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Stroitel`nye Materialy №4

Stroitel`nye Materialy №4
April, 2018

Table of contents

A.A. SEMENOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Director (info@gs-expert.ru) OOO «GS-Expert» (18, Off. 207, 1-st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Pereulok, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Construction and Building Materials Industry in 2017. Short-Term Forecast The article presents information on the state and main trends of the development of the Russian economy, the construction complex and the building materials industry. Data on volumes and dynamics of construction works are submitted, volumes of construction of residential and non-residential buildings, volumes and dynamics of mortgage lending and bank financing of construction companies, the dynamics of production of basic types of building materials.

Keywords: construction, building materials industry, market analysis.

For citation: Semenov A.A. Construction and building materials industry in 2017. Short-term forecast. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
V.A. GUR’EVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (victoria-gurieva@rambler.ru), A.V. DOROSHIN1, Engineer, V.V.DUBINETSKIY1, Engineer; A.I. KUDYAKOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Orenburg State University (13, Avenue Pobedi, Orenburg, 460018, Russian Federation)
2 Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (2, Solyanaya Square, Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation)

Formation of the Phase Composition of Ceramic Stone with the Use of High-Calcium Drill Cuttings Results of producing the wall ceramic on the basis of the composition of low-melting clay raw materials-loam- and a high calcium component – drill cuttings (СDС) in the amount of 30% are presented. The research conducted made it possible to establish the influence of chemical-mineralogical composition, fineness of raw material grinding on the conversion of initial components in the course of burning and formation of the phase composition of ceramics. It is revealed that the thermal processes, occurring in the ceramic product with different content of CaO and Fe2O3, impact on the mechanism and intensity of the formation of crystal phases, structure and properties of ceramic bricks. At this, the temperature of new formations reduces due to the fact that, when CDC dissociates, CaO, which is actively involved in the crystallization of anorthite- and wollastonite-like phases, is formed. Phase and structural changes described make it possible to produce the ceramic brick on the basis of the calcium-containing additive, drill cuttings, with standard physical and mechanical properties.

Keywords: ceramic brick, decarbonization, crystal phase, drill cuttings, new formations, calcium carbonate..

For citation: Gur’eva V.A., Doroshin A.V., Dubinetskiy V.V., Kudyakov A.I. Formation of the phase composition of ceramic stone with the use of high-calcium drill cuttings. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 00–00. (In Russian).

References
1. Kara-sal B.K.O., Seren Sh.V. The state and problems of the production of ceramic wall materials using low-grade clay rocks. Vestnik Tuvinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. № 3 Tekhnicheskie i fiziko-matematicheskie nauki. 2015. No. 3 (26), pp. 7–13. (In Russian).
2. Karpacheva A.A. Expanding the raw material base of the ceramic industry. Waste management is the basis for restoring ecological balance in the Kuzbass. Collection of reports of the Second International Scientific and Practical Conference. Novokuznetsk. 08–10 October 2008, pp. 116–120. (In Russian).
3. Portal of the Government of the Orenburg region: Plan of measures of the Government of the Orenburg region for the implementation of the Strategy of social and economic development of the Volga Federal District for the period until 2020 in the territory of the Orenburg region. www.orenburg-gov.ru/strateg/2030. (In Russian).
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5. Gurieva V.A., Dubinetsky V.V., Vdovin K.M. Drilling slurry in production of building ceramic products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 75–76. (In Russian).
6. Dubynetsky V.V., Guryeva V.A., Vdovin K.М. The use of drill cuttings as a guard for the production of ceramic bricks. Materials of the All-Russian Scientific and Methodological Conference – OSU. 2014, pp. 145–147. (In Russian).
7. Yatsenko N.D., Zubekhin A.P. Scientific bases of innovative technologies of ceramic bricks and the management of its properties depending on chemical and mineralogical composition of materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
8. Luginina I.G. Khimiya i khimicheskaya tekhnologiya neorganicheskikh vyazhushchikh materialov. Ch.1. [Chemistry and chemical technology of inorganic binders. Part 1]. Belgorod: Publishing house BSTU named after V.G. Shukhov. 2004. 240 p.
9. Yatsenko N.D., Zubekhin A.P., Golovanova S.P., Likhota O.V., Vil’bitskaya N.A. Influence of the nature of raw materials and mineralizers on sintering of ceramic masses. Vestnik BGTU. 2003. No. 5. Part 2, pp. 287–289. (In Russian).
10. Brook R.I. Principles for the production of ceramics with improved chemical characteristics. British Ceramic Society. 1982. No. 32.
V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (diatomit_kvd@mail.ru), G.A. KOZLOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (skrudge_k@mail.ru), O.I. ZHIVOTKOV, (zvoleg@list.ru), K.A. LAPUNOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (keramik_kira@mail.ru) Don State Technical University (1, Gagarina Square, Rostov-on-Don, 344000, Russian Federation).

