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Stroitel`nye Materialy №5

Stroitel`nye Materialy №5
May, 2018

Table of contents

I.P. SAZHNEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Chairman of the Organizing Committee of the International Scientific and Practical Conference “Experience in Manufacturing and Using Cellular Autoclave-Hardened Concrete” Chist settlement, Maladzyechna District, Minsk Oblast, 222321, Republic of Belarus

Manufacturing and Using Cellular Concrete in the Republic of Belarus: 50 Years The article presents the history of creation and development of cellular concrete production in the Republic of Belarus as well as the most important process of exchange of knowledge, research and development results, architectural and planning, structural and technological solutions of designs of buildings made of cellular concrete in the course of seminars and scientific- practical conferences over the past 26 years. The main characteristics of the enterprises producing cellular concrete now, normative documentation developed during the past years and regulating the production and use of cellular concrete in the construction of the Republic of Belarus are shown.

Keywords: cellular concrete, autoclaved treatment, casting technology, impact technology, cellular concrete blocks.

For citation: Sazhnev N.P. Manufacturing and using cellular concrete in the republic of Belarus: 50 Years. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 4–10. (In Russian).

References
1. Moyseevich A.F., Bildyukevich V.L., Sazhnev N.P. Production of cellular and concrete products in Respubliye Belarus. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1992. No. 9, pp. 2–5. (In Russian).
2. Bildyukevich V.L., Sazhnev N.P., Borodovskiy Yu.D. State and the main directions of development of production of cellular and concrete products in the CIS and abroad. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1992. No. 9, pp. 5–8. (In Russian).
3. Sazhnev N.P., Dombrovskiy A.V., Novakov Yu.Ya., Povel’ E.V., Veretevskaya I.A., Sudelaynen N.N. Some technical and economic indicators of the yachisty concrete made on molding and shock technologies. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1992. No. 9, pp. 11–13. (In Russian).
4. Garnashevich G.S., Podluzskiy E.Ya., Sazhnev N.P. Research of heatphysical and operational properties of cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1992. No. 9, pp. 24–26. (In Russian).
5. Vigdorchik R.I., Telesh A.M. Use of cellular concrete in construction of residential and public buildings. Progressive projects and design decisions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1992. No. 9, pp. 27–29. (In Russian).
6. Galkin S.L., Sazhnev N.P., Sokolovskiy L.V., Sazhnev N.N. Primenenie yacheisto-betonnyh izdeliy. Teoriya i praktika. [Application of cellular and concrete products. Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2006. 446 p.
7. Nguen Than Kkien, Kudryashov V.A., Drobysh A.S. Modeling of warming up of designs from autoclave cellular concrete in the conditions of the fire. Vestnik komandno- inzhenernogo instituta MChS Respubliki Belarus. 2016. No. 2, pp. 20-31. (In Belarus).
8. Sazhnev N.P., Goncharik V.N., Garnashevicv G.S., Sokolovskiy A.S. Proizvodstvo yacheisto-betonnyh izdeliy. Teoriya I praktika [Production of cellular and concrete products. Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 1999. 283 p.
9. Sazhnev N.P., Goncharik V.N., Garnashevicv G.S., Sokolovskiy A.S., Sazhnev N.N. Proizvodstvo yacheistobetonnyh izdeliy. Teoriya I praktika [Production of cellular and concrete products. Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2004. 381 p.
10. Sazhnev N.P., Sazhnev N.N., Sazhneva N.N., Golubev N.M. Proizvodstvo yacheisto-betonnyh izdeliy. Teoriya I praktika [Production of cellular and concrete products. Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2010. 459 p.
11. Batyanovskiy E.I., Golubev N.M., Sazhnev N.P. Proizvodstvo yacheisto-betonnyh izdeliy avtoklavnogo tverdeniya [Production of cellular and concrete products of autoclave curing]. Minsk: Strinko. 2009. 127 p.
12. Sazhnev N.P., Sokolovskiy A.S., Zhuravlev I.S., Tkachik P.P. Kak postroit individualny dom iz yacheistogo betona [How to build the individual house of cellular concrete]. Minsk: Strinko. 2003. 156 p.
13. Series B2.000-3.07. Knots and details of interfaces of structural elements of buildings to complex use of cellular concrete. Release 0. Materials for design. Minsk: Institut BelNIIS. 2007. 39 p.
14. Series B2.030-13.10. Knots and details of walls of residential and public buildings from effective the small of wall materials. Release 1. Working drawings. Minsk: Institut BelNIIS. 2010. 62 p.
15. Recommendations about design poetazhno the opertykh of walls and partitions from effective small wall materials. Minsk: Institut BelNIIS. 2011. 50 p.
16. Hartmut R., Fridemann Sh. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo. Shtukaturka. Materialy, tekhnika proizvodstva rabot, predotvrashchenie defektov [Practical guidance. Plaster. Materials, technology of works, prevention of defects]. Saint-Petersburg: Kvintet. 2006. 273 p.
17. Sazhnev N.P. Experience of production and application of cellular and concrete products of autoclave curing in Republic of Belarus. Materials of the 7th international scientific and practical conference “Experience of Production and Use of Cellular Concrete of Autoclave Curing”. Brest, Malorita. 2012, pp. 5–16
A.A. PAK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (pak@chemy.kolasc.net.ru) The I.V. Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences Kola Science Center (26a, «Academic Town», Apatity, 184209, Murmansk region, Russian Federation)

