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Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №6

Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №6
June, 2018

Table of contents

E.G. MALYAVINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. SAVINA1, Master; Yu.N. LEVINA2, Engineer
1 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Comparison of Economic Indicators of Schemes of Supply Air Handling for Covered Aqua Park The purpose of the article is to compare the cumulative discounted costs of air drying in the bath hall of the Aqua Park with three modes of the use of supply air dryers as part of air conditioning units. Three configurations of installations are considered: with a water air cooler as a desiccant; with a heat pump as a desiccant and a unit in which for drying the supply air during the working time for the aqua park, the heat pump works only in the warm period of the year. In non-working hours the heat pump is involved all year-round. The cumulative discounted costs for all three options are calculated. For the hall with swimming baths of the covered aqua park, the application of a heat pump for supply air drying is economically feasible compared to a surface air cooler if in the working time, the heat pump is only used during the warm season and during the non-working hours throughout the year.

Keywords: aqua park, air dryer, repeatability of temperature combinations, relative humidity, operation conditions, energy expenditures, cumulative discounted costs.

For citation: Malyavina E.G., Savina A.V., Levina Yu.N. Comparison of economic indicators of schemes of supply air handling for covered aqua park. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 3–5. (In Russian).

References
1. Alejnikov A.Y., Fodorov A.B. Evaporation of moisture from water surface of indoor water park. StroyProfil’. 2013. No. 7, pp. 35–39 (In Russian).
2. Harriman, L.G., Plager D., Kosar D. R. Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air. ASHRAE Journal. 2014. No. 29(11), pp. 37–45.
3. Swimming Pools for Sports and Recreating. Santehnika. 2017. No. 3, pp. 52–57. (In Russian).
4. Ilina T.N., Glebova O.V., Nebyltsova I.V. Innovative methods of microclimatic support in halls of indoor swimming pools. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2016. No. 8, pp. 113– 116. (In Russian).
5. Xiaojun Ma, Yiwen Jian, Yue Cao. A new national design code for indoor air environment of sports buildings. Facilities. 2016. No. 13, pp. 52–58.
6. Ushanov Е.А. Organization of eff ective air distribution in swimming pool. Santehnika. Otoplenie. Kondicionirovanie. 2017. No. 2, pp. 70–72. (In Russian).
7. Malyavina Е.G., Kruchkova О.Yu. Kozlov V.V. Comparison of Climate Models for Calculating Energy Consumption by Central Systems of Air Conditioning. Zhilishcnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 6, pp. 24–26. (In Russian).
8. Malyavina Е.G. Revealing of Economic Reasonability of Heat Insulation of Three-Storey Building’s External Enclosing Structures. Zhilishcnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 6, pp. 13–15. (In Russian).
E.V. KORKINA1, 2 Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (Elena.v.korkina@gmail.com)
1 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Criterion of Efficiency of Glass Units Replacing in the Building with the Purpose of Energy Saving The use of energy-saving glazing in buildings contributes to the reduction in transmission heat losses and, consequently, energy savings for heating, but it should be taken into account that such glazing reduces the heat input to the building from solar radiation. To determine the feasibility of replacing the glazing in the building with energy-saving glazing, a comprehensive indicator is needed to assess the effectiveness of its application. This paper presents a criterion assessment based on the calculation of heat gain and heat losses for the whole building through filling light openings, introduces the concept of radiation-temperature coefficient of climate and heat transfer coefficient from solar radiation through the window unit. The calculation is made on the example of the building, conditionally located in three cities with different climates, a conclusion about the acceptable use of energy-efficient glazing, except for one option, is drawn.

Keywords: energy-saving glazing, low-emission coating, heat gains, solar radiation, criterion, energy saving.

For citation: Korkina E.V. Criterion of efficiency of glass units replacing in the building with the purpose of energy saving. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 6–9. (In Russian).

