Table of contents
A.V. MONASTYREV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, member of NPPI
Designs of lime burning kilns developed in the USSR are considered; their design features and economic characteristics are presented. The review of shaft kilns with ceramic cores of foreign companies of “Ultimos”, “Maximus”, “Caltsistatic” systems and analogous kilns of Russian design is given. Basic characteristics and features of kilns of TERRUZZI FERCALX. Co. are given.
V.I. CHEREPANOV, General Director, E.V. NEKRASOVA, Deputy Director for development, N.A. CHERNYKH, Chief Technologist, Yu.F. PANCHENKO, Deputy Chief Technologist, OOO “Invest-silikat-stroyservis” (Tyumen)
It is known that during the storage of samples of silicate brick in water, it gets into the structure of silicate stone, disconnecting particles and breaking the coalescence of them. Providing air-dry conditions for a silicate sample, when the water is removed and the structure of material is restored, leads to regeneration of its strength. If the strength would reduce as a result of chemical reactions this process could not be reversible. To confirm or refute this hypothesis and also with the purpose of substantiating the statement of manufacturers about significant improvement of quality of silicate products as a result of the re-equipment of production and improving the technology, the NP (Non-commercial Partnership) “Association of silicate products manufacturers” and the factory OOO “Invest-silikat-stroyservis” have initiated the study on determining the waterproofness at enterprises of the silicate branch. Results of the determination of silicate brick waterproofness are presented; improvement of silicate stone density after 100 cycles of wetting-drying is revealed. Results of conducting DTA ( differential thermal analysis) and X-ray phase analysis of mineralogical composition of silicate stone are shown.
G.V. KUZNETSOVA, associate professor, N.N. MOROZOVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, the Kazan State Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering
Upgrade of silicate factories is made due to introduction of new up-to-date equipment that, naturally, can lead to partial change of the technology of silicate mass preparation. Existing raw materials do not always make it possible to adopt a new method of production. The traditional technology of preparation of lime-siliceous binder with the use of ball mills for fine sand is one of the methods of producing qualitative product. The raw materials with other qualities must correspond to the direct technology. Results of the study of influence of lime activity and types of sand on the adobe strength of brick when the direct technology of mix preparation is used are presented.
A.BABEL, Würschum GmbH (Germany)
Main groups of pigments for dyeing of silicate brick in mass are presented. The pigment batcher of FLEX 100-1 type designed for five different colours and notable for high accuracy of dozing, ecological compatibility and quick action is described. The plant is additionally equipped with a filter-cyclone that shortens the whole cycle (dosing the lime-sand mass in the mixer, pigment delivery, mixing and unloading of the ready dyed silicate mass on the conveyer belt) up to 3 min.
E.N. FEDOSEEVA, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, A.D. ZORIN, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, V.F. ZANOZINA, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, L.E. SAMSONOVA, M.L. MARKOVA, N.M. GORYACHEVA, engineers, N. I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod
Fundamentals of the technology of manufacturing the iron-oxide pigment from powered waste of metallurgy industry of the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast used as a raw material have been developed. Strength properties of silicate brick dyed with the investigated pigment have been studied. They satisfy the requirements of GOST 379-95 for silicate materials.
Keywords: silicate brick, dyeing, iron-oxide pigment, iron-containing dust.
V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences, V.V. NELYUBOVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, N.I. ALTYNNIK, engineer(firstname.lastname@example.org), I.V. ZHERNOVSKY, Candidate of Geological-Mineralogical Sciences, the Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov; E.G. OSADCHY, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, the Institute of Experimental Mineralogy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Chernogolovka, Moscow oblast)
The influence of a nanostructured modifier of silicate composition on the phase formation in the system of cellular composites of autoclaved hardening is studied. It is established that the reaction-active component NM favors the displacement of C-S-H phase formation to the low-basic field. In the process, an optimal ratio of low- and highly basic calcium hydro-silicates is formed that favors the improvement of strength characteristics of autoclaved gas concrete with the use of the nanostructured modifier and its operating life in the process of exploitation.