Prospects of the Use of Siliceous Opoka-Like Rocks for Production of Paving Clinker of Low-Temperature Sintering Results of the study of possibilities to produce the paving clinker on the basis of siliceous opoka-like rocks are presented. The general characteristic of these rocks and their carbonateclayey types is given. It is shown that the introduction of mineralizers in the amount of 1% makes it possible to produce products with water-absorption less than 2.5% at a burning temperature of 1050–1100оC. The products obtained meet the requirements of normative documents and have a yellow or dark-yellow color. It is established that the main technological factors when producing the clinker brick are the burning temperature of products, the degree of grinding of the initial rock and the amount of mineralizing additive. Taking into account the properties of clay-carbonate flasks, the method for producing products can be both as an extrusion and compression. Technical-economic calculations show a high efficiency of investments in the production of road clinker brick on the basis of flasks.

Keywords: paving clinker, opoka, mineralizer, grain composition, burning, strength, water absorption.

For citation: Kotlyar V.D., Kozlov G.A, Zhivotkov O.I., Lapunova K.A. Prospects of the use of siliceous opoka-like rocks for production of paving clinker of low-temperature sintering. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 13–16. (In Russian).

References
1. Kotlyar V.D. Stenovaya keramika na osnove kremnistykh opal-kristobalitovykh porod – opok [Wall ceramics on the basis of siliceous opal-kristobalit of rocks – a opoks]. Rostov-on-Don: Rostov state University of civil engineering. 2011. 277 p.
2. Bondariyk A.G., Kotlyar V.D. Wall ceramics on a basis the opoks of siliceous-carbonate rocks and artificial siliceous and carbonate compositions. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 7, pp. 18– 24. (In Russian).
3. Talpa B.V., Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina U.V. Assessment siliceous the opoks of rocks for production of a ceramic brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 12, pp. 20–22. (In Russian).
4. Kotlyar V.D. Siliceous opoka-like rocks of the Krasnodar Krai is a perspective raw material for wall ceramic. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 4, pp. 34–36. (In Russian).
5. Kotlyar V.D. Classification siliceous the opoks of rocks as raw materials for production of wall ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 3, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).
6. Lapunova K.A., Kotlyar V.D. Tehnologija i dizajn licevyh izdelij stenovoj keramiki na osnove kremnistyh opokovidnyh porod. [Technology and design of front products of wall ceramics on the basis of siliceous the opoks of rocks]. Rostov-on-Don: Rostov state University of civil engineering. 2014. 193 p.
7. Kotlyar V.D., Bratskii D.I. Material structure and ceramic properties of a clay opoks. Inzhenernyj vestnik Dona. 2014. Vol. 14. No. 4, pp. 47–59. (In Russian).
8. Kotlyar V.D., Lapunova K.A. Technological features of a opoks as raw materials for wall ceramics. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2011. No. 11–12, pp. 25–31. (In Russian).
9. Kotlyar V.D., Talpa B.V., Kozlov G.A., Belodedov A.A. Siliceous rocks of the lower Don and perspective ways of their use in production of construction materials. Nauchnaja mysl’ Kavkaza. 2004. No. 6, pp. 97–104. (In Russian).
10. Gorshkov V.S., Savel’ev V.G. Fizicheskaja himija silikatov i drugih tugoplavkih soedinenij [Physical chemistry of silicates and other refractory connections]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1988. 400 p.
11. Bondariyk A.G., Kotlyar V.D. Phase transformations when roasting a opoks with carbonate additives by production of wall ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 12, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
12. Kotlyar V.D., Lapunova K.A. Features of physical and chemical transformations when roasting opoks raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 5, pp. 40–42. (In Russian)
K.S. YAVRUYAN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (khungianos@mail.ru), V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (diatomit_kvd@mail.ru), Ye.O. LOTOSHNIKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), E.S. GAISHUN, (subaru156@ya.ru) Don state University of civil engineering (1, Gagarin Sqwer, 344000, Rostov-on-don, Russian Federation)

Investigation of Medium-Fraction Materials Processing of Terriconics for Production Wall Ceramic Products

The general characteristic of products of processing of waste heaps is giv-en. Their characteristics by fractional composition are proposed: large-fractional, with grains from 2 to 150 mm in size, medium-fractional with a grain size of 0.5 to 2 mm, and fine-grained with a grain size of 0 to 0.5 mm. The results of work on the study of the chemical-mineralogical composition and physico-mechanical properties of the medium-fractionation products of the waste heaps processing with reference to the production of various wall ceramics products are presented. Their role is shown as a polyfunctional additive when introduced into ceramic masses and affects the properties of finished products. A preliminary classification according to the amount of coal component, mineralogical and petrographic composition, technological properties is proposed. The feasibility of their application in the production of wall ceramics with a reduced cost is given.

Keywords: brick, coal, waste heaps, grain composition, chemical composition, mineral.

For citation: Yavruyan K.S., Kotlyar V.D., Lotoshnikova Ye.O., Gaishun E.S. Investigation of medium-fraction materials processing of terriconics for production wall ceramic products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).

