Sitemap

Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo №5

Table of contents

УДК 628.58
V.V. BALAKIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.F. SIDORENKO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Volgograd State University of Architecture & Civil Engineering (1, Akademicheskaya St., Volgograd, 400074)

Use of Protective Planting Against Car Emissions in Residential Areas and Pedestrian Zones
The article describes the results of in-situ observations and physical model experiments for dispersion of automobile exhaust pollutants by planted areas in urban streets and roads. It is determined that formation of pollution bubbles in the air of a street is related to lower speed of air flow and its closed recirculation conditioned by densely positioned buildings on both sides of the street. Structure and composition of protective planting is defined for better dispersion of car emissions. Protective efficiency calculation methods are suggested for linear/strip plantation in pedestrian areas. Guidelines are provided for linear and strip protective/decorative plantation structuring for bringing the environmental discomfort factors in residential areas down to the environmental standards.

Keywords: air pollution, motor vehicle exhaust, car emissions, planted area, protective plantation, dispersion, protective efficiency.

References
1. Rekomendatsii po modernizatsii transportnoy sistemy gorodov. [Guidelines for modernization of urban transport systems] MDS 30–2.2008. TSNIIP gradostroitelstva RAASN. Moscow: OAO ОАО «TSPP», 2008. 70 p. (In Russian).
2. Kochurov B.I., Ivashkina I.V. Moscow landscaping: from tradition to harmony and balance. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territory. 2012. № 1, pp. 6–11. (In Russian).
3. Ivashkina I.V., Kochurov B.I. Shaping the spatial composition of urban cultural landscape. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territory. 2012. № 3, pp. 22–28. (In Russian).
4. Kochurov B.I., Ivashkina I.V. Cultural urban landscape: geoecological and aesthetic aspects of examining and shaping. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territory. 2010. № 4, pp. 15–23. (In Russian).
5. Popov V.A., Negrutskaya G.M., Petrova V. K. Gettering action of plants. Gas-resistance of plants. Novosibirsk. 1980, pp. 52–60. (In Russian).
6. Kulagin YU. Z. Industrialnaya dendrologiya i prognozirovaniye. [Industrial dendrology and prognosticating]. Moscow: Nauka, 1985. 120 p. (In Russian).
7. Osipov G.L., Prutkov B.G., Shishkin I.A., Karagodina I.L. Gradostroitelnye mery borby s shumom [City planning methods for moise control]. Moscow: Stroiizdat,1975. 215 p. (In Russian).
8. Balakin V.V., Sidorenko V.F. Noise-protection efficiency of planted road divisors and shoulders. Monthly journal: Proceedings of the 14th International Research and Practice Conference “Domestic science in the age of changes: postulates if the past and theories of nowadays”. Eraterinburg, 2015. № 9 (14), pp. 110–111. (In Russian).
9. Konstantinov A.R. The effect from forest belts on the wind and turbulent exchange in the ground air. The problems of hydrometeorological efficiency of field-protective afforestation. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat,1950, pp. 44–56. (In Russian).
10. Ivchenko T.V., Romanova R.A., Korotkova E.YU. Landscape gardening in major population centers as compensation for air pollution from motor vehicles. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territory. 2014. № 1, pp. 30–33. (In Russian).
11. Gorodkov A.V. Rekomendatsii po proektirovaniyu sredozashchitnogo ozeleneniya territori gorodov. [Design guidelines for protective verdurization in urban territories] Saint-Petersburg: SPb GASU. 1998. 141 p. (In Russian).
12. Boyarshinov M.G. The effect from woodlands on transfer and dispersion of motor vehicle emissions. The new things in environment protection and life safety. Papers from the International Ecology Congress. Saint-Petersburg: BGTU, 2000. T. 2, pp. 235–237. (In Russian).
13. Podolski V.P.,Kanishchev A.N., Rudaev V.N. Determining the openness of snow-arresting tree belts. Solutions to environmental problems in motor-transport complex: Book of papers from the 5th International science and technology conference. Moscow: MADI (GTU), 2001, pp. 129. (In Russian).
14. Uehara Kiyoshi, Murakami Shuzo, Oikawa Susumu, Wakamatsu Shinji. Wind tunnel experiments on how thermal stratification affects flow in and above urban street canyons. Atmospheric Environment. 2000. Vol. 34, № 10, pp. 1553–1562.
15. Serebrovskiy F.L Aeratsiya naselyonnykh mest [Ventilation of residential territories]. Moscow: Stroiizdat,1985. 172 p. (In Russian).
16. Chan T.L., Dong G., Leung C.W., Cheung C.S., Hung W.T. Validation of a two-dimensional pollutant dispersion model in an isolated street canyon. Atmospheric Environment. 2002. Vol. 36, № 5, pp. 861–872.
17. Vankevich R.E. Application of system analysis methods and GIS technologies for research into quantitative correlations in the “motor transport – environment – health” system. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Saint-Petersburg. 2003. 135 p. (In Russian).
УДК 72.036
S.G. ZUBANOVA, Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University) (4, Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation)