References
1. Kupriyanov V.N., Sedova F.R. Justification and development of a power method of calculation of insolation of premisesю Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 83–87. (In Russian).
2. Stetskiy S.V., Kuznetsova P.I. Lighting, sun-protection and informative qualities of windows of a nonconventional form in civil buildings of the countries with hot solar climate. Nauchnoe obozrenie. 2017. No. 10, pp. 20–25. (In Russian).
3. Gagarin V.G., Korkina E.V., Shmarov I.A. Heat gain and heat loss through glazing with high thermal properties. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2017. No. 2, pp. 106–110. (In Russian).
4. Krigger J., Waggoner T. Passive Solar Design for the Home. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse. DOE/GO-102001-1105.
5. O’Brien W., Kesik T., Athienitis A. The use of solar design days in a passive solar house conceptual design tool. 3rd Canadian Solar Buildings Conference Fredericton. N.B. 2008. August 20–22, pp. 164–171.
6. Korkina E.V., Gorbarenko E.V., Gagarin V.G., Shmarov I.A. Basic Ratios for Calculation of Irradiation of Solar Radiation of Walls of Detached Buildings. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 27–33. (In Russian).
7. Ivanova S.M. Estimation of background diffuse irradiance on orthogonal surfaces under partially obstructed anisotropic sky. Part 1 – Vertical surfaces. Solar Energy. 2013, pp. 376– 391.
8. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V., Neklyudov A.Yu. Accounting of heat-conducting inclusions when determining thermal load of the system of heating of the building. BST. 2016. No. 2 (978), pp. 57–61. (In Russian).
9. Zemtsov V.A., Gagarina E.V. Сalculation-experimental method determination of the general coefficient light transmission window blocks. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 3, pp. 472–476. (In Russian).
10. Nauchno-prikladnoi spravochnik po klimatu SSSR. Seriya 3. Mnogoletnie dannye. [The scientific and application-oriented reference manual on climate of the USSR. Series 3. Long-term data.] Part 1–6. Iss. 1–34. Sankt-Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat. 1989–1998. (In Russian).
I.L. SHUBIN1, Corresponding Member of RAACS, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Director; А.V. KALAYDO2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kalaydo18@mail.ru)
1 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)
2 Luhuns Taras Shevchenko National University (2, Oboronnaya Street, 91011, Luhansk) Ensuring the Radiation Safety of Construction Projects at the Design Stage The paper proposes a principally new approach to ensuring the required level of radon safety of construction objects at their design stage. To describe the radon situation in the premises of the lower storey, a mathematical model of two-dimensional stationary diffusive radon transport in the «soil-atmosphere-building» media system was developed. Due to its use, dependences of the radon load on the underground enclosing structures upon the building structural characteristics and the soil block physical properties were obtained. It is shown that in the absence of radiation anomalies, the radon safety of the construction object should be provided exclusively by rational design of the floor structure. An algorithm of the use of this mathematical model at the stage of engineering-ecological surveys for prediction of radon levels in the building after its construction is proposed, its use when realizing the principally new approach to the assessment of the potential radon hazard of the designed buildings is substantiated. This approach does not require the measurement of radon flux density at construction sites.

Keywords: radon, enclosing structures, diffusive transport, soil, indoor air, entry, building, radon situation, mathematical model.

For citation: Shubin I.L., Kalaydo А.V. Ensuring the radiation safety of construction projects at the design stage. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 10–14. (In Russian).

References
1. Sidyakin P. A., Anyan E. G., Fomenko N. A. Vahylevych N. V. The formation of levels of irradiation of the population of the region of Caucasian Mineral Waters due to the radioactivity of rocks. Izvestiya vyisshih uchebnyih zavedeniy. Geologiya i razvedka. 2016. No. 1, pp. 66–70. (In Russian).
2. Yarmoshenko I.V., Onishchenko D.A., Zhukovsky M.V. A survey of the levels of accumulation of radon in residential buildings in the city of Yekaterinburg. Voprosy radiatsionnoy bezopasnosti. 2010. No. 3 (59), pp. 62–69. (In Russian).
3. Mironchik A.F. Natural radioactive substances in the atmosphere and air of residential premises of the Republic of Belarus. Vestnik Belorussko-Rossiyskogo universiteta. 2007. No. 4 (17), pp. 162–171. (In Russian).
4. IAEA SAFETY STANDARDS for protecting people and the environment. Protection of the Public against Exposure Indoors due to Natural Sources of Radiation. Draft Safety Guide No. DS421. Vienna, April 2012. 92 p.
5. Arvela N. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modeling and dose comparisons (Academic dissertation) STUK-a124. Helsinki, 1995. 87 p.
6. Gulabyanz L.A. Radon Danger Level. Terms, criteria, features. ANRI. 2013. No. 1, pp. 12–14. (In Russian).
7. Miklyaev P. S. What to do? Or «radon» crisis in radiation surveys. ANRI. 2005. No. 3, pp. 60–64. (In Russian).
8. Miklyaev P.S. mechanisms of formation of radon flow from the soil surface and approaches to the assessment of radon danger of residential areas. ANRI. 2007. No. 2, pp. 2–16. (In Russian).
9. Gulabyanz L.A. the Principle of development of new standards for the design of radon protection of buildings. Blagopriyatnaya sreda zhiznedeyatelnosti cheloveka. Stroitelnyie nauki. 2009. No. 5, pp. 461–467. (In Russian).
10. Gulabyanz L.A., Caleido A.V., Semenova M.N. Impact assessment of the effects of thermal and barodiffusion on the transfer of radon in a porous medium. ANRI. 2018. No. 1, pp. 62–69. (In Russian).
V.V. BRYZGALIN, Engineer (vlad.niisf@yandex.ru) Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Thermal Balance of the Trombe Wall in the Climate of Central Russia One of the systems of passive solar heating – the Trombe wall – is considered. It belongs to the elements of the solar architecture and is used as a building envelope to reduce energy costs for its heating and ventilation. The existing empirical formulas for the calculation of the Trombe wall have satisfactory accuracy only for the countries of Europe and the USA. In addition, they are tied to certain constructive solutions that are not suitable in the climate of central Russia. The analysis of the thermophysical processes taking place in the construction and the influence of climatic factors on them was carried out. The results of numerical modeling of the design in the climatic conditions of central Russia and the results of calculating the savings in thermal energy when using the design in buildings of different energy efficiency are presented.

