Stroitel`nye Materialy №5

Table of contents

R.K. SADYKOV 1 , Candidate of Geography Sciences, Deputy Director of Science; A.A. SABITOV 1 , Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Leading Researcher; R.R. KABIROV 2, Engineer, General Manager
1 Central Research Institute for Geology of Industrial Minerals (4, Street Zinina, Kazan, 422900, Tatarstan, Russian Federation)
2 OAO «Alekseevskaya keramika» (10, Street Kirpichnozavodskaya, Settlement of City Type Alekseevskoe, Alekseevskiy region, 422900, Tatarstan, Russian Federation)

Prospects of Using the Mineral-Raw Material Base of Haydite Raw Materials in the Republic of Tatarstan
Haydite is the most ecologically friendly, durable, firesafe porous filler necessary for accelerated industrial house building. The haydite production in Russia after the recession of the last decades begins to increase and can exceed 4.5 million m 3 per year. The variant-by-variant forecast of haydite production in the Republic of Tatarstan and possibilities of the mineral-raw material base for their assurance are presented. It is shown that in the course of the forced production of haydite the demand for raw materials can be ensured under the condition of development of prospective objects of the undistributed sub-soil fund and enhancement of its manufacturing technology.

Keywords: haydite, porous filler, building material, production, forecast, deposit, raw material base, Republic of Tatarstan.

1. Gritsyuk M. We were less than a meter. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. June 18, 2013. (In Russian).
2. Nikolaev S.N. Revival of large panel housing construc tion in Russia. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 2–8. (In Russian).
3. Gorin V.M. Application of haydite concrete in building is a way to power- and resources efficiency, safety of build ings and structures. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials] 2010. No. 8, pp. 8–10. (In Russian).
4. Haydite and haydite concrete – a material for modern in dustrial house building. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials] 2011. No. 7, pp. 18–20. (In Russian).
5. Semenov A.A. State of the Russian market of haydite. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials] 2010. No. 8, pp. 4–5. (In Russian).
6. Semenov A.A. Current state and tendencies of develop ment of construction materials industry. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2012. No. 2, pp. 9–11. (In Russian).
7. Sadykov R.K. Problems of mineral raw materials supply to building complex in the Russian Federation. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 41–47. (In Russian).
8. Perspektivy razvitiya investitsionno-stroitel’nogo kom pleksa Respubliki Tatarstan / Pod red. I.E. Faizullina: monografiya [Prospects for the development of invest ment and building complex of the Republic of Tatarstan / Ed. I.E. Fayzullina: monography]. Kazan: Innovation Center, 2008. 376 p.
9. Development and distribution of productive forces build- ing materials industry in Republic of Tatarstan for the pe riod 2008–2030 years. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2008. No. 5, pp. 4–7. (In Russian).
10. Statisticheskii sbornik. Promyshlennost’ Respubliki Tatarstan za 2011 god [Statistical digest. Industry Republic of Tatarstan in 2011]. Kazan: Tatarstanstat, 2012. 190 p.
11. Program «Development of industrial enterprises of build ing materials and industrial housing Tatarstan until 2020». Approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Tatarstan from 17.10.2012, № 864. (In Russian).

S.V. FEDOSOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAABS, N.V. KRASNOSELSKIKH 2 , General Director, O.V. KOROVIN 3 , individual entrepreneur, A.M. SOKOLOV 4 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Ivanovo State Polytechnic University (20, 8 Marta Street, 153037, Ivanovo, Russian Federation)
2 OAO “DSK” ( 1, Kokhomskoye Hwy, 153051, Ivanovo Oblast, Ivanovo, Russian Federation)
3 Individual entrepreneur (1, Transportnaya Street, 153520, Novo-talitsy Village, Ivanovo Oblast, Russian Federation)
4 Ivanovo State Power Engineering University ( 34, Rabfakovskaya Street, 153003, Ivanovo, Russian Federation)

Electro-Thermal Treatment of Reinforced Concrete Products with High-Frequency Currents

Under Production Conditions of Small Enterprises The significant role of small and medium business enterprises of building industry in the economies of developed countries as well as their technological backwardness are noted. Such an important and practically obligatory stage of the technological process of reinforced concrete products manufacturing as heat treatment (steam treatment, treatment with products of gas combustion) is almost inaccessible to these enterprises. The prospective solution of this problem is the use of electro-thermal treatment of products with high-frequency currents with the help of power supply sources on the basis of semi-conducting voltage converters. The results of experiments conducted under small enterprises conditions show a good agree ment with the calculated characteristics of electro-thermal treatment and its high economic efficiency: the cost of consumed electric energy does not exceed 4% of retail price of ready reinforced concrete products.

Keywords: electro-thermal treatment, reinforced concrete products, small enterprises, steam treatment, high-frequency currents.

1. Medkov A.D. Мaloye i sryednyeye pryedprinimatyelstvo – rol v ekonomikye, tyendyentsii sovyershyenstvovaniya sistyemy yego poddyerzhki. Upravlyeniye ekonomichyes kimi sistyemami: scientific Internet-journal. 2013. No. 1, pp. 31. item/2037-2013-03-16-06-00-32 (date of access 5.05.14). (In Russian).
2. Voloshin A.V. Malyy biznyes v stroityelstvye – pyerspy ektivy razvitiya i ryegulirovaniya. Myezhdunarodnyy nauchno-isslyedovatyelskiy zhurnal. 2013. No. 3 (10), pp. 86–87. (In Russian).
3. Makushchenko L.V., Seliverstova Yu.A. Malyy biznyes – osnova ryegionalnoy ekonomiki. Sovryemyennyye prob lyemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2012. No. 6, рр. 406. http:// (date of access 5.05.14). (In Russian).
4. Voloshin A.V. Мalyy biznyes v stroityelstvye: pyerspyek tivy razvitiya. Vestnik Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo tekh nicheskogo universiteta. 2013. No. 3, рр. 129–132. (In Russian).
5. Fedosov S.V., Bobylev V.I., Petrukhin A.B., Sokolov A.M. Otsenka pokazateley ekonomicheskoy effektivnosti elek troteplovoy obrabotki na predpriyatiyakh sbornogo zhe lezobetona. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo. 2013. No. 3, pp. 54–57. (In Russian).
6. Fedosov S.V., Bobylev V.I., Mitkin Yu.A., Zakin chak G.N., Sokolov A.M. Elektroteplovaya obrabotka