References
1. Kotlyar V.D., Yavruyan K.S. Wall ceramic articles on the basis of fine-disperse products of waste pile processing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials] 2017. No. 4, pp. 38–41. (In Russian).
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4. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Storozhenko G.I. Waste of coal enrichment as a raw material and energy base of ceramic wall materials plants. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 4, pp. 43–46. (In Russian).
5. Kotlyar V., Yavruyan K. Thin issues products of processing waste heaps as raw materials for ceramic wall products. MATEC Web Conferences. International Conference on Modern Trends in Manufacturing Technologies and Equipment (ICMTMTE 2017). Sevastopol. 2017. Vol. 129. DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201712905013
6. Yavruyan K.S., Gayshun E.S., Kotlyar A.V. Features of compression molding of fine-disperse products of coal washing when producing ceramic brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 12, pp. 14–17. (In Russian).
7. Golovin G.S., Maloletnev A.S. Kompleksnaya pererabotka ugley i pov-yshenie effektivnosti ih ispol’zovaniya: Katalog-spravochnik [Complex pro-cessing of coals and increase of efficiency of their use: Directory-the directory]. Moscow: NTK «Track». 2007. 292 p.
8. Kotlyar V.D., Ustinov A.V., Terekhina Yu.V., Kotlyar A.V. Features of the burning process of coal slurries in the production of wall ceramics. Tekhnika i Tekhnologiya Silikatov. 2014. No. 4, pp. 8–15. (In Russian).
9. Kotlyar V.D., Kozlov A.V., Kotlyar A.V., Teriohina U.V. Features the claystone of East Donbass as raw materials for production of wall ceramics. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 10, pp. 95–105. (In Russian).
10. Terekhina Yu.V., Talpa B.V., Kotlyar A.V. Mineralogicaltechnological peculiarities literaturovedy clayey sediments and prospects for their use as raw materials for production of building ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 4, pp. 8–10. (In Russian).
11. Kotlyar A.V., Talpa B.V., Lazareva Ya.V. Features of chemical compo-sitions of argillite-like clays and argillites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 4, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
New Organizational Structure and New Company Identity of KELLER (Information) . . . . 11
Н.А. БЕЛИК, руководитель службы качества ОАО «Воронежское Рудоуправление»; Р.Н. ГРЫЗУНОВ, менеджер по продажам и маркетингу «ООО Сибелко Рус»; А.С. РЯБОВ, главный технолог ООО «Тербунский гончар»

ООО «СИБЕЛКО РУС»
140125, Московская обл., Раменский район, с. Еганово
Тел./факс: + 7 495 232 51 50
roman.grizunov@sibelco.com
www.sibelcorus.ru
A.Yu. STOLBOUSHKIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (stanyr@list.ru) Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirova Street, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)

Perspective Direction of Development of Building Ceramic Materials From Low-Grade Stock* The necessity of expansion of the raw material base of building ceramic materials through the use of low-plastic loam, opal-cristobalite, other silica-containing rocks and mineral industrial wastes is shown. It is necessary to develop new ways of preparing raw materials and molding products with the use of tripolite, diatomite, loess soils, coal waste, ash, etc. The reasons for the decrease in the flexural strength and frost resistance of semidry molding products are compared with plastic molding. Prospects for the development of construction ceramics technology from low-grade technogenic and natural stock are indicated. Various schemes for the formation of spatially-organized structures of ceramic composite materials are considered. Examples of construction ceramics of a matrix and cellular structure from granulated batch based on slime iron-ore waste and granulated foamglass from siliceous rocks are given. The principles of structural coloration of ceramic matrix composites are presented and examples of decorative construction ceramics of the matrix structure are given.

Keywords: technogenic raw materials, construction ceramic materials, matrix and cellular structure, structural coloration, decorative ceramics.

For citation: Stolboushkin A.Yu. Perspective direction of development of building ceramic materials from low-grade stock. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 24–28. (In Russian).

References
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V.V. KURNOSOV, Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics) (kbb@komas.ru), V.R. TIKHONOVA, Engineer OOO «KOMAS» (8A, Martovskaya Street, Aprelevka, 143362, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation)

Enhancement of Technology of Ceramic Brick Burning in Ring Furnaces The experience in the introduction of new heating systems for ring furnaces of the brick factories of the Russian Federation with purpose to enhance the technology of ceramic brick burning is presented. The sequence of works on technical re-equipment of the furnace is described. Characteristics of the furnace operation are given. A comparative analysis of the thermal operation of the furnace before and after modernization is presented. The high efficiency of the furnace modernization from the point of view of fuel consumption in comparison with tunnel kilns is shown: specific gas consumption per a ton of calcined product in the ring furnace is 30 m3, in the tunnel kiln – 50–100 m3. The conclusion about the high efficiency of the ring furnace with a modern heating system as a thermal unit is made.

Keywords: ceramic brick, solid brick, ceramic products, economic efficiency, resource saving, ring furnace, tunnel kiln, burners, burning, fuel saving, automation, modernization.

For citation: Kurnosov V.V., Tikhonova V.R. Enhancement of technology of ceramic brick burning in ring furnaces. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 29–31. (In Russian).

