Stroitel`nye Materialy №6

Stroitel`nye Materialy №6
June, 2018

Table of contents

N.P. UMNYAKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (
Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Method for Determining the Velocity of Dust Particles in the Air Flow in the Ventilated Facade Design The motion of polluting particles and dust particles in ventilated air cavities of the ventilated facade is considered. The equation, derived by the author, for calculating the speed of movement of dust and polluting particles into the air gap of ventilated faсade depending on the speed of air flow in the interlayer, dimensions of dust particles and their density, is given. It is established that at a Reynolds number ≤1 the velocity of dust particles coincides with the speed of the air flow; particles of dust and contaminants penetrate into the surface layer of the mineral wool insulation of basalt fibers as a result of which the sorption properties of the insulation near the surface, facing the air layer, and in the thickness of the thermal insulation layer differ from each other. However, the thermal conductivity of the heater remains below the design value.

Keywords: speed, dust particles, Reynolds number, cladding facade system, air flow, air circulation.

For citation: Umnyakova N.P. Method for determining the velocity of dust particles in the air flow in the ventilated facade design. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 4–7. (In Russian).

1. Bogoslovsky V.N. Stroitel’naya teplofizika (teplofizicheskie osnovy otopleniya, ventilyacii i kondicionirovaniya vozduha) [Building Thermophysics (thermophysical fundamentals of heating, ventilation and air conditioning)]. Moscow: AVOK. 2013. 416 p.
2. Vetoshkin A.G. Osnovy inzhenernoj zashchity okruzhayushchej sredy [Fundamentals of engineering environmental protection]. Moscow: Infa-Engineerya. 2016. 456 p.
3. Azarov V.N., Marinin N.A., Zhogoleva D.A. On the evaluation of fine dust (PM2.5 and PM10) in the atmosphere of cities. Izvestiya Yugo-Zapadnogo State University. 2011. No. 5 (38). Part 2, pp.144–149. (In Russian).
4. Chmykhalova S.V. Resursno-ehkologicheskie problemy bol’shih gorodov i puti ih resheniya [Resource-ecological problems of large cities and ways to solve them]. Мoscow: Gornaya kniga, 2012. 328 p.
5. Sobolev A.A., Melnikov N.A., Tyutyunnik L.O. Movement of dust particles in the air stream. Vektor nauki Tol’yattinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2011. No. 3 (17), pp. 82–86. (In Russian).
6. Istomin V.L., Kutsenogiy K.P. A technique for determining the aerodynamic diameter of aerosol particles of a complex geometric shape in the Reynolds number range from 0.1 to 6.0. Teplofizika i aehrodinamika. 2010. Vol. 17. No. 1, pp 77–83. (In Russian).
7. Arkhipov V.A., Usanina A.S. Dvizhenie chastic dispersnoj fazy v nesushchej srede [Movement of dispersed phase particles in a carrier medium]. Tomsk: Izdatel’skij Dom Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2014. 252 p.
8. Pirumov A.I. Obespylevanie vozduha [Debris from the air]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1974. 296 p.
9. Gri H., Lane N. Aehrozoli – pyli, dyma i tumana [Aerosols – dust, smoke and fog]. Moscow: Himiya, 1972. 482 p.
10. Sorokin N.S., Taliev V.N. Aspiraciya mashin i pnevmotransporta v tekstil’noj promyshlennosti [Aspiration of machines and pneumatic transport in the textile industry]. Moscow: Legkaya industriya, 1978. 215 p.
11. Fuks N.A. Uspekhi mekhaniki aehrozolej [Advances in the mechanics of aerosols]. Moscow: AN SSSR, 1961. 161 p.
12. Umnyakova N.P. Thermal protective properties of hinged operated facade structures. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Сonstruction]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 2–6. (In Russian).
13. Umnyakova N.P. Sorption of water vapor mineral wool insulation in operated ventilated facades. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 50–52. (In Russian).
14. Umnyakova N.P. Features of the exploitation of the design of ventilated facades in large metropolitan areas. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 3, pp. 315–323.
15. Umnyakova N.P. Elements of hinged ventilated facades, determining their heat-shielding qualities. ACADEMIA. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2009. No. 5, pp. 372–380
V.G. GAGARIN1, 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding member of RAACS (; S.V. GUVERNYUK1, 3, Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics)
1 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
3 Lomonosov Moscow State University (GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation)

Problems of Dynamic Load Determination on a Facing Layer of Hinged Facade Systems in Wind Runs The requirements to the method of determining the dynamic loads on the facing layer of enclosing structures of the building with suspended facade systems (SFS) under wind gusts are developed. The distribution of the external wind pressure on the facing layer of the facades with SFS does not depend on the processes of flowing inside the air gaps of SFS. This is due to the low degree of permeability of the facing layer in all practically significant cases. Therefore, the problem of determining the external wind pressure is a problem independently solved by known conventional methods. However, the knowledge of local wind pressure on the outer side of the SFS facing layer does not yet indicate the value of the wind load on the facing layer itself, since the internal pressure in the ventilated gap of the SFS is determined by the integral balance of the air flows in and out in all communicating subfacing volumes. This means that any attempt to set a value of local internal pressure by the known value of external pressure is incorrect. Internal pressure is not a local, but an integral parameter. To determine it, it is necessary to apply a mathematical approach to calculating the balances of the inflowing and outflowing air under non-stationary conditions and depending on the conditions of the congestion of flow volumes in the sub-facing layer of the SFS. The formulation of the problem should include the possibility of taking into account the effect of delay when relaxing the internal pressure in the sub-facing layer of the SFS under the influence of sharply changing in time external pressure on the facades of the object with wind gusts.

Keywords: building aerodynamics, surface boundary layer, vortex wake, wind gust, suspended facade systems, air permeability, non-stationary aerodynamic loads, aero-physical simulation.

For citation: Gagarin V.G., Guvernyuk, S.V. Problems of dynamic load determination on a facing layer of hinged facade systems in wind runs. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 8–12. (In Russian).

1. Gerhardt H.J., Janser. F Wind loads on wind permeable facades. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 1994. Vol. 53, pp. 37–48.
2. Kumar K.S., Strathopoulos T., Wisse J.A. Field measurement data of wind loads on rainscreen walls. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 2003. Vol. 91, pp. 1401–1417.
3. Kijewski T. Kareem A. Dynamic wind effect: a comparative study of provision in codes and standards with wind tunnel data. Wind and Structures. 1998. Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 77–109.
4. Molotkov G.S., Podtyolkov V.V. The main reasons for the destruction of structures of hinged ventilated facades of “SIAL KM” and recommendations for their elimination. Nauchnyj zhurnal KubGAU. 2015. No. 107 (03), pp. 1–22. (In Russian).
5. Borisov A.V., Ivanov R.K., Karpov A.S., Siharulidze Yu.G. Analysis of disturbances in the vertical maneuver area. Izvestiya AN. Teoriya i sistemy upravleniya. 2006. No. 3, pp. 192–202. (In Russian).
6. Galyamichev A.V. Specificity of determination of loads on enclosing structures and its influence on the results of their static calculation. Internet-journal Naukovedenie. 2015. Vol. 7. No. 2 (27), p. 96. (In Russian).
7. Geurts C., van Bentum C. Wind Loading on Buildings: Eurocode and Experimental Approach. In: Stathopoulos T., Baniotopoulos C.C. (eds) Wind Effects on Buildings and Design of Wind-Sensitive Structures. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, 2007. Vol. 493. Springer, Vienna.
8. Cheol-Soo Park, Godfried Augenbroe, Tahar Messadi, Mate Thitisawat, Nader Sadegh, Calibration of a lumped simulation model for double-skin facade systems. Energy and Buildings. 2004. No. 36, pp. 1117–1130.
9. Baskaran A. Review of Design Guidelines for Pressure Equalized Rainscreen Walls – National Research CouncilCanada, Institute for Research in Construction, Internal Report № 629, 1992. 93 p.
10. Xing Shi, Effect of membrane ballooning on screen pressure equalization: A short literature review. Journal of Building Physics. 2013. No. 37 (2), pp. 185–199.
11. Gagarin V.G., Guvernyuk S.V., Kubenin A.S., Pastushkov P.P., Kozlov V.V. To the methodology for calculating the effect of wind influences on the air behavior of buildings. Izvestiya vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij. Tekhnologiya tekstil’noj promyshlennosti. 2016. No. 4, pp. 234–240. (In Russian).
12. Gagarin V.G., Guvernyuk S.V., Ledenev P.V. Wind loads on the facings of hinged facade systems with a ventilated layer. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 3, pp. 124–129. (In Russian).
13. Isaev S.A., Sudakov A.G., Zhukova YU.V., Usachov A.E. Modeling the reduction of drag and remove the alternating load on the circular cylinder due to the throttling effect. Inzhenerno-fizicheskij zhurnal. 2014. No. 87 (4), pp. 904–907. (In Russian).
14. Isaev S.A., Baranov P.A., Zhukova Yu.V., Tereshkin A.A., Usachov A.E. Simulation of wind impact on the ensemble of high-rise buildings using multi-block computing technologies. Inzhenerno-fizicheskij zhurnal. 2014. Vol. 87. No. 1, pp. 107–118. (In Russian).
15. Gagarin V.G., Guvernyuk S.V., Ledenev P.V. Aerodynamic characteristics of buildings for calculating wind impact on enclosing structures. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2010. No. 1, pp. 7–11. (In Russian).
16. Ramponi R. Blocken B. CFD simulation of cross-ventilation for a generic isolated building: Impact of computational parameters. Building and Environment. 2012. Vol. 53, pp. 34–48.
17. Blocken B. 50 years of Computational Wind Engineering: Past, present and future. Building and Environment. 2014. Vol. 129, pp. 69–102.
18. Gagarin V.G., Guvernyuk S.V., Kubenin A.S. On the reliability of computer predictions in determining wind impacts on buildings and complexes. // Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 3–8. (In Russian).
19. Guvernyuk S.V., Dynnikov YA.A., Dynnikova G.Ya., Zubkov A.F. Hydrodynamics of intense auto-oscillations of the reverse weathervane in a flat diffuser. Doklady Physics. 2018. Vol. 63. No. 5, pp. 189–192. DOI: 10.1134/ S1028335818050014. Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, Internal Report № 629, 1992. 93 p.
N.I. KARPENKO, Doctor of Science (Engineering), Professor, Academician of RAACS, V.N. YARMAKOVSKY, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Honorary Member of RAACS, Chief Researcher, S.N. KARPENKO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Counselor of RAACS, Leading Researcher, D.Z. KADIEV, Engineer Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