Yu.A. SORVACHEVA1, Ph.D. student, T.M. PETROVA1, Doctor of Science (Engineering), C. GIEBSON2, Doctor-Engineer, A.A. FEDCHENKO1, Student
1 Petersburg State Transport University (9, Moskovsky Avenue, Saint Petersburg, 190031, Russian Federation)
2 F.A. Finger Institute of building Materials Bauhaus University (11, Coudray Street, Weimar, Deutschland, 99421)

Influence of Polycarboxylate Based Superplasticizers on the Alkali-Silica Expansion of the Concrete

In order to determine the effect of additives-plasticizers on the alkali-silca expansion of concrete was conducted an evaluation of the potential reactivity of aggregate with alkalis of the cement when in its composition is from 0,3 to 0,7% of superplasticizers. To assess the results were used national and international standards. It was establish that the use of superplas ticizers based on polycarboxylate ethers can contribute to the alkali-silica reaction in concrete and reinforced concrete structures , reduce their durability and , as a consequence, to the total or partial destruction.

Keywords: slkali-silica reaction, polycarboxylate based superplasticizers, reactivity aggregate, and durability.

1. Leemann A., Lothenbach B., Thalmann C. Influence of superplasticizers on pore solution composition and on expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica reaction. Construction and building materials, 2011. Vol. 25, pp. 344–350.
2. Lange A., Hirata T., Plank J. Influence of the HLB value of polycarboxylate superplasticizers on the flow behavior of mortar and concrete. Cement and concrete research. 2014. Vol. 60, pp. 45–50.
3. Jansen D., Neubauer J., Goetz-NeunHoeffer F., Haerzschel R.,. Hergeth W.-D. Change in reaction kinet ics of a Portland cement caused by a superplasticizers – Calculation of heat flow curves from XRD data. Cement and Concrete Research. 2012, Vol. 42 (2), pp. 327–332.
4. Wang H., Gillott J.E. The effect of superplasticizers on alkali-silica reaction. In: Proceedings of the 8th interna tional conference on alkali-aggregate reaction, Kyoto: Japan. 1989, pp. 187–92.
5. Morozova N.N., Khozin V.G., Mateyunas A.I. The problem of the alkaline corrosion in the Republic of Tatarstan and the ways of its solutions. Proceedings of the Kazan State Architectural University. 2005. No. 2. p. 58. (In Russian).
6. Morozova N.N, Mateyunas A.I, Khozin V.G., Zakharo va N.A, Lygina T.Z. Internal corrosion of the concrete on aggregates on river deposits in Tatarstan. Stroitel’nye Materialy. 2005. No. 11, pp. 27–29. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2484036. Kopleksnaya organicheskaya dobav ka dlya ingibirovaniya schelochnoy korrosii [Complex organic additive to inhibit of alkaline corrosion]. Rahimbaev Sh. M., Tolypina N.M., Bales A.A. Declared 30.12.2011. Published 10.06.2013. Bulletin No. 16. (In Russian).
8. Rahimbaev Sh. M., Tolypina N.M., Bales A.A. Influence of the polycarboxylate additives on the internal corro sion of the concerte. Innovative Materials and Technologies: Proceedings of the International Scientific- Practical Conference (XX scientific reading). Omsk. 2013, pp. 195–197. (In Russian).

A.N. LUGOVOY, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Head of Labaratory, A.G. KOVRIGIN, technical specialist, OOO “Biysky zavod stekloplastikov” (60/1, Leningradskaya Street, 659316, Biysk, Altai Region, Russian Federation)

Composite Flexible Bracings for Three-Layered Thermal Efficient Panels
Information about the use of composite bracings when producing three-layered wall panels is presented. As a result of tests of glass-plastic bracings the physical and chemical charac teristics were defined. It is established that the flexible bracings with fixation in concrete due to the adhesion bond (with a coiled strand or with sand blanket) significantly (up to 90%) loss the strength of adhesion with concrete after alkali effect. The use of flexible bracings with anchor spread reduces the adhesion strength by 9% approximately. The technology of producing the thermal efficient panels with the use of composite flexible bracings СПА®-7.5 мм produced by OOO “Biysky zavod stekloplastikov” is used at large-panel house prefab rication plants in the Russian Federation, Byelorussia, Germany, France, and Switzerland.

Keywords: large-panel house prefabrication, energy efficiency, flexible bracing made of composite materials.

1. Nikolaev S.V. Modernization of Base of Large-Panel Housing Construction is a Locomotive of Social Housing Construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
2. Nikolaev S.V. Revival of large-panel housing construc tion in Russia. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 2–8. (In Russian).