References
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Dry Grinding is the Starting Point for Production of High-Quality Facade Ceramics (Information) . . . . . . . . . 34
Y.V. LAZAREVA, Engineer (yana-cherevkova@yandex.ru), K.A. LAPUNOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (keramik_kira@mail.ru), M.E. ORLOVA Engineer (marina.nekrasova.96@list.ru), A.V. KOTLYAR, Engineer (toss871@yandex.ru) The Don State Technical University (1, Gagarin Square, 344000, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation)

Relationship of Water Absorption and Water Resistance of a Ceramic Tile from Argillith-Like Clays The results of experiments to determine the relationship between water tightness and water absorption of ceramic tiles obtained because of argillite-like clays, which are widespread in southern Russia, are pre-sented. It is shown that with decreasing water absorption the water permeability of the shard is regularly reduced. It is established that with 5% water absorption, the tile can be considered guaranteed waterproof. This figure does not depend on the thickness of the shingles. It is proved that it is possible to reduce water absorption and increase the ultimate strength due to shingles based on argillite-like clays, due to fin-er grinding of the feedstock or an increase in the firing temperature. The justification is given that the production of a ceramic shard with high strength and low water absorption makes it possible to produce tiles with a smaller thickness and weight, as well as lesser probability of bio-logical corrosion.

Keywords: : tiles, argillite-like clays, strength, water absorption, water tightness, firing, grinding.

For citation: Lazareva Y.V., Lapunova K.A., Orlova M.E., Kotlyar A.V. Relationship of water absorption and water resistance of a ceramic tile from argillith-like clays. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).

References
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2. Kotlyar V. D., Lapunova K.A., Lazareva Ya.V., Usepyan I.M. The main tendencies and perspective types of raw materials by production of a ceramic tile. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
3. Salakhov A.M., Tuktarova G. R., Mochalov A.Yu., Salakhova R.A. The ceramic tile in Russia was and there have to be. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 9, pp. 18–19. (In Russian).
4. LazarevaYa.V., Kotlyar V. D., Lapunova K.A., Eryomenko G.N. Main di-rections of development of design and technology of production of a ceramic tile. Dizayn. Materialy. Tekhnologiya. 2016. No. 3 (43), pp. 78–82. (In Russian).
5. Orlova M.E., Lapunova K.A. Perspective types of raw materials for pro-duction of the decorated ceramic tile. Science today: calls and decisions: Materials of the international scientific and practical conference. Vologda. 2018. Part 1, pp. 46–48. (In Russian).
6. Eremenko G.N., Lapunova K.A., Lazareva Y.V. A ceramic tile on a basis the argillitopodobnykh of clays. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi vestnik Prikaspiya. 2015. No. 4 (14), pp. 41–46. (In Russian).
7. Kotlyar V. D., Kozlov A.V., Kotlyar A.V., Teryokhina Yu.V. Features the kamnevidnykh of clay breeds of East Donbass as raw materials for production of wall ceramics. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 10, pp. 95–105. (In Russian).
8. Talpa B.V., Kotlyar A.V. Mineral resources of litifitsirobathing clay breeds of the South of Russia for production of construction ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
9. Kotlyar A.V. Technological properties of claystone-like clays in clinker production. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2016. No. 2 (55), pp. 164–175. (In Russian).
10. Lapunova K.A., Orlova M.E., Lazareva Y.V., Vasin D.S. The production technology of a high-strength ceramic tile on a basis the claystone-like of clays. Theory and practice of increase in efficiency of construction materials. Materials XII of the International scientific conference of young scientists. Penza. 2017, pp. 104–108. (In Russian).
S.V. FEDOSOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (RAACS), President (prezident@ivgpu.com); S.A. MALBIEV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Chief Specialist (nata.khomch@yandex.ru)
1 Ivanovo State Polytechnic University (20, 8 Marta Street, 153037, Ivanovo, Russian Federation)
2 PCC Eurasia LLC (5, bldg.1, Patriarshiye Ponds, Ermolayevsky pereulok,129343, Moscow, Russian Federation) Regulation of Construction of Underground Structures of Buildings and Facilities from Stone Materials The use of stone masonry in underground structures of buildings and facilities (cellars and ground floors, inspection manholes, pools, saunas, and other spaces with non-stationary temperature-humidity conditions as well as in the floors of industrial buildings) in accordance with the current regulatory and technical documentation is considered. Examples of the technical inspection of different buildings and structures made of brick masonry with defects and damages in the form of cracks, salt stains, corrosion processes are presented. The main attention is paid to the structures of foundations, cellar walls, sewer and other manholes. The technical regulatory information on the list of admissible premises in the basement floors is presented. It includes boilers, pump, compressor rooms, lift machine rooms, parking areas, bathrooms, shower cabins, laundry rooms, therapeutic pools, vegetables storerooms, room for equipment of fire extinguishing system, saunas (dry heat baths), heating units, distillation rooms, washing rooms, laundries, hydrotherapy rooms, rooms for preparation of solutions, hot boxes of radiochemical laboratories, rooms for amphibious animal and fishes used in experiments. It is proposed to amend the relevant regulatory and technical documentation to further restrict or ban the use of these building materials for any buildings and structures located below the level of the earth surface.

Keywords: brick, cellar, foundation, manhole.

For citation: Fedosov S.V., Malbiev S.A. Regulation of construction of underground structures of buildings and facilities from stone materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 41–45. (In Russian).