Keywords: cement, lime, autoclaved, nanostructured modifier, hydro-silicates
The paper gives the description of the natural mineral raw material and methods of production of various types of foamed glass on this base.
A list of special kinds of the foamed glass (acoustic, radiation protective, structural with mesh reinforcement) is given; these materials were
manufactured and patented in the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS. Developed methods and compositions are at the moment
under semi-industrial testing; finally, the granulated foamed glass from common silica raw material can be produced in industrial scales.
Keywords: silica and zeolite-containing, acoustic foamed
glass, radiation protective, reinforced, physical properties.
A.D. LOMAKIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, TSNIISK named after V.A. Kucherenko
Shrinkage cracks in wall logs and squared timbers are classified; the influence of technological saw kerfs on the emergence and development of cracks is established. Data on sealants used for insulating shrinkage cracks are presented; the technology of their application is described.
Keywords: shrinkage crack, technological saw kerf, sealant, log, squared timber
N.I. KARPENKO, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Academician of RAACS, V.N. YARMAKOVSKY, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Honorary Member of RAACS (email@example.com), the Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (Moscow)
Main directions of resource and energy saving, ways and methods of their realization with concrete practical examples at the stage of assembling the structural system (prefabricated variant) or erection (monolithic variant) and also at the stage of building operation are presented. Examples of reducing the metal consumption of structural systems in the course of erection of a precast/cast-in-place frame with improved joints, reducing reinforcement consumption when the monolithic frame is erected, reducing labour input, material consumption and energy consumption in the course of technological process of erection of external enclosing structures when the monolithic heat insulation from especially light concretes is used, are given. It is shown that the transition to enclosing panels with external and internal layers from structural light concrete of B12.5-B15 strength class and an intermediate heat insulating layer from especially light heat insulating concrete favours resource and energy saving at the building operation stage.
Keywords: resource and energy saving, structural system, building operation, metal consumption.
O.D. SAMARIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences (firstname.lastname@example.org), the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
The calculation of additional capitalized costs for improvement of heat protection of non-translucent enclosures of a residential building up to the datum level comparing with the reduced level permitted by SP 50.13330.2012 “Heat Protection of Buildings” is considered. An absence of the payback of these expenditures at the average level of prices on materials and tariffs on energy resources and the current rate of mortgage credit is shown.
Keywords: heat protection, heat insulator, resistance to heat transfer, capitalized costs, discount rate, payback time.
A.A. RUDYCHEV, Doctor of Economic Sciences, A.Yu. LYCHEV, E.A. NIKITINA, Candidates of Economic Sciences (email@example.com), the Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov
The essence, approaches, objectives, stages and methods of formation of the investment activity of an enterprise producing construction materials are considered. The formation of the investment policy of the enterprise is based on the analysis of the market of products both already manufactured by the enterprise and new products targeted for production. Without the complex of efficient marketing studies the formulation of strategy and the tactic of investment activity of the firm on its base is inefficient.
Keywords: investment activity, selection of projects, investment climate, models, objectives, profit.
G.R. BUTKEVICH, O.E. KHARO, Candidates of Technical Sciences, FGUP “VNIPIIstromsyrye” (Moscow)
Results of the analysis of themes of reports made by heads and leading specialists of non-metallic enterprises of the construction materials industry at All-Russian scientific-practical conferences are presented. It is shown that during the Soviet and post-Soviet periods the significant changes of priorities of the industry development took place. Issues of the subsurface use, tariff policy of natural monopolies and permanently deteriorating state of the industry science are cited as the most severe problems of the present time.
Keywords: industry of non-metallic construction materials, subsurface use, technology of mining works, quarry equipment, cubical crushed stone, siftings of crushing, branch science.