Social-Cultural Aspect of Moscow Development in Historical Retrospective
Main trends of the Moscow urban development and creation of comfortable living environment for Moscow residents in different historical periods are considered. Traditional values and peculiarities of the Russian everyday culture in the organization of residential space of the city are marked. It is emphasized that the urban development of Moscow before the beginning of the Soviet epoch was dominated by the system-forming idea – Orthodoxy. It is noted that the Moscow State was originally formed on the basis of many nationalities that largely determined the architectural diversity of development. The emphasizes is made on the esthetic and ordinary sides of creating the favorable urban environment, on the harmonic combination of the city development with natural landscapes – park zones and building surrounding green zones. An evaluation of the up-to-day development of the capital from the position of formation of the social- everyday life culture of citizens is made.

Keywords: urban development, creation of comfortable habitation, social wellbeing of citizens, city infrastructure, everyday life culture.

References
1. Zubanova S.G., Kuznetsova N.V., Panteleev I.V., Ruzanova N.P., Fedorova N.V., Denisova L.E., Bezshleeva N.Yu. Aktual’nye kontsepty sovremennosti: khristiansko-pravoslavnyi podkhod. [Actual concepts of the present: Christian and orthodox approach]. Moscow: INFRA-M. 2015. 224 p.
2. Zubanova S.G. A Role of Russian Orthodox Church in integration and unity of the Russian society. Collection of scientific articles and educational and methodical materials «Ratio of the international and national law: theory, practice, teaching problems». Sankt-Peterburg: Asterion. 2009, pp. 172–182. (In Russian).
3. Alferova G.V. Russkie goroda XVI–XVII vekov. [Russian cities of the 16–17th centuries]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1989. 216 p.
4. Kudryavtsev M.P. «Moskva – Tretii Rim». [«Moscow – The third Rome»]. Moscow: Troitsa. 2007. 288 p.
5. Dorskaya A.A., Zubanova S.G. Legal regulation of property of religious appointment in the Russian Empire. Vestnik Pyatigorskogo gosudarstvennogo lingvisticheskogo universiteta. 2012. No. 2, pp. 372–376. (In Russian).
6. Prokofieva I.A. Panel Five-Storey Buildings of the 1960s: Demolition or Reconstruction – Current Trends. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 43–46. (In Russian).
7. Bogdanov V.S., Prosyanyuk D.V. Territorial expansion of Moscow – strategy of development or unreasonable need? Vestnik instituta sotsiologii. 2015. No. 13, pp. 53–70. (In Russian).
8. Boltaevskii A.A. The City convenient for life. Urbanistika. 2015. No. 1, pp. 1–9. http://e-notabene.ru/urb/article_16035. html (date of access 19.03.14). (In Russian).
9. Ivanova-Veen L.I. A Residential House in Training Projects of Moscow Architectural schools of the XIX – beginnings of XX Century. Zhilishhnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2015. No. 11, pp. 41–43. (In Russian).
УДК 624.012.45 V.S. FEDOROV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Academician RAACS; Vl.I. KOLCHUNOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); A.A. POKUSAEV1, Engineer (fvs_skzs@mail.ru)
1 Moscow State University of Railway Engineering (15, Obraztsova Street, Moscow, 127994, Russian Federation)
2 Southwest State University (94, 50 let Oktyabrya Street, Kursk, 305040, Russian Federation)

Calculation of a Distance between Spatial Cracks and Widths of Their Openings in Reinforced Concrete Structures at Torsion with Bending (the 2nd Case)
The method for calculation of a distance between spatial cracks and a width of their openings in reinforced concrete structures at torsion with bending (the 2nd case – the compressed zone of concrete locates near the side edge of the concrete structure) is considered. Analytical dependences for finding the internal stresses arising in two blocks, a block cut off by the section at the end of the spatial crack, and block formed by the spiral crack and the vertical section passing along the compressed zone through the end of the front of spatial crack, have been obtained. The projection of a dangerous spatial crack is sought as a function of many variables and has a clear physical interpretation in the form of multiple spatial sections the balance of which is influenced by parameters included in the compiled equations. Among this multitude of sections there is a section to which the maximum opening width of spatial cracks will correspond. To determine the real stress-strain state of concrete structures it is necessary to have the complete picture of crack formation in the process of loading. Various levels of spatial cracks formation were considered, and formulae for determining the distance between them were also developed. Based on the design scheme, equations for determining the distance between spatial cracks of different types and different widths of their openings have been obtained.