To diagrams of concrete deformation under simultaneous action of loading and low temperatures up to minus 70°С, depending on structural and technological characteristics of concrete The initial basis of the physical ratios used to calculate the strength and deformability of reinforced concrete structures operated at low temperatures are diagrams relating the stress of axial compression and tension with relative deformations of heavy concrete, defined under normal conditions of positive temperature. On the basis of generalization and analysis of available experimental data, the correction of these deformation diagrams of heavy concrete with due regard for the effect of low negative temperature (up to -70°C) is performed. Herewith, the influence of such temperatures on increasing the prismatic strength, the initial modulus of concrete elasticity and its relative deformations at the vertices of diagrams built when testing the axial compression under the loads in a frozen state of up to -70°C is determined. It is shown that the specified increase in strength, initial modulus of elasticity and relative deformations at the vertices of the diagrams largely depends on the water-cement ratio of concrete and its initial moisture content W at the time of freezing, particularly when the latter does not exceed the limit value of Wlim, determined by the critical degree of water saturation of concrete ξcr> 90%. On the basis of processing of experimental research data it is established that the increase in durability, modulus of elasticity and ultimate deformability of the concrete tested under loading in the frozen state at temperature lower -70°C at various humidity of a cement stone (CS) and concrete in the range up to Wlim, actually stops. This pattern is confirmed by the results of special studies performed using dilatometric and ultrasonic methods of the process of phase transition of water to ice in the pores of the capillaries and pores of the gel of the CS of concrete, changes in the process of such an indicator as the” ice content” of the latter in dependence on the CS differential porosity.

Keywords: deformation diagrams, concrete, low negative temperatures, water-cement ratio, differential porosity, humidity, degree of water saturation, iceness, deformations, strength, modulus of elasticity, diagram method.

For citation: Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovsky V.N., Karpenko S.N., Kadiev D.Z. To diagrams of deformation of concrete under load by the action of temperature up to -70°С depending on its structural-technological characteristics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 13–19. (In Russian).

1. Sviridov V.N., Malyuk V.D. Evaluation of durability of concrete in offshore constructions on the experience of construction in the far East. Proceedings of the III Russian (II international) conference on concrete and reinforced concrete «Concrete and reinforced concrete – a look into the future». Moscow: MGSU, 2014. Vol. 3, pp. 388–398. (In Russian).
2. Pantileenko V.N., Erokhina L.A. On improving the durability of structures oil and gas structures. Proceedings of the III Russian (II international) conference on concrete and reinforced concrete «Concrete and reinforced concrete – a look into the future». Moscow: MGSU, 2014. Vol. 3, pp. 348–355. (In Russian).
3. Popov V.M., Chernykh I.V. Change of structural properties of concrete at its periodic freezing. Design and construction of transport objects in the conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia): Materials of scientific and technical conference. Yakutsk, April 2–5, 2004. (In Russian).
4. Karpenko N.I., Karpenko S.N., Yarmakovsky V.N., Erofeev V.T. Modern methods for ensure the durability of reinforced concrete structures. ACADEMIA. Arhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2015. No. 1, pp. 93–103. (In Russian).
5. Yarmakovsky V.N. Strength and deformation characteristics of concrete at low temperatures // Beton i zhelezobeton. 1971. No. 10. (In Russian).
6. Moskvin V.M., Capkin M.M., Savitsky, A.N., Yarmakovsky V.N. Beton dlya stroitel’stva v surovyh klimaticheskih usloviyah. [Concrete for construction in harsh climatic conditions]. Leningrad. Leningrad Department of Stroyizdat. 1973. 168 p. (In Russian).
7. Moskvin V.M., Savina, Y.A., Alekseev S.N., Ivanov F.M., Podvalny A.M., Yarmakovsky V.N. Povyshenie stoykosti betona i zhelezobetona pri vozdeystvii agressivnyh sred. [Increase durability of concrete and reinforced concrete when exposed to aggressive environments]. Under the editorship of Moskvin V.M. Moscow, Stroiizdat. 1975. 240 p. (In Russian).
8. Yarmakovsky V.N. On the method of calculation of concrete structures of high frost resistance. V kn.: Povyshenie stoykosti betona i zhelezobetona pri vozdeystvii agressivnyh sred [Increase durability of concrete and reinforced concrete when exposed to aggressive environments]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1975, pp. 34–39. (In Russian).
9. Karpenko N.I. Obshchie modeli mekhaniki zhelezobetona [General models of reinforced concrete mechanics]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1996, pp. 92–126. (In Russian).
10. Karpenko S.N. Construction of the General method of calculation of reinforced concrete core structures in the form of finite increments. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2005. No. 1, pp. 13–18. (In Russian).
11. Karpenko N.I. and Karpenko S.N. On the diagram method of calculating the deformation of rod elements and its particular cases. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2012. No. 6, pp. 20–27. (In Russian).
12. Karpenko S.N., Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovsky V.N. About the construction of the chart method of calculation of rod reinforced concrete structures at low temperatures. Proceedings of the III International scientific conference «Polar Mechanics». Vladivostok: Dal’nevostochnyj federal’nyj universitet. 2016, pp. 181–191. (In Russian).
13. Istomin A.D. The work of central-stretched reinforced concrete elements at negative temperature. Izvestiya vuzov. Тehnologiya tekstilnoy promyshlennosty. 2017. No. 2, pp. 141–144.
14. Zaitsev U.V., Leonovich S.N. Prochnost’ i dolgovechnost’ konstruktivnyh materialov s treshchinoy [The strength and durability of structural materials with crack]. Minsk: BNTU. 2010, pp. 224–245. (In Russian).
15. Leonovich S.N. Prochnost’ konstruktsionnyh betonov pri tsiklicheskom zamorazhivanii – ottaivanii s pozitsii mekhaniki razrusheniya [Strength of structural concrete during cyclic freezing-thawing from the position of fracture mechanics]. Brest: BrGTU, 2006. 379 p. (In Russian).
16. Leonovich S.N., Guzeev E.A. Prediction of concrete structures durability. Proceedings of XII-th FIP Congress on challenges for concrete in the next millennium. Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1998. Vol. 2, pp. 983–987.
17. Guzeev E. A., Leonovich S.N., Piradov K.F. Mekhanika razrusheniya betona: voprosy teorii i praktiki [Concrete fracture Mechanics: problems of theory and practice]. Brest: BrGTU, 1999. 216 p. (In Russian).
18. Shubin I., Zaitsev Y., Rimshin V., Kurbatov V., Sultygova P. Fracture of high performance materials under multiaxial compression and thermal effect. Engineering Solid Mechanics. (2017), pp. 139–144.
19. Leonovich S.N., Zaytsev Yu.V., Dorkin V.V., Litvinovsky D.A. Prochnost’, treshchinostojkost’ i dolgovechnost’ konstrukcionnogo betona pri temperaturnyh i vlazhnostnyh vozdejstviyah [Strength, crack resistance and durability of structural concrete under temperature and humidity influences]. Moscow: INFRA-M, 2018.
20. Jia-Bao Yan, Jian Xie. Behaviours of reinforced concrete beams under low temperatures. Construction and Building Materials (China). 2017. 141, pp. 410-425.
21. Rostasy F.S., Wiedemann G. Stress-strain-behaviour of concrete at extremely low temperature. Cement and Concrete Research (USA). 1980. Vol. 10, pp. 565–572.
22. Naaman A.E. Prestressed concrete analysis and design. Fundamentals, 2nd Edition. 2000. «Techno Press 3000», Michigan. USA, 1072 P.
23. Patent RF 2421421. Modifikator betona i sposob ego polucheniya [Concrete modifier and method of its production]. Yarmakovsky V.N., Torpischev S.K., Torpischev F.S. Declared: 27.10.2009. Published: 20.06.2011. Bul. No. 17
24. Yarmakovsky V.N., Pustovgar A.P. The scientific basis for the creation of a composite binders class, characterized with the low heat conductivity and low sorption activity of cement stone. Proceeding of XXIV R-S-P seminar. Theoretical Foundation of Civil Engineering (24RSP). Procedia Engineering. 2015. 111, pp. 864–870.
N.V. KUZNETSOVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, А.I. DUBROVIN1, Graduate student (; V.A. EZERSKIY2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (
1 Tambov state technical university (106, Sovetskaya Street, Tambov, 392000, Russian Federation)
2 Bialystok University of Technology (45A, Wiejska Street, 15-351, Bialystok, Poland) Research in the Effect of Water-Cement Ratio on Strength of Fine Concretes with a Filler of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag An original approach to the design of multi-component cement mixtures with fine aggregates with high water demand is presented. For different compositions of mixtures, the compressive strength of fine concrete samples was studied depending on the mixing factors. The shares of components in the mixture of granulated blast furnace slag, sand, water at a constant consumption of cement and modifying additives were considered as influencing factors: On the basis of the laboratory experiment data, mathematical models are constructed and with their help the dependences of the compressive strength of fine concrete on the slag/water ratio, as well as the optimal ratios in the filler–water system are established. The specific values of water-solid ratio for cement mixtures, at which the strength of the samples increases by up to 35%, as well as the optimal ratio of components making it possible to obtain fine concrete with high strength of up to 30 MPa are revealed.

