Table of contents
E.N. KIREEVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, OAO “Central Research and Design Institute for Residential and Public Buildings (TSNIIEPzhilishcha)” (Moscow)
Durability of Horizontal Joints of Panels and Multi-hollow Floor Slabs in Large-Panel Buildings
Problems of improving the durability of horizontal platform joints of panel walls in large-panel buildings with a wide spacing of bearing structures, 7.2 m and more, and multi-hollow floor slabs are considered. Proposals for improving the supporting zones of serial multi-hollow slabs produced by some house building factories and multi-hollow slabs of off-shuttering moulding are made.
Keywords: multi-hollow floor slabs, slabs of off-shuttering moulding, platform joint, platform-monolithic joint, bearing capacity of joint.
V.P. BLAZHKO, Candidate of Technical Sciences, OAO “Central Research and Design Institute for Residential and Public Buildings (TSNIIEPzhilishcha)” (Moscow)
About Using Multi-hollow Slabs of Off-Shuttering Moulding in Panel and Frame Buildings
Features of using multihollow slabs of off-shuttering moulding when designing multistory panel and frame buildings are presented. Platform and contact joints of floors resting on wall panels are considered. Examples of the design of supporting junctions and methods of the reinforcement of floors in supporting zones are shown. The technical decision of a floor slab with elements of strengthening and reinforcement of bearing ribs is given. An example of using the slab for construction of balconies and bays by means of the cantilevered projection of a slab edge from the plane of walls and girders is presented.
Keywords: multi-hollow slab, platform joint, contact joint, cantilevered output, sanitary-engineering slab, bay slab.
O.D. SAMARIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, P.V. VINSKY, engineer (email@example.com), the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
Features of Heat Transfer in Modern Power Efficient Glazing
The specificity of heat transfer in modern power efficient structures of window blocks is considered. The connection between the measured resistance of translucent structures to the heat transfer and current temperature of the outside air is shown. Prospects of improving the assessment of thermo-technical properties of fillings of window openings for the purpose of more correct calculation of annual heat consumption for heating of a building and feasibility study of the usage of windows with the increased level of heat protection are revealed.
Keywords: heat transfer, convection, radiant heat exchange, power efficient glazing, evaluation of heat protection properties of glazing.
V.G. GAGARIN, Doctor of Technical Sciences, V.V. KOZLOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, NIISF RAACS (Moscow); K.I. LUSHIN, engineer, the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
Air Velocity in Air Cavity of Curtain Wall System at Free Ventilation
The formation of an air-heat regime under the condition of free ventilation of an air cavity in the curtain wall system (CWS) is considered. A differential equation describing the temperature distribution over the height of the cavity, as well as an approximate equation for determining the air velocity in the cavity has been obtained. The estimation of the maximum achievable air velocity in the cavity has been made. The results obtained can be used to estimate the emission of fibres from the mineral wool insulation of CWS.
Keywords: curtain wall system, air cavity, air velocity, free ventilation of cavity, intensity of solar radiation.
O.S. SUBBOTIN, Candidate of Architecture (firstname.lastname@example.org), the Kuban State Agrarian University (Krasnodar)
The History of Architecture of Orthodox Temples of the Black Sea Coast of Russia
The first orthodox temples of the Black Sea Coast of Russia in Sochi, Novorossiysk, Gelendzhik and Anapa are presented. Their architectural and artistic solutions, problems of reconstruction and restoration are considered. Special role is given to the internal contents of the temple. The focus is on the compositional structure of the temples in the system of the settlement.
Keywords: cathedral, orthodox temple, church, bell tower, development, complex, strengthening, architecture.
A.D. LOMAKIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, TSNIISK named after V.A. Kucherenko (Moscow)
Protection of Timber Structures in Places of Resting on Stone Walls and at Their Intersections
Methods of protecting wooden beams against wetting and bio-destruction in places of resting on external walls of heated buildings are described. Recommendations on the protective treatment of side faces of bearing glued timber structures of beam type having solid, including paired, cross-section in the zone of intersection of insulated external walls and vitrages are made.
Keywords: dead and open embedding of beams, waterproof bandage, antiseptic treatment, sealing, heat insulation.
B.S. ISTOMIN, Doctor of Architecture, Honoured Architect of Russia, OAO “TSNIIPromzdany”; E.A. TURKINA, Master of Architecture, the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Moscow)
Architectural Potential of Roof Space of Multistory Residential Buildings
Conditions of the architectural formation of spaces of exploited roofs, methods of their placing in the urban development are considered. Factors influencing on their architectural-planning decisions, operation and structural features have been defined. The potential of exploited roofs as an additional source of improving the comfort of human life and activities in the urban environment is revealed.