Keywords: Trombe wall; solar architecture; solar energy; energy efficiency; thermophysical processes; heating.

For citation: Bryzgalin V.V. Thermal balance of the Trombe wall in the climate of central Russia. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 15–18. (In Russian).

References
1. Bryzgalin V.V., Soloviev A.K. The use of passive solar heating systems as part of the passive house. Vestnik MGSU. 2018, Vol. 13. No. 4 (115), pp. 472–481. (In Russian).
2. Soloviev A.K. «Passive houses» and energy efficiency of their architectural and structural elements. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 4, pp. 46–53. (In Russian).
3. Kazancev P.A., Knyajev V.V., Loschenkov V.V., Kirik N.S. The study of the traditional architectural model of passive solar heating on the example of an experimental individual house Solar-Sb. Vestnik injenernoi shkoli DVFU. 2016. No. 2 (27), pp. 116–127. (In Russian).
4. Verkhovsky A.A., Zimin A.N., Potapov S.S. The applicability of modern translucent walling for climatic regions of Russia. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 6, pp. 16–19. (In Russian).
5. Verkhovsky A.A., Shekhovtsov A.V. A doube skin facade thermal study in the Russian climatic conditions. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. Vol. 1. No. 3, pp. 215–220. (In Russian).
6. Shakirov V.A., Artemiev A.Yu. Accounting weather station data in the analysis of solar power systems application. Vestnik IrGTU. 2015. No. 3 (98), pp. 227–232. (In Russian).
7. Savin V.K. Stroitelnaya fizika: energoperenos, energoeffektivnost, energosberejenie [Building physics: energy transfer, energy efficiency, energy saving]. Moscow: Lazur’. 2005. 432 p.
8. Malyavina E.G. Teplopoteri zdaniya: spravochnoe posobie [Heat losses of the building: reference book]. Moskow. AVOK-PRESS. 2007. 144 p.
9. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V., Lushin K.I. Air Velocity in Air Cavity of Curtain Wall System at Free Ventilation. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 10, pp. 14–17. (In Russian).
10. Umnyakova N.P. Heat transfer in a ventilated air gap of ventragardens and taking account of the emissivity of surfaces. Izvestya vuzov. Tehnologija tekstil’noj promyshlennosti. 2016. No. 5 (365), pp. 199–205. (In Russian).
11. Umnyakova N.P., Butovskiy I.N., Chebotarev A.G. Development of the regulation methods of heat shield of energy efficient buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 19–23. (In Russian).
K.S. ANDREYTSEVA, Engineer-Mathematician (9259988800@mail.ru) Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Features of Calculation of Temperature Fields When Designing Enclosing Structures The thermal imaging survey of the structure, according to which was established the decrease in the surface temperature in the local sections of the structure, was analyzed. On the basis of this survey, a numerical simulation of this structure was carried out with boundary conditions corresponding to the climatic conditions of Moscow as well as according to the design temperatures adopted during thermal mapping. Results of the comparative study of the calculation of temperature fields and the thermal imaging of the structural component studied are presented. For taking into account the contiguity of various materials of the construction to each other, so the thermal conductivity of these materials in a multilayer structure, as well as the features of the installation of the construction, certain «assumptions» were made to the heat engineering calculation. The nature of the temperature distribution in the thickness and on the surface of the construction was studied in accordance with the established assumptions.

