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Stroitel`nye Materialy №1

Table of contents

V.G. GRANIK, Candidate of Technical Sciences, the Institute of Public Buildings (Moscow)
The innovative technology of prestressed structures is considered. The use of this technology makes it possible to reduce the self-cost of products by 20-35% comparing with analogous non-stressed articles, to improve the fire resistance and reduce the sound conductivity. Over 3 mil. m² of floor slabs have been produced in Moscow using this technology.

Keywords: labour coefficient, self-cost, prestressing, reinforcing bar, internal anchor, form, internal stop, concrete, floor slab

A.I. NIZHEGORODOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, the National Research Irkutsk State Technical University
The article considers the peculiarities of burning of vermiculite conglomerates with weight content of vermiculite of 27-52% in electrical kilns; constructive-operating parameters of special kilns are determined.

N.V. MIKHAYLOV, Chief Technologist, Research and Engineering Corporation “Mechanobr-Tekhnika”; A.Yu. FEOKTISTOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, the Saint Petersburg State Mining University; L.G. BERNSHTEYN, Research and Testing Center «GiproCement Science and Quality Control» Ltd. (St. Petersburg)

Prospects of the use of additional fuel produced from solid domestic wastes – so called RDF – for production of cement in the Russian Federation are considered. The ecological and economic reasonability of replacement of a part of traditional fuel with RDF at cement factories is substantiated. General requirements for fuel made of solid domestic wastes are considered. Results of own studies aimed at the development of optimum technology of producing RDF from mixed domestic wastes are presented. On the basis of the study results, the composition and sequence of basic technological operations connected with the production of RDF are recommended.

Keywords: solid domestic wastes (SDW), energy utilization of SDW, fuel from wastes, RDF, use of fuel produced from cement industry wastes, cement production, production of RDF fuel.

V.V. RUSINA, Candidate of Technical Sciences (Rusina07@bk.ru), the Bratsk State University (the Irkutsk oblast)
The possibility of production of heat resistant concretes using granulated cupola slag, dump ash-slag mix, fly ash is established. The influence of various fillers and admixtures of micro-silica on the heat resistance of concrete is studied. It is shown, that when using the liquid glass from micro-silica of different types, the heat resistant concrete has different residual strength after testing at Т=800оС.

Keywords: heat resistant concretes, heat resistance, residual strength, liquid glass, micro-silica, graphite, carborundum, ash, ash-slag mix, zeolite similar compounds.

G.R. BUTKEVICH, Candidate of Technical Sciences, FGUP “VNIPIIstromsyrie” (Moscow) The state of the industry of non-metallic construction materials of Russia during the long run is analyzed; basic problems of the industry and reasons behind their accumulation are revealed. A variant of the periodization of development of the national industry beginning since the middle of the XX century is proposed. The comparison of projections of industry development in several countries is made.

Keywords: non-metallic construction materials, production volume, projection, resource capacity, mineral raw materials.

A.A. RUDYCHEV, Yu.A. DOROSHENKO, E.N. CHIZHOVA, Doctors of Economic Sciences, the Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov
The essence, aims, approaches, stages and methods of formation of pricing policy of manufacturers of construction materials are considered. A multi-factor model of price formation is offered.

Keywords: price policy, price formation, methods of price formation, expenditure, profit.

A.G. PEREKHOZHENTSEV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering
Methods of the calculation of characteristics of the porous structure of capillary-porous construction materials are considered.

Keywords: isotherms of capillary evaporation, porous structure.

S.N. LEONOVICH, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Belarusian National Technical University (Minsk); O.Yu. CHERNYAKEVICH, lecturer, the Brest State Polytechnic College

The complete probability model of concrete carbonization based on the well-known regularities of the diffusion theory is offered; it takes into account the carbon dioxide fixation which depends on relative humidity, drying and damping of concrete, heterogeneity of concrete. Recommendations on the preparation of probability models of main basic variables for conditions of Byelorussia (distribution law, values of its statistic parameters) are made.