Keywords: reinforced concrete structures, torsion with bending, spatial crack, distance between cracks, width of spatial cracks opening.

References
1. Klueva N.V., Kolchunov V.I., Rypakov D.A., Bukhtiyarova A.S. Residential and public buildings of industrially manufactured reinforced concrete frame-panel elements. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 5, pp. 69–76. (In Russian).
2. Kolchunov V.I., Safonov A.G. Construction of the calculation of reinforced concrete structures with torsional bending. Izvestia Orel State Technical University. Series: Construction and Transportation. 2008. No. 4, pp. 7–13. (In Russian).
3. Salnikov A.S., Kolchunov Vl.I. Computational model of formation of spatial cracks of the first type in reinforced concrete structures under torsion with bending. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 3, pp. 35–40. (In Russian).
4. Salnikov A., Kolchunov V.l., Yakovenko I. The computational model of spatial formation of cracks in reinforced concrete constructions in torsion with bending. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015. Vol. 725–726, pp. 784–789.
5. Pokusaev А.А., Shawykina M.V., Kolchunov Vl.I. The second stage stress-strain state of reinforced concrete constructions under torsion with bending (first case). Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenii. 2015. No. 5, pp. 26–31. (In Russian).
6. Kolchunov Vl.I., Zazdravnyh Je.I. Calculation model «dowel joints effect» in concrete elements. Izvestiya vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij. Stroitel’stvo. 1996. No. 10, pp. 18–24. (in Russian).
7. Bondarenko V.M., Kolchunov V.I. Raschetnye modeli silovogo soprotivleniya zhelezobetona. [Computational models of the power of resistance of reinforced concrete] Moscow: ASV. 2004. 472 p.
8. Bondarenko V.M., Kolchunov V.I. Exposition of Ferroconcrete survivability. Vestnik otdeleniya stroitel’nykh nauk RAASN. 2007. No. 5, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
9. Klueva N.V., Gornostaev I.S., Kolchunov V.I., Jakovenko I.A. Method of calculating the deformation property of rod reinforced composite constructions involving software complex mirage – 2014. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 10, pp. 21–26. (In Russian).
10. Klueva N.V., Chernov K.M., Kolchunov V.I., Jakovenko I.A. Durability of reinforced concrete composite constructions and new failure criteria in the zone of oblique cracks. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 11, pp. 36–40. (In Russian).
11. Fedorov V.S., Bashirov H.Z., Kolchunov V.I. elements of composite reinforced concrete construction calculation theory. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 2, pp.116–118. (In Russian).
12. Kliueva N.V., Kolchunov Vl.I., Yakovenko I.A. Problem tasks of development of hypotheses of mechanics of destruction in relation to calculation of ferroconcrete designs. Izvestiya KSUAE. 2014. No. 3, pp. 41–45. (In Russian).
УДК 624.012.4
N.V. KLYUEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Adviser of RAACS, Vl.I. KOLCHUNOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), M.S. GUBANOVA, Engineer Southwest State University (94, 50 let Oktyabrya Street, Kursk, 305040, Russian Federation)

Strength Criterion of Loaded and Corrosion Damaged Concrete at Plane Stress State
A strength criterion and an algorithm of calculation of long-term strength based on the rheological model of concrete deformation of G.A. Geniev are presented for loaded and corrosion damaged concrete at the plane stress state. A numerical analysis of the change in the limit of long-term strength of concrete with time with due regard for the process of increasing its strength (concrete aging) and the process of concrete neutralization by aggressive environment and bio-corrosion of concrete (corrosion of concrete) is presented. Dependences of ultimate and long-term strength of loaded and corrosion damaged concrete in time at the plane stress state were studied for three characteristic cases of the loading of concrete. It is shown that the change in the ultimate and long-term strength of concrete under the joint impact of aggressive environment and load depends on the level of loading at the high level of which it is reduced more intensively comparing with the impact of the aggressive environment only.

Keywords: corrosion of concrete, strength criterion, long-term strength, environment and force impacts, plane stress state.

