated UV weathering of polymeric systems: recent innovations and new perspectives. Journal of Coatings Technology. 2006. No. 3, pp. 20–26.
5. Alexandre Francois-Heude, Emmanuel Richaud, Eric Desnoux, Xavier Colin. Influence of temperature, UVlight wavelength and intensity on polypropylene photothermal oxidation. Polymer degradation and stability. 2014. No. 100, pp. 10–20.
6. Grassi N., Skott Dzh. Destruktsiya i stabilizatsiya polimerov [Degradation and Stabilization of Polymers]. Moscow. Mir. 1988. 446 p.
7. Zaikov G.E. Ageing and stabilization of polymers. Uspekhi khimii. 1991. Vol. 60. № 10, pp. 2220–2249.
8. S.W. Bigger, J. Scheirs, O. Delatycki. Effect of light intensity on the photooxidation kinetics of high-density polyethylene. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 1992. No. 30, pp. 2277–2280.
9. F. Gugumus. Effect of temperature on the lifetime of stabilized and unstabilized PP films. Polymer degradation and stability. 1999. No. 63, pp. 41–52.

A.Yu. STOLBOUSHKIN1, Candidate of Technical Sciences; G.I. BERDOV2, Doctor of Technical Sciences; V.N. ZORYA1, Engineer, O.A. STOLBOUSHKINA1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, A.A. PERMIAKOV1, Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences
1 Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirov Street, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)
2 Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (113, Leningradskaya Street, Novosibirsk, 630008, Russian Federation)

The impact of vanadium slag addition on structure forming processes in wall ceramics made of technogenic material
Results of the study of influence of vanadium-containing waste on the processes of sintering of a ceramic body from the slurry part of waste of the iron ore enrichment are presented. It is established that the addition of vanadium slag leads to changing the volumetric coloration of ceramic products, and vanadium oxide contained in it intensifies the processes of sintering into the final stage of the silicate melt curing and serves as a catalyst in mineralization of ceramics on the base of iron ore waste, the most typical of which are chain silicates of augite, melilite and wollastonite. Methods of petrographic analysis, scanning electronic microscopy, spectral analysis and X-ray diffractometry are used for studying the structure and phase composition of ceramic materials on the basis of slimes of iron ore waste with corrective additives. The introducing of additives leads to formation of a ceramic body with an expressed glass- crystalline structure characterized by porous texture. In this case the pore space is fully or partly filled with a cryptocrystalline substance that increases the strength of ceramics.

Keywords: technogenic resources, vanadium slag, iron ore wastes, sintering, wall ceramics.

References
1. Chernyshev E.M. To the problem of fundamental and applied research in field of material science and high-tech constructional processes: the main emphasis. Achievements and problems of material science and modernization of construction industry: Materials of the XVth Academic readings of RAACES – International Scientific and Technical Conference. Kazan: KSUAE, 2010. V. 1, рp. 8–9 (In Russian).
2. Gurov N.G., Kotlyarova L.V., Ivanov N.N. Expanding the resource base of high quality wall ceramic production. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2007. No. 4, рp. 62–64 (In Russian).
3. Kotlyar V.D., Ustinov A.V., Kovalev V.Yu. Ceramic stones produced of flasks and coal enrichment wastes by means of compression molding. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 4, рp. 44–46 (In Russian).
4. Stolboushkin A.Yu. Production of wall ceramics of high quality based on non-sintering low plastic technogenic resources. Integration, partnership and innovation in construction science and education: Papers of International scientific conference. Moscow MGSU 2011. No. 2, рp. 175–180 (In Russian).
5. Stolboushkin A.Yu. Improving decorative properties of ceramic wall materials produced of technogenic and natural resources Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 8, рp. 24–29 (In Russian).
6. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Storozenko G.I. Need and prospects of Kuzbass slimy iron ore wastes disposal in ceramic wall materials production technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2009. No. 4, рp. 77–80 (In Russian).
7. Appen A.A. Khimiya stekla [Chemistry of glass]. Leningrad: Khimiya, 1974. 352 p. (In Russian).