Keywords: depth and rate of concrete carbonization, reinforced concrete structure, limiting state, durability, protective layer of concrete, probability model, distribution law, statistic parameters, basic variable.

I.I. SESKIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, A.S. BARANOV, engineer (geleont@mail.ru), the Samara State University of Railway Engineering
Results of the experimental study of the strength of pressed concrete with superplasticizer C-3 are presented. The influence of the intensity of pressing and quantity of superplasticizer C-3 on the strength of cement stone, cement-sand mortar and concrete is established. It is revealed that the joint impact of factors mentioned above favors the improvement of the strength of initial cement stone by two times, cement-sand mortar by three times, and concrete - by 1.5 time.

Keywords: pressed concrete, pressing, superplasticizer C-3, strength, cement stone, cement-sand mortar, concrete.

A.N. PLUGIN, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, the Ukrainian State Academy of Railway Transport; S.N. TOLMACHEV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, the Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University; A.A. PLUGIN, Doctor of Technical Sciences, L.V. TRIKOZ, Candidate of Technical Sciences, the Ukrainian State Academy of Railway Transport (Kharkiv)
The mechanism of the wash-out of counter ions from the diffusion part of the double electric layer (DEL) of particles of cement hydration products is shown. The critical analysis of existing ideas about the structure of the diffusion part of DEL and a driving force of its formation is made; ideas about the mechanism of washing-out the contacts in the cement stone and concrete during the rain period and flooding are developed. Recommendation on the use of new theoretical ideas with the purpose to ensure the maximal operating life of cement stone and pavement concrete are presented.

Keywords: double electric layer, counterions, diffusion part of DEL, washing of contacts, durability of cement stone and concrete.

V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences, I.V. ZHERNOVSKY, Candidate of Geological-Mineralogical Sciences, A.V. MAKSAKOV, engineer (alvimax@intbel.ru), L.N. SOLOVIEVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Yu.N. OGURTSOVA, engineer (lora80@list.ru), the Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov
An express-methodology for determination of silicious raw material activity and results of their assessment is presented. The ranking of silicious raw material according to the level of reduction of the coefficient of activity is made. On the basis of results obtained the requirements for silicious raw materials for production of the granulated nanostructuring filler have been developed.

Keywords: light concrete, granulated nanostructuring filler, silicious raw material, activity

I. BARBANE, еng., I. VITINA, dr. sc., L. LINDINA, dr. sc. Riga Technical University (Latvia)

The aim of investigation was to obtain a binder for restoration needs from Latvia’s clay and dolomite compatible with historically used dolomitic romancement.Mixtures from two types of clay and dolomite in powder state were synthesized. Samples were prepared by mixing the raw materials, semidry pressing and firing at 750–950оC temperatures. Thermochemical processes in dolomite-clay mixtures depending on production temperature and clay type were compared by using XRD analysis and full chemical analysis. Optimal temperature for production of hydraulic fast-setting binder similar to natural dolomitic romancement from mixture of clay and dolomite is 800–850оC.

I.N. TIKHOMIROVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, A.V. MAKAROV, engineer (rakhartr@bk.ru), the D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Moscow)
An issue of mechanical activation of lime-quartz raw mixes as an efficient method of production of silicate stone of non-autoclave hardening is considered. Experimental data on the composition and quantity of surface phases arising on the grains of quartz in the course of joint and separate grinding of components of a raw mix as well as on their influence on the mechanism and kinetics of phase formation and hardening of a lime-quartz binder under conditions of steaming are presented. Averaged qualitative and quantitative assessments of the composition of new formations are presented.

Keywords: quartz, lime, calcium hydrosilicates, silicon-oxigen anions, mechanical activation, lime-silica binders, hydrothermal hardening

O.B. LYAPIDEVSKAYA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, E.A. BEZUGLOVA, engineer (bezuglova-e@inbox.ru), the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
The problem of protection of underground buildings and structures against the influence of water and corrosive media is considered. A new efficient coating waterproofing compound for protection of underground structures and parts of buildings is presented. The mechanism of chemical interaction of the cement-microsilica-silicate-lump system is described.