References
1. Bondarenko V.M., Borovskih A.V. Iznos, povrezhdenija i bezopasnost’ zhelezobetonnyh sooruzhenij [Wear, damage and safety of concrete structures]. Moscow: ID Rusanova. 2000. 144 p.
2. Kolchunov V.I., Kljueva N.V., Androsova N.B., Buhtijarova A.S. Zhivuchest’ zdanij i sooruzhenij pri zaproektnyh vozdejstvijah [Vitality buildings under supercritical conditions impacts]. Moscow: ASV. 2014. 208 p.
3. Bondarenko V.M Corrosive damages as the cause of avalanche destruction of reinforced concrete structures. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenii, 2009. No. 5, pp. 13–17. (In Russian).
4. Popesko A.I. Rabotosposobnost’ zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij, podverzhennyh korrozii [Serviceability of reinforced concrete structures exposed to corrosion]. SPb: SPbGSU. 1996. 182 p.
5. Seljaev V.P., Oshkina L.M., Seljaev P.V., Sorokin E.V. Himicheskoe soprotivlenie tsementnyih betonov deystviyu sulfat-ionov [Chemical resistance of cement concrete to action of sulfate ions]. Saransk: Izdatel’stvo Mordovskogo universiteta. 2013. 150 p.
6. Kolchunov V., Androsova N., Kolchina T. Crack resistance criteria for reinforced concrete beams with corrosion damage in strength resource assessment. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015. No. 725–726, pp. 740–745.
7. Kolchunov V., Androsova N. Durability corrosion concrete at simultaneous manifestation of power and environmental influences. Building and Reconstruction. 2013. No. 5, pp. 3–8.
8. Klueva N., Emelyanov S., Kolchunov V., Bukhtiyarova A. New industrial energy and resource saving structural solutions for public buildings. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015. No. 725–726, pp. 1423–1429.
9. Liu Y. Modeling the Time-to-Corrosion Cracking of the Cover Concrete Chloride Contaminated Reinforced Concrete Structures. Virginia, USA. 1996. 128 p.
10. Klueva N., Emelyanov S., Kolchunov V., Gubanova M. Criterion of crck resistance of corrosion damaged concrete in plane stress state. Procedia Engineering. 2015. No. 117, pp. 179–185.
11. Kljueva N.V., Androsova N.B., Gubanova M.S. Strength criteria for concrete with corrosion damage in complex stress state. Stroitel’naya mekhanika inzhenernykh konstruktsii i sooruzhenii. 2014. No. 1, pp. 38–42. (In Russian)
12. Bondarenko V., Myhal R., Yagupov B. Reserve factor and environmental exposure in the context of structural safety of buildings operating in aggressive environment. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya. 2014. No. 1, pp. 3–10. (In Russian).
13. Bondarenko V. M., Kljueva N.V. To calculation of structures, changing the design scheme due to corrosion damage. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2008. No. 1, pp. 4–12. (In Russian).
14. Bondarenko V.M., Larionov E.A., Bashkatova M.E. Evaluation of bending strength of reinforced concrete elements. Izvestija OrelGTU. 2007. No. 2 (14), pp. 25–38. (In Russian).
15. Seljaev V.P., Neverov V.A., Seljaev P.V., Sorokin E.V., Yudina O.A. Predicting the durability of concrete structures, including sulfate corrosion of concrete. Inzhenernostroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2014. No. 1, pp. 41–110. (In Russian).
16. Kolchunov V.I., Jakovenko I.A., Kljueva N.V. Method of physical models of reinforced concrete resistance. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 12, pp. 51–55. (In Russian)
17. Bondarenko V.M., Kolchunov V.I. The concept and directions of development of the theory of structural safety of buildings and structures under the influence of force and environmental factors. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 2, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
18. Chupichev O.B. Models of calculation of power resistance of the ferro-concrete element damaged by corrosion. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya. 2010. No. 1, pp. 55–59. (In Russian).
19. Guzeev E.A., Mutin A.A., Basova L.N. Deformativnost’ i treshhinostojkost’ szhatyh armirovannyh jelementov pri dlitel’nom nagruzhenii i dejstvii zhidkih sred [Deformation and fracture of compressed reinforced elements in the longterm loading and operation of liquid media]. Sb. tr. NIIZhB. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1984. 34 p.
20. Seljaev V.P., Nizina T.A., Utkina V.N. Himicheskoe soprotivlenie i dolgovechnost’ stroitel’nyh materialov, izdelij, konstrukcij [The chemical resistance and durability of building materials, products and structures]. Saransk. 2003. 47 p.
21. Berg O.Ya. Fizicheskie osnovy teorii prochnosti betona i zhelezobetona. [The physical foundations of the theory of concrete and reinforced concrete strength]. Moscow: Gosstroiizdat. 1962. 96 p.
22. Stavskaja I.S. Parameters corrosion damage of concrete in the tension zone of reinforced concrete structures in the longitudinal section of cracking. Proceedings of the Seventeenth International interuniversity scientific-practical conference of students, undergraduates, graduate students and young scientists. Moscow: MGSU. 2014, pp. 313–317. (In Russian).
23. Erofeev, V.T., Fedortsov A.P., Bogatov A.D., Fedortsov V.A. Biocorrosion of cement concrete, features of its development, assessment and forecasting. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2014. No. 12, pp. 708–716. (In Russian).
24. Geniev, G.A., Pjatikrestovskij, K.P. Voprosy dlitel’noj i dinamicheskoj prochnosti anizotropnyh konstruktivnyh materialov [Questions continuous and dynamic strength of anisotropic materials of construction]. Moscow: CRIBC. 2000. 38 p.
25. Geniev G.A., Kolchunov V.I., Kljueva N.V., Nikulin A.I., Pjatikrestovskij K.P. Prochnost’ i deformativnost’ zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij pri zaproektnyh vozdejstvijah [The strength and deformability of reinforced concrete structures under supercritical conditions]. Moscow: ASV. 2004. 216 p.
26. Geniev G.A., Kissjuk V.N., Tjupin G.A. Teorija plastichnosti betona i zhelezobetona [Theory of concrete and reinforced concrete plasticity]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1974. 316 p.
УДК 332.122:69.007
Ju.A. VARFOLOMEEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (nil-se@mail.ru) Research Laboratory of Building Expertise of Barents Region, ООО (21, Romana Kulikova Street, 163002, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation)