Study of Si-stoff as a Mineral Additive to Cellular Concrete on Anthropogenic Raw Material of the Kola Mining Industrial Complex Si-stoff is a by-product of the complex nitic-acid treatment of apatite-nepheline ore. Due to the content of over 80 mass % of micro-silica as a main mineral in amorphous state, Si-stoff is of great interest as an active mineral additive for producing binders and cellular concretes. But the study conducted by authors according to GOST 25094–2015 “Additives active mineral for cement. Methods for determining the activity” shows that the compression strength indicators of Si-stoff don’t make it possible to recommend it as an active mineral additive to cements, but it is reaction-active concerning the lime absorption that makes it prospective in cellular-concrete lime containing mixes. The article presents the results of experimental studies of efficiency of the use of Si-stoff in cellular-concrete mixes on the basis of anthropogenic raw material of the Kola mining industrial complex. It is established that the introduction of 15–20 mass% of Si-stoff in cellular-concrete mixes of less than 500 kg/m3 density increases the strength of concrete by 1.5–2.2 times. Addition of Si-stoff to concrete mixes of higher densities leads to the reduction in the density of gas concrete by 12–20% and compression strength by 35–42%.

Keywords: anthropogenic raw material, micro-silica, Si-stoff, gas concrete, gas silicate concrete, silica component, mineral additive.

For citation: Pak A.A. Study of si-stoff as a mineral additive to cellular concrete on anthropogenic raw material of the Kola mining industrial complex. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 11–15. (In Russian).