T.A. KRASNOVA, Head of Scientific-Technical Service, I.A. BATURIN, engineer-technologist, OOO “Torgovy Dom SUPERPLAST” (5, Promyshlenny passage, 600000, Vladimir, Russian Federation)

Issues of Improving the Surface Quality of Reinforced Concrete Products

It is shown that it is possible to satisfy the requirements of normative documents concerning the surface quality of manufactured reinforced concrete products and structures without the finish improvement of surfaces which demand the expenditures of resources and time, and therefore increase the cost of ready-made products. Reasons for deterioration of quality of products surfaces are presented. The problem of changing the technology of greasing by means of spraying which excludes the over-expenditure of material and collection of the lubricant in the mold’s corners is substantiated. It is proposed to use the specialized modifiers (Rigoform Basis and Rigoform Standard) which favor the improvement of concrete mix homogeneity, impede the mix sticking to balance weights and punches in the course of molding and facilitate the mix compaction during vibration.

Keywords: reinforced concrete products, surface quality, greasing technique, mold greasing, placeability of concrete mix.

1. Krasnova T.A., Boroulya N.I. Chemical Modification of Concretes for In Situ Concrete Works. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 33–36. (In Russian).

O.V. BOGOMOLOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), General Director “Engineering Company “INTERBLOCK” CJSC (23, structure 1A, Novaya Basmannaya Street, 107078, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Experience of Energy Saving at Industrial Enterprises

Energy saving is an important factor for any industrial enterprise of the country suffering the significant energy loss. At present the basic direction of activity of the engineering company “INTERBLOCK” is modernization of the steam-power utilities of factories of concrete prefabrication, large-panel prefabrication and other enterprises of building industry of Russia, cre ation of autonomous, decentralized heat-power systems and complexes on the basis of using steam generators of ST series. Economic effect from introducing steam generators ST into technological processes of manufacturing reinforced concrete and concrete products is confirmed not only by engineering-economic calculations but also by practical results achieved by Russian and foreign enterprises. The operational experience shows that the technological equipment of “Engineering Company “INTERBLOCK” CJSC used at factories of reinforced concrete products, large-panel housing construction and other enterprises makes it possible to reduce expenditures for steam generation by 50–70%, and in some cases – by several times. At present steam generators of INTERBLOCK ST series are one of the most reliable and economic in their class of equipment that ensures significant reducing the cost price of products manufactured and a short period of equipment self-repayment.

Keywords: steam generator, steam-power facilities of enterprise, energy saving, reinforced concrete products.

1. Bogomolov O.V. A Real Tool of Energy Saving at Construction Industry Enterprises. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 3, pр. 14. (In Russian).
2. Bogomolov O.V. Reduce costs of thermal energy. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 3, pp. 20. (In Russian).

S.B. PROKHOROV, Director OOO “NSK-TEK” (100, Tatishcheva Street, 620028, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)

Analysis of Aluminum Gasifiers Market in Russia

During 10 years the specialists of OOO “NSK-TEK” study the domestic market of aluminum gasifiers for producing the gas concrete. (&)The analysis of results obtained has made it possible to register the changes occurred, identify trends, to predict the short-term period and to develop the scenario of the market development in the long term. The research is con ducted by means of questionnaires of gasifiers manufacturers, surveys of enterprise-manufacturers of gas concrete, consultations with experts. During the last two years the basic indi cators were compared with the data presented by the National Association of Autoclaved Gas Concrete Manufactures. The results characterizing the development of the whole industry with a high degree of accuracy consistent with the data obtained.

Keywords: aluminum powder, gasifirs, gas concrete.

1. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfeld G.I., Kulikova N.O.. Analysis of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Market of Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 40-44. (In Russian).
2. Prokhorov S.B. The market of specialized Gasifiers in Russia. Criteria of quality of specialized Gasifiers. Papers of scientific and practical conference «Modern Autoclave Aerated Concrete». Krasnodar. 2013, pp. 148–151.(In Russian).

V.V. NELYUBOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), N.I. ALTYNNIK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Cellular Autoclaved Composites with Application of Mamostructured Modifier *

The article substantiates the effectiveness of application of nanostructured binder of a nonhydration hardening type with silicate composition as an active modifier additive in the pro duction of autoclaved cellular materials. Compositions and performance properties of autoclaved gas-concrete depending on the amount of nanostructured modifier are shown in the paper. Possibility to obtain non-cement gas-concrete for heat-insulating purposes with low density and satisfactory strength characteristics that greatly expands possible application of these materials. High thermal conductivity of cellular composites was justified, that is explained by the formation of rational pore structure with polidisperse distribution of pores in material due to optimisation of rheotechnological characteristis of cellular concrete mixture in the presence of nanostructured modifier.

Keywords: gas concrete, autoclave curing, nanostructured binder, modifier.

1. Vishnevskij A.A., Grinfel’d G.I., Kulikova N.O. Analysis of Autoclave Aerated Concrete Market in Russia. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 40–44. (In Russian).
2. Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V. Foam-concrete on the basis of nanostructured binder. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shuhova. 2009. No. 3, pp. 115–119. (In Russian).
3. Miroshnikov E.V., Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V. Nanostructured perlite binder and based on it foam-concrete. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 105. (In Russian).
4. Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V., Miroshnikov E.V., Shapovalov N.A. Evaluation the ef fectiveness of the nanostructured binder in the produc tion of lightweight cellular composites. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo univer siteta im. V.G. Shuhova. 2011. No. 4, pp. 48–51. (In Russian).
5. Lesovik V.S., Potapov V.V., Alfimova N.I., Ivasho va O.V. Increase of efficiency of binders through the use of nanomodifiers. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 60–62. (In Russian).
6. Neljubova V.V., Altynnik N.I. Strokova V.V., Podgor nyj I.I. Rheotechnological characteristics of cellular con crete mixture with application of nanostructured modifi er. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tehno logicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shuhova. 2014. No. 2, pp. 58–61. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2472735 The raw material mixture and method of its manufacturing for nanostructured autoclave gas concrete. Strokova V.V., Lesovik V.S., Cherevatova A.V., Neljubova V.V., Burjachenko V.A., Altynnik N.I. Declared 01.09.2010. Publeshed. 27.04.2012. Bulletin. No. 12. (In Russian).