Specific of Providing the Arctic Zone with Specialists of Architectural Profile
The originality of the infrastructure development of the Arctic zone of Russia is analyzed in interrelation with problems of globalization and natural climate changes. Requirements for training of specialists of architectural-construction profile for remote and hard-to-reach territories are formulated; shortcomings of the legislative base in this sphere are revealed. The most significant factors influencing on the construction quality in the cold climate are considered. On the example of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug, the consequences due to discrepancies of some legislative innovations are considered: professional responsibility of architects is reduced, the sphere of their services is limited, their intellectual potential is used non-rationally. This resulted in the destruction of the system of training of specialists of architectural profile in the Arctic zone.

Keywords: architect, creativity, structures, education, standards, Arctic zone.

References
1. Lukin Yu.F. Rossiiskaya Arktika v izmenyayushchemsya mire [Russian Arctic in a changing world]. Arkhangelsk: CPI NArFU. 2013. 281 p.
2. Global’naya bezopasnost’: innovatsionnye metody analiza konfliktov. Pod obshch. Red. Smirnova A.I. [Global Security: innovative methods of conflict analysis. Under the total. ed. Smirnov A.I.] Moscow: Society «Znanie» of Russia. 2011. 272 s.
3. Ilyichev V.A., Kolchunov V.I., Bakaeva N.V. Contemporary architectur-al-construction education in light of solving problems of safety of life activity en-vironment. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2016. No. 3, pp. 3–9. (In Russian).
4. Il’ichev V.A., Emel’yanov S.G., Kolchunov V.I. i dr. Printsipy preobrazovaniya goroda v biosferosovmestimyi i razvivayushchii cheloveka [The princi-ples of transformation of the city in biosferosovmestimy and developing human]. Moscow: ASV. 2015. 186 p.
5. Goryachkin P.V., Hayrapetyan N.E. Analysis of estimate and regulatory pricing framework for the construction of the Ministry of Construction of the new Russian edition, 2014. Expert-analytical report. Moscow. 2014. 46 p. http://www.kccs.ru/docs/asr-doklad.pdf
УДК 69.01:332.834
A.D. SAMARIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Hwy, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Technical and Economical Evaluation of Thermo-Modernization of Residential Buildings under Modern Conditions
Economic expediency of improving the heat protection of external enclosures of existing residential buildings in the course of their thermomodernization on the basis of requirements of SP 50.13330.2012 under modern conditions is considered. Results of the calculation of the specific heat protection characteristic, capital expenditures for heat insulation, and expenditures for heat energy at different values of resistance to heat transfer of main external enclosures for the group of residential buildings are presented. The data obtained were analyzed, the conditions of cost recovery of heat protection improvement up to the minimal level according to SP 50.13330.2012 with the use of total discounted expenditures when determining the operation cost of heat corresponding to climatic conditions of the heating period regulated in SP131.13330.2012 have been identified.

Keywords: reconstruction, resistance to heat transfer, specific heat protection characteristic of building, capital expenditure, cost recovery time.