References
1. Zakharov V.I., Matveev V.A., Matveenko S.I. Studies on the nitric acid processing of poor apatite-nepheline ore. Research in the field of chemistry and technology of mineral raw materials of the Kola Peninsula. Leningrad: Nauka. 1986, pp. 52–58. (In Russian).
2. Matveev V.A., Maiorov D.V., Zakharov V.K. On the use of amorphous silica – product acid processing of nepheline in the production of building and technical materials. Problems of rational use of natural and technogenic raw materials in the Barents region in the technology of construction and technical materials. Second International scientific conference. Petrozavodsk. Karelian research centre of RAS. 2005, pp. 119–121.
3. Tkachev V.K., Plyshevsky J.S., Ufimtsev V.M., Plechev V.A. Systof and its use. Tekhnologiya koagulyantov. 1975, pp. 117–119. (In Russian).
4. Gorbunov S.P., Zinov I. High-strength concrete with the addition of microsilica. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura.1990. No. 9, pp. 55–58. (In Russian).
5. Lesovik V.V., Potapov V.V., Alfimova N.I., Ivashova O.V. Improvement of efficiency of binders using nanomodifiers. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).
6. Fomina E.V., Strokova V.V., Kudeyarova N.P. Features of the application of pre-slaked lime in aerated concrete cured concrete. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 5 (653), pp. 29–34. (In Russian).
7. Savenkov A.I., Baranov A.A. Influence of microsilica on basic physical and mechanical properties of foam concrete of non-autoclaved hardening. Vestnik Angarskoy gosudarstvennoy tekhnicheskoy akademii. 2013. Vol. 1. No. 1, pp. 39–41. (In Russian).
8. Baranov A.A., Savenkov A.I. Foam concrete modified with silica fume of JSC “Silicon”. Vestnik Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2014. No. 8, pp. 78–81. (In Russian).
A.Yu. SMIRNOV1, General Director, A.M. RUBLEV1, Director for Production, A.A. BARANOV1, Engineer-Technologist, Chief Technologist (baranov.gazobeton@list.ru); M.V. AKULOVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 OOO “Yegoryevsky Plant of Building Materials (3B, Melanzhistov Street, Yegoryevsk, 140301, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation)
2 Ivanovo State Polytechnic University (20, 8 Marta Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)

Increase of Efficiency of Operation of Autoclaved Gas Concrete Production by the Shock Technology at Egorievsky Building Materials Factory The production experience of Yegoryevsky Plant of Building Materials in the production of autoclaved gas concrete at the technological line Vano-Block 1440 of German Firm Masa- Henke is described. It is shown that the impact technology makes it possible to solve many production goals directed at increasing volumes of finished production output and reducing its self-cost. Information on the conducted modernization of the equipment is presented. The estimation of the professional work of the enterprise staff is made. The increase in the productivity of the technological line by 7.8% of the design capacity, up to1552.5 m3/day of gas concrete products, has been achieved. At that, the total self-cost of production is reduced by 7.8% despite the growth of price of materials, electric energy, gas and transport expenses.

Keywords: autoclaved gas concrete, impact technology, production experience, productivity increase, cost saving.

For citation: Smirnov A.Yu., Rublev A.M., Baranov A.A., Akulova M.V. Increase of efficiency of operation of autoclaved gas concrete production by the shock technology at Egorievsky building materials factory. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 16–19. (In Russian).

