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Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №7

Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №7
July, 2018

Table of contents

O.S. SUBBOTIN, Doctor of Architecture (subbos@yandex.ru) Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin (13, Kalinina Street, Krasnodar, 350044, Russian Federation)

Architecture of National Dwelling of Kuban and Belarus in the Context of Historical Process The main provisions of the architecture of the folk dwelling in classical traditional form, reflecting the aesthetic ideals, tastes and preferences of their time are considered. The relevance of the selected topic is determined by the need to preserve the unique cultural heritage for solving socio-cultural and socio-economic problems. The national traditions of the becoming and formation of housing within the geographical boundaries of the study, namely the Kuban and Belarus, in the process of a long period of development of the material and spiritual culture of these regions are revealed. The fundamental, enduring characteristics of the structure of the urban and rural settlements under investigation are indicated. The analysis of local natural materials, the availability of which in these regions was reflected in the arrangement of residential buildings, is made. A special role belongs to the spatial organization of residential areas, settlement systems, which are a territorially integrated and functionally interconnected set of settlements.

Keywords: dwelling, evolution, tradition, culture, architecture, Belarus, Kuban, state.

For citation: Subbotin O.S. Architecture of national dwelling of Kuban and Belarus in the context of historical process. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 7, pp. 3–9. (In Russian).

References
1. Subbotin O.S. The most important stages of the development of the Kuban and the strategy of its development. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. No. 2–2, pp. 14–18. (In Russian).
2. Tradicionnoe zhilishche narodov Rossii: XIX – nachalo XX v. [Traditional dwelling of the peoples of Russia: XIX – early XX century]. Moscow: Nauka, 1997. 397 p.
3. Kubanskie stanicy: ehtnicheskie i kul’turno-bytovye processy na Kubani [Kuban villages: ethnic and cultural processes in the Kuban]. Moscow: Nauka, 1967. 355 p.
4. Subbotin O.S. The development of settlement systems and distinctive features in the layout of populated areas of the Kuban. Zhilishnoe Stroitelstvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 11, pp. 16–22. (In Russian).
5. Subbotin O.S. The folk architecture of the traditional Kuban dwelling. Zhilishnoe Stroitelstvo [Housing construction]. 2012. No. 8, pp. 18–22. (In Russian).
6. Kositsky Y.V. Arhitekturno-planirovochnoe razvitie gorodov [Architectural and planning development of cities]. Moscow: Arhitektura-S, 2005. 648 p.
7. Chanturia Ju.V. Gradostroitel’noe iskusstvo Belarusi vtoroj poloviny XVI – pervoj poloviny XIX v.: Srednevekovoe nasledie, Renessans, barokko, klassicizm [Town-planning art of Belarus in the second half of the XVI – first half of the XIX century: Medieval Heritage, Renaissance, Baroque, Classicism]. Minsk: Belorusskaya nauka,, 2005. 375 p.
8. Anikin V.I. Arhitektura sovetskoj Belorussii [The architecture of Soviet Byelorussia]. Moscow: Strojizdat, 1986. 319 p.
9. Lazarev A.G. Arhitektura i gradostroitel’stvo YUga Rossii [Architecture and Urban Planning in the South of Russia]. Rostov-on-Don: Terra, 2003. 314 p.
10. Subbotin O.S. Features of regeneration of quarters of historical building. Zhilishnoe Stroitelstvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 10, pp. 22–25. (In Russian).
E.T. ISMAIL, Magister (yekaterina_ismail@mail.ru), M.V. ZOLOTAREVA, Candidate of Architecture Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (4, 2-ya Krasnoarmeiskaya st., St. Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation)

Traditional Housing of Palestine in the Period from 1516 to 1918 The traditional housing of Palestine in the period of the highest flowering of architecture, which fell on the period of the Ottoman Empire in 1516–1918, is considered. During the period of Turkish domination, Palestinian cities have gone through many stages of prosperity and decline in architecture, and the appearance of cities has changed throughout the whole period of the Ottoman Turks reign. Climatic factors of the organization of housing construction are considered as one of the main in terms of space-planning and structural solutions at the early stage of the city development. The volume-planning solutions of dwellings, traditional construction techniques, finishing materials and architectural details of buildings of 1516–1918 are presented. The periodization of architecture of the period considered, the main typology of residential buildings in accordance with the volume-planning and structural characteristics, as well as the time of construction are given.

Keywords: history of architecture, urban development, living space, architecture, residential buildings.

For citation: Ismail E.T., Zolotareva M.V. Traditional housing of Palestine in the period from 1516 to 1918. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 7, pp. 10–15. (In Russian).