Keywords: temperature-humidity regime, thermal bridge, heat transfer, ventilated facade, dew point, thermo-technical calculation.

For citation: Andreytseva K.S. Features of calculation of temperature fields when designing enclosing structures. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 19–23. (In Russian).

References
1. Umnyakova N.P., Andreytseva K.S., Smirnov V.A. Heat transfer on the surface of protruding elements of external fences. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Tekhnologiya tekstil’noy promyshlennosti. 2016. No. 4 (364), pp. 157–161. (In Russian).
2. Kozlov V.V., Andreytseva K.S. Development of the engineering method for calculating the minimum temperature on the internal surface of the structure in the zone of the balcony plate to the wall. BST: Byulleten’ stroitel’noy tekhniki. 2017. No. 6 (994), pp. 38–39. (In Russian).
3. Umnyakova N.P., Andreytseva K.S., Smirnov V.A. Features of the Bio criterion for the protruding elements of a building. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Tekhnologiya tekstil’noy promyshlennosti. 2017. No. 2 (368), pp. 330–335. (In Russian).
4. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V., Lushin K.I., Plushenko N.Y. Allowance for heat-conducting inclusions and a ventilated layer in calculations of resistance to heat transfer of a wall with a hinged facade system (NFS). Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 6, pp. 32–35. (In Russian).
5. Markov S.V., Shubin L.I., Andreytseva K.S. Mathematical modeling for calculation of three-dimensional temperature fields of the interface unit of the outer wall with a balcony plate and a monolithic inter-floor overlap. Nauchnoye obozreniye. 2014. No. 7–1, pp. 190–196. (In Russian).
6. Andreytseva K.S., Yarmakovskiy V.N., Kadiev D.Z. Influence of bonds-connectors of concrete layers in three-layered wall panels on the heat engineering uniformity of a structure. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 7, pp. 38–44. (In Russian).
7. Gagarin V.G., Plushenko N.Y. Determination of the thermal resistance of a ventilated layer of the NSF. Stroitel’stvo: Nauka i obrazovaniye. 2015. No. 1, pp. 1–3. (In Russian).
8. Kochev AG, Sergienko A.S. Solution of the problem of calculating temperature fields of window slopes of buildings. Nauchnyy vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Fizikokhimicheskiye problemy i vysokiye tekhnologii stroitel’nogo materialovedeniya.. 2014. No. 2 (9), pp. 67–76. (In Russian).
9. Krainov D.V., Sadykov R.A. Determination of additional heat fluxes through elements of a fragment of the enclosing structure. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 10–12. (In Russian).
УДК 628.921/928
И.А. ШМАРОВ, канд. техн. наук (shmarovigor@yandex.ru), В.А. ЗЕМЦОВ, канд. техн. наук, В.В. ЗЕМЦОВ, инженер, В.А. КОЗЛОВ, канд. техн. наук Научно-исследовательский институт строительной физики РААСН (127238, г. Москва, Локомотивный пр., 21)

Обновленная методика расчета продолжительности инсоляции помещений и территорий по инсоляционным графикам

Рассмотрена обновленная методика расчета продолжительности инсоляции помещений жилых и общественных зданий и территорий с помощью инсоляционных графиков, вошедшая в новый ГОСТ Р 57792–2017 «Здания и сооружения. Методы определения инсоляции». Изложена последовательность расчета продолжительности инсоляции. Приведены инсоляцион- ные графики, разработанные применительно к расчетным дням для различных географических широт России. Определен порядок расчета теневых углов для световых проемов, расположенных на балконах и лоджиях, световых проемов мансард, расположенных в наклонной плоскости, зенитных фонарей. Обоснована необходимость гармонизировать в дальнейшем ГОСТ Р 57795–2017 с вышедшим в 2017 г. изменением № 1 СанПиН 2.2.1/2.1.1.1076–01, изменившим расчетные дни начала и окончания периода инсоляции для центральной географической зоны России. Применение методики будет спо- собствовать повышению точности расчетов продолжительности инсоляции помещений и более полному учету ресурсов светового климата района строительства.