References
1. Klare M., Ivanov A.K. Production of cellular concrete products using the technology of the company «Maza- Henke». Stroitel’ny rynok. 2008. No. 5, pp. 11–14.
2. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfeld G.I. Shock or injection? Paper reports of the scientific-practical conference «Modern autoclaved aerated concrete». Saint-Petersburg. 2015, pp. 25–31. (In Russian).
3. Sazhnev N.N. etc. Proizvodstvo yacheistobetonnykh izdeliy: teoriya i praktika [Production of cellular concrete products: theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2010. 464 p.
4. Kaftaeva M.V. Theoretical substantiation of the main redistribution of the technology of production of cellular silicate materials of autoclave hardening. Doctor Diss. (Engeeniring). Belgorod. 2013. 299 p. (In Russian).
5. Korolev A.S., Voloshin E.A., Trofimov B.Ya. Optimization of composition and structure structural-heat-insulating cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 3, pp. 30–32. (In Russian).
6. Sazhnev N.P., Sazhnev N.N. Energy-saving shock technology for the production of cellular concrete products and structures. Budivel’ni materiali virobi ta sanitarna tekhnika. 2009. No. 327, pp. 102–106.
7. Baranov A.A. Resursosberegajushchaja technology of application of a multistage method of processing of undercutting layer. Paper reports of the scientific-practical conference «Modern autoclaved aerated concrete». Ekaterinburg. 2017, pp. 22–26. (In Russian).
8. Fedosov S.V., Gruzintseva N.A., Matrokhin A.Yu. Modeling of conditions for ensuring the quality of products of the enterprise for the production of building materials, taking into account the level of professionalism of the personnel potential. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constrution Materials]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 65–67. (In Russian).
G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer, (kuznetzowa.gal@yandex.ru), N.N. MOROZOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (ninamor@mail.ru), I.D. YUSUPOV, Student Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Research in Influence of Disperse Additives on Properties of Autoclaved Gas Concrete The possibility to use powder-like additives from waste of own production – hydro-silicates in production of autoclaved gas concrete with a specific surface equal to not less than the fineness of cement grinding is considered. Hydro-silicates contribute to improving the strength due to the better recrystallization of CSH (I) in tobermorite. Ground additives as an independent component are considered depending on the sand mass. Dry powders, ground wastes of gas concrete and brick, reduce the mix mobility that leads to reducing the amount of free water in the mortar mix and increasing the porization. The introduction of additives contributes to the growth of strength and density of products which is not desirable in the production of gas concrete. Water demand of gas concrete and brick powders is presented. The recalculation of water-solid ratio with due regard for the need of powder is proposed. Properties of the mortar mix with water correction providing the density reducing are presented.

Keywords: autoclaved gas concrete, additive, brick, plasticizer, density.

For citation: Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N., Yusupov I.D. Research in influence of disperse additives on properties of autoclaved gas concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).

References
1. Bedarev A.A. Effect of plasticizing additives on the temperature and visco-plastic properties of the silicate mixture for the production of gas silicate. Izvestiya KGASU. 2013. No. 2, pp. 208–214. (In Russian).
2. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N., Potapova L.I., Klokov V.V. A Complex Additive for Autoclaved Concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 36–40. (In Russian).
3. Kashapov R.R. Krasinikova N.M., Khozin V.G., Galeev A.F., Shamsin D.R. Complex additive based on sodosulphate mixture. Izvestiya KGASU. 2015. No. 2, pp. 239–243. (In Russian).
4. Laukaitis A.A. Investigation of the effect of the addition of ground waste of cellular concrete on its properties. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 3, p. 33. (In Russian).
5. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N., Klokov V.V., Zigangaraeva S.R. Silicate Brick and Autoclaved Gas Concrete with the Use of Waste of Own Production. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 4, pp. 76–80. (In Russian).
6. Baranov A.A. Resource-saving technology of application of multistage method of processing of undercut layer. Scientific and practical conference “Modern autoclaved aerated concrete”. Collection of reports. Ekaterinburg. 2017, pp. 22–26. (In Russian).
7. Nelyubova V.V. Autoclaved aerated concrete with the use of mineral modifiers of various composition / Scientific and practical conference “Modern autoclaved aerated concrete”. Collection of reports. Ekaterinburg. 2017, pp. 56–61. (In Russian).
8. Leont’ev S.V., Golubev V.A., Saraikina K.A., Shamanov V.A. Experience in obtaining autoclave heat-insulating gas concrete. Vestnik YuUrGU. 2014. Vol. 14. No. 1, pp. 46–48. (In Russian).
9. Khavkin L.M. Tekhnologiya silikatnogo kirpicha [Technology of silica brick]. Moscow: Ekolit, 2011. 243 p.
10. Kosykh A.V., Luzhnova E.N., Volobuev L.S. Complex additive for gas-coal concrete. Trudy Bratskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Estestvennye i inzhenernye nauki. 2011. Vol. 2, pp. 135–139. (In Russian).
V.N. MORGUN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (morgun_vlad@bk.ru); L.V. MORGUN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (konst-lvm@yandex.ru)
1 Southern Federal University (05/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russian Federation)
2 Don State Technical University (1, Gagarina Square, Rostov-on-Don, 344010, Russian Federation)