References
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Кровельный бизнес в России стремительно развивается. Основная причина этого роста — большое количество объектов, нуждающихся в реконструкции. Во многих зданиях промышленного и жилого сектора капитальный ремонт не производился со времен СССР. Латочный ремонт, конечно, выполнялся, но должного эффекта достигнуто не было. Многолетний эффективный опыт применения гидроизоляционных мембран при реконструкции старых кровель на битумной основе показывает, что будущее не за ремонтом с заплатками, а за полной за меной существующего гидроизоляционного покрытия плоских кровель на более современный гидроизоляционный материал.
A.A. HOODIN, Candidate of Architecture (hoodin-alex@rambler.ru), O.V. ORELSKAYA, Doctor of Architecture Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (65, Ilyinskaya Street., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation)

Private Houses Architecture of Postmodern Epoch The article has an overview-analytical character of the development of the private residential country houses architecture in foreign countries in the epoch of postmodernism. Currently, it is relevant to comprehend contemporary creative approaches to the artistic aspect of designing suburban individual dwelling. An analysis of the experience of the postmodern leaders, on a number of concrete examples, made it possible to determine the main ways and directions in search of foreign architects – leaders of postmodernism. The break with traditions, with the environment, peculiarities of a particular place, the lack of plastic means of the art arsenal in the new architecture of the beginning of the 21st century in the housing construction under the conditions of economic recession naturally leads to increased attention to the author’s and stylistic concepts of postmodernists when designing houses. The article considers creative approaches of foreign architecture masters, such as postmodern neoclassicism, neotraditionalism, and neo-regionalism, contextualism, metaphor, which make it possible to solve the problems of the artistic side of the architecture of an individual suburban house.

Keywords: postmodernism, foreign architecture, architecture of suburban private residential houses, artistic and stylistic searches, leaders of postmodernism.

For citation: Hoodin A.A., Orelskaya O.V. Private houses architecture of postmodern epoch. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 7, pp. 18–21. (In Russian).

References
1. Jenks Ch. YAzyk arhitektury postmodernizma [Language of architecture of postmodernism]. M.: Stroyizdat, 1985. 135 p.
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7. Hudin A.A. Michael Greyvz’s architecture in aspect of postmodernism. Privolzhskij nauchnyj zhurnal. 2016. No. 1, pp. 139–144.
8. Tovbich V.V. Sovremennaya arhitektura-avtorskij stil’. Sovremennaya arhitektura mira [Modern architecture – author’s style. Modern architecture of the world]. V. 1. Moscow – Saint-Petersburg: Nestor History, 2011. 128 p.
XIA QING, Master of Architecture (xiaqing900520@mail.ru), I.S. RODIONOVSKAYA, Candidate of Architecture (RodiIS@yandex.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Organization of Modern Residential Space in Terms of Eco-Recreation in China The negative ecological quality of the modern architectural environment under the conditions of active development of the sub-urbanization in most large and largest cities of the world, forces the modern architecture to look for new optimization ways of its spatial organization. Principally, this improvement can be carried out by an eco-dominant approach to the formation of any urban-architectural components of settlements – buildings, structures, objects of urban environment. Architecturally, this necessitates the formation of the interior environment in terms of a full-fledged recreational aspect through the formation of special spaces for recreation and leisure. Attention is paid to the formation of landscape objects – recreational “green” buildings, structures and phyto-components for recreation and bio-restorative leisure of the population in the suburban environment by integrating the architecture and nature in a single architectural space – buildings and structures, in order to form a highly efficient eco-bio environment, protected against negative anthropogenic influences. Currently, the «green architecture» direction requires the development of scientific foundations of architectural space formation. In the XXI century, this is the most effective way to optimize the urban environment necessary for the megapolises of countries which are in deep environmental crisis.

Keywords: landscape-recreational space, eco-recreation, greened space, urbanization, recreation environment, sub-urbanization, greening of buildings, landscape-nature space, urban development, ecological crisis.

For citation: Qing Xia, Rodionovskaya I.S. Organization of modern residential space in terms of eco-recreation in China. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 7, pp. 22–26. (In Russian).

References
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L.Yu. VOROPAEV1, General Architect (voropaev.lev@gmail.com); V.P. MAMUGINA2, Candidate of Sciences (Pedagogical Science)
1 OOO “Proekt Zebra” (36А, Mikluho-Maklaya Street, 117279, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Tambov State Technical University (106, Sovetskaya Street, Tambov, 392000, Russian Federation)

Design Problems in the BIM-Environment The article considers design problems in the BIM-environment. Modern design is moving from the design of drawings in two-dimensional space to information modeling. Design in the BIM environment makes it possible to optimize the process of design and implementation of an object. The transition to information modeling involves solving a number of problems. Such problems include: retraining and training of specialists; organization of interaction of designers in the software complex; change in the approach to design. This study provides an example of the transition of a design organization to a new software environment; experience in retraining of employees; the difficulties encountered during the transition period and after the introduction of software based on BIM are considered.