A.A. SEMENOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Director, OOO “GS-Expert” (18, off. 207, 1st Tverskoy-Yamskoy lane, Moscow, 125047, Russian Federation)

Results of development of the construction complex and building materials industry in 2013, the forecast for 2014
The assessment of the state of the construction complex and building materials industry is presented. It is noted that despite the fact that official statistics data are more optimistic than the expert evaluation, data of 2013 indicate the stagnation and possible beginning of lowering of basic indicators in the construction industry. As a result of 2013, investments in fixed capital by the «Construction» type of activity decreased by 1.5% comparing with the previous year (at comparable prices). The commissioning of housing was 69.39 million m2, that is by 5.6% more than in 2012. Mortgage lending plays a major role in the development of housing construction. The average growth of volume of building materials production by 0.3% at the end of 2013 was achieved mainly by increasing production volumes of certain types of materials used in the construction of individual housing and renovation of existing buildings and structures. Programs of road and housing construction, financed from the budgets of different levels, as well as the predicted growth in construction in some segments of commercial real estate may become the main drivers of the growth of construction in the near future.

Keywords: results of work in 2013, construction, building materials industry, macroeconomic indexes, rates of growth, stagnation, dynamic of production, forecast.

References
1. Semenov A.A. Results of development of a construction complex and the industry of construction materials in 2012, the forecast for 2013 // Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 62–65.

V.T. EROFEEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAABS, S.A. KOROTAEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Mordovia State University named after N.P. Ogarev (68 Bolshevistskaya str., 430005 Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation)

Framework technology of fired material with filler on a vitreous binder

Large fillers are widely used in building materials on non-fired binders. A possibility to use large fillers in fired building materials is connected with the solution of the problem of producing the non-shrink fired binder which possesses strong adhesion to the surface of filler grains. The article offers a method for the synthesis of such binder from liquid glass and sodium-lime-silicate glass powder in the process of material heat treatment. For molding the product with large filler it is proposed to use the framework technology, when binder components are used consistently over time in the process of gluing the framework of filler grains with liquid glass and impregnation of the hardened framework with an aqueous suspension of glass powder. The framework technology makes it possible to obtain the large-porous structure of material and reduce the consumption of binder components. Impregnation of the hardened frame and burning of the product are carried out at temperature of 740–780оС without moulding accessories. Using the proposed technology, the material with a filler of expanded clay gravel on the non-shrink vitreous porous binder with strong adhesive contacts with the surface of filler grains has been obtained. Physical-mechanical characteristics of the material make it possible to use it for manufacturing heat insulating or structural-heat insulating products for building purposes in the form of blocks or slabs.

Keywords: large filler, liquid glass, sodium-lime-silicate glass, burning.

References
1. Mizyuryaev S.A., Mamonov A.N., Gorin V.M. i dr. The structured high-porous silikatnatriyevy material raised warm and thermal stability. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2011. No. 7, pp. 7–9 (In Russian).
2. Pichugin A.P., Denisov A.S., Khritankov V.F. i dr. The progressive concept of formation of wall blocks from light concrete on an obzhigovy sheaf. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 22–24 (In Russian).
3. Bobryshev A.N., Erofeev V.T., Kozomazov V.N. Fizika i sinergetika dis-persno-neuporyadochennykh kondensirovannykh kompozitnykh sistem [Physics and synergetrics of the disperse and disorder condensed composite systems]. SPb.: Nauka, 2012. 476 p. (In Russian).
4. Mikhailenko N.Yu., Klimenko N.N., Sarkisov P.D. Construction materials on zhidkostekolny binding. P.1. Liquid glass as binding in production of construction materials. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya silikatov. 2012. T. 19. No. 2, pp. 25–28 (In Russian).
5. Korneev V.I., Danilov V.V. Proizvodstvo i primenenie rastvorimogo stekla: Zhidkoe steklo [Production and use of soluble glass: Liquid glass]. L.: Stroiizdat. Leningradskoe otdelenie, 1991. 176 p. (In Russian).
6. Karkasnye stroitel’nye kompozity: V 2 ch. Ch. 1. Strukturoobrazovanie. Svoistva. Tekhnologiya [Frame construction composites: In 2 h. P.1. Structurization. Properties. Technology] / V.T. Erofeev, N.I. Mishchenko, V.P. Selyaev, V.I. Solomatov. Saransk: Izd. Mordov. unta, 1995. 200 p. (In Russian).
7. Ketov A.A., Puzanov S. Nanotechnologies by production the penosteklyannykh of materials of new generation. Stroitel’stvo: novye tekhnologii – novoe oborudovanie. 2010. No. 1, pp. 15–19 (In Russian).
8. Shelkovnikova T.I., Baranov E.V., Petukhova N.S., Tishchenko I.V. The main physical and chemical regularities of receiving porous materials from the technogenic glasses flooded in various conditions. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturnostroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Fiziko-khimicheskie problemy i vysokie tekhnologii stroitel’nogo materialovedeniya. 2012. No 5, pp. 50–56 (In Russian).
9. Yukhnevich G.V. Infrakrasnaya spektroskopiya vody [Infrared spectroscopy of water]. M.: Nauka, 1973. 208 p. (In Russian).