Substantiation of One of the Methods for Improving the Structure of Foam Concretes The relevance of development of the theory and practice of gas-filled concretes is reflected. It is shown that till now the modern construction materials science doesn’t have the necessary volume of knowledge, relying on which the design of the composition of foam concretes is possible. Differences in the features of the formation of the structure of interporous partitions in foam- and fibrous foam concrete mixes are considered from the position of the theory of fractal clusters. It is shown that the length of the fiber is the most important parameter that predetermines the sizes of clusters formed in inter-porous partitions of gas-filled concrete. It is the length of the fiber that causes an increase in the density of inter-porous partitions and the value of plastic strength in foam concrete mixtures.

Keywords: foam concrete, foam concrete mix, plastic strength, fractal cluster.

For citation: Morgun V.N., Morgun L.V. Substantiation of one of the methods for improving the structure of foam concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 24–26. (In Russian).

References
1. Shakhova L.D. Tekhnologiya penobetona. Teoriya i praktika [Technology of foam concrete. Theory and practice]. Moscow: ASV. 2010. 248 p.
2. Krasnikov N.M. Khozin V.G. New method of manufacture of foam concrete. Izvestiya KazGASU. 2009. No. 1 (11), pp 266–272 (In Russian).
3. Bikbau M.Ya. Nanotekhnologii v proizvodstve tsementa [Nanotechnology in cement production]. Moscow: Moscow Institute of material science and effective technologies. 2008. 768 p.
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6. Stepanova V.F. Dolgovechnost’ betona [Durability of concrete]. Moscow: ASV. 2014. 126 p.
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8. Roco M.C., Williams R.S., Alivisatos P. Nanotekhnologiya v blizhayshem desyatiletii [Nanotechnology in the next decade]. Ed. by R.A. Andrievskiy. Moscow: Mir. 2002. 287 p.
9. Komokhov P.G. Physics and mechanics of fracture in the formation of the strength of cement stone. Tsement. 1991. No. 7, 8, pp. 4–10. (In Russian).
10. Krasilnikov K.G., Nikitina L.V., Skoblinsky N.N. Physical chemistry of their own deformations of the cement stone. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1980. 256 p.
11. Morgun V.N., Morgun L.V. Structure of interstitial partitions in foam concrete mixes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 84–86. (In Russian).
12. Ananyeva E.S., Novikov E.A., Anan’ev I.M., Markin V.B., Ishkov A.V. Application of the fractal-cluster approach to analyze the structure and prediction of properties of polymer nanocomposites. Polzunovskii Vestnik. 2012. No. 1, pp. 10–14. (In Russian).
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14. Olemskoy A.I., Flath A.I. The use of the concept of the fractal in the physics of condensed matter. Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk. 1993. Vol. 12. No. 163, pp. 1–50. (In Russian).
15. Smirnov B.M. Fizika fraktal’nykh klasterov [Physics of fractal clusters]. Moscow: Nauka. 1991. 136 p.
16. Morgun L.V. Penobeton [Foam Concrete]. Rostov-on-don: Rostov State University of Civil Engineering. 2012. 154 p.
17. Androsov V.F. Dyeing synthetic fibers [The dyeing of synthetic fibers]. Moscow: Legkaya i pishchevaya promyshlennost’. 1984. 272 p.
A.A. KETOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (alexander_ketov@mail.ru); V.S. KORZANOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) (kor494@yandex.ru), M.P. KRASNOVSKIKH2, Master (krasnovskih@yandex.ru)
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolsky Prospect, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 Perm State National Research University (15, Bukireva Street, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)