Keywords: BIM, design, software complex, information modeling, Archicad, Revit, BIM-manager.

For citation: Voropaev L.Yu., Mamugina V.P. Design problems in the BIM-environment. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 7, pp. 27–31. (In Russian).

References
1. Solovieva E.V., Selvian M.A. The main stages of the introduction of information modeling technology (BIM) in construction organizations. Nauchnye trudy KubGTU. 2016. No. 11, pp. 110–119. (In Russian).
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4. Barabanova T.A. Use of BIM-technology in the technical maintenance of buildings. Integraciya partnerstvo i innovacii v stroitelnoj nauke i obrazovanii sbornik materialov mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii. Nacionalnyj issledovatelskij Moskovskij gosudarstvennyj stroitelnyj universitet. 2017, pp. 807–808. (In Russian).
5. Ginzburg A.V. BIM-technologies during the life cycle of the construction site. Informacionnye resursy Rossii. 2016. No. 5 (153), pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
6. Valter F., ZHeltenkov A.V. Management of projects for the development of medical facilities on the basis of informationmodeling (Building Information Modeling – BIM). Vestnik MGOU. Seriya Ekonomika. 2015. No. 4, pp. 60–71. (In Russian).
7. Poluektov V. V. The Russian experience of applying BIM in architecture and town planning. Sovremennye tekhnologii i metodiki v arhitekturno-hudozhestvennom obrazovanii materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-metodicheskoj konferencii. 2016, рp. 179–181. (In Russian).
8. SHarmanov V.V., Mamaev A.E., Bolejko A.S., Zolotova Yu.S. Difficulties of phased implementation of BIM. Stroitelstvo unikalnyh zdanij i sooruzhenij. 2015. № 10 (37), pp. 108–120. (In Russian).
9. Reshetnyak S.P., Vasilev S.E. Experience in the use of BIMtechnologies in the practice of LLC «SPB-GIPROSHAKHT”. Gornyj informacionno-analiticheskij byulleten nauchnotekhnicheskij zhurnal. 2015, pp. 327–334. (In Russian).
10. Shirinyan E.A. The experience of the study assignment in the master’s program of MARS on the topic of information modeling of buildings (BIM). Modern technologies and techniques in architectural and artistic education. Materials of the international scientific-methodical conference. 2016, pp. 199–200. (In Russian).
11. Sakmarova L.A., Bahmisova M.A. Application of BIMtechnologies in the educational environment of the building faculty of the Chuvash State University. Zhilishnoe Stroitelstvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 10, pp. 11–17. (In Russian).
V.A. ZEMTSOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.A. SHMAROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.V. ZEMTSOV, Engineer, V.A. KOZLOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)

Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation) Method of Calculating Time of Sun Effect Duration for Rooms of Residential and Public buildings and Territories with Solar Maps The sequence of calculation of insolation duration of rooms of residential and public buildings and territories according to solar maps for solar maps included in the new GOST P 57792–2017 «Buildings and Structures. Calculation Methods for the Determination of Insolation” with the use of a shadow goniometer is stated. The procedure of calculating the shadow angles for light openings and the construction of shading cartograms of the light opening is defined. The solar maps with equidistant almukantarats developed for various geographic latitudes of Russia are provided. The prospects of the direction of calculation of insolation duration by means of solar maps making it possible to determine both the insolation duration, and the duration of sun protection not only for normative calculation days and months of the year but also for calculation days of any month of the year are noted.

Keywords: solar map, light opening, clerestory, calculation point, shadow angle, master plan, situation plan, shadow goniometer, sun protection, insolation, geographic latitude, shadowing.

For citation: Zemtsov V.A., Shmarov I.A., Zemtsov V.V., Kozlov V.A. Method of calculating time of sun effect duration for rooms of residential and public buildings and territories with solar maps. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 7, pp. 32–37. (In Russian).