Keywords: resource saving, fine concrete, water-need of mixture, water-solid ratio, granulated blast furnace slag.

For citation: Kuznetsova N.V., Dubrovin А.I., Ezerskiy V.A. Research in the effect of water-cement ratio on strength of fine concretes with a filler of granulated blast furnace slag. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).

1. Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovskiy V.N. The main directions of energy saving at construction and operation of buildings. Part 1. Energy saving on a stage of manufacture of structural materials, wall products and the protecting designs. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 12–18. (In Russian).
2. Mayorova T.V., Ponomareva O.S. Technique of assessment of economic assessment of effectiveness of ecological management of the enterprises of metallurgical branch. Vestnik MGU. 2015. No. 4, pp. 112–116. (In Russian).
3. Bazhenov J.M., Chernyshov E.M., Korotkikh D.N. Designing of modern concrete structures: determining principles and technological platforms. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 6–14. (In Russian).
4. Bazhenov Yu.M., Demyanova B.C., Kalashnikov V.I. Modificirovannye vysokokachestvennye betony [The modified high-quality concrete]. Moscow: ASV. 2006. 368 p.
5. Dvorkin L.I., Zhitkovskiy V.V., Stepasyuk Yu.A., Koval’chuk T.V. Projection of compositions of fibrous concrete with use of experimental and statistical models. Tekhnologii betonov. 2016. No. 11–12, pp. 29–35. (In Russian).
6. Batrakov V.G. Modificirovannye betony [The modified concrete]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1990. 399 p.
7. Krasnov A.M., Fedosov S.V., Akulova M.V. Influence of high filling of fine graded concrete on structural strength. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 1, pp. 48–50. (In Russian).
8. Gusev B.V., Zazimko V.G. Vibracionnaya texnologiya betona [Vibration technology of concrete]. Kiev: Budivelnik. 1991. 158 p.
9. Pshenichniy G.N. The problems existing in science about concrete. Tekhnologii betonov. 2014. No. 12, pp. 42–45. (In Russian).
10. Bhaskar Desai V., Chaitanya lakshmi C. An Experimental investigation on strength properties of cement concrete modified with ground granulated blast furnace slag. International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2015. No. 1, pp. 427–434.
11. Kalashnikov V.I. Through rational rheology in the future of concrete. Part 3. From high-strength and high-strength concrete of the future to superplasticized concrete of general purpose. Tekhnologii betonov. 2008. No. 1, pp. 22–26. (In Russian).
12. Kalashnikov V.I., Moroz M.N., Tarakanov O.V., Kalashnikov D.V., Suzdaltsev O.V. New ideas about action mechanism of superplasticizers grinded jointly with cement or mineral rocks. Stroitel’nye Materialy. 2014. No. 9, pp. 70–75. (In Russian).
13. Brodskiy V.Z. and others. Tablicy planov eksperimenta. Spravochnoe izdanie [Tables of plans of an experiment. Reference media]. Moscow: Metallurgiya. 1982. 752 p.
14. Zedginidze I.G. Planirovanie eksperimenta dlya issledovaniya mnogokomponentnykh sistem [Planning an experiment to study multicomponent systems]. Moscow: Nauka. 1976. 390 p.
A.L. KRISHAN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (; V.I. RIMSHIN2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAACS (; M.A. ASTAFIEVA1, Engineer (
1 Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University (38, Lenin Avenue, 455000, Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russian Federation)
2 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Strength of Improved Pipe-Concrete Elements of Square Cross-Section* The aim of the work is experimental and theoretical study of the power resistance of short centrally compressed pipe-concrete elements (PCE) of square cross-section to identify the effectiveness of the use of spiral reinforcement in them. Studies have shown that the use of a relatively small amount of spiral reinforcement (about 1%) made it possible to increase the effect of the cage of pipe concrete structures by about 1.3 times. Only due to the spiral reinforcement the strength of centrally compressed pipe-concrete samples, made of concrete of B40 class, increased by 25%, and of B80class concrete– 40%. A method for calculating the strength of centrally compressed PCE of square-section, including those with spiral reinforcement, is proposed. The method takes into account the growth of strength and deformability of the concrete core due to the simultaneous use of two types of indirect reinforcement – in the form of an outer steel shell and spiral reinforcement.

Keywords: compressed pipe-concrete element, strength, deformability, effect of casing.

For citation: Krishan A.L., Rimshin V.I., Astafieva M.A. Strength of improved pipe-concrete elements of square cross-section. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 24–28. (In Russian).