References
1. Samarin O.D. Substantiation of decrease of thermal performance of building enclosures using the actualized edition of the SNiP 23-02–2003. Zhilishchnoye Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 3, рр. 46–48. (In Russian).
2. LiuG., Liu H. Using Insulation in China’s Buildings: Potential for Significant Energy Savings and Carbon Emission Reductions. Low Carbon Economy. 2011. Vol. 2. No. 4, рр. 220–223.
3. Jedinák R. Energy Efficiency of Building Envelopes. Advanced Materials Research. 2013. Vol. 855, рр. 39–42.
4. Hou Hua Wang, Tao Zhang, Qiu Lian Xiao. Experimental Study of Energy Saving Effect of Building Envelope in Winter. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2011. Vols. 121– 126), рр. 2741–2747.
5. Gagarin V.G. Economical analysis of increase of thermal performance level of building enclosures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 8, рр. 41–47. (In Russian).
6. Gagarin V.G. Macroeconomic features of justification of energy saving measures during increase of thermal performance of building enclosures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 3, рр. 8–16. (In Russian).
7. Dmitriyev A.N., Tabunshchikov Yu.A., Kovalyov I.N., Shilkin N.V. Manual according to an economic efficiency of the investments in energy saving measures. Moscow: AVOK-PRESS. 2005. 120 p. (In Russian).
8. Samarin O.D. Once more on expedience of increase of thermal performance of non-transparent enclosures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, рр. 56–59. (In Russian).
УДК 692:699.8
A.M. GAYSIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.Yu. SAMOKHODOVA, Engineer; A.Yu. PAYMETKINA, Engineer; I.V. NEDOSEKO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1 Kosmonavtov Street, Ufa, 450062, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)

Comparative Assessment of Specific Heat Losses through Elements of External Walls of Residential Buildings Determined by Different Methods
The comparative assessment of results of the calculation of the reduced resistance to the heat transfer of external walls of a residential building of the development typical for climatic conditions of the Republic of Bashkortostan was made according to methods of SP 50.13330. 2012 “Heat Protection of Buildings” and SP 230.1325800.2015 “Enclosing Structures of Buildings. Characteristics of Thermal-Technical Heterogeneities”. The quantitative ratio of specific heat losses through different parts of external walls of a residential house with average number of storeys, including thermal-technical heterogeneities, is shown.

Keywords: reduced resistance to heat transfer, heat protection envelope of building, specific heat losses, temperature fields, coefficient of thermal-technical heterogeneity.

References
1. Gagarin V.G. Macroeconomic Aspects of Substantiation of Power Saving Measures Aimed at Improving the Heat Protection of Buildings’ Enclosing Structures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 3, pp. 8–16. (In Russian).
2. Babkov V.V., Gaisin A.M., Fedortsev I.V., Sinitsin D.A., Kuznetsov D.V., Naftulovich I.M., Kil’dibaev R.S., Kolesnik G.S., Karanaeva R.Z., Savateev E.B., Dolgodvorov V.A., Gusel’nikova N.E., Gareev R.R. The heateffective designs of external walls of buildings applied in practice of design and construction of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 5, pp. 43–47. (In Russian).
3. Nedoseko I.V., Babkov V.V., Aliev R.R., Kuz’min V.V. Application of a constructional and heat-insulating Haydite Concrete in low construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 26-28. (In Russian).
4. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Requirements for Thermal Protection and Energy Efficiency in the Draft of the Updated SNiP «Thermal Protection of Buildings». Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 8, pp. 2–7. (In Russian).
5. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Theoretical Preconditions for Calculation of Reduced Resistance to Heat Transfer of Enclosing Structures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 12, pp. 4–12. (In Russian).
6. Gagarin V.G. Energy should be spent! Energiya: ekonomika, tekhnika, ekologiya. 2009. No. 2, pp. 2–8. (In Russian).
7. Gagarin V.G., Dmitriev K.A. Accounting Heat Engineering Heterogeneities When Assessing the Thermal Protection of Enveloping Structures in Russia and European Countries. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 14–16. (In Russian).
УДК 624.05
S.A. SYCHEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (4, 2nd Krasnoarmeiskaya Street, 190005, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Structural-Functional Scheme of Automation of High-Speed Installation of Buildings of Increased Prefabrication Modules
Neither the level of technological equipment, nor methods for controlling the position of design in space meet the growing demands of production. The resolution of emerging problems is only possible with an integrated automation of process of installation of building structures and, first of all, operations associated with pre-installation and alignment of building structures. In general, the automated control system of technological process provides automated collection and processing of information necessary to optimize the management of an object in accordance with the adopted criteria, and implementation of control actions on the process of construction of buildings of modular systems. The control object is a set of technological equipment and the technological process of mounting modules implemented on the basis of appropriate algorithms and regulations. Systems, built-in blocks of direct interaction with the operator, must contain lasers with emission wavelength in the visible range. It provides optimal conditions for the analysis of current state of installation, minimization of the nomenclature of used measuring and information system equipment is realized.

Keywords: quick assembly, unified modular constructions, prefabricated in the factory, prefabricated modular buildings, high speed of construction.