Ключевые слова: инсоляция, географическая широта, затенение, инсоляционный график, часовые линии, световой про- ем, зенитный фонарь, расчетная точка, теневой угол, генплан, ситуационный план, плотность застройки.

Для цитирования: Шмаров И.А., Земцов В.А., Земцов В.В., Козлов В.А., Обновленная методика расчета продолжитель- ности инсоляции помещений жилых и общественных зданий и территорий по инсоляционным графикам // Жилищное строительство. 2018. № 6. С. 24–31.

References 1. Shmarov I.A., Zemtsov V.A., Korkina E.V. Insolation Practice of Regulation and Calculation. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 7, pp. 48–53. (In Russian). 2. Fokin S.G., Bobkova T.E., Shishova M.S. Assessment of the hygienic principles of rationing of insolation in the conditions of the large city on the example of Moscow. Gigiena i sanitarija. 2003. No. 2, рр. 9–10. (In Russian). 3. Zemtsov V.A., Gagarina E.V. Ecological aspects of insolation of residential and public buildings. BST: Bjulleten’ stroitel’noj tehniki. 2012. No. 2, pp. 38–41. (In Russian). 4. Zemtsov V.A., Gagarin V.G. Insolation of residential and public buildings. Prospects of development. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2009. No. 5, pp. 147–151. (In Russian). 5. Shhepetkov N.I. About some shortcomings of norms and techniques of insolation and natural lighting. Svetotehnika. 2006. No. 1, pp. 55–56. (In Russian). 6. Kuprijanov V.N., Halikova F.R. About some shortcomings of norms and techniques of insolation and natural lighting. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 50–53. (In Russian). 7. Danzig N. M. Gigiena osveshenya I insolyazii zdanii i territorii zastroyki gorodov [Hygiene of daylighting and insolation of buildings and urban territories of the cities]. Moscow: BRE, 1971. (In Russian). 8. Boubekri M., Hull R.B., Boyer L.L. Impact of window size and sunlight penetration on office workers’ mood and satisfaction. a novel way of assessing sunlight. Environment and Behavior. 1991. V. 23. No. 4, pp. 474–493. 9. Daylight, sunlight and solar gain in the urban environment. Littlefair P. Solar Energy. 2001. V. 70. No. 3, pp. 177–185. 10. Perceived performance of daylighting systems: lighting efficacy and agreeableness. Fontoynont M. Solar Energy. 2002. V. 73. No. 2, pp. 83–94. 11. El Diasty R. Variable positioning of the sun using time duration. Renewable Energy. 1998. V. 14. No. 1–4, pp. 185–191.
V.A. SMIRNOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (belohvost@list.ru) Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Vibro-Protection of Subway Upper Track Structure of with the Use of the Structure of “Mass-Spring” Type Subway lines are sources of increased vibration, which is transmitted through the ground to the buildings located up to 40 m from the tunnel axis and spreading over it, often exceeding the vibration limits specified by sanitary standards or mechanical safety requirements. Reducing exceeding values on the designed or operating metro lines is possible by application of a vibration-isolation of the upper track structure, the most effective of which is the «mass-spring» system or “floating slab”. The article gives an analysis of the current analogues under operation, as well as the provisions for the design of this system subjected to the moving load as an infinitely long beam lying on a nonlinear-elastic foundation. The vibration isolation efficiency of this system during the movement of trains is estimated.

Keywords: vibration, mass-spring system, upper track structure, subway lines, vibration isolation.

For citation: Smirnov V.A. Vibro-protection of subway upper track structure of with the use of the structure of “mass-spring” type. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 32–35. (In Russian).