Список литературы / References
1. Кришан А.Л., Мельничук А.С. Прочность трубобе тонных колонн квадратного поперечного сечения. Монография: Магнитогорск: Изд-во Магнитогорск. гос. техн. ун-та им. Г.И. Носова. 2013. 105 с.
1. Krishan A.L., Mel’nichuk A.S. Prochnost’ trubobetonnykh kolonn kvadratnogo poperechnogo secheniya. Monografiya [Strength of pipe-concrete columns of square cross-section. Monograph]. Magnitogorsk: Publishing house of Magnitogorsk state technical university named after G.I. Nosov. 2013. 105 p.
2. Han L.H., Yao G.H., Tao Z. Perfomance of concretefilled thin-walled steel tubes under pure tosion. Journal of Thin-Walled Structures. 2007. Vol. 45, pp. 24–36.
3. Masoudnia R., Amiri S., WanBadaruzzaman W.H. An Analytical model of short steel box columns with concrete in-fill (part I). Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2011. No. 5, pp. 1715–1721.
4. Naeej M., Bali M., Naeej M.R. and Amir J.V. Prediction of lateral confinement coefficient in reinforced concrete columns using M5’ machine learning method. Journal of Civil Engineering. 2013. No. 17 (7), pp. 1714–1719.
5. Yu T., Teng J.G. Behavior of hybrid FRP-concrete-steel double-skin tubular columns with a square outer tube and a circular inner tube subjected to axial compression. Journal of Composites for Construction. 2013. Vol. 17, pp. 271–279.
6. Nishiyama I., Morino S., Sakino K., Nakahara H. Summary of research on concrete-filled structural steel tube column system carried out under the US-JAPAN Cooperative Research Program on composite and hybrid structures. Japan. 2002. 176 p.
7. Кришан А.Л., Кришан М.А., Сабиров Р.Р. Перспективы применения трубобетонных колонн на строительных объектах России // Вестник Магнито- горского государственного технического университе- та им. Г.И. Носова. 2014. № 1 (45). С. 137–140.
7. Krishan A.L., Krishan M.A., Sabirov R.R. Prospects for the application of pipe-concrete columns at construction sites in Russia. Vestnik Magnitogorskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta im. G.I. Nosova. 2014. No. 1 (45), pp. 137–140. (In Russian).
8. Han L.H., An Y.H. Perfomans of concrete-encased CFST stub columns under axial compression. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 2014. Vol. 93, pp. 92–76.
9. Jayasooriya R., Thambiratnam D.P., Perera N.J. Blast response and safety evaluation of a composite column for use as key element in structural systems. Engineering Structures. 2014. Vol. 61. No. 1, pp. 31–43.
10. Yu Q., Tao Z., Wu Y.X. Experimental behaviour of high performance concrete-filled steel tubular columns. Thin- Walled Structures. 2008. Vol. 46 (4), pp. 362–370.
11. Трубобетонные колонны высотных зданий из высо копрочного бетона в США // Бетон и железобетон. 1992. № 1. С. 29–30.
11. Tube-concrete columns of high-rise buildings made of high-strength concrete in the USA. Beton i zhelezobeton. 1992. No. 1, pp. 29–30. (In Russian).
12. Цай Шаохуай. Новейший опыт применения трубобето на в КНР // Бетон и железобетон. 2001. № 3. С. 20–24.
12. Tsai Shaokhuai. The latest experience of using pipeconcrete in the PRC. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2001. No. 3, pp. 20–24. (In Russian).
13. Han L-H., Li W., Bjorhovde R. Developments and advanced applications of concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) structures. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 2014. No. 100, pp. 211–228.
14. Карпенко Н.И. Общие модели механики железобе тона. М.: Стройиздат, 1996. 416 с.
14. Karpenko N.I. Obshchie modeli mekhaniki zhelezobetona [General models of mechanics of reinforced concrete]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1996. 416 p.
15. Кришан А.Л., Астафьева М.А., Сабиров Р.Р. Расчет и конструирование трубобетонных колонн. Монография: Saarbrucken, Deutschland: Palmarium Academic Publishing. 2016. 261 с.
15. Krishan A.L., Astaf’eva M.A., Sabirov R.R. Raschet i konstruirovanie trubobetonnykh kolonn. Monografiya [Calculation and construction of pipe-concrete columns. Monograph]. Saarbrucken, Deutschland: Palmarium Academic Publishing. 2016. 261 p.
16. Liang Q.Q., Uy B., Richard Liew J.Y. Nonlinear analysis of concrete-filled thin-walled steel box columns with local buckling effects. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 2006. Vol. 62, pp. 581–591.
D.YU. ZHELDAKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) ( Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)

Chemical corrosion of a bricklaying. Problem definition In the conditions of increased requirements to resistance to heat transfer of the enclosing structures of modern buildings, the construction industry has almost completely switched to the use of multi-layered enclosing structures. However, the durability of materials, their corrosion resistance in normative documents is considered without taking into account their influence on each other in a single system of the enclosing construction structure. Describes a new approach to the study of the durability of brickwork, taking into account the course of chemical corrosion processes in a two-component chemical system of clay brick – cement-Sandy mortar. The assessment of frost resistance standardized in the standards does not provide an opportunity to assess the ultimate longevity of brickwork structures. Hence the theory of durability built on the assessment of frost resistance and cyclic freeze-thaw processes, leave a number of unresolved issues that are analyzed in this article. In addition, the article categorizes the processes of chemical corrosion occurring in multicomponent systems with the participation of building materials used in enclosing structures. This classification allows you to systematically approach the calculation of the rate of destructive chemical reactions, and therefore calculate the “life cycle” of the building structure as a whole.

Keywords: multicomponent system, enclosing structure, brickwork, chemical corrosion, frost resistance, durability.

For citation: Zheldakov D.Yu. Chemical corrosion of a bricklaying. Problem definition. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 29–32. (In Russian).

1. Obruzbaeva G.T., Kasymova M.T. Determination of the firing temperature of Chui ceramics of the VIII–XVI centuries. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 33–36.
2. Chernyshov E.M. Frosty destruction of concrete. Part 1. Mechanism, criterial conditions of management. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 40–46. (In Russian).
1. Gagarin, V.G., Zheldakov, D. Method of accounting changes of climatic data in determining the number of cycles of the transition temperature of zero in the cross section of the outer wall of the building as part of a program for adaptation to climate change. BST. 2017. No. 6, pp. 32–35. (In Russian).
2. Minas A.I. Zashchita sooruzhenii ot solevoi formy fizicheskoi korrozii, voznikayushchei v raionakh s sukhim klimatom. — V kn. Zashchita stroitel’nykh konstruktsii ot korrozii [Protection of structures against salt form of physical corrosion occurring in areas with a dry climate. — In the book. Protection of building structures against corrosion]. Moscow, 1961. Vol. 22. 119 p.
3. Inchik V.V. Physico-chemical aspects of the degradation of the brickwork. Proceedings of the international conference “Problems of durability of buildings and structures in modern construction” 10–12 October 2007 – Saint Petersburg: Rosa mira, 2007. P. 79–85.
4. Ananyev A.I. Durability, humidity and thermal insulation properties of external walls of buildings of hollow bricks. AVOK. 2018. No. 3, pp. 70–73. (In Russian).
5. Moskvin V.M. Korroziya betona [Corrosion of concrete]. Moscow, 1952. 344 p.
6. Moskvin V.M., Ivanov F.M., Alekseev S.N., Guzeev E.A. Korroziya betona i zhelezobetona, metody ikh zashchity [Corrosion of concrete and reinforced concrete, methods of their protection]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1980. 536 p.
7. Zheldakov D. The building envelope – filters of atmospheric air of cities // Methodology security environment. Program and abstracts of the IV Crimean international scientific-practical conference. Ed. by: A.T. Butler, T.V. Denisova, A.E. Maksimenko. Crimean federal university of V.I. Vernadsky (Simferopol). 2017. P. 34.
D.O. NEVELSKY, Engineer (
Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (MADI) (64, Leningradsky Avenue, Moscow, 125319, Russian Federation)

The determination of the actual wear of road surfaces by studded tyres At the same time, with the increase in the level of motorization in our country, the intensity of wear on road surfaces has increased. On the left lanes of highways the rut is formed in 2–3 years of road maintenance. A significant contribution to the formation of the wear gauge is made by the use of studded tires. It should be noted that in some regions of Russia more than 90% of motorists in the winter use studded tires. On January 1, 2015 the technical regulations of the Customs Union ”on safety of wheeled vehicles” TR CU 018/2011 entered into force. The document strictly regulates the basic parameters of the studs in the tyres, but allows the use of not normalized spikes if they do not cause greater wear. The article describes the main methods of determining the wear of road surfaces studded tires. The article considers the main foreign and Russian methods for determining the wear of road surfaces with studded tires. Their main disadvantages are shown and the problems of application in the territory of the Russian Federation are defined. A method is proposed for determining the actual wear of road surfaces by studded tyres.

Keywords: Wear of the road surface, studded tires, braking distance of car, rutting, roads, testing.

For citation: Nevelsky D.O. The determination of the actual wear of road surfaces by studded tyres. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 33–35. (In Russian).