References
1. Afanas’ev A.A. Tehnologija vozvedenija polnosbornyh zdanij [Technology of construction of prefabrication buildings]. Mosсow: ASV, 2000. 287 р.
2. Afanas’ev A.V., Afanas’ev V.A. Organizacija stroitel’stva bystrovozvodimyh zdanij i sooruzhenij. Bystrovozvodimye i mobil’nye zdanija i sooruzhenija: perspektivy ispol’zovanija v sovremennyh uslovijah [The organization of construction of the fast-built buildings and constructions. The fast-built and mobile buildings and constructions: prospects of use in modern conditions]. SPb.: Strojizdat. 1998, рр. 226–230. (In Russian).
3. Verstov V.V., Badyin G.M. Features of design and construction of buildings and constructions in St. Petersburg. Vestnik gragdanskih ingenerov. 2010. No. 1, рр. 96–105. (In Russian).
4. Nikolaev S.V. SPKD – system of construction of housing for future generations. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 1, pp. 7–15. (In Russian).
5. Tikhomirov B.I., Kites A.N., Shakirov R.A. Universal system of large-panel housing construction with multiple plannings of apartments and their various combinations in a basic design of block section. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 13–20. (In Russian).
6. Sychev S.A. Modelirovanie tekhnologicheskikh protsessov uskorennogo montazha zdanii iz modul’nykh sistem. Montazhnye i special’nye raboty v stroitel’stve. 2015. No. 11, pp. 18–25. (In Russian).
7. Sychev S.A. System analysis technology of high-speed construction in Russia and abroad. Perspektivy nauki. 2015. No. 9, pp. 45–53. (In Russian).
8. Viscomi B.V., Michalerya W.D., Lu L.W. Automated construction in the ATLSS integrated building systems. Automation in construction. 1994. No. 3, рр. 35–43.
9. Fudge J., Brown S. Prefabricated modular concrete construction. Building engineer. 2011. No. 86(6), pp. 20–21.
10. Knaack U., Chung-Klatte Sh., Hasselbach R. Prefabricated systems: Principles of construction. De Gruyter. 2012. 67 p.
УДК 614.878:69 T.P. YAKOVLEVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Medicine), M.A. KALITINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) , E.A. NOVOKHATSKAYA1, Candidate of Sciences (Medicine) G.N. TIKHONOVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Biology)
1 Russian State Social University (4, structure 1, Vilgelma Pika Street, 129226, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Research Institute of Occupational Health (31, Budennogo Avenue, 105275, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Assessment of Carcinogenic Risk under Impact of Chemical Factor in Construction
The article considers the impact of chemical factor on workers in the construction industry. Calculations of the individual carcinogenic risk for employees with different length of employment with due regard for using individual protection means (IPM) by them are presented. It is shown that IPM reduce the carcinogenic risk but don’t provide sufficient protection of the worker under the impact of organic solvents.

Keywords: labor conditions, individual carcinogenic risk, chemical substances, organic solvents.

References
1. Kuznetsova N.S., Masyukova L.V. The major dangerous and harmful production factors at an assessment of professional risks in construction activity. Internetvestnik VolgGASU. 2010. Iss. 3 (13). http://vestnik.vgasu. ru/?source=4&articleno=479 (date of access 02.04.2016). (In Russian).
2. Tshovrebov E.S., Velichko E.G. Environmental Protection and Health of the Person in the Process of the Circulation of Building Materials. Stroitel’nye Мaterialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 99–103. (In Russian).
3. Ilnitskiy A.P., Stepanov S.A., Pilishenko V.A. Occupational cancer in the Russian Federation: аnalysis of problem (2003–2007). Pervichnaya profilaktika raka. 2008. No. 1–2, pp. 17–21. (In Russian).
4. Serebryakov P.V. Occupational cancer risk. Aspects. Expertises. Gigiena i sanitariya. 2015. No. 2, pp. 69–72. (In Russian).
5. Fedotova I.V., Chernikova E.F., Kuznetsova L.V., Ippolitova V.P., Petrova I.A. Cancer risk assessment in a group of traffic officers. Gigiena i sanitariya. 2011. No. 3, pp. 30–33. (In Russian).
6. Voloshin I.A. Professional incidence in construction branch: facts and statistics. Spravochnik spetsialista po okhrane truda. 2012. No. 10, pp. 36–43. (In Russian).
7. Kaptsov V.A., Pankova V.B., Vilk M.F. Assessment of occupational risk in transport workers. Gigiena i sanitariya. 2011. No. 1, pp. 54–57. (In Russian).
8. Kostenko N.A. Working conditions and occupational morbidity in some branches of economic activity of Russian Federation in 2004–2013. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya. 2015. No. 4, pp. 43–45. (In Russian).
9. Kalitina M.A., Kazmina A.V., Arslanbekova F.F. Influence of Complex Multicomponent Additives on Properties of a Cement Stone and Concrete. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 3, pp. 23–26. (In Russian).
10. Gurvich V.B., Kuzmin S.V., Yarushin S.V., Dikonskaya O.V., Nikonov B.I., Malykh O.L., Kochneva N.I., Derstuganova T.M. Methodological approaches to the assurance of sanitaryepidemiological welfare on the base of the methodology of population’s health risk management. Gigiena i sanitariya. 2015. No. 2, pp. 82–88. (In Russian).
11. Novikov S.M., Shashina T.A., Dodina N.S., Kislitsyn V.A., Vorobiova L.M., Goryaev D.V., Tikhonova I.V., Kurkatov S.V. Comparative assessment of the multimedia cancer health risks caused by contamination of the Krasnoyarsk krai regions’ environment. Gigiena i sanitariya. 2015. No. 2, pp. 88–93. (In Russian).
12. Onishchenko G.G., Novikov S.M., Rahmanin Yu.A., Avaliani S.L., Bushtuyeva K.A. Osnovy otsenki riska dlya zdorov’ya naseleniya pri vozdeistvii khimicheskikh veshchestv, zagryaznyayushchikh okruzhayushchuyu sredu [Risk assessment bases for health of the population at influence of the chemicals polluting environment]. Moscow: NII ECh i GOS. 2002. 408 p.
13. Chuenkova G.A., Karelin A.O., Askarov R.A., Askarova Z.F. Evaluation of the air pollution health risk for the population of the city of Ufa. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 3, pp. 24–29. (In Russian).
УДК 69.007
A.V. MASLYAEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (1, Academicheskaya Street, 400074, Volgograd, Russian Federation)

Critical Analysis of Answers to the Article About Unsuitability of Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education in the Field of «Construction»
The development of society in Russia depends largely on the level of higher education. That’s why all the federal state standards of higher education must contain requirements to knowledge of graduates at the level of science achievements. As it is known, a part of graduates of higher education should join the ranks of top scientists of Russia. But the analysis of two federal state educational standards of higher education in the field of “Construction” 08.03.01 (Bachelor level) and 08/04.01 (Master level) in the article “Analysis of Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education in the Field of Training “Construction” by A.V. Maslyaev (Housing Construction, 2015, № 12, pр. 21–25) shows that at present standards unfit for training. The article has been sent for review to the RF Ministry of Education and Science, the RF Ministry of Construction Industry, Housing and Utilities Sector (Minstroy RF), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS RF). The author received the answers of approximately the same content from these authorities in which it is explained that none of these establishments must be engaged in specified educational standards. Disagreement with these responses prompted the author to bring them for discussion with readers.

Keywords: educational standard, buildings and structures, earthquake, construction.

References
1. Masljaev A.V. Aanalys of federal state educational standards of higher education in a direction of preparation «Building». Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 21–25. (In Russian).
2. Maslyaev A.V. Preservation of human health, being in buildings at Earthquake. Prirodnye i tekhnogennye riski. Bezopasnost’ sooruzhenii. 2014. No. 2, pp. 38–42. (In Russian).
3. Маslyaev А.V. Парадигма of the Federal laws and normative documents of Russian Federation for antiseismic protection of buildings of the raised responsibility at earthquake. Vestnik VolgGASU: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2015. No. 41 (60), pp. 74–84. (In Russian).
4. Маslyaev А.V. The analysis парадигмы СП 14.13330.2014 on maintenance сейсмозащиты of buildings of the raised responsibility at earthquake. Zhilishnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2015. No. 8, pp. 51–55. (In Russian).
5. Masljaev A.V. Рrotection of settlements of Russia from influence of the dangerous natural phenomena. Zhilishnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 40–43. (In Russian).
6. Rzhevskiy VA. Main reasons for serious consequences of the Spitak earthquake of 7.12.1988. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo Uzbekistana.1990. No. 1, pp. 13–15. (In Russian).
7. Ulomov V.I. Zemletryaseniye in Armenia: elements and responsibility. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo Uzbekistana.1989. No. 12, pp. 1–4. (In Russian).
8. Rashidov T.R. Zemletryaseniye Spitak 88 (preliminary results). Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo Uzbekistana.1989. No. 12, pp. 4–7. (In Russian).
9. Ayzenberg Ya.M. Two destructive earthquakes in Turkey for three mesyaets of 1999. Seismostoikoe stroitel’stvo. Bezopasnost’ sooruzhenii. 2000. No. 1, pp. 54–57. (In Russian).
10. Nazarov Yu.P., Ayzenberg Ya.M. Researches TsNIISK on seismic stability of constructions. Theory, experiment, practice. Seismostoikoe stroitel’stvo. Bezopasnost’ sooruzhenii. 2006. No. 5, pp. 16–20. (In Russian).
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2020 osm21