A.D. KORNEEV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, M.A. GONCHAROVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences, G.A. SHATALOV, engineer Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, Lipetsk, 398600, Russian Federation)

Technology of composite tiles with heat insulation made of filled polyurethane foam
Results of the improvement of building and technical properties of filled polyurethane foams with the purpose to use them as a heat-insulating layer of composite metal tiles are presented. It is shown that fine-dispersed converter slags can be considered as effective fillers in hard foam polymer compositions. Production of roofing elements was carried out in the Lipetsk region and is characterized by significant economic effect.

Keywords: polyurethane foams, fillers, composite roofing constructions, metal tile, structure, converter slags.

References
1. GnipI.Ya., Vaytkulis S., Veyalis S. The predictive assessment of deformation of creep of polystyrene polyfoam (EPS) at continuous compression. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, рp. 47–54 (In Russian).
2. Korneev A.D. Proskuryakova A.O. Composite material on a basis polyurethan foam with microsilicon dioxide use. Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2011. Release 24 (43), рр. 72–76 (In Russian).
3. Korneev A.D. Proskuryakova A.O. The filled polyurethane foam with the improved operational. Vestnik TsRO RAASN. Tambov-Voronezh properties, 2012, рр. 227– 231 (In Russian).
4. Goncharova M. A. Sistemy tverdeniya i stroitel’nye kompozity na osnove konverternykh shlakov. [Systems of curing and construction composites on the basis of converter slags]. Voronezh: VGASU, 2012. 136 p. (In Russian).
5. Proskuryakova A.O. Korneev A.D. Shatalov G.A. Sendvich-paneli with warming from the filled polyurethane foam for low construction. Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2013. No. 32 (51), рp. 71–76 (In Russian).
6. Goncharova M. A. Chernyshov E.M. Formation of systems of curing of composites on the basis of technogenic raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 5, рp. 60–64 (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2452829. Metallocherepitsa [Metallocherkepitsa]. Shatalov G.A. Declared 13.08.2010. Published 10.06.2012. Bulletin No. 16 (In Russian).
8. Patent Russian Federation 2378071. Liniya i sposob izgotovleniya i montazha metalllocherepitsy [Line and way izgotovlenkiya and installation Metalllochekrepitsa]. Shatalov G.A. Declared 20.07.2009. Published 10.01.2010. Bulletin No. 1 (In Russian).

V.A. USHKOV1, Candidate of Technical Sciences(pehel@yandex.ru), D.I. NEVZOROV1, engineer, B.I. BULGAKOV1, Candidate of Technical Sciences; V.M. LALAYAN2, Candidate of Chemical Sciences
1 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Hwy, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
2 Institute of Chemical Physics named aften Semenov N.N. of RAS (4, Kosygina str., Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation)

On Influence of Plasticizers on Fire Hazard of Polymeric Construction Materials
The influence of the content of phosphorous and chlorine containing plasticizers on heat resistance and smoke-forming capacity of polymeric construction materials (PCM) is considered.
Thermo-chemical characteristics of phthalate and phosphate plasticizers at the limit of candle burning are determined. It is established, that phosphate plasticizers practically don’t reduce the fire hazard of materials on the basis of epoxy oligomers and synthetic rubber and increase the flammability of PVC materials. It is shown that the chemical nature of phosphate plasticizers significantly influences on the smoke-generating capacity of PCM. It is revealed, that chlorinated paraffines more efficiently reduce the flammability of plasticized PCM.

Keywords: oxygen index, coefficient of smoke-generating, phthalate and phosphate plasticizers, temperature of ignition and auto-ignition, chlorinated paraffin waxes.

References
1. Barshtein R.S., Kirillovich V.I., Nosovskii Yu.E. Plastifikatory dlya polimerov [Plasticizers for polymers]. M.: Khimiya, 1982. 186 p.
2. Baratov A.N., Andriyanov R.A., Korol’chenko A.Ya., Mikhailov D.S., Ushkov V.A., Filin L.G. Pozharnaya opasnost’ stroitel’nykh materialov [Fire hazards of building materials]. M.: Stroiizdat, 1988, рp. 104–133.
3. Kopylov V.V., Novikov S.N., Oksent’evich L.A., Gefter E.L., Korotkevich S.Kh., Rilo R.P. Polimernye materialy s ponizhennoi goryuchest’yu [Polymeric materials with low flammability]. M.: Khimiya, 1986. 224 p.