1. Gorshkova N.G., Zhuravlev A.S. Impact of studded tires on road pavement wear. High technology and innovation (XIIII scientific readings). October 6–7, 2016. Belgorod. pp. 61–64. (In Russian).
2. Belyaev D.S. Studded tires: ecology or safety? Modernizatsiya i nauchnye issledovaniya v transportnom komplekse. 2015. No. 1, pp. 208–214. (In Russian)
3. Kristalniy S.R. Quality of operating modern stability systems on a cars, equipped with spiked tires for use in winter condition. Avtomobil’. Doroga. Infrastruktura. Electronic edition. 2014. No. 2. view/54/pdf_23. (In Russian)
4. Shushurikhin V.V., Prokhorova E.V. Operation and maintenance of motor Vehicle tire recycling. Selection of automobile tires. Modern Automotive Materials and Technologies (Samit-2016) Materials of the VIII International Scientific and Technical Conference. 2016, pp. 459–465. (In Russian).
5. Belyaev N.N. Under the gun - studded tires. Avtomobil’nye Dorogi. 2014. No. 5, pp. 58–61. (In Russian).
6. Gorelysheva L.A., Garmanov V.N., Petrov Yu.N. The results of the study of asphalt concrete pavement wear on the road “Ufa-Airport”. Dorogi i Mosty. 2016. No. 34, pp. 115–126. (In Russian).
7. Brynhild Snilsberg, Rabbira Garba Saba, Nils Uthus. Asphalt pavement wear by studded tires – Effects of aggregate grading and amount of coarse aggregate. 6-th Eurasphalt&Eurobitume Congress. 2016. Prague, Czech Republic.
8. Belyaev N.N. Method of asphalt ball mill. Elektronnyy resurs (Date of access 23.04.2018). (In Russian).
9. Patent RF 2465389. Sposob otsenki ustoychivosti obraztsov asfal’tobetona k iznosu shipovannymi shinami i komplekt oborudovaniya dlya ego osushchestvleniya [Method for assessing the resistance of asphalt concrete samples to wear by studded tires and a set of equipment for its implementation]. Belyaev N.N., Nikol’skiy Yu.E., Petushenko V.P.; Declared 01.12.2010. Published 10.27.2012. (In Russian).
10. Bakaeva N.V., Razumov M.S., Bykovskaya N.E., Volkova D.S. Stand for determining the nature of the deterioration of pavement and road wheels based on vehicle mass, as well as the characteristics of the dynamics of movement and braking. Mir transporta i tekhnologicheskikh mashin. 2017. No. 1 (56), pp. 101–106. (In Russian).
11. Vasil’ev Yu.E., Ivachev A.V., Bratishchev I.S. Research of road building materials wear rutting resistance in near working conditions. Internet-journal Naukovedenie. 2014. No. 5 (24). pdf (In Russian).
12. Lugov S.V., Kalenova E.V. The possibility of pavement wear valuation at rutting predicting. Vestnik MADI. 2013. No. 4, pp. 53–59. (In Russian).
13. Dattatraya T.T. Highway development and management model (HDM-4): calibration and adoption for low-volume roads in local conditions // International Journal of Pavement Engineering. 2013. No. 1 (14), pp. 50–59.
14. Spektor A.G. The wear of asphalt concrete pavements with studded tires. Electronic recurs http://www.dor.spb. ru/index/technology/iznos-pokrytiy (Date of access 23.04.2018). (In Russian).
V.A. SMIRNOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, M.Yu. SMOLYAKOV, Engineer ( Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Comparative Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics of Elastic Plastics and Rubber Vibro-Damping Materials This paper presents a comparative analysis of the dynamic behavior of vibration damping materials made of elastomeric, for example, polyurethane foam, and rubber, for example, natural rubber materials. On the basis of load tests conducted, their behavior both under the static load and dynamic load in the range of 5–40 Hz, which is the most characteristic for application to vibration protection problems, is compared. Analyzing the behavior of rubber materials and foamed polyurethane, there are obvious advantages of the latter for using as an elastic-damping element of progressive vibration isolation systems in transport and in industrial and civil construction.

Keywords: natural rubber, rubber, elastomer, foamed polyurethane, dynamic modulus of elasticity, loss factor, vibration insulation.

For citation: Smirnov V.A., Smolyakov M.Yu. Comparative analysis of dynamic characteristics of elastic plastics and rubber vibro-damping materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 36–40. (In Russian).

1. Baraboshin V.F. The main parameters of the new design of the metro routes with increased vibro-protectiveproperties. Proceedings of VNIIZhT. Improving the design of the metro railways. 1981. Vol. 630, pp. 26–53. (In Russian).
2. Chelomei V.N. Vibratsii v tekhnike. T. 6. Zashchita ot vibratsii i udarov / Pod red. K.V. Frolova [Vibrations in technology. Vol. 6. Protection from vibration and shock. Ed. by Frolov K.W.]. Moscow: Mashinostroenie. 1981. 455 p.
3. Nashif A., Dzhouns D., Khenderson Dzh. Dempfirovanie kolebanii: Per. s angl. [Damping of oscillations: Trans. From English] Moscow: Mir. 1988. 488 p.
4. Bulat A.F., Dyrda V.I., Zvyagil’skiy E.L., Kobets A.S. Prikladnaya mekhanika uprugonasledstvennykh sred: v 4-kh tomakh. T. 1. Mekhanika deformirovaniya i razrusheniya elastomerov [Applied mechanics of elastic hereditary media: in 4 volumes. Vol. 1. Mechanics of deformation and fracture of elastomers]. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 2011. 568 p.
5. VDI 2062:2–2007 Vibration Insulation – Insulation Element. Verlag des Vereins Deutscher Ingenieure. 52 p.
6. GOST 16297–80 Materialy zvukoizolyatsionnye i zvukopoglashchayushchie. Metody ispytanii v reverberatsionnoi kamere [Soundproof materials and sound-absorbing materials. Test methods in a reverberation chamber]. Moscow: Publishing House of Standards. 1988. (In Russian).
7. GOST R ISO 18437-3–2014 Vibratsiya i udar. Opredelenie dinamicheskikh mekhanicheskikh svoistv vyazkouprugikh materialov. Chast’ 3. Metod izgibnykh kolebanii konsol’no zakreplennogo obraztsa [Vibration and shock. Determination of the dynamic mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials. Part 3. Method of bending vibrations of a cantilevered specimen]. Moscow: Standartinform. 2015. (In Russian).
8. GOST R ISO 10846-2–2010 Vibratsiya. Izmereniya vibroakusticheskikh peredatochnykh kharakteristik uprugikh elementov konstruktsii v laboratornykh usloviyakh. Chast’ 2. Pryamoi metod opredeleniya dinamicheskoi zhestkosti uprugikh opor [Vibration. Measurements of vibro-acoustic transfer characteristics of elastic structural elements in laboratory conditions. Part 2. Direct method for determining the dynamic rigidity of elastic supports]. Moscow: Standartinform. 2011. (In Russian).
9. Smirnov V.A. Calculation and simulation of damping devices of a precision test bench. Stroitel’- stvo i Rekonstruktsiya. 2016. No. 3 (65), pp. 61–70. (In Russian).
10. Olsson A.K. Finite element procedures in modeling the dynamic properties of rubber. Doctoral Thesis, Lund University. 2007.
11. Garcia Tarrago M.J., Kari L., Vinolas J., Gil- Negrete N. Frequency and amplitude dependence of the axial and radial stiffness of carbon-black filled rubber bushings. Polymer Testing. 2007. Vol. 26. Iss. 5, pp. 629–638.
12. Garcia Tarrago M.J., Kari L, Vinolas J, Gil-Negrete N. Torsion stiffness of a rubber bushing: A simple engineering design formula including the amplitude dependence. The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design. 2007. Vol. 42. Iss. 1, pp. 13–21.
V.S. LESOVIK1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, S.V. ALEKSEEV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (; I.V. BESSONOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (; S.S. VAISERA1, Engineer (
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy architecture and construction sciences (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow,127238, Russian Federation)

Control of the Structure and Properties of Acoustic Materials on the Basis of Foam Glass Composites An approach to the creation of effective acoustic glass composites is presented. Sound-absorbing properties of materials with a rigid frame depend on the type and size of pores on the surface and the volume of communicating pores in the material body. The porous structure of the material is investigated. It is shown that the nature of the pore size distribution curve and the sound absorption curve are similar. Pore size is associated with the sound frequency, the largest contribution to the sound absorption of the material is made by pores of 200–250 μm and 450 μm. The dependence between water absorption and acoustic characteristics is obtained. The sound absorption coefficient reaches the extreme point at the value of water absorption of samples in the range of 35–45%, with further increase in water absorption, a gradual decrease in the sound absorption coefficient is observed. The lower and upper dimensional thresholds of acoustically active pores, the number of open (communicating) porosity in the material, when reaching the maximum values of the sound absorption coefficient, are established. The basic requirements for optimal structures making it possible to achieve the required acoustic performance of the material are determined.