References
1. Dudenkova G.Ya. Introduction of GOST 530–2012 «Ceramic brick and stone. General technical specifications ». Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No.4, pp. 4–7. (In Russian).
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4. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Yu.V., Nebezhko Yu.I. Perspectives of development of production of ceramic brick of semi-dry pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 6–7. (In Russian).
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6. Naumov A.A., Yundin A.N. Frost-resistant ceramic bricks of semi-dry pressing from clay raw materials of the Shakhty factory. Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona. 2012. No. 3 (21), pp. 638–643. (In Russian).
7. Naumov A.A. To the issue of improving the quality of ceramic bricks of semi-dry pressing. In the collection “Construction and Architecture-2017”. 2017. 28–30 November. Rostov-on-Don, pp. 196–199. (In Russian).
8. Karetnikova O.A., Kiseleva S.Yu., Kleshchunov Ya.Ya. To the question of inspection of the technical condition of the ceilings over the cellars of non-exploited non-residential buildings subject to flooding. Obrazovanie i nauka v sovremennykh usloviyakh. 2015. No. 4 (5), pp. 193–195. (In Russian).
9. Zakharov A.V., Erokhin Yu.V., Galakhova O.L. Carbonatesulfate formations in the basement of the new building of the Institute of Geology of Geochemistry of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Mineralogiya tekhnogeneza. 2017. No. 18, pp. 82–87. (In Russian).
10. Lukinsky O.A. How to rescue the flooded cellar. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 8, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
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12. Bessonov I.V., Baranov V.S., Baranov V.V., Knyazeva V.P., Elchishcheva T.F. Reasons and eliminate efflorescence on the brick walls of buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 39–43. (In Russian).
13. Abdrakhimov V.Z., Kovkov I.V. Research efflorescence on a ceramic composite material. Vestnik MGSU. 2012. No. 1, pp. 83–87. (In Russian).
Warm Ceramics BRAER for Housing Construction in Russia (Information) . . .. . . . . . 46
E.I. SHMIT’KO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), N.A. BEL’KOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (verlnata@mail.ru), Yu.V. MAKUSHINA, Engineer Voronezh Technical University University (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Influence of Surfactants on Humid Shrinkage of Concretes

The humid shrinkage is the most important and problematic property of contemporary concretes of modified structure reducing their quality. The article shows that the main component of the modifier of concrete structure – an additive-super-plasticizer stimulates the increase of shrinkage phenomena. Features of the structure and composition of additive-plasticizers used at present are revealed. Four trademarks of additive-super-plasticizers with different compositions and structures of macro-molecules are studied. The influence of selected additive- plasticizers on the processes of early structure formation of cement systems (beginning from the moment of components mixing), on the balance of internal (film splintering and capillary retracting) forces in the system in a wide range of water-cement ratios is studied. Further the influence of these additives on the shrinkage indicators is researched. The results obtained already provide the necessary guidelines for specialists and consumers of these additives.

Keywords: humid shrinkage, early structure formation, cement system, additive-super-plasticizers, concretes.

For citation: Shmit’ko E.I., Bel’kova N.A., Makushina Yu.V. Influence of surfactants on humid shrinkage of concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 48–51. (In Russian).

References
1. Batrakov V.G. Modifitsirovannye betony. Teoriya i praktika [The modified concrete. Theory and practice]. Moscow: Tekhnoproekt. 1998. 768 p.
2. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S., Artamonova O.V. Nanomodifitsirovanie sistem tverdeniya v strukture stroitel’nykh kompozitov. Monografiya. [Nanomodifying of systems of curing in structure of construction composites. Monograph]. Voronezh: Nauchnaya kniga. 2016. 132 p.
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5. Chernyshov E.M., Slavcheva G.S. Control over operational deformability and crack resistance of macro-porous (cellular) concretes: context of problem and issues of theory. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 105–112. (In Russian).
6. Slavcheva G.S., Kim L.V. Mechanisms and regularities of change of strength characteristics of concrete in connection with their temperature and moist state. Vestnik inzhenernoi shkoly dal’nevostochnogo federal’nogo universiteta. 2015. No. 1 (22), pp. 63–70. (In Russian).
7. Shmit’ko E.I., Verlina N.A. Protection of monolithic reinforced concrete structures of production buildings against cracks of shrinkable character. Izvestiya vuzov. Tekhnologiya tekstil’noi promyshlennosti. 2017. No. 1 (367), pp. 213–218. (In Russian).
8. Shmit’ko E.I. Management of processes of curing and structurization of concrete. Doct. Diss. (Engineering). Voronezh. 1994. 252 p. (In Russian).
9. Akhverdov I.N. Osnovy fiziki betona [Fundamentals of physics of concrete] Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1981. 464 p.
10. Artemenko A.I. Organicheskaya khimiya. [Organic chemistry] Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 2002. 559 p.
V.N. VERNIGOROVA, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry), S.M. SADENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (sadenko@mail.ru) Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (28, Germana Titova Street, Penza, 440028, Russian Federation)

Concrete Mix Structure and Role of Water in Its Physical-Chemical Transformation in Concrete

The concrete mix structure is considered: the subsystem СаО–SiO2–Н2O, basic and acid adsorption centers by Lewis, interaction of water molecules with them with proton transfer, hydrolysis of non-stoichiometric, unstable silicate minerals and formation of the nano-structure in the concrete mix, consisting of their nano-gels SiO2, Са(ОН)2, interaction of the nanostructure with water with formation of intermediate active particles Н+, ОН–, Н*, ОН* leading to the setting. Intermediate active particles interact with adsorption centers and between themselves. Recombination of water molecules takes place but by the law of preservation, charges on the surface of nano-particles are retained, as a result of which the setting occurs. Oversaturated unstable solid solutions (calcium hydrosilicates) are formed, they are subjected to the spinodal decomposition with the formation of nano-clasters of hydrosilicates very active at the moment of release which leads to hardening. It is shown that setting and hardening is the dimensional and chemical effect of nano-particles, calcium hydrosilicates and other particles leading to setting and hardening. The main and initial condition for realizing these processes is an irreversible exothermic reaction of water decomposition into radicals Н*, ОН*with compensation equal to 25 kJ/mol.