Peculiarities of Gas Formation in One-Stage Synthesis of Foamed Glass Using Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Sulfate Issues of the gas generation in the one-stage synthesis of silicate foam glass from the traditional glass compounds using sodium carbonate and sodium sulfate are discussed in the article. The differences in silicate formation in oxidative and inert atmospheres were revealed by the method of synchronous thermal analysis combined with mass spectroscopy. The formation of silica from sodium sulfate occurs through the intermediate formation of sulfite is assumed. It is established that the single-stage production of foamed glass from sodium sulfate and silicon oxide is impossible due to the proceeding of silica formation reactions at high temperatures, at which the melt of silicate has a low viscosity, and the gases formed easily leave the formed glass. It is determined that gas generation in the synthesis of silicate glass from sodium carbonate and amorphous silicon oxide can be used for one-stage foaming of the composition and foamed glass preparation. The use of amorphous silicon oxide instead of crystalline one leads to a significant decrease in the temperatures of silica formation and opens up the possibility of one-stage foamed glass technology. The mechanism of gas formation for the direct synthesis of gas-filled cellular silicates, such as foamed glass, from amorphous silica and sodium carbonate is revealed

Keywords: foamed glass, chemical mechanism of gas formation, synchronous thermal analysis.

For citation: Ketov A.A., Korzanov V.S., Krasnovskikh M.P. Peculiarities of gas formation in one-stage synthesis of foamed glass using sodium carbonate and sodium sulfate. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 27–31. (In Russian).

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14. Ketov A.A. Using of a cullet and amorphous silicates for receiving a foamglass and silicate foamed materials. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya silikatov. 2009. Vol. 16. No. 1, pp. 27–31. (In Russian).
15. Vaysman Ya.I., Ketov A.A., Ketov P.A. Receiving of foamed materials on the basis of synthesizable silicate glasses. Zhurnal prikladnoy khimii. 2013. Vol. 86. No. 7, pp. 1016–1021. (In Russian).
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E.A. CHISTYAKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (lab01@mail.ru), S.A. ZENIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), R.Sh. SHARIPOV (wander-er1@yandex.ru), Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), O.V. KUDINOV, Engineer Research Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete named after A.A. Gvozdev (NIIZHB), JSC “Research Center of Construction” (6, 2nd Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Prestressing Unbonded Tendons for Cast In-Situ Post-Tensioned Reinforced Concrete Members The description of the adopted technical solutions of prestressing tendons for post-tensioned members is presented. Post-tensioned members in which the prestressing steel has not bond with concrete are considered. Issues of unbonded tendons of such members as well as instructions for design of cast in-situ structures of normal weight concrete with post-tensioning of tendons under the construction conditions are outlined in details in the new methodical manual “Reinforced cast in-situ post-tensioned concrete structures with unbonded tendons. Design Rules”. One of the important sections of the manual described in this article is the section about prestressing steel used in post-tensioned concrete structures. These tendons for post-tensioned members (without bond with concrete) are conducted with special prestressing elements which include high-strength steel strands coated with the closed flexible plastic sheaths. Sheaths contain a protective grease. As a rule, strands of the highest level of quality (low relaxation steel strands) made of round smooth wire (K7) and compacted strands made of round smooth wire (K7O) are used. The existing technical solutions of anchorages and couplers for such prestressing elements are also considered.

Keywords: prestressing element, post-tensioning, steel strands, anchorages, reinforced concrete.

For citation: Chistyakov E.A., Zenin S.A., Sharipov R.Sh., Kudinov O.V. Prestressing unbonded tendons for cast in-situ post-tensioned reinforced concrete members. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 32–37. (In Russian).

References
1. Methodical Manual “Post-tensioned concrete structures with unbonded tendons. Design rules». Moscow: FAU FTsS Minstroya Rossii, 2017. 108 p. https://www.faufcc. ru/upload/methodical_materials/mp53_2017.pdf
2. Sharipov R.Sh., Zenin S.A., Kudinov O.V. Problems of analysis of post-tensioned concrete structures with unbonded tendons of the first and second groups of limit states and solutions. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2017. No. 1, рр. 129–