N.N. MOROZOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), G.V. KUZNETSOVA, engineer, A.K. GOLOSOV, student Kazan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation)

Influence of Cements from Different Producers on Properties of Cellular-Concrete Mix of Autoclaved Gas Concrete

The use of cements from different producers at autoclaved gas concrete plants of high capacity brings about changes in the properties of cellular concrete mixture at the stage of forma tion and maturation of the bulk. The mineralogical composition of cement from different manufacturers and of the same brand at the similar water-solid ratio influences on the mix tem perature and strength of autoclaved gas concrete but does not change the mobility of cellular-concrete mix. The increase in the quantity of cement in the binder composition leads to increasing the time and reducing the temperature of lime slaking. Among the studied materials cement of OAO “Zhigulevsktsement exerts the least influence and cement of ZAO “Stroitel’nyie materialy” (Sterlitamak, Republic of Bashkortostan) exerts the greatest influence on the parameters of lime slaking. For stable operation of the factory of gas con crete of autoclaved hardening it is necessary to select the products of 2–3 cement manufacturers without worsening the quality of production.

Keywords: autoclaved gas concrete, cement, lime, temperature of lime slaking, time of lime slaking, strength.

1. Bogdanova N. P., Belov I.A. Podluzsky E.Ya. Klinchuk E.S. Verbitskaya T.L. Cellular concrete of the lowered density for isolation of construction and technical ap pointment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materi als]. 2010. No. 3, pp. 63–66. (In Russian).
2. Kaftayeva M. V., Rakhimbayev Sh. M., Zhukov D. A. Kovalevskaya K.Yu. Shugayeva M. A. Marushko M. V. Justification of requirements to raw materials for auto clave production of gas-silicate concrete//Modern prob lems of science and education. 2014 . No. 1.
3. Prokhorov S. B. Prospects of development and feature of use of the Russian specialized aluminum gazoobrazova tel. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 94–96. (In Russian).

A.S. GORSHKOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); G.I. GRINFELD2, Executive Director; V.E. MISHIN3, Teacher; E.S. NIKIFOROV 4, Candidate of Sciences (Economics); N.I. VATIN1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Director of Engineering and Construction Institute
1 Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University (29, Polytechnicheskaya Street, Saint Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation)
2 National Association of Autoclaved Gas Concrete Manufacturers (Letter A, 40, Oktyabrskaya Embankment, Saint Petersburg, 193091, Russian Federation)
3 Lidsky college education establishment «Grodno state university of Janka Kupala» (18, Sovetskaya Street, Lida, 231300, Grodno region, Belarus)
4 Saint Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance (21, Sadovaya Street, Saint Petersburg, 191023, Russian Federation)

Improvement of Thermotechnical Uniformity of Walls Made of Cellular Concrete Products Through the Use of Polyuretane Glue in Masonry
Results of strength and thermo-physical tests of the masonry from cellular concrete products of autoclave hardening (gas concrete blocks) on polyurethane adhesive are presented. It is shown that mechanical characteristics of the masonry on polyurethane adhesive (compressive strength, bending tension, normal and tangent bonding) differ little from analogous indi cators obtained in the course of testing masonry fragments made on cement-sand mortar or cement glue for gas concrete. At the same time thermo-physical characteristics of the masonry on polyurethane adhesive (thermal resistance, resistance to heat transfer) is significantly higher due to considerably lower heat conductivity of polyurethane adhesive in com parison with cement compositions. On the basis of conducted tests it is concluded that the masonry from gas concrete blocks on polyurethane adhesive, at appropriate calculation sub stantiation, can be used for erection of non-bearing internal and external walls of buildings including the filling of external openings of framemonolithic buildings with floor-by-floor support of the masonry on bearing monolithic ceilings.

Keywords: autoclave gas concrete, polyurethane adhesive, heat conductivity, fire resistance, air permeability.

1. Vishnevskiy A.A., Grinfeld G.I., Kulikova N.O. Analysis of the AAC market of Russia. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 40–44.
2. Levchenko V.N., Grinfeld G.I. Production of AAC in Russia: prospects of development of subsector // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 44–47.
3. Grinfeld G.I. Practice of application of AAC in construc tion of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region. Collection of reports of 4-th sci.–pract. seminar: Application of AAC products. Ekaterinburg: UrFU. 2012, pp. 58–62.
4. Parashchenko N.A., Gorshkov A.S. Partial ridge mono lithic overlappings with AAC-blocks. Inzhenerno stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2011. No. 6, pp. 50–55.
5. Gorshkov A.S., Gladkikh A.A. Influence the martar lay ers on parameters of heattechnical uniformity of walls from an AAC-blocks. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2010. No. 3, pp. 39–42.
6. The guide to heattechnical calculation of external wall designs of residential and public buildings with product application from AAC in the Russian Federation. SPbGPU: Publishing house of Polytechnic university. 2011. 40 p.
7. Derkach V.N., Orlovich R.B. Crack resistance of ma sonry partitions // Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 8, pp. 34–37.
8. Jager A., Kuhlemann C., E.Habian, M.Kasa, S.Lu Verklebung von Planziegelmauerwerk mit Poliurethankleben. Mauerwerk 15. 2011. Heft 4, pp. 223–231.
9. Gorshkov A.S., Vatin N.I. Properties of wall from the AAC on polyurethane glue // Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2013. No. 5, pp. 5–19.
10. Gorshkov A.S., Nikiforov E.S., Vatin N.I. Innovative technology of construction of walls from AAC blocks on polyurethane glue. Tekhnologii betonov. 2013. No. 11, pp. 40–45.
11. Gorshkov A.S., Vatin N.I. Innovative technology of con struction of walls from AAC blocks on polyurethane glue // Stroitel’stvo unikal’nykh zdanii i sooruzhenii. 2013. No. 8, pp. 20–28.
12. Leont’ev N.L. Tekhnika statisticheskikh vychislenii. Izdanie vtoroe, ispravlennoe i dopolnennoe [Equipment of statistical calculations. The second edition. Corrected and added]. Moscow: «Lesnaya promyshlennost’». 1966. 250 p.
13. Granovskii V.L., Dzhamuev B.K. Tests of wall structures from the AAC blocks on seismic influences. Scientific and practical conference «Modern Production of an Autoclave Gas Concrete»: collection of reports. Saint-Petersburg. 2011, pp. 109–115.
14. Grinfeld G.I., Kharchenko A.P. Comparative tests of fragments of a masonry from an AAC with various layers // Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 11. C. 30–34.

