Table of contents
G.Ya. DUDENKOVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director, OOO “VNIISTROM “Scientific Centre of Ceramics”, President, the Association of Ceramic Material Manufacturers (Moscow)
Introduction of GOST 530-2012 “Ceramic Brick and Stone. General Technical Specifications”
It is shown, that the new version of GOST 530-2012 significantly differs from the previous of 2008. Main innovations concerning qualitative indicators and methods of testing of ceramic products are substantiated. It is concluded, that the development of an individual standard on the method for determining the design values of thermal characteristics of ceramic wall materials remains actual.
Keywords: GOST 530-2012, ceramic brick, clinker brick, porous blocks, test methods, work size of stone, non-work size of stone, lime inclusions, speed of initial water absorption
V.S. SEMENOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, T.A. ROZOVSKAYA (email@example.com), engineer, the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
Assessment of Quality of Wall Ceramic Materials according to Russian and European Standards
Basic technical requirements for wall ceramic materials set by Russian (GOST) and European (EN) normative documents are considered; their comparative analysis is conducted. Similarities and differences in the regulation of indicators of wall ceramics quality in accordance with Russian and European standards are shown.
A.V. GAVRILOV, Managing Director, G.I. GRINFELD, engineer, branch of OOO “LSR” – “Wall Materials. North- Peculiarities of Using Clays Becoming White After Firing in Brick Production West” (St. Petersburg)
A Brief Review of History, Conditions and Prospects of Clinker Brick Market in Russia
The etymology of the word “clinker” is presented. It is shown, that historically clinker brick actually appeared as defective goods (overfiring) in the course of production of ordinary ceramic brick, however, quickly it found application in the construction of important structures, operating in aggressive environments and for paving of roads. Eventually in Europe it began to be manufactured specially. In the Soviet Union clinker brick as a separate type of building materials for civil construction has not been manufactured. Data on conditions of the Russian clinker brick market at present are presented. Characteristics and fields of the rational use of clinker brick in Russia are given. It is concluded, that the commissioning of the clinker brick production line at the Nikolsk brick factory of LSR Group with output comparable with the total volume of clinker brick consumption in Russia will significantly influence on the market structure since it has a great potential for import substitution.
A.A. MINDUBAEV, engineer (firstname.lastname@example.org), M.G. GABIDULLIN, R.Z. RAKHIMOV, Doctors of Technical Sciences, R.M. GILFANOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, the Kazan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering
Simulation and Optimization of Clinker Brick Compositions on the Basis of Modified Fusible Clay
Results of the study of simulation and optimization of clinker brick compositions according to the indexes of its strength, shrinkage, density, water absorption, and notional price of mixture with the help of the planned experiment in the course of which the percent of content of clays, volcanic additive and burning temperature varied are presented. Technological parameters for production of clinker brick with minimal expenses for raw materials have been determined.
Keywords: clinker brick, perlite, fusible clay, simulation, optimization.
G.D. ASHMARIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, V.G. LASTOCHKIN, engineer, V.I. SINYANSKY, Candidate of Technical Sciences, ZAO “VNIISTROM named after Petr Petrovich Budnikov” (Kraskovo, Moskow Oblast); V.V. ILYUKHIN, General Director, OAO “Elektroavtomat” (Alatyr, The Chuvash Republic); V.V. KURNOSOV, Candidate of Physical-Mathematical Sciences, General Director, ZAO “Komas@ (Moscow)
Reduction of a Cycle of Thermal Treatment in Technology of Ceramic Brick Compression Moulding
It is shown that the depletion of traditional raw material base for production of ceramic wall materials leads to involvement of siliceous rocks and a wide range of anthropogenic waste in the production. The technology of compression moulding ensuring the high quality of products is the most effective for processing of raw compositions on the basis of siliceous rocks and various wastes. A new patented thermal unit - a combined dryer-furnace which makes it possible to reduce the consumption of fuel resources by 25-30%, i.e. 30-40 kg of equivalent fuel per 1 ton of products is presented.
Keywords: semidry pressing, compression moulding, siliceous raw materials, anthropogenic waste, furnace-dryer, fuel consumption, energy efficiency, heat losses.
V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Rostov State University of Civil Engineering; A.V. USTINOV, engineer(email@example.com), Director, Brick Factory, OOO “KomStroy” (Rostov-on-Don); V.Yu. KOVALEV, engineer, Head of Marketing Department, OOO “Vivat Bisnes LTD” (Rostov-on-Don); Yu.V. TEREKHINA (firstname.lastname@example.org), A.V. KOTLYAR (email@example.com), engineers, the Rostov State University of Civil Engineering
Ceramic Stones of Compression Moulding on the Basis of Gaizes and Coal Preparation Waste
Results of the study connected with manufacturing ceramic stones of high efficiency on the basis of carbonate gaizes and coal preparation waste are presented. Properties of these materials are given. Properties of products depending on the ratio of components and temperature of burning are shown. The main technological regularities have been defined.