I.V. STEPINA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, V.I. SIDOROV, Doctor of Chemical Sciences; O.A. KLYACHENKOVA, engineer, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Hwy, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation) Biostability of Wood in the Presence of Phenyl Borates
The biostability of samples of pine wood impregnated with biofire-retardant compositions which contain phenyl-boric acid and mono- and diethanolamine is studied. The surface of wooden samples is contaminated with the suspension of spores of wood destroying mold fungi. As a result of tests it is established that the biostability of biofire-retardant compositions FBK+MEA (1:1.5%) and FBK+DEA (1:2.5%) is 90%, biostability of FBK+MEA (1:1.1%) – 100%. The durability of protective action of modifiers developed is not less than 10 years.

Keywords: biostability, wood, biofire-retardant composition, phenyl-boric acid, diethanolamine.

References
1. Ermush N.A. New boron-containing protective equipment for wood and wood materials in construction. In book: Biopovrezhdeniia v stroitel’stve [Biodamages in construction]. M.: Stroiizdat. 1984, рp. 140–149 (In Russian).
2. Gorshin S.N., Maksimenko N.A., Gorshina E.S. Zashchita pamiatnikov dereviannogo zodchestva [Protection of monuments of wooden architecture]. M.: Nauka. 1992. 279 p. (In Russian).
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A.I. BURNASHEV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, A.H. ASHRAPOV, engineer, L.A. ABDRAHMANOVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences, R.K. NIZAMOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences Kazan State University of Architecture and Building Construction (1, Zelenaya street, Kazan, 420043, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation)

Structure and properties of a modified wood-polymeric composite on the basis of polyvinylchloride
The authors have developed a polyvinylchloride composition on the basis of wood flour (over 50 mass%) which has superiority over industrially manufactured analogues. The interaction between components in the “wood flour – polyvinylchloride” system modified with silica sol and recommended for generating highly filled wood-polymeric composites for construction purposes is assessed by the electronic scanning microscopy. It is established that a bonding agent, silica sol, concentrates in the “collectivized” boundary zone. Increasing the content of wood flour in the polymeric composition (from 50 up to 200 mass-particles per 100 mass-particles of PVC) leads to reducing the thickness of the loosened boundary layer (almost by a factor of ten) and reducing the temperature of vitrification. The dependence of main technological and operational properties of developed composites (tensile strength, thermal stability and processability) on the thickness and structure of boundary layers is revealed.

Keywords: nano-modification, polyvinylchloride, silica sol, boundary layer.

References
1. Radovanovich I., Krechmer K., Bastian M. Woodpolymer composites. Polimernye Materialy. 2011. No. 3, рp. 12–17 (in Russian).
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A.A. SANDULYAK, Candidate of Technical Sciences (a.sandulyak@mail.ru), V.A. ERSHOVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, A.V. SANDULYAK, Doctor of Technical Sciences, D.A. SANDULYAK, Engineer Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Magnetic inspection of ferro-admixtures of feldspar: assessment of a factor of following involvement of particles
Advantages of the use of the new method of magnetic inspection intended for determining the content of ferro-admixtures in different raw components used in the course of manufacture of ceramic tiles, glass and other construction materials are described. It is shown that at magnetic inspection in removable admixtures, besides ferromagnetic admixtures, the involved particles of the medium analysed are also present. In contrast to quartz sand a distinctive fracture is observed on the mass-operational characteristic of magnetic inspection of feldspar admixtures that prevents the use of the same calculation formulae used for quartz sand. On the basis of the analysis of histograms of distribution of ferro-particles and involved particles of feldspar in the sediment extracted from the feldspar, the fractional presence of ferro-particles is assessed as 72%. The appropriate analysis of sediments extracted in the course of magnetic inspection is made separately for the parts of the obtained mass-operational characteristic of magnetic inspection: before and after the fracture. It is established that fractural presence of ferro-particles is 87% and 54% in this case. This indicates the need for the use of correction factors when determining the content of ferro-admixtures in the medium analyzed by the method of magnetic inspection.

Keywords: mass-operational dependence, ferro-particles, following involvement of particles, histogram of quantity, histogram of volume.

References
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5. Sandulyak А.V., Sandulyak А.А., Ershov D.V. and others. Magnetic separation of raw materials for glass and ceramics production. Problems of control of ferro impurities. Steklo i keramika. 2012. No. 6, рp. 29–34 (In Russian).
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