References
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3. Smirnov V.A., Tsukernikov I.Ye. Experimental studies of vibration levels of floors of residential buildings caused by the movement of underground trains. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya. 2016. No. 4 (66). pp. 85–92. (In Russian).
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16. Lombaert G., Degrande G., Vanhauwere B., Vandeborght B., François S. The control of groundborne vibrations from railway traffic by means of continuous floating slabs. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 2006. No. 297, pp. 946–961.
17. Ruge P., Birk C. A comparison of infinite Timoshenko and Euler–Bernoulli beam models on Winkler foundation in the frequency- and time-domain. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 2007. No. 304, pp. 932–947.
L.K. BOGOMOLOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) (lb102@rambler.ru), V.D. ILNITSKY, Engineer (eagle_19@mail.ru) Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Method of Accelerated Evaluation of Durability of Aluminum Profile under the Influence of Climatic Factors The method of accelerated evaluation of durability of aluminum profiles of translucent enclosing structures (TES) for facade glazing under the influence of climatic factors is proposed. The essence of the method is to conduct laboratory tests with cyclic effects of variable positive and negative temperatures, humidity, ultraviolet radiation, poorly aggressive chemical media (solutions), and salt fog. The method is developed with due regard for the requirements of GOST 22233–2001 on profiles pressed from aluminum alloys for translucent enclosing structures. The criteria for assessing the durability of aluminum profiles in terms of adhesion, color characteristics by the coordinate method, gloss, bearing capacity of the connection zones at shear and transverse tension, the requirements for accelerated testing, testing equipment, methods for evaluation of test results are established. On the basis of the developed method, the standard of NIISF RAACN was created.

Keywords: aluminium profiles, durability, test procedure, translucent enclosing structures, climatic cyclic impacts, criteria of assessment, standard.

For citation: Bogomolova L.K., Ilnitsky V.D. Method of accelerated evaluation of durability of aluminum profile under the influence of climatic factors. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).

References
1. Akhmyarov T.A., Spiridonov A.V., Shubin I.L. New generation of the energy efficient ventilated translucent front designs with the fissile recuperation of a heat flux. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 1, pp. 18–23. (In Russian).
2. Akhmyarov T.A., Spiridonov A.V., Shubin I.L. New decisions for translucent designs. Svetotekhnika. 2015. No. 2, pp. 51–56. (In Russian).
3. Buzalo N.A., Tsaritova N.T., Omarov Z.M. Modeling of knots of the basic bearing elements of the multystoried building with the suspended floors. BST. 2017. No. 6 (994), pp. 82–84. (In Russian).
4. Orlova S.S., Aligadzhiyev Sh.L. Translucent facades in the modern construction. Tendencies of development of construction, heatgas supply and power supply: Collection of works of a conference. Saratov. 2016, pp. 181–184. (In Russian).
5. Akhmyarov T.A., Spiridonov A.V., Choubin I.L. The energy efficient ventilated translucent and front designs with the fissile recuperation of a heat flux. Stroitelnye materialy, oboruduvanye, tekhnologii XXI veka. 2015. No. 7–8, pp. 32–37. (In Russian).
6. Spiridonov A.V., Choubin I.L. Development of translucent designs in Russia. Svetotekhnika. 2017. No. 3, pp. 46–51. (In Russian).
7. Kiryukhantsev E.E., Firsova T.F., Mironenko R.V., Ushakov V. A. A range of application of the aluminum glazed partitions in buildings with atriums. Tekhnologii Tekhnosfernoi Besopasnosti. 2015. No. 3 (61), pp. 47–51. (In Russian).
8. Tretiakov V.I., Bogomolova L.K., Guzova E.S. Physicomechanical criteria for evaluation of durability of sealing laying for window, door blocks and structural glazing of facades. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya. 2016. No. 3 (65), pp. 165–169. (In Russian).
9. Bogomolova L.K., Guzova E.S., Ilnitskii V.D. About durability of elements of the translucent protecting designs for modern front systems under the influence of climatic factors. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya. 2017. No. 3 (71), pp. 112–120. (In Russian).
10. Gagarin V.G., Shirokov S.A. Calculation of air temperature of the glazed loggia for determination of energy saving effect. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya. 2017. No. 3 (71), pp. 36–42. (In Russian).
11. Bezrukov A.Yu., Verkhovsky A.A., Royfe V.S. Technical regulation in the field of front translucent designs. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya. 2016. No. 3 (65), pp. 96–101. (In Russian).
12. Gagarin V.G., Korkina E.V. Assessment of thermal stability of the protecting designs and rooms of buildings by a frequency method. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya. 2016. No. 3 (65), pp. 43–48. (In Russian).
E.P. CHERNYSHOVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy) (ch-elvira@bk.ru) I.U. NIKISHAEVA2, engineer (nikishaeva_96@mail.ru) V.E. CHERNYSHOV3, student (ch_vlad99@mail.ru)
1 Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University (11, st. Uritsky, Magnitogorsk, 455000, Russian Federation)
2 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)
3 Saint-Petersburg Mining University (2, 21 line, Vasilievsky Island, Saint-Petersburg, 199106, Russian Federation)