Keywords: ceramic stone, carbonate gaizes, coal preparation waste.
Keywords: ceramic brick, anthropogenic raw materials,
matrix structure, disperse medium, disperse phase.
А.YU. STOLBOUSHKIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, А.I. IVANOV, engineer,
А.А. PERMYAKOV, Candidate of Geologiсal-mineralogical Sciences, Siberian State
Industrial University; S.V. DRUZHININ, Director-General of LLC «Spetzremont» (Novokuznetsk)
The complex petrographic research results of ceramic brick structure produced from the waste of coal mining, including study microsection on the
polarizing microscope, X-ray analysis, SEM and ir-spectroscopy are provided. It is stated that the high physical-mechanical brick properties obtained
due to the crock matrix structure, intensive formation of glass phase on the ceramic composite interphase boundary and temperature reduction of the
process of material solid-phase sintering.
Keywords: ceramic brick, coal preparation waste, technogenic waste.
G.I. STOROZHENKO, Doctor of Technical Sciences, director «Baskey LTD» (Novosibirsk);
А.YU. STOLBOUSHKIN, Candidates of Technical Sciences, Siberian State Industrial university;
М.P. MISHIN, CEO of JSC «Novokuznetzkremstroj-N» (Novokuznetzk)
The experience of a brick factory, where the waste of coal enrichment from Abashevskaya CEF was used as the main raw material, is considered.
The plant’s work was stopped because of unstable material composition of the waste and moral ageing of technological solutions.
The authors proposed a new technology of ceramic brick production on the basis of waste, which have passed the industrial tests.
G.I. YAKOVLEV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, M.S. POLYANSKIKH (MAEVA), Candidate of Technical Sciences, the Izhevsk State Technical University named after M.T. Kalashnikov; R. MACHYULAYTIS, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Ya. KERENE, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Yu. MALAYSHKENE, Doctor-Engineer, O. KIZINEVICH, Doctor-Engineer, the Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Lithuania); A.V. SHAYBADULLINA, Master, A.F. GORDINA, undergraduate, the Izhevsk State Technical University named after M.T. Kalashnikov
Nanomodofication of Ceramic Materials for Construction Purposes
The influence of a modifying addition of multilayered carbon nanotubes on the structure and properties of building ceramic is investigated. The structuring influence of the modifying additive on the ceramic adobe brick and burnt product is established. Introduction of multilayered carbon nanotubes makes it possible to improve the strength of dried adobe brick and burnt ceramic product, at the same time to reduce the burning temperature of ceramics.
Keywords: ceramic brick, multilayered carbon nanotube, modification, structure.
V.A. KLEVAKIN, Executive Director, E.V. KLEVAKINA, technologist, OOO “NANOKERAMIKA” (Ekaterinburg)
Yu.T. PLATOV, R.A. PLATOVA
Instrumental Specification of Colour Characteristic of Building Materials
The review contains basic terms and definitions of colorimetry, standard colorimetric systems and spaces, formulae of colour difference, main colour characteristics of materials as well as basic principles of the instrument specification of colour and fields of its application for building materials.
Keywords: colour, coloration, appearance, colour difference, whiteness, yellowness, colouring power, spectrophotometer.
V.G. PETRYAKOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, the Bashkir State Agrarian University
Entropy in Qualimetry of Operating Ability of Building Ceramics
It is noted that the algorithm of the entropy function of quality assessment is the most rational in qualimetry of operational properties of products, because the best ranking of their operational properties, their equilibrium are achieved at maximization of entropy. On the basis of the algorithm of the entropy function, the comparison of alternative variants of operational properties of ceramic brick is made. It is determined, that ceramic brick modified with the super plasticizer MB-1 has a set of the best operational properties, as well as the best quality.
Keywords: entropy, quality, production, operational properties, ceramic brick, superplasticizer.
B.N. ZATONSKY, General Director, V.I. ZHAGLIN, Chairman of the Board of Directors, A.M. SHADSKY, Chief Engineer, G.A. ARTSYBASHEV, Deputy Chief Engineer, ZAO “Voronezh Building Materials Plant”
Another Modern Workshop for Production of Autoclaved Cellular Concrete
The establishment of a workshop for production of blocks from cellular concrete of autoclave hardening according to the modern technology and with the use of domestic equipment and its distinctive features are described.