Keywords: geonika, porosity, strength, water absorption, sound absorption, glass composite, energy saving.

For citation: Lesovik V.S., Alekseev S.V., Bessonov I.V., Vaisera S.S. Control of the structure and properties of acoustic materials on the basis of foam glass composites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 41–44. (In Russian).

1. Kabanova M.K., Tokareva S.A., Uvarov P.P. Main criteria are safety, ecological compatibility and durability of building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 1–2, pp. 90–93. (In Russian).
2. Lesovik V.S. Construction Materials. The present and the future. Vestnik MGSU. 2017. Vol. 12. No. 1 (100), pp. 9–16. (In Russian).
3. Osipov A.N. Energy-efficient, fireproof thermal insulation material – foam glass. Krovel’nye i izolyazionnye materialy. 2013. No. 2, pp. 17–18. (In Russian).
4. Bessonov I.V., Shubin I.L., Umnyakova N.P., Spiridonov A.V. Prospects for the application of materials and products from foamed glass in thermal insulation systems. BST. 2017. No. 6, pp. 12–14. (In Russian).
5. Semukhin B.S., Votinov A.V., Kazmina O.V., Kovalev G.I. Influence of small additives of zirconium dioxide on the acoustic properties of foam glass materials. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturnostroitel’nogo universiteta. 2014. No. 6 (47), pp. 123–131. (In Russian).
6. Semukhin B.S., Kazmina O.V., Kovalev G.I., Oparenkov Yu.V., Dushkina M.A. Determination of acoustic properties of foam glass crystal materials. Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy. Fizika. 2013. Vol. 56. No. 7–2, pp. 334–338. (In Russian).
7. Shutov A.I., Mospan V.I., Volya P.A., Alekseev S.V. Penosteklo [Foam glass]. Belgorod: BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2009. 109 p.
8. Rumyantsev B.M., Zhukov A.D., Bobrova E.Yu. Structure and operational properties of decorative-acoustic materials. Innovazii v zhizn’. 2017. No. 1 (20), pp. 17– 24. (In Russian).
9. Rumyantsev B.M., Zhukov A.D., Bobrova E.Yu. Sound absorption and porosity of acoustic materials. Innovazii v zhizn’. 2017. No. 1 (20), pp. 67–76. (In Russian).
10. Vaisera S.S., Puchka O.V., Lesovik V.S., Bessonov I.V., Sergeev S.V. Efficient Acoustic Glass Composites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 6, pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
11. Vaisera S.S., Puchka O.V., Lesovik V.S., Bessonov I.V., Alekseev S.V. Impact of Moisture Content, Air Permeability, and Density of Material on Its Noise- Absorption Characteristics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 6, pp. 24–28. (In Russian).
A.A. ASKADSKII1, 2, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry), Head of Laboratory (; K.S. PIMINOVA2, Master (, A.V. MATSEEVICH2, Juniour Researcher (
1 National Research Moscow state university of civil engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
2 Institute of Organoelement Compounds Russian Academy of Sciences (28, Vavilova Street, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation)

The Relaxation Properties of Decking Boards Made from Wood-Polymer Composites (WPC) Experiments on stress relaxation on the samples representing fragments of terraced boards have been carried out. Matrix polymer is polyvinyl chloride. Measurements conducted at different permanent deformations of compression from 2 to 5% and temperatures from 20 to 70oC. Found that under all conditions the relative relaxation takes small values, indicating the long-term conservation of the mechanical workability of the products. Nonlinear mechanical behavior is evident already at 3% strain. At temperatures from 20 to 35°C relaxation processes take place almost identically, without reduction in initial and final stress. At temperatures of 50 and 70oC both stresses are reduced. The master curve is plotted, which allows prediction the mechanical behavior for a long time.
Keywords: wood-polymer composites, terrace boards, stress relaxation, creep, relaxers, memory function, master curve, shift-factor.
For citation: Askadskii A.A., Piminova K.S., Matseevich A.V. The relaxation properties of decking boards made from wood-polymer composites (WPC). Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 45–52. (In Russian).

1. Moroz P.А., Аskadskiy Аl.А., Matseevich T.А., Solov’eva E.V., Аskadskii А.А. Use of secondary polymers for production of wood and polymeric composites. Plasticheskie massy. 2017. No. 9–10, pp. 56–61. (In Russian).
2. Matseevich T.А., Аskadskii А.А. Mechanical properties of a terrace board on the basis of polyethylene, polypropylene and polyvinylchloride. Stroitel’stvo: nauka i obrazovanie. 2017. Vol. 7. No. 3(24), pp. 48–59. (In Russian).
3. Аbushenko А.V., Voskobojnikov I.V., Kondratyuk V.А. Production of products from WPC. Delovoj zhurnal po derevoobrabotke. 2008. No. 4, pp. 88–94. (In Russian).
4. Ershova O.V., Chuprova L.V., Mullina Eh.R., Mishurina O.А. Research of dependence of properties the drevesnopolimernykh of composites from the chemical composition of a matrix. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2014. No 2, pp. 26. ru/ru/article/view?id=12363. (Date of access 17.04.18). (In Russian).
5. Klesov А.А. Drevesno-polimernye kompozity [Wood and polymeric composites ]. Saint Petersburg: Nauchnye osnovy i tekhnologii. 2010. 736 p.
6. Walcott М.Р., Englund К.A. A technology review of wood-plastic composites; 3ed. N.Y.: Reihold Publ. Corp., 1999. 151 p.
7. Rukovodstvo po razrabotke kompozitsij na osnove PVKH [The guide to development of compositions on the basis of PVC]. Ed. by R.F. Grossman. Saint Petersburg: Nauchnye osnovy i tekhnologii. 2009. 608 p.
8. Kickelbick G. Introduction to hybrid materials. In book: Hybrid Materials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications. Weinheim. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. 2007. 498 p.
9. Uilki CH., Sammers Dzh., Daniels CH. Polivinilkhlorid [The polyvinylchloride]. Ed. By G.E. Zaikov. Saint Petersburg: Professiya. 2007. 728 p.
10. Kokta B.V., Maldas D., Daneault C., Beland P. Composites of polyvinyl chloride-wood fibers. Рolymer- plastics Technology Engineering. 1990. Vol. 29, pp. 87–118.
11. Nizamov R.K. Polyvinylchloride compositions of construction appointment with multifunctional fillers. Doc. Diss. (Engineering). Kazan. 2007. 369 p. (In Russian).
12. Stavrov V.P., Spiglazov A.V., Sviridenok A.I. Rheological parameters of molding thermoplastic composites high-filled with wood particles. International Journal of Applied Mechanics and Engineering. 2007. Vol. 12. No. 2, pp. 527–536.
13. Burnashev A.I. The high-filled polyvinylchloride construction materials on the basis of the nano-modified wood flour. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Kazan. 2011. 159 p. (In Russian).
14. Figovsky O., Borisov Yu., Beilin D. Nanostructured binder for acid-resisting building materials. Scientific Israel – Technological Advantages. 2012. Vol. 14. No. 1, pp. 7–12.
15. Hwang S.-W., Jung H.-H., Hyun S.-H., Ahn Y.-S. Effective preparation of crack-free silica aerogels via ambient drying. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 2007. Vol. 41, pp. 139–146.
16. Pomogaylo A.D. Synthesis and intercalation chemistry of hybrid organo-inorganic nanocomposites. Vysokomolekulyarnye soedineniya. 2006. Vol. 48. No. 7, pp. 1317–1351. (In Russian).
17. Figovsky O.L., Beylin D.A., Ponomarev A.N. Progress of application of nanotechnologies in construction materials. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve. 2012. No. 3, pp. 6–21. (In Russian).
18. Korolev E.V. The principle of realization of nanotechnology in construction materials science. Stroitel’nyeMaterialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 60–64. (In Russian).
19. Abushenko A.B. Wood and polymeric composites: merge of two branches. Mebel’shhik. 2005. No. 3, pp. 32–36. (In Russian).
20. Abushenko A.V. Extrusion of wood and polymeric composites. Mebel’shhik. 2005. No. 2, pp. 20–25. (In Russian).
21. Shkuro А.E., Glukhikh V.V., Mukhin N.M., etc. Influence of maintenance of a sevilen in a polymeric matrix on properties of wood and polymeric composites. Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2012. No. 17. Vol. 15, pp. 92–95. (In Russian).
22. Askadskii A.A. New possible types of kernels of a relaxation. Mekhanika kompozitnih materialov. 1987. No. 3, pp. 403–409. (In Russian).
23. Askadskiy A.A. Computational Materials Science of Polymers. Cambridge International Science Publishing. Cambridge. 2003. 695 p.
24. Askadskii A.A., Kondrashchenko V.I. Komp’yuternoe materialovedenie polimerov. Tom 1. Аtomnomolekulyarnyj uroven’ [Computer materials science of polymers. Volume 1. Atomic and molecular level]. Moscow: Nauchnoe slovo. 1999. 534 p.
25. Askadskii A.A. Lektsii po fiziko-khimii polimerov [Lectures on fiziko-chemistry of polymers]. Moscow: Physical faculty of MSU. 2001. 220 p.
26. Askadskii A.A. Lecture on the physico-chemistry of polymers. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2003. 218 p.
27. Askadskii A.A., Khokhlov A.R. Vvedenie v fiziko-khimiyu polimerov [Introduction to fiziko-chemistry of polymers]. Moscow: Nauchnoe slovo. 2009. 380 p.
28. Askadskii A.A., Popova M.N., Kondrashchenko of V.I. Fiziko-khimiya polimernykh materialov i metody ikh issledovaniya [Fiziko-himiya of polymeric materials and methods of their research]. Moscow: ASV. 2015. 408 p.
29. Askadskii A.A., Tishin S.A., Kazantseva V.V., Kovriga O.V. Loaf the mechanism of deformation of heat resistant aromatic polymers on the example of a polyimide. Vysokomolekulyarnie Soedineniya. 1990. Ser. A. Vol. 32. No. 12, pp. 2437–2445. (In Russian).
30. Askadskii A.A., Tishin S.A., Tsapovetsky M.I., Kazantseva V.V., Kovriga O.V, Tishin V.A. The complex analysis of the mechanism of deformation and relaxation processes in a polyimide. Vysokomolekulyarnie Soedineniya. 1992. Ser. A. Vol. 34. No. 1, pp 62–72. (In Russian).
31. Gaylord R.J., Joss B., Bendler J.T., Di Marzio E.A. The Continuous-time random walk description of the nonequilibrium mechanical response of crosslinked elastomers. British Polymer Journal. 1985. Vol. 17. No. 2, pр. 126–128.
32. International scientific and technical conference polymeric composites and tribology (POLIKOMTRIB-2017) Gomel Belarus on June 27–30, 2017. Theses of reports GOMEL 2017.
33. Matseevich T.A., Askadskii A.A. Terrace boards: structure, production, properties. Part 1. Mechanical properties. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 1–2, pp. 101–105. (In Russian).
Yu.G. BORISENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (; S.V. RUDAK, Engineer, О.А. BORISENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) North-Caucasus Federal University (1, Pushkin Street, 355009, Stavropol, Russian Federation)