A.N. KUZNETSOV, Engeneer, Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (20, 8 Marta Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)

Experience in the Practical Use of Principles of Lean Production at Building Industry Enterprises
The only possibility to avoid the fall in profit under severe competition conditions is reducing the production expenses. In this case the system of lean production comes to help the enterprises. The transition from conventional production to lean marks a complete revision of the foundations of the organization both of production relations within the enterprise, and relations with suppliers and consumers. An example of such organization of production at an enterprise manufacturing the gas concrete of autoclave hardening is considered. An experi ence in the use of production system GAZ is described; examples of using the lean production instruments under conditions of building materials production are presented.

Keywords: production system GAZ, lean production, gas concrete of autoclave hardening.

1. Klochkov Yu.P. «Lean production»: concepts, principles, mechanisms. Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona. 2012. Vol. 20. № 2, pp. 429–437. (In Russian).
2. Vdovina T.E., Sabanova V.I., Vasil’ev V.L. Lean manu facturing enterprise: the basic principles of competitive ness and cost management. Vestnik ekonomiki, prava i sotsiologii. 2009. No. 1, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).
3. Azhluni A.M., Kovaleva S.A. The methodology of lean principles in the context of regional development man agement business complexes. Region: sistemy, ekonomika, upravlenie. 2012. No. 2, pp. 91–93. (In Russian).
4. Khiroyuki Kh. 5S dlya rabochikh: kak uluchshit’ svoe rabo chee mesto [5S for workers: how to improve your workplace] / translation. from English. Moscow: IKSI, 2007. 168 p.
5. Antonova I.I. Evaluation of culture from the standpoint of production system «5S». Ekonomika i predprinimatel’stvo. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 617–619. (In Russian).
6. Autoclaved aerated concrete is a reliable and durable ma terial for housing and civil construction. Stroitel’nye ma terialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 38–39. (In Russian).

T.M. ARGYNBAEV1, General Director, Z.V. STAFEEVA1, Deputy General Director for quality; E.V. BELOGUB2, Doctor of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy)
1 “Plast-Rifey” CJSC (1, Magnitogorsky trakt, 457020, Plast, Chelyabinsk Region, Russian Federation)
2 Institute of Mineralogy, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences (Ilmensky Zapovednik, 456317, Miass, Chelyabinsk Region, Russian Federation)

Deposit of Kaolins «Zhuravliny Log» – Complex Raw Materials for Manufacture of Building Materials

As main products of raw kaolin processing “Plast-Rifey” CJSC produces kaolin concentrate, metakaolin, quartz sands and silica powder for various industry branches. Kaolin concentrate Zhuravliny Log is characterized by the availability of main rock-forming mineral kaolinite (89–92%), quartz (5–7%), microcline (less than 4%), and the presence of disordered smectite phase and amorphous component in the form of alumosilica gel. In the course of burning the production of the mixture of products, metakaoline and underburned particles for example, which have the structure of kaolinite with the presence of high temperature crystal phases is not excluded. In the course of kaoline manufacture under production conditions of “Plast Rifey” CJSC a comparative analysis of analogues presented at the Russian market has been made, at the same time the behavior and properties of samples of kaoline of different manufacturers have been studied. This study made it possible to conclude about the efficiency of the use of metakaoline produced by “Plast-Rifey” CJSC as a pozzolanic additive to cement materials.

Keywords: metakaoline, dry mixes, pozzolanic activity, additives to concrete.

1. Brykov A.S. Metakaolin. Tsement i ego primenenie. 2012. No. 4, pp.36–40. (In Russian)
2. Pustovgar A.P., Bur’yanov A.F., Vasil’ev E.V. Metakaolin application in dry construction mixes. Stroitel’nye mate rialy. 2010. No. 10, pp. 78–81. (In Russian)
3. Kirsanova A.A., Kramar L.Ya., Chernykh T.N., Argynbaev T.M., Stafeeva Z.V. The complex modifier with a metakaolin for receiving cement composites with a high early durability and stability. Vestnik YuUrGU. 2013. Vol. 13. No. 1, pp. 49–56. (In Russian)
4. Platova R.A., Argynbaev T.M., Stafeeva Z.V. Influence of dispersion of a kaolin field Zhuravlinyi Log on puzzo lanovy activity of a metakaolin. Stroitel’nye materialy. 2012. No. 1, pp. 75–80. (In Russian)
5. Dvorkin L.I., Lushnikova N.V., Runova R.F. etc. Metakaolin v stroitel’nykh rastvorakh i betonakh [Metakaolin in construction solutions and concrete]. Kiev: Izdatel’stvo KNUBiA. 2007. 215 p.