Keywords: concrete structure, concrete mix, water, adsorption, cationic and anionic polyhedrons, hydrolysis of minerals, nano-particles, calcium hydrosilicates.

For citation: Vernigorova V.N., Sadenko S.M. Concrete mix structure and role of water in its physical-chemical transformation in concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 52–55. (In Russian).

References
1. Vernigorova V.N. Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy obrazovaniya modifitsirovannykh gidrosilikatov kal’tsiya v kompozitsionnykh materialakh na osnove sistemy SaO– SiO2–N2O [Physicochemical foundations of the formation of modified calcium hydrosilicates in composite materials based on the system CaO–SiO2–H2O.]. Penza: TsNTI Publishing. 2001. 367 p.
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7. Pshezhetskii S.Ya. Poverkhnostnye soedineniya v geterogennom katalize. Sb. «Geterogennyi kataliz v khimicheskoi promyshlennosti» [Surface compounds in heterogeneous catalysis. Collection “Heterogeneous catalysis in the chemical industry”]. Moscow: Goskhimizdat. 1955. 158 p.
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9. Gusev A.I. Fizicheskaya khimiya nestekhiometricheskikh tugoplavkikh soedinenii [Physical chemistry of nonstoichiometric refractory compounds]. Moscow: Nauka. 1991. 286 p.
10. Patent for invention No. 2253635. Otverzhdennaya forma silikata kal’tsiya, imeyushchaya vysokuyu prochnost’ [A solidified form of calcium silicate, having a high strength]. Matsuyama Khiroesi, Matsui Kunio, Simisu Tadasi. Declared 19.02.2001. Published 29.08.2002.
11. Kobayasi N. Vvedenie v nantokhnologiyu / Per. s yapon [Introduction to nanotechnology. Trans. with Japan]. Moscow: BINOM. Laboratoriya znaniy. 2005. 134 p.
A.I. MAKEEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (makeev@vgasu.vm.ru), E.M. CHERNYSHOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Academician of RAACS Voronezh Technical University University (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Granite Crushing Screenings as a Component Factor of Concrete Structure Formation. Part 1. Problem Definition. Identification of Screenings as a Component Factor of Structure Formation

The problem of consideration of stone crushing screenings as a component factor of the formation of macro-, micro-, nano-structures of conglomerate building composites is formulated. On the example of structure formation of traditional and high-tech cement concretes, the substantiation of mechanical, mechanical-chemical and physical-chemical role of fraction differences of granite crushing screenings is made. In this context, data on the genesis of screenings and their structurally significant identification characteristics are presented. In addition, ordinary screening, enriched screening, individual fraction differences separated from the ordinary screening, a dust-like part of screening separated from the hydro-removed pulp by drying are considered. A priory, the projected manifestation of the role of types of screenings in the formation processes of the frame component (grains of macro- and meso-fractions) and the matrix component (grains of macro- nano-fractions of screening and products of concrete hydration) of the concrete structure..

Keywords: component factor, stone crushing screening, screening genesis, identification characteristics, structure formation role

For citation: Makeev A.I., Chernyshov E.M. Granite crushing screenings as a component factor of concrete structure formation. Part 1. Problem definition. Identification of screenings as a component factor of structure formation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 56–60. (In Russian).