Influence of the Content and Grain Composition of Light Porous Fillers on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bitumen-Mineral Compositions It is shown that the perspective development direction and improvement of bitumen-mineral compositions on the basis of light porous mineral fillers is the differentiated selection of their grain structures. The influence of various fractions and content of porous filler on physical and mechanical properties of hot fine-grained asphalt concrete and the bitumen-mineral compositions has been analyzed comparatively. It is revealed that the most effective light porous filler for significant decrease of density and weight of the bitumen-mineral road paving is a mineral filler on the basis of expanded clay gravel. Structures of bitumen-mineral compositions with reduced density and weight, high strength rates, heat resistance, heat stability and good water resistance are developed. It is established that the greatest influence on physical and mechanical properties and structure of the offered bitumen-mineral compositions have fractions of expanded clay gravel with grains of 10–5 mm size.

Keywords: bitumen content, bitumen-mineral composition, grain composition, expanded clay, light porous filler.

For citation: Borisenko Yu.G., Rudak S.V., Borisenko О.А. Influence of the content and grain composition of light porous fillers on physical and mechanical properties of bitumen-mineral compositions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 53–56. (In Russian).

1. Pechenyi B.G. Bitumy i bitumnye kompozitsii [Bitumens and bituminous compositions]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1990. 256 p.
2. Gezentsvei L.B., Gorelyshev N.V., Boguslavskii A.M., Korolev I.V. Dorozhnyi asfal’tobeton [Road asphalt concrete]. Moscow: Transport. 1985. 350 p.
3. Vysotskaya M.A., Kuznetsov D.A., Barabash D.E. Peculiarities of structure formation of bitumen-mineral compositions with the use of porous raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 68–71. (In Russian).
4. Vysotskaya M.A., Kuznetsov D.A., Fedorov M.Yu. Quality assessment the of bitumen-polymer compositions with use of porous fillers. Dorogi i Mosty. 2012. No. 27/1, pp. 241–250. (In Russian).
5. Inozemtsev S.S., Korolev E.V. The choice of the mineral carrier of nanodimensional additive for asphalt concrete. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 3, pp. 158–167. (In Russian).
6. BorisenkoYu.G., KazaryanS.O., SelimovM.A., Borisenko O.A. Physico-chemical basis for the use of porous mineral powders in bituminous mineral compositions. Dorogi I mosty. 2016. No. 35/1, pp. 263–281. (In Russian).
7. Borisenko Yu.G., Lynnik V.V., Borisenko O.A., Gordienko E.V. Ways to reduce bitumen content of bitumen mineral compositions with a filler on the basis of claydite. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 5, pp. 24–26. (In Russian).
8. Patent RF 2603310. Dorozhnaya odezhda [Road surfacing]. Borisenko Yu.G., Kazaryan S.O. Declared 25.05.2015. Published 27.11.2016. Bulletin No. 33. (In Russian).
9. Patent RF 2504612. Dorozhnaya odezhda [Road surfacing]. Borisenko Yu.G., Lynnik V.V., Borisenko A.Yu. Declared 05.06.2012. Published 20.01.2014. Bulletin No. 2. (In Russian).
10. Patent RF 2470048. Bitumomineral’naya smes’ [Bituminous mineral mixture]. Pechenyi B.G., Galdina V.D. Declared 30.05.2011. Published 20.02.2012. Bulletin No. 35. (In Russian).
Maerz Ofenbau AG
Richard Wagner-Strasse, 28, 8027 Zurich, Switzerland
Phone: +41-44-287 27 27
Fax: +41-44-201 36 34
The 10th Jubilee International Conference on “Nano-Technology in Construction: NTC 2018”, organized by the Housing and Building National Research Center (NBRC), Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Development of Egypt, Egyptian-Russian University (ERU) and the Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University, was held on 13–17 April, 2018 in Hurghada (Egypt). Traditionally, the conference was held under the information support of the “Construction Materials” Journal.
G.A. SAVCHENKOVA, Director, T.A. ARTAMONOVA, Deputy Director for research and development, (, O.V. SHASHUNKINA, Head of the Scientific and technical center OOO «Sealing Materials Plant» (1058, Mendeleeva Street, Dzerzhinsk, 606008, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Russian Federation)

Research in Properties of a Nano-Modified Material of Abris Series Results of the study of properties of the nano-modified material of Abris series, which is a polymer composition on the basis of synthetic rubbers, mineral fillers, a plasticizer, and carbon nano-tubes, are presented. It is established that the most strong influence of carbon nano-tubes in the polymer composition on the basis of synthetic rubbers is on the electrical properties and mechanical strength of the nano-modified material. The data obtained show the perspectivity of conducting further works with nano-tubes with the purpose to increase the efficiency of materials and products absorbing the electro-magnetic radiation.

Keywords: polymeric composition, carbon nano-tubes, strength, electrical conductivity, protection against electro-magnetic radiation.

For citation: Savchenkova G.A., Artamonova T.A., Shashunkina O.V. Research in properties of a nano-modified material of Abris series. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 63–66. (In Russian).