N.V. KOZLOV, Engineer, A.I. PANCHENKO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.F. BUR’YANOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.G. SOLOV’EV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Microstructure Plaster Knitting the Increased Water Resistance
It is shown that by means of introduction in structure plaster knitting technogenic waste and by-products of various productions (carbide silt and microsilicon dioxide or biosilicon diox ide) the material different from initial plaster is received by the raised strength characteristics and water resistance that allows to expand significantly a scope plaster knitting, including for rooms with relative humidity more than 60% and for protecting designs. This effect is provided with more finely porous structure of the hardened stone with smaller quantity of a time and the capillaries which are reporting with environment, in comparison with initial plaster knitting and education in its composition of slightly soluble low-main hydrosilicates of the calcium condensing structure of a material and interfering penetration of moisture in hardened plaster.

Keywords: multicomponent plaster knitting, a complex hydraulic additive.

1. Ferronskaya A.V., Korovyakov V.F.Construction materi als based on local raw materials and industrial waste for small and medium businesses. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2001. No. 2, p. 25. (In Russian).
2. Mikheenkov M.A., Kabirov I.Zh., Mikheenkov V.M. Development of a hydraulic gypsum and cement additive containing sulfated clinker phase. Vestnik MGSU. 2012. No. 5, pp. 107–113. (In Russian).
3. Airapetov G.A., Panchenko A.I., Nesvetaev G.V., Nechushkin A.Yu. Mnogokomponentnoe besklinkernoe vodostoikoe gipsovoe vyazhushchie Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 1996. No. 1, pp. 28–29. (In Russian).
4. Rakhimov R.Z., Khaliullin M.I., Gayfullin A.R. Composite gypsum binders with the use of claydite dust and blast-furnace slags. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 13–16. (In Russian).
5. Babkov V.V., Latypov V.M., Lomakina L.N., Asyanova V.S., Shigapov R.I. Modified gypsum binders of high water resistance and gypsum-claydite-concrete wall blocks for low-rise housing construction on their basis. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
6. Kozlov N.V., Panchenko A.I., Bur’yanov A.F., Solov’ev V.G., Buldyzhova E.N., Gal’tseva N.A. Gypsum binder the increased water resistance on the basis of industrial waste. Nauchnoe obozrenie. 2013. No. 9, pp. 200–205. (In Russian).

V.G. KHOZIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), O.V. KHOKHRYAKOV1, Candidate of Sciences(Engineering), I.R. SIBGATULLIN2, General Director, A.R. GIZZATULLIN 3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.Ya. KHARCHENKO4 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation);
2 «TSNV-AROS» LLC (3, Iskra Street, 420061, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation);
3 «Kamgesenergostroy» OJSC (4, Merediannaya Street, 420124, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation);
4 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Carbonate Cements of Low Water-Need is a Green Alternative for Cement Industry of Russia

The dominating world trend of development of the cement industry is an ecological one connected with reducing the clinker content of Portland cement by means of producing multi component mixed (composition) cements produced by grinding of Portland cement clinker with other mineral products (up to 80%), chiefly with anthropogenic waste showing hydrau lic, pozzolanic and other chemical activities, metallurgic or fuel slag or ashes for example. Prospects of so-called binders or cements with low-water need (BLWN or CLWN) developed by the Soviet scientists in the end of 1980s are analyzed. Authors of the article have developed compositions and technological bases of manufacturing the “carbonate” CLWN by means of re-milling the plain Portland cement with soft limestone and (or) dolomites in the form of fine-grained siftings of screening-and-crushing plants. Developed СLWN differ from the known ones the lesser power consumption in production, better technological and operation-technical properties which excel the properties of plain Portland cement and siliceous CLWN at the «dilution» of clinker part in 2 times and more. The curves of grindability, technical properties of CLWN-50 demonstrating the high early and 28-day strength of a binder, low water-cement ratio (up to 0.25) confirming the double function of the superplasticizer in CLWN – a grinding intensifier and water-reducing component – are presented. Indexes of high efficiency of producing carbonate CLWN in comparison with silicious ones and high efficiency indexes of the superplasticizer S-3 in them are given. By all parameters “carbonate” CLWN, CLWN-50 in particular, are full-bodied substitutes for standard Portland cements PC500DO and PC400DO and possess superior technological and operational parameters (strength, frost-resistance, water resistance, corrosion resistance et al.) It is shown that carbonate CLWN can and must be a main product of the cement industry of Russia in the near est future which meets ecological, technical and economic requirements.

Keywords: carbonate cements of low water need (CLWN), power consumption, early strength, grindability, anthropogenic waste.

1. Kong Kongnengholl. CEMBUREAU – the cement and energy market in Europe and the world. Tsement i ego primenenie. 2013 . No. 3, рр. 22–33. (In Russian).
2. Vysotsky. E.V. Tendencies and prospects of development of the market of cement of the Russian Federation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, рр. 66–69 (In Russian).
3. Semenov. A.A. Situation at the Russian Market of Cement: Development of Production Base. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 3, рр. 60–62. (In Russian).
4. Karpenko N.I. Yarmakovsky V.N. the main directions of resource-saving in construction and operation of build ings. Part 1. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, рр. 12–21. (In Russian).