Keywords: vibrotechnology, upper undercut layer, cellular concrete.
S.B. BELANOVICH, General Director, N.P. SAZHNEV, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Adviser to the Head, OAO “Managing Company of “Zabudova” Holding” (Chist, Molodechno District, Minsk Oblast, the Republic of Belarus), S.L. GALKIN, Deputy Director for science, UP “TSNTUS” (Minsk, the Republic of Belarus)
Reinforcement of Cellular-Concrete Products
To reduce the labour coefficient and improve the thermal protection of walls of a building OAO ““Managing Company of “Zabudova” Holding” and OAO “Smargonsilikatobeton” organize work aimed at the development of production of a precast reinforced concrete frame, reinforced products made of autoclaved aerated concrete, including large-sized cellular concrete panels. The technology of production of large-size reinforced elements for manufacture of panels is presented.
A.A. BEDAREV, engineer (firstname.lastname@example.org), E.I. SHMITKO, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Voronezh State University of Architecture and civil Engineering
Optimization of Structure of Gas Silicate with the Use of a Multiparameter Model
On the basis of experimental studies and theoretical data the multiparameter model of the influence of technological factors on the formation of cellular concrete structure has been developed. The efficiency of its use is shown on the example of optimization according to the strength criterion.
Keywords: cellular concrete of autoclave hardening, silicate mix, multiparameter model.
P.V. SMIRNOVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences, L.V. MORGUN, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Rostov State University of Civil Engineering; V.N. MORGUN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, the Institute of Architecture & Arts of the Southern Federal University (Rostov-on-Don)
Theoretical and Experimental Justification of Possibility to Control the Value of Shrinkage Strain in Foam Concretes of Non-Autoclave Hardening
It is theoretically justified and experimentally confirmed, that the value of shrinkage strain of foam concretes is regulated by the speed of mass transfer of disperse particles in the course of formation of cluster aggregates in the structure of interpore partitions.
Keywords: fibrous-foam concrete, structure formation, shrinkage strain, structure, interpore partition, shrinkage.
A.V. VASILIEV, engineer (email@example.com), M.V. ZHUKOVSKY, Doctor of Technical Sciences, A.D. ONISHCHENKO, engineer, the Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ekaterinburg), A.A. VISHNEVSKY, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Executive Director, OOO “Production-Construction Amalgamation “Teplit” (Berezovsky, Sverdlov Oblast)
Building Materials as a Source of Radon in Buildings Built According to Modern Technologies
An analysis of mechanisms of entering of radon into the room is made. The dominant mechanism of radon entering into buildings constructed according to modern technologies is established. An analysis of radiation characteristics of building materials is made. The mathematic simulation of the processes of transfer and accumulation of radon in the room with due regard for the real characteristics is conducted. Field measurements of the volumetric activity of radon in model buildings under various operating conditions and surveys on radon content in exploited premises have been carried out.
Keywords: radon, mechanisms of radon entering, rate of air circulation, building materials
A.A. LUKASH, Candidate of Technical Sciences, E.S. GRISHINA, engineer, the Bryansk State Engineering-Technological Academy (FGBOY VPO BGITA)
Houses Made of Rounded Logs: Prospects of Manufacture, Shortcomings and Ways of Their Elimination
The article describes advantages and shortcomings of structures used in low-rise housing construction and offers methods of improvement of production of timber houses.
Keywords: housing construction, timber, log, beam, rounding, shrinkage, shrinkage of wood.
A.D. LOMAKIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, TSNIISK named after V.A. Kucherenko (Moscow)
Protection of Glued Timber Structures under Factory Conditions
Production operations for the preparation of work surfaces and application of protective compositions on glued timber elements are considered. Peculiarities of the protection of side surfaces, butts, and upper edges are shown. The compositions for protective treatment and recommendations on their use are presented.
Keywords: glued timber structure, grinding, milling, priming antiseptic, covering layer, coating, sealant, sealing tape
A.G. PEREKHOZHENTSEV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, the Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering
Simulation of Temperature and Humidity Processes in Porous Building Materials. Part 5. Determination of Coefficients of Hydraulic Conductivity in the Course of Joint Transfer of Liquid and Vaporous Moistures According to Characteristics of Their Porous Structure
Methods of the calculation of coefficients of hydraulic conductivity in the course of a joint transfer of liquid and vaporous moistures in porous materials according to the characteristics of their porous structure are considered.
Keywords: porous structure, hydraulic conductivity.