Keywords: waterproofing, rendering materials, underground structures

I.G. CHUMACHENKO, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering
The article offers a new approach to the development of multicomponent aluminium-silicate mixtures intended for production of artificial porous fillers with specified properties. This approach is based on the use of methods of mathematical simulation and special software. The assessment of the influence of chemical composition of raw material on the quality of claydite is made. The reliability of the developed method of analysis in prediction of a phase composition of claydite, type and structure of residual material and new formations is confirmed. The character of phase transformations taking place in the course of ceramic materials manufacture is determined.

V.P. SELYAEV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Academician of RAACS, A.K. OSIPOV, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, V.A. NEVEROV, Candidate of Physical-Mathematical Sciences, L.I. KUPRIYASHKINA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, O.G. MASHTAEV, V.V. SIDOROV, engineers (lord8718@rambler.ru), the N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University (Saransk)
Results of the study of properties of dispersed micro-silica using the methods of IR-spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, granulometry, and optical microscopy are presented. The comparative analysis of different types of micro-silica is made. The possibility to create effective heat insulation materials on the basis of mineral powders of diatomite is shown.

Keywords: diatomite, dispersed micro-silica, polystructural model, heat conductivity.

V.B. PETROPAVLOVSKAYA (victoriapetrop@gmail.com), T.B. NOVICHENKOVA, Candidates of Technical Sciences, V.V. BELOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Tver State Technical University; A.F. BURIANOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
Ensuring the quality of binders and improving the efficiency of their production are directly related to the regulation and optimization of their granulometric composition. Differential and integral curves of distribution of the probability density. give the most complete information about the granulometric structure of binders The use of mathematical simulation for the analysis and optimization of processes makes it possible to improve the quality of binding materials, greatly reducing the costs of their production.

Keywords: binding substances, optimization, granulometric composition

O.V. EFREMOVA, engineer (efrolgas@mail.ru), V.S. GRYZLOV, doctor of Technical Sciences, the Cherepovets State University; B.D. SVIRIDOV, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, OOO NPO “CherepovetsDomStroy” (Cherepovets, Vologda Oblast)
Peculiarities of the phase formation of building material on the basis of granulated slag and timber waste of wood-slag composite material (WSCM) are studied. As a result of the comparative analysis of the most widely-spread types of structural heat insulating concretes and WSCM, it is established that WSCM has significant advantages concerning the heat conductivity and density. To explain this phenomenon the article presents the results of X-ray structural analysis of the WSCM microstructure. It is proved that WSCM is in a metastable condition and has amorphous-crystalline structure. This is due to the fact that all its components in their original form have in the structure the amorphous phase positively influencing on the formation of thermal insulation properties of the composite.

Keywords: wood-slag composite, X-ray structural analysis, amorphous and crystal phases, metastable structure, thermophysical properties.

Yu.P. TYRTYSHOV, Candidate of Economic Sciences (Stavropol); B.G. PECHENY, Doctor of Technical Sciences, V.L. KURBATOV, Doctor of Economic Sciences, the Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov, North-Caucasian Branch (Mineralnye Vody); A.I. ESHCHENKO, Candidate of Technical Sciences (Stavropol)
An issue of the present state in the field of compositions and technologies of preparation of water-emulsion bitumen pastes and mastics on powder emulsifiers is considered. Considerable differences in compositions and technologies of preparation of pastes and mastics are shown. The method of determining the optimum concentration of powder emulsifiers, which vary in their mineralogical and granulometric compositions, in water making it possible to obtain bitumen pastes and mastics with improved indexes of dispersion, stability and quality is offered.

Keywords: bitumen pastes and mastics, powder emulsifiers, optimal concentration, quality
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