Architectural Spaces of the Pre-Christian Period
The research is devoted to the architectural spaces study of the pre-Christian period. The analysis of their evolution at the most ancient stages of mankind development is carried out. The change in the organization of settlements and cities in the pre-Christian period is considered. The analysis of the development of ancient Greek temples is performed. It was determined that in the pre-Christian period the evolution of the human world outlook took place from the mankind dissolution in the nature conditions in the period of ancient settlements and sites of ancient settlements to the opposition of oneself and the world in the archaic period. The structure of settlements and cities, as well as dwellings and religious buildings is considered from the point of view of symbolism. Conclusions are drawn about the development features of architectural spaces at the most ancient stages of human development. The practical significance of the scientific article is that the results of the research can be used in the analysis and design of modern architectural spaces.

Keywords: architectural space, man, pre-Christian period, symbolism, evolution, temple, city.

For citation: Chernyshova E.P., Nikishaeva I.U., Chernyshov V.E. Architectural spaces of the pre-christian period Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 40–43. (In Russian).

References
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2. Grube G., Kuchmar A. Putevoditel’ po arkhitekturnym formam [Guide to architectural forms]. Moscow: Nauka, 2010. 327 p.
3. Araukho I. Prostranstvo. Arkhitekturnyy dizayn [Space. Architectural design]. Moscow: Stroy-servis, 2016. 327 p.
4. Zaborova E.N. Sociology of the city and sociology. Modernization of the national management system: analysis of trends and development forecast. Materials of the All- Russian scientific-practical conference and XII–XIII Dridzev readings. Moscow, 2014. pp. 481-486.
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V.A. AISTOV, Engineer (vaistv@mail.ru) Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Optimization of Noise Mode of the Multifunctional Multimodal Transport Hub “Skolkovo” Issues of providing acoustic comfort conditions on the territory and in buildings of the innovation center “Skolkovo” in the area of the multifunctional multimodal transport hub (MMTH) are considered. Main sources of the impacting external noise, road traffic flows on the Minsk highway and the flows of trains on the railway section of the Belarusian direction, are described. Their statistical noise characteristics based on the results of field measurements in the present period of time and the results of calculations for the future are presented. Distances from external noise sources to the boundaries of acoustic discomfort zones are determined. The results of calculations of the expected equivalent and maximum noise levels at the setting out points on the territory of the MMTH and on the facades of the 21-storey building of the business center «Orbion», the closest to the sources of external noise, and therefore the most exposed to their adverse effects, are analyzed. The set of measures recommended for optimization of the noise mode of MMTH objects is described.

Keywords: transport hub, transport flow, noise characteristic, zone of acoustic discomfort, territory, noise protection, screen, noise protection window, acoustic comfort.

For citation: Aistov V.A. Optimization of noise mode of the multifunctional multimodal transport hub “Skolkovo”. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 44–48. (In Russian).

References
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I.S. RODIONOVSKAYA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (RodiIS@yandex.ru), XIA QING, master of architecture (xiaqing900520@mail.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Ethnic Specificity of Landscape-Recreation Area in Living Environment of China The present sub-urbanistic development of the cities of China connected with the formation of high-rise and high-density development with reducing natural components is accompanied by a sharp deterioration of the environmental ecological quality. Under these conditions, it is extremely necessary to create a full-fledged recreational space for recreation and leisure of the population, at that in the ethno-stylistic of China. Attention is paid to the main stylistic aspects of the organization of the eco-environment of landscape and recreational spaces, historically formed in China. It is shown that modern architects should provide not only the high-rational use of the territory with due regard for the functional purpose of the object and its planning structure, features of affordability and pedestrian movement on the territory, it is necessary to provide reasonable inclusion in the planning structure of the territories of natural components and means of landscape design which significantly reduce the negative impact of anthropogenic environment and negative nature-climatic conditions (excess temperature, humidity, insolation, aeration etc.). The formation of Ecopolis is the main task of modern architecture.

Keywords: suburbanization, ethno-ecology, anthropogenic environment, ecopolis, urban landscape, recreation-landscape environment, Chinese garden, ecoenvironment, stylistic, Chinese garden design, techniques of composition.

For citation: Rodionovskaya I.S., Qing Xia. Ethnic specificity of landscape-recreation area in living environment of China. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 49–55. (In Russian).

References
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