A.V. MONASTYREV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Non-commercial Partnership of Lime Manufacturers (73, Lenina Street, 394001, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Efficient Domestic Shaft Kilns for Burning of Limestone of 30–120 mm Fraction
The experience in reconstruction of screening-and-crushing and kiln equipment at the factory in Sverdlovsk Region with the purpose to improve technical and economic indicators of operation and to expand the diapason of sizes of raw materials burnt is presented. As a result of realization of a complex of works at the screening-and-crushing sector the possibility of burning of limestone of 30–50 mm fraction in the kiln №1 and 50–120 mm fraction in the kiln № 2 has been obtained. The reconstruction of two shaft kilns included the change in design of charging feeders that made it possible to direct bigger pieces of raw material in the near-axial zone of the shaft and to eliminate the downtime of kilns due to breakage of rope. Original designs of natural gas supply to the near-axial part of the burning zone with the use of ceramic kern in the kiln №1 and an axial burner in the kiln № 2 have been developed; the design of the peripheral burner has been improved. These measures make it possible to receive the uniform temperature field in the cross-section of the burning zone of kilns that improves the level of limestone burning and activity of manufactured lime. Efficient fire-proof materials were selected that increased the service life of lining in the burning zone of kilns and protective tuyeres of peripheral burners. As a result the output of each kiln increased from 70 up to 90 tn/day, content of active СаО+МgО in lime increased from 65–70% up to 80–85%, gas consumption reduced from 140 up to 125 m 3 per 1 tn of lime that made it possible to use it for producing the dry hydrate lime.

Keywords: lime, lime burning, shaft kiln, feeders, peripheral burners.

1. Monastyrev A.V. Whether always it is necessary to buy the equipment of foreign firms for limy production. Stroitel’nye materialy. 2013. No. 9, pp. 4-8. (In Russian)
2. Monastyrev A.V., Galiakhmetov R.F. Pechi dlya proiz vodstva izvesti [Furnaces for production of lime]. Voronezh: Istoki. 2011. 392 p.

V.I. KALASHNIKOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.T. EROFEEV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), M.N. MOROZ1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.Yu. TROYANOV 1, Engineer, V.M. VOLODIN1 , Engineer, O.V. SUZDAL’TSEV1, Engineer
1 Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (28, Germana Titova Street, Penza, 440028, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Mordovia State University named after N.P. Ogarev (68, Bolshevistskaya Street, Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation)

Nanohydrosilicate Technologies in Concrete Production*

Data on disperse additives of nano-metric scale which are introduced into modern concretes for improving their properties are presented. It is shown that in earlier studies, the authors tried to minimize the content of nano-particles (tubes, fullerenes, etc.), shungite, silica in concrete and introduced them in the quantity of 10–100 g per 1 m 3 of concrete. Such ultra-low concentrations don’t make it possi-ble to create breakthrough technologies for concrete. The future of concretes is primarily connected with the introduction of micrometrical particles with super-plasticizers to obtain self-compacting concretes. The introduction of nano-metrical hydrated calcium silicates, the centers of crystallization, in the concretes made according to micro-technology is considered. The results of tests, in which the maximum strength improvement as compared with the control concrete without crystallization centers occurs dur ing 6-10 hours after mixing with water, are pre-sented.

Keywords: concrete, nanometrical centers of crystallization, topology, strength.

1. Ponomarev A.N. Nanoconcrete – concept and prob lems. Synergies nanostructuring cement binders and reinforcing fibers. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 5, pp. 2–4. (In Russian).
2. Yakovlev G.N., Pervushin G.N., Pudov I.A., Dulesova N.G., Bur’yanov A.F., Saber M. Structuring cement binding matrix multilayer carbon tubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 2–24. (In Russian).
3. Lukuttseva N.P. Pykin A.A., Karpikov E.G. Peculiarities of structure of cement paste with carbon siliceous nano structured additive. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 66–67. (In Russian).
4. Urkhanova L.A. Bulntuev S.A., Lkhasaranov S.A. Concrete on composite binding Nanostructured fuller ene additive. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve. 2012. No. 1, pp. 39–49 (In Russian).
5. Improving the quality and efficiency through the use of a hardening accelerator. CPI Mezhdunarodnoe betonnoe proizvodstvo. 2011. No. 1, pp. 88–90. (In Russian).
6. Lyudvig Kh-M., Dressel’ D. Synthetic calcium silicate hydrates in precast concrete structures. CPI Mezhdunarodnoe betonnoe proizvodstvo. 2011. No. 5, pp. 42–46 (In Russian).
7. Ratinov V.B., Rozenberg T.I. Dobavki v beton [Concrete admixtures]. Мoscow: Stroiizdat. 1989. 186 р.
8. Kalashnikov V.I., Kalashnikov S.V. On the theory of hardening composite binders. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference «Actual problems of building». Saransk. 2009, pp. 119–123. (In Russian).

G.I. YAKOVLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), G.N. PERVUSHIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), I.S. POLYANSKIKH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.A. SENKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.A. PUDOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Ali Elsayed Mohamed, engineer Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Udmurt Republic, Russian Federation)

Concrete of Enhanced Durability for Production of Pillars of Power Lines

To enhance physical and technical properties of cement concrete, dispersions of multilayered carbon nanotubes of 10–15 nanometers diameter and up to 15 microns long produced by the French corporation “Arkema” were introduced into the traditional composition of dense cement concrete to modify the structure and properties of cement concrete. It is established that introduction of multilayered carbon nanotubes in amount of 0,006% of the cement mass into the concrete composition increases the strength of concrete by 28%, impermeability to water from W8 up to W14, frost resistance from F200 to F400 that presupposes the enhancement of durability of modified concrete.

Keywords: multilayered carbon nanotubes, pillars of power lines, frost resistance, water tightness, dispergation, crack resistance, durability.