Keywords: exploited roofs, planting, methods of roof space formation, multistory residential building.
K.A. LYTKIN, Candidate of Architecture (email@example.com), the Institute of Engineering & Technology of the North-Eastern Federal University (Yakutsk, The Sakha Republic)
Organic Life Environment at the Extreme North
Results of the study of everyday life of a particular paternal clan who lived in the plain lands of Central Yakutia in the first half of the XX century are presented. The existing organic bases of formation of the traditional Yakut dwelling of the late historical period, as well as the necessary household outbuildings for doing the northernmost herding are investigated. The research material was obtained during numerous trips to the region, the study of archival data, measuring works and direct interviews with the residents. Conceptual designs of the Northern architecture are shown.
Keywords: organic life environment, fundamental organic base, paternal clan, traditional housing, seasonal settlements.
D.V. KRAYNOV, engineer (firstname.lastname@example.org), R.A. SADYKOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Kazan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering
Methodology of Calculation of Energy Effect of Change of External or Internal Air Temperature
The proposed methodology for calculating the energy effect of change of external or internal air temperature makes it possible to substantiate the efficiency of using heat supply systems with automatic regulation of heat carrier delivery and schedules of the sustained temperature of the internal air for different buildings and construction area.
Keywords: energy effect, air temperature, heating degree-day.
NGO THI LY, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, the Institute of Geophysics, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technologies (Hanoi, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam); N.K. KAPUSTYAN, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow); G.N. ANTONOVSKAYA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, K.B. DANILOV, A.V. DANILOV, physicists, the Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Arkhangelsk)
Complex of Seismic Methods for Inspection of Hydraulic Structures
Methods and results of the inspection of the concrete tall dam Son-Chan-2(Song Tranh-2, Vietnam) for estimating its safety in connection with the activation of seismicity in its location area are considered. A new approach to inspections developed by the authors, including a complex set of seismometric methods covering the body of the dam and containing the geological environment is used. The main methods: testing the dam body with technological vibrations and identification of structural heterogeneities in the dam foundation and in the sides of junction with the help of micro-seismic sensing with surface waves.
Keywords: critical structures, seismic methods, microseisms, anthropogenic vibrations, self frequencies.
M.A. KOLCHIGIN, engineer (email@example.com), A.L. BOLSHEROTOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
Methodology of Assessment of Indirect Impact of Construction Objects on Atmospheric Air of Residential Areas
Peculiarities of the environmental evaluation of construction activities in urban areas are considered. Methods making it possible to predict the indirect impact of construction objects on the environment are presented and substantiated. Results of the study conducted according to this methodology on the territory of Moscow are stated. Ways of the solution of the ecological problem of big cities which make it possible to realize the town planning activity in conformity with the principles of sustainable development are proposed.
Keywords: ecological safety of construction, environment, methods of ecological assessment, five-dimensional ecological model, degree of concentration, pollution of atmosphere.
I.E. KHARKOVA, engineer (firstname.lastname@example.org), the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
Coefficient of Sustainability as an Instrument of Economic-Ecological Assessment of Residential Development
Modern system of assessment of the environmental safety takes into account very limitedly the state of the environment when planning residential development of urbanised areas and completely ignores the change of ecological situation after completion of works. Till now the real instrument of such evaluation has not been created.
Existing methods of assessment of the construction influence on the environment are, as a rule, prognostic and don’t take into account the reaction of the ecosystem to anthropogenic impact. More important indicator when evaluating the influence of construction is sustainability of the ecosystem at the level of a balanced state. Main stages of development of the concept of sustainability of systems are described. Knowledge of potential possibilities and characteristics of functioning the ecosystems of a specific territory are necessary for development of regional and local systems of ecological monitoring, rational land use and protection of environment. However, the mechanism of functioning of ecosystems and its reaction to changes in natural and anthropogenic factors is studied not enough, because each structural element and functional component of the whole ecosystem is studied as a separate academic discipline using
special methods. This mostly refers to the ecosystems on urbanized territories. Development of an improved assessment system of the environment will make it possible to rationally assess the ecological situation on already built-up areas, conduct construction works and maintenance of new objects without harming the surrounding area. Development of modern methods of assessment of ecological safety of artificial ecosystems is one of priority directions of the modern ecology. Substantiation of the use of the coefficient of ecosystems sustainability as an instrument of this assessment is presented.
Keywords: economic ecology, ecological safety, urbanized territories, coefficient of ecosystems sustainability, sustainability index, sustainability.