References
1. Shmarov I.A., Zemtsov V.A., Zemtsov V.V., Kozlov V.A., The updated method calculating time of sun duration for rooms of residential and publicbuildings and territories with insolation charts. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Constraction]. 2018. No. 6, рр. 24–31. (In Russian).
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7. Kuprijanov V.N., Halikova F.R. About some shortcomings of norms and techniques of insolation and natural lighting. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 50–53. (In Russian).
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N.S. SOKOLOV1,2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Associate Professor, Director (forstnpf@mail.ru, ns_sokolov@mail.ru)
1 I.N. Ulianov Chuvash State University (15, Moskovskiy pr., 428015, Cheboksary, Russian Federation)
2 OOO NPF «FORST» (109a, Kalinina Street, Cheboksary, 428000, Russian Federation)

Method for Calculation of Settlements of Large-Size Foundations under Increased Loads

The large operational experience and the results of long-term observations of the settlements of large-size foundations under increased loads show that the actual settlements are much larger than the calculated values determined by the calculation formula for settlement based on the model of a linearly-deformed layer of finite thickness. The material of the actual settlements of the constructed objects shows that the settlements curves consist of linear and nonlinear sections. The linear section takes place for medium-compressible soils in the first half of the mean pressure PIImt. When PIImt is greater than 250–300 kPa, the settlement velocity begins to increase as the load increases to its full calculated value. Then the settlement velocity passes to the stabilization stage. The increase in settlements velocities should be explained by the increasing role of horizontal displacements in the general deformation of the base.

Keywords: non-uniformity of deformations, horizontal displacements, settlement velocity, linearly-deformed layer of finite thickness.

For citation: Sokolov N.S. Method for calculation of settlements of large-size foundations under increased loads. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 38–42. (In Russian).

References
1. Sokolov N.S. Long-term studies of the processes of deformation of foundations under heavy loads. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 3–8. (In Russian).
2. Sokolov N.S. Forecast of settlement of large-size foundations at high pressures on the base. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 3–8. (In Russian).
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I.A. LADNYKH, Engineer (irenlad@yandex.ru) Center of Scientific Studies and Test of Building Structures, Research Division, Belarusian National Technical University (65, Nezavisimosty Avenue, Minsk, 220013, Belarus)

Experimental Studies of Operation of Timber Compressed-Bent Elements of Built-Up Section with Ties in the Form of “CF-Casings” Pliable connections of wood composite compressed-bent elements with the use of unidirectional carbon-fiber (CF) tapes on the epoxy matrix are considered. The goal is set, tasks are developed for the implementation of the experimental study of wood composite compressed-bent elements. The method of manufacturing and the process of hardening of wooden samples are described. The technique of field studies was developed: the scheme of loading of a compressed-bent wooden rod was proposed. The results of experimental studies of wooden composite compressed-bent elements of full-scale dimensions are presented. A comparison of the results of experimental study and computer analysis of the wooden composite compressed-bent element with the pliable tiess in the form of unidirectional carbon fiber clips on the epoxy matrix is carried out. The ductility of the connection made of unidirectional carbon-fiber tapes with the epoxy matrix for wood composite compressed-bent elements is estimated.

Keywords: ductile connections, composite casings, wooden elements, timber, bearing capacity, joints, tests.

For citation: Ladnykh I.A. Experimental studies of operation of timber compressed-bent elements of built-up section with ties in the form of “CF-Casings”. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 7, pp. 43–46. (In Russian).

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E.V. NIKONOVA, Engineer (ivanov_ii@pochta.ru), P.O. VECHTOMOV, 4th year Student, Specialist (pavel.vechtomov@gmail.com), I.A. LADNYH, Engineer (irenlad@yandex.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (12, Yaroslavskoye Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Technical and Economical Indicators of Enclosing Structures for Low-Rise Construction The comparative analysis of 6 types of enclosing structures for low-rise construction – masonry, foam concrete block masonry, glued beam, timber frame, LSTC – light steel thin-walled structures, as well as the relatively new material of GWP – glued wood panel having a high degree of prefabrication and making it possible to use substandard plywood in its structure is presented. GWP can be adapted to the climatic conditions of the region, for example, contain a heat insulation layer. The analysis was carried out according to the five-point scale for the following groups of parameters: physical parameters, construction conditions, the availability of additional works and maintainability, economic parameters, probabilistic indicators. The results obtained make it possible to recommend the glued veneer panel to the widespread use in individual housing construction; after emergency situations when it is necessary to quickly build fit dwelling houses suitable for living ; for the erection of buildings in hard-to-reach areas.

Keywords: glued veneer panel, light steel thin-walled structures, foam blocks, brick, timber strip, timber frame, prefabricated houses.

For citation: Nikonova E.V., Vechtomov P.O., Ladnyh I.A. Technical and economical indicators of enclosing structures for low-rise construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 7, pp. 47–50. (In Russian).

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