1. Pudov I.A., Pislegin A.V., Lushnikova A.A., Pervushin G. N., Yakovlev G. I., Chasanoff O. L., Tulaganov A.A. Problems of a dispergation of carbon nanotubes at modi fication of cement concrete. Collection of works II of the international conference “Nanotechnologies for Eco friendly and Durable Construction”. Izhevsk. 2010, pр. 34–38. (In Russia).
2. Pudov I.A., Yakovlev G.I., Lushnikova A.A., Izryadno va O. V. Gidrodinamichesky a way of a dispergation of multilayered carbon nanotubes at modification mineral knitting. Intellektual’nye sistemy v proizvodstve. 2011. No. 1, pр. 285–292. (In Russia).
3. Kholmberg K., Iensson B., Kronberg B. i dr. Poverkh nostno-aktivnye veshchestva i polimery v vodnykh rast vorakh [Surfacants and polymers in aqueous solutions]. M.: BINOM. Lab. znanii, 2007. 528 p. (In Russia).
4. Yakovlev G.I., Soliman S., Pervushin G.N., Pudov I.A., Saber M. Structuring cement knitting matrixes by multi layered carbon tubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 11, pp. 3–5. (In Russia).
5. Yakovlev G., Pervushin G., Maeva I., Keriene J., Pu dov I., Shaybadullina A., Buryanov A., Korzhenko A., Senkov S. Modification of Construction Materials with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. 11th International Conference on Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques, MBMST 2013 // Procedia Engineering. 57 (2013), pp. 407–413.
6. Fedorova G. D., Savvin A.V, Yakovlev G. I., Mayev I.S. Senkov S. A. Otsenka of the multifunctional modifier of PFM-NLK concrete as surfactant at a dispergation of carbon nanotubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 48–54. (In Russia).
7. Patent RF 112913. Opora VL 0,4–10 KV modifitsirovan naya [The VL support of 0,4–10 KV modified]. G.I. Yakovlev, I.S. Mayeva I.A., Poods E.V., Aliyev D.R., Hazeev A.V., A.V. Shaybadullina. Declared 26.08.2013. Published 27.04.2014. Bulletin No. 12. (In Russian)

I.K. KHAYRULLIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) FGUP “VNIPIIstromsyrie” (6/20, structure 1, Pokrovsky blvd., 109028, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Sealing Materials in Modern Construction

The Laboratory of Glues and Sealing Materials of FGUP “VNIPIIstromsyrie” has conducted the study and realized the measures aimed at practically complete exclusion of migration of a plasticizer from the sealant into building structures for compositions already widely used by builders (sealants NGM-U, GNS, Tegeron), and also for new compositions Butizol-MOK, Germetic-M-Butilovy, strip sealing materials of Liplent mark; this has made it possible to significantly improve their operation characteristics. Among curable sealants a single-compo nent silicone sealant Parosil, improved variant of two-component urethane sealant Gelur for which the problems of thixotropy have been successfully solved; they have been developed in cooperation with the Kazan plant SK. Efficient light stabilizers and ageing retardes have been included in compositions. In cooperation with FGUP “NIISK named after Academician S.V. Lebedev” the studies have been conducted and compositions of glues and sealants of wide application on the basis of the new synthesized oligomeric urethansiloxane rubber with alkoxyl end-groups have been developed. Preliminary data on the basic physical-mechanical, technological and operation properties have been obtained. The technology of regulating these characteristics has been developed. A large part of developed materials is manufactured by ZAO “Gepol”.

Keywords: non-hardening, curable sealants, migration, thixotropy, pane-glass set, urethansiloxane rubber, alkoxyl groups, adhesion.

E.S. TSHOVREBOV1 , Candidate of Science (Economics), E.G. VELICHKO2, Doctor of Science (Engineering)
1 Akademiya of security and special programs (100A, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow,117485, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Environmental Protection and Health of the Person in the Process of the Circulation of Building Materials

The estimation of influence of building materials on a condition of environment and health of the person at all stages of the circulation of building materials is given, recommendations for prevent of the given influence are provided. A manufacture of construction products must use a modern methods and technologies to reduce the toxicity of the product . Construction products must be marked with indicating the chemical composition, ecological, toxicological and hygienic characteristics. The most important criterion for the environ- mental assessment of the material is its ability to re-use after a period of operation. It is necessary to reduce the amount of waste for disposal due to their involvement in recycling. Main task is to create an effective system of integrated treatment of building materials from manufacture and finishing using construction waste as recycled materials and products.

Keywords: environmental protection, ecological safety, building materials, hygienic norms, toxic substances.

1. State Standart (GOST) 12.1.005–88. General hygiene requirements to the air of working area (In Russian).
2. Methodical Instruction “Sanitary-hygienic evaluation of polymer and polymer-containing building materials and construction, designated for use in the con struction of residential, public and industrial buildings” (In Russian).
3. Sanitary Rules and Norms–00 “Sanitary re quirements for residential buildings and premises” (In Russian).
4. Sanitary Rules and Norms–99 “Polymer and polymer-containing building materials, products and construction. Hygienic requirements for safety“ (In Russian).
5. Handbook of hygiene applications of polymers / K.I. Stankevich. M.: Health. 1984. 192 p. (In Russian).
6. Tshovrebov E.S., Environmental and economic aspects of building materials circulation // Bulletin of the Kostroma State University. Nekrasov. 2013. № 3, Pp. 10–14 (In Russian).
7. Tshovrebov E.S., Yaili E.A. Ensuring of environmental safety in the design of real estates and construction ac tivities. St. Petersburg. RSHMU, 2013. 470 p. (In Russian).
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