References
1. Chernyshov E.M., Djachenko E.I., Makeev A.I. Neodnorodnost’ struktury i soprotivlenie razrusheniyu konglomeratnykh stroitel’nykh kompozitov: voprosy materialovedcheskogo obobshcheniya i razvitiya teorii [Heterogeneity of the structure and resistance to the destruction of conglomerate building composites: the questions of material science generalization and development of the theory]. Voronezh: Voronezh State Technical University. 2012. 98 p.
2. Bazhenov Yu.M., Chernyshov Ye.M., Korotkikh D.N. Designing the structures of modern concrete: defining principles and technological platforms. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 6–14. (In Russian).
3. Kalashnikov V.I. Industry of non-metallic building materials and the future of concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 20–22. (In Russian).
4. Belov V.V., Obraztsov I.V., Kulyayev P.V. Methodology for de-signing optimal structures for cement concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 17–21. (In Russian).
5. Effektivnye vysokoprochnye i obychnye betony. Pod obshch. red. V.I. Kalashnikova [Effective high-strength and ordinary concrete. Under the general editorship of V.I. Kalashnikov. Penza: Privolzhsky House of Knowledge]. Penza: Privolzhskiy Dom znaniy. 2015. 148 p.
6. Kapriyelov S.S., Sheynfel’d A.V., Kardumyan G.S. Novyye modifitsirovannyye betony [New modified concrete]. Moscow: Paradiz. 2010. 258 p.
7. Chernyshov E.M., Artamonova O.V., Slavcheva G.S. Nanomodi-ficirovanie sistem tverdenija v strukture stroitelnyh kompozitov [Nanomodification of curing systems in the structure of building composites]. Voronezh: Nauchnaja kniga. 2016. 132 p.
8. Vinogradov Ju.I., Hohlov S.V. On the question of the formation of “drop-out” during production of crushed granite. Vzryvnoe delo. 2015. No. 113/70, pp. 118–125.
9. Makeev A.I. Deep processing of crushing screenings of crushed granite for their integrated use in the production of building materials. Nauchnyy zhurnal stroitel’stva i arkhitektury. 2010. No. 1, pp. 92–99.
10. Makeev A.I. Scientific and technical justification of the technol-ogy of deep processing of screenings of granite crushed stone crushing. Nauchnyy zhurnal stroitel’stva i arkhitektury. 2011. No. 3, pp. 56–67.
M.I. KOZHUKHOVA1,2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kozhuhovamarina@yandex.ru); K.G. SOBOLEV1,2, PhD (sobolev@uwm.edu); I.L. CHULKOVA3, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (chulkova_il@sibadi.org); V.V. STROKOVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (vvstrokova@gmail.com)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (3200, N. Kramer St., Milwaukee 53211, Wisconsin, USA)
3 The Siberian Automobile and Highway University (5, Mira Avenue, Omsk, 644080, Russian Federation)

Study on Stability of Water-Based Siloxane Hydrophobic Emulsions*

Stability of emulsion structure has to be considered and well controlled during synthesis of hydrophobic water-based emulsions. Due to its critical impact on covering ability and adhesion of hydrophobic coating to the top layer of concrete surfaces. Therein, emulsion composition design, as well as proportion of selected raw materials, are the parameters responsible for the achievement of high emulsion stability. Theoretical computations of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) were completed in this research to evaluate the stability of water-based emulsion with incorporated emulsifying polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and silicone hydrophobic agents (SHA). Using Davies’ method, which considers calculating a value based on the chemical groups of the molecule, PVA and SHA meet all requirements to produce highly stable emulsions. Griffin’s method is based on calculating values for different regions of the molecule and demonstrates that the highest stability of “oil in water” emulsion can be achieved using low molecular weight PVA (up to 15000). As the molecular weight of PVA increases, the HLB drops, which results in reduction of emulsion stability and lifetime. ξ-potential ranges were calculated for the investigated emulsions, prepared using different approaches. The results showed that the emulsions with ξ-potential range of < –35 mV and > 50 mV have the highest stability of emulsion structure.

Keywords: water-based emulsion, hydrophobicity, adhesion, emulsion stability, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), zeta potential, concrete.

For citation: Kozhukhova M.I., Sobolev K.G., Chulkova I.L., Strokova V.V. Study on stability of water-based siloxane hydrophobic emulsions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 61–64. (In Russian).