1. Shadruhin D.A., Abdrahmanova L.A. Nanomodification of carbamide foam. Polimery v stroitel’stve: scientific Internet journal. 2017. No. 1 (5), pp. 37–42. (In Russian).
2. Khozin V.G., Starovoitova I.A., Maisuradze N.V., Zykova E.S., Khalikova R.A., Korzhenko A.A., Trineeva V.V., Yakovlev G.I. Nanomodification of polymer binders for constructional composites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materialy]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 4–10. (In Russian).
3. Khozin V.G., Nizamov R.K., Abdrakhmanova L.A. Regularities of combining polyvinyl chloride composites with carbon nanotubes dispersions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materialy]. 2018. No. 1–2, pp. 33–38. (In Russian).
4. Starovoitova I.A., Khozin V.G., Korzhenko A.A., Khalikova R.A., Zykova E.S. Structure formation in organic- inorganic multiwall carbon nanotubes modified binders. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 12–20. (In Russian).
5. Khozin V.G., Abdrakhmanov P.A., Nizamov R.K. Common concentration pattern of effects of construction materials nanomodification. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 25–33. (In Russian).
6. Hakimullin Yu.N., Kurbangaleeva A.R. Nanocomposites based on elastomers. Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2011. No. 12, pp. 78–81. (In Russian).
7. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzhenko A., Buryanov A.F., Keriene Ya., Maeva I.S., Chazeev D.R., Pudov I.A., Senkov S.A. Applying multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersions in producing autoclaved silicate cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 25–29. (In Russian).
8. Simone Musso, Jean-Marc Tulliani, Giuseppe Ferro, Alberto Tagliaferro Influence of carbon nanotubes structure on the mechanical behavior of cement composites. Composites Science and Technology. 2009. Vol. 69. Is. 11–12, pp. 1985–1990.
9. Thanongsak Nochaiya, Arnon Chaipanich Behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the porosity and microstructure of cement-based materials. Applied Surface Science. 2011. Vol. 257. Is. 6, pp. 1941–1945.
10. Abramov G.V., Gavrilov A.N., Pologno E.A. Nanostructured polymers filled with nanocarbon tubes: the current state of the matter. Materials of the XVII International Scientific and Practical Conference of Students and Young Scientists “Modern Techniques and Technologies”. Tomsk. 2011, pp. 361–362. (In Russian).
11. Gul’bin V.N., Kolpakov N.S., Gorkavenko V.V., Cherdyncev V.V. Development and study of radio- and radiation-protective composite materials // Nanotechnological Society of Russia. http://www.rusnor. org/pubs/articles/13666.htm
12. Latypova A.F., Kalinin Yu.E. Analysis of promising radio- absorbing materials. Vestnik VSTU. 2012. No. 6. pp. 70–76. (In Russian).
13. Pudov I.A. Nanomodification of Portland cement with aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Kazan. 2013. 185 p. (In Russian).
S.A. ZHDANOK1, Doctor of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics); E.N. POLONINA2, Engineer, S.N. LEONOVICH2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Foreign Member of RAACS (Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences), B.M. KHRUSTALEV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), E.A. KOLEDA2, Engineer
1 OOO “Advanced Research and Technologies” (room 16, 1, Sovkhoznaya Street, Leskovka, Minsk District, 223058, Republic of Belarus)
2 Belarusian National Technical University (Belarus, 220013, Minsk, Nezavisimosty Avenue, 65)

Strength Enhancement of Concrete with a Plasticizer on the Basis of Nano-Structured Carbon Technological properties of concrete mixtures modified with a plasticizer on the basis of nano-structured carbon are studied. The effect of the additive on the basic properties of heavy concrete of C25/30 class is investigated. The results of the research indicating the active participation of carbon nano-tubes, increasing the performance characteristics of concrete, as well as the possibility of reducing the amount of cement introduced to 10% are presented. The plasticizer has properties that accelerate the rate of strength gain, which makes it possible to solve the problems of early stripping without the use of steaming, and also increases the final strength of the product by an average of 30%. The tests conducted have shown that the additive under consideration makes it possible to solve the problems of a set of strength characteristics faster saving electricity. The plasticizer on the basis of nano-structured carbon can find the use in the ready mixtures (with high level of mobility, frost resistance, and water proofing) to stiff heavy concretes.

Keywords: carbon nano-tubes, concrete mixture, heavy concrete, modification, properties.

For citation: Zhdanok S.A., Polonina E.N., Leonovich S.N., Khrustalev B.M., Koleda E.A. Strength enhancement of concrete with a plasticizer on the basis of nano-structured carbon. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 6, pp. 67–72. (In Russian).

1. Elrefaei A.E.M.M., Pudov I.A., Yakovlev G.I., Senkov S.A., Buryanov A.F. Combining additives of various genesis for enhancing modification of concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 1–2, pp. 26–30. (In Russian).
2. Lukuttsova, N.P., Matveeva E.G., Pykin A.A., Chudakova O.A. Nanomodified fine-grained concrete. Reliability and durability of building materials, structures and foundations of foundations: materials of the V International Scientific and Technical Conference. Volgograd. 2009. April 23–24, pp. 166–170. (In Russian).
3. Vauchskiy M.N. Directional formation of an ordered supramolecular crystal hydrate structure of hydrated mineral binders. Vestnik Grazhdanskikh Inzhenerov. 2005. No. 2, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
4. Patent of the Russian Federation for invention No. 2233254. Kompozitsiya dlya polucheniya stroitel’nykh materialov [Composition for the production of building materials] Ponomarev A.N., Vauchsky M.N., Nikitin V.A., Zakharov I.D., Prokofiev V.K., Dobritsa Yu.V., Zarenkov V.A., Shnitkovskiy A.F. Declared. 10.26.2000. Published 27.07.2004. (In Russian).
5. Urkhanova, L.A Khardaev P.K., Lkhasaranov S.A. Modification of cement concretes with nanodispersed additives. Stroitel’stvo i Rekonstruktsiya. 2015. No. 3, pp. 167–175. (In Russian).
6. Urkhanova L.A., Buiantuev S.L., Lkhasaranov S.A., Кhmelev A.B., Urkhanova A.A. Modification of cement and concrete with carbon nanomaterials obtained from coal cake. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 1–2, pp. 19–25. (In Russian).
7. Khrustalev B.M., Yaglov V.N., Kovalev YA.N., Romanyuk V.N., Burak G.A., Mezhentsev A.A., Gurinenko N.S. Nanomodified concrete. Nauka i Tekhnika. 2015. No. 6, pp. 3–8. (In Russian).
8. Gritel’ G.B., Glazkova S.V. Prospects of nanostructured concrete in construction/ Beton i Zhelezobeton. 2011. No. 6, pp. 40–44. (In Russian).
9. Burmistrov I.N., Il’inykh I.A., Mazov I.N., Kuznetsov D.V., Yudintseva T.I., Kuskov K.V. Physicomechanical properties of composite concrete modified with carbon nanotubes. Sovremennye Problemy Nauki i Obrazovaniya. 2013. No. 5, p. 80. (In Russian).
10. Patent №2839 RB, IPC B82B 3/00 Ustanovka dlya polucheniya uglerodnykh nanomaterialov [Apparatus for manufacturing carbon nanomaterials]. Zhdanok S.A., Krauklis A.V., Samtsov P.P., Volzhankin V.M. Published 30.06.2006.
11. Zhdanok S.A. Nanotechnologies in Building Materials Science: reality and prospects. Vestnik BNTU. 2009. No. 3, pp. 5–22. (In Russian).
12. Eberhardsteiner J., Zhdanok S., Khroustalev B., Batsianouski E., Leonovich S., Samtsou P. Study of influence of nano-size additives on mechanical behaviour of cement stone. Nauka i Technika. 2012. No. 1, pp. 52–55. (In Russian).
13. Patent 10010 RB, MPK SO1B31/00. Method of obtaining of carbon nanomaterial. Zhdanok S.A., Solntsev A.P., Krauklis A.V. Published 31.03.2005.
14. Eberhardsteiner J., Zhdanok S., Khroustalev B., Batsianouski E., Leonovich S., Samtsou P. Сharacterization of the influence of carbon nanomaterials on the mechanical behavior of cement stone. Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics. 2011. Vol. 84. No. 4, pp. 697–704.
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2018 vselug doctorhair