E.I. YUMASHEVA, chemical process engineer, I.V. KOZLOVA, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, OOO RIF “Stroymaterialy” (Moscow)
The citation index and impact factor as calculation indexes of publication activity, one of criteria of efficiency of scientific activities are considered. It is shown that at present the Russian science citation index (RSCI), created on the platform of the Scientific Electronic Library, multifunctional information system which integrated also the data from Scopus and Web of Science, covers the whole flow of Russian publications and their citation. As opposed to Scopus and Web of Science, RSCI is available free of charge. Ways of the improvement of publication activities of Russian scientists and scientific organizations are considered.
Keywords: RSCI, Scopus and Web of Scince, citation base, publication activities, impact-factor, citation index, Bradford’s law, Matthew effect, self-citation.
I.Ya. GNIP, S.I. VAYTKUS, S.A. VEYALIS, Candidates of Technical Sciences, the Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Lithuania)
Results of the experimental study of deformability and strength of polystyrene foam of 16-24 kg/m³ density at shifting under the short-term load are presented. Mathematical models of optimization of the thickness of polystyrene foam samples (length – 200 mm, width – 100 mm) were obtained by the method of statistical planning for determining the shear modulus and strength limit. Graphic interpretation of models obtained is given. The value of relative shift corresponding to the conventional limit of proportionality and strength limit has been determined.
Keywords: polystyrene foam, shift, statistic planning of experiment, shear modulus, strength limit, elastic relative shift, optimal thickness of samples
V.R. FALIKMAN, the Research, Design and Technological Institute for Concrete and Reinforced
Concrete Named after A.A. Gvozdev, OAO “SRC “Construction” (Moscow)
The situation in the building sector of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies market is analyzed. Main directions, barriers and drivers of using nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in manufacturing construction materials are determined.
Keywords: nanomaterials, nanotechnologies, nanoparticles, sustainable development
O.V. ARTAMONOVA, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, E.M. CHERNYSHOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Academician of RAACS, the Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Voronezh SUACE)
Concepts and bases of the nanomodification of non-organic construction material structures in problems on development of up-to-date technologies are discussed. An evolution route of formation of a solid substance is considered; a “nano arsenal” of modification of the structure is considered.
Keywords: hardening system, construction composite, nanomodification of structure.
B.Ya. TROFIMOV, L.Ya. KRAMAR, Doctors of Technical Sciences, K.V. SHULDYAKOV, Master, the South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk)
It is shown that the maximum frost-resistance, including freezing of steamed concrete up to 500 ºC, is achieved when the content of furnace granulated slag in cement is about 50%. This favours the improvement of strength after heat treatment, reduces the modulus of elasticity and ice content in concrete.
Keywords: slag, concrete, heat-moisture hardening, strength, frost-resistance.
A.A. GUVALOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences(firstname.lastname@example.org), the Azerbaijan University of Architecture and Construction (Baku, the Republic of Azerbaijan); A.V. KABUS, engineer(email@example.com), A.V. USHEROV-MARSHAK, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Kharkiv National University of Construction and Architecture (Kharkiv, Ukraine)
Results of the thermo-kinetic analysis of initial hydration of cement in the presence of a complex organo-mineral additive of super-plasticizer–disperse component type are presented. Results show that the organo-mineral additive containing a super-plasticizer of polyarylsulfonsulfonate and microsilica type, in contrast to traditional additives of the same type, does not decelerate the initial hydration of cement.
Keywords: super-plasticizer, mineral component, complex additive, semi-adiabatic calorimeter
A.N. GRISHINA, Candidate of Technical Sciences(GrishinaAN@mgsu.ru), E.V. KOROLEV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering; A.B. SATYUKOV, engineer, OOO “Inzhenernaya gruppa BSB” (Orenburg)
Methods of the synthesis of nanosize hydrosilicates of barium are proposed. The influence of synthesis temperature, type of a barium compound and pH of a medium on the kinetics of the change of particles of barium hydrosilicate sols is studied. It is established that for receiving stable colloid solutions of barium hydrosilicates it is reasonable to use alkaline barium-containing solutions.
Keywords: sol, nanosize hydrosilicate of barium, fraction composition, stability