References
1. Lesovik V.S. Geonika (geomimetika). Primery realizatsii v stroitel’nom materialovedenii: monografiya. (2-e izdanie, dopolnennoe) [Geonics (geomimetics). Implementation examples in construction material science. Monography. (2nd Edition, updated)]. Belgorod: BSTU named after V.G. Shoukhov. 2016. 287 p.
2. Lesovik V.S., Zagorodnyuk L.K., Chulkova I.L., Tolstoy A.D., Volodchenko A.A. Structural affinity as a theoretical basis to design neocomposites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 9, pp. 18–22. (In Russian).
3. Sverguzova S.V., Starostina I.V., Fomina E.V., Porozhnyuk L.A., Denisova L.V., Shaikhiev I.G. Production of decorative plasters based on mine refuses from ferruginous quartzites. Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2016. Vol. 19. No. 23, pp. 144–148. (In Russian).
4. Fomina E.V., Kozhukhova N.I., Palshina Yu.V., Strokova V.V., Fomin A.E. Effect of mechanical activation on dimensional parameters of alumino-silicate rocks. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 10, pp. 28–33. (In Russian).
5. Lebedev M.S., Fomina E.V. Dispersion characteristics of alumosilicate mineral fillers with various composition. Tekhnicheskie nayki – ot teorii k praktike. 2015. No. 48–49, pp. 126–140. (In Russian).
6. Voitovich E.V., Chulkova I.L., Fomina E.V., Cherevatova A.V. Increase of efficiency cement binders with the active mineral nanodisperse component // Vestnik Sibirskoy gosudarstvennoy avtomobil’no-dorozhnogoy akademii. 2015. No. 5, pp. 56–62. (In Russian).
7. Flores-Vivian I., Hejazi V., Kozhukhova M.I., Nosonovsky M., Sobolev K. Self-assembling particle-siloxane coatings for superhydrophobic concrete. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2014. Vol. 5. Iss. 24, pp. 13284–13294.
8. Kozhukhova M.I., Knotko A.V., Sobolev K.G., Kozhukhova N.I. Microstructural features of hierarchical structure formation on hydrophobic concrete surface. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2016. No. 9, pp. 6–9. (In Russian).
9. Ramachandran R., Kozhukhova M.I., Sobolev K. and Nosonovsky M. Anti-icing superhydrophobic surfaces: controlling entropic molecular interactions to design novel icephobic concrete // Entropy. 2016. Vol. 18. Iss. 4, p. 132. doi:10.3390/e18040132.
10. Kozhukhova M.I., Chulkova I.L., Kharkhardin A.N., Sobolev K. Estimation of application efficiency of hydrophobic water-based emulsions containing nano- and micro- sized particles for modification of fine grained concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 92–97. (In Russian).
11. Batrakov B.G. Modifitsirovannye betony. Teoriya i praktika. Izd-e 2-e pererab. i dopoln [Modified concrete. Theory and practice. The 2nd Edition revised and expanded]. Moscow: Tekhnoproekt. 1998. 768 p.
12. William C. Griffin Calculation of HLB values of non– ionic surfactants. Atlas Powder Company. 1954.
13. Davies J.T. A quantitative kinetic theory of emulsion type I. Physical chemistry of emulsifying agents. Gas/Liquid and Liquid/Liquid Interfaces. Proceedings of 2nd International Congress Surface Activity. London. 1957, pp. 426–438.
14. Kozhukhova M.I., Flores-Vivian I., Rao S., Strokova V.V., Sobolev K.G. Complex siloxane coating for superhydrophobicity of concrete surfaces. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 26–30. (In Russian).
15. Larsson M., Hill A. and Duffy H. Suspension stability: Why particle size, zeta potential and rheology are important. Annual Transaction of the Nordic Rheology Society. 2012. Vol. 20, pp. 209–214.
16. Kozhukhova M., Sobolev K., Strokova V. Supergidrophobnoe antiobledenitel’noe pokryitie dlya betona [Superhydrophobic and icephobic coating for concrete. Monography.]. Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Germany. 2016. 145 p.
V.S. SEMENOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); K.A. TER-ZAKARYAN2, Managing Director; A.D. ZHUKOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), (lj211@yandex.ru), Yu.V. SAZONOVA1, Bachelor
1 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 OOO “TEPOFOL” (88, Moskovskaya Street, Bronnitsy, Moscow Oblast, 140170, Russian Federation) Features of Realization of Insulation Systems under Conditions of the Far North Features of the realization of insulation systems under the extreme climatic conditions, including the conditions of significant negative and freeze-thaw temperatures, high wind speeds etc. are outlined. It is noted that the adaptation of building systems to such conditions of operation imposes special requirements and to heat insulation materials concerning their resistance to mechanical and climatic impacts as well as to the stability of properties for the whole operation period. Results of the study of operational durability of non-cross-linked polyethylene foam, which confirmed the inertness of the material to humidity and temperature impacts within the interval from -60 up to 80оC, made it possible to recommend the products on its base (mats and rolls) as insulation for objects of the Arctic Circle. In particular, the project of insulation of the residential module of the two- link tracked transporter was realized. Tests conducted during the Arctic expedition in 2017 in the Republic of Saha (Yakutia) show that the heat insulation on the basis of non-cross-linked polyethylene foam makes it possible to provide the sustainability of the living module during two months at an ambient temperature of -45оC in strong winds with gusts up to 30 m/s.

Keywords: expanded polyethylene, climatic tests, insulation system, welding of polymers, Arctic expedition.

For citation: Semenov V.S., Ter-Zakaryan K.A., Zhukov A.D., Sazonova Yu.V. Features of realization of insulation systems under conditions of the Far North. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 65–69. (In Russian).

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T.V. SHCHUKINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (schukina.niki@yandex.ru), M.Yu. KOPYTINA, Engineer (afanasenko.m2014@yandex.ru), D.N. KITAEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.S. SUKHORUKIKH, Student Voronezh Technical University (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Heat Protection Properties of Coverings on the Basis of Dry Building Mixes of a New Generation

Reducing the energy resources consumption, including for buildings with a significant time of operation means, first of all, the arrangement of the efficient heat protection of external enclosings. Modern methods for heat insulation of building structures characterized by industrial technology of erection often can’t be used, when conducting capital repairs, for architectural monuments especially. In these cases, the suitable way for improving the energy efficiency of buildings is faсade plastering with compositions of a new generation. The wide choice of dry building mixes on the basis of heat protection fillers presented at the Russian market makes it possible, without changing the exterior finish of buildings under reconstruction to execute the protection of external walls not only from negative effects of weather factors but also from excessive losses of heat in the cold period of the year and overheating in the summer period. The analysis of characteristics of the used energy saving fillers and plasters on their base shows that the compositions which include the granulated foam glass have the best heat insulation properties. The obtained dependence of the heat conductivity factor on the density of the plaster layer makes it possible to assess preliminary the energy saving properties of new mixes when varying quantitative ratios of the components used and their qualities. Possible trends in the creation of plaster coatings with unique properties, appropriate indicators of heat protection and strength characteristics are forecasted.

Keywords: energy saving, heat protection, dry building mixes, granulated foam glass.

For citation: Shchukina T.V., Kopytina M.Yu., Kitaev D.N., Sukhorukikh A.S. Heat protection properties of coverings on the basis of dry building mixes of a new generation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 4, pp. 71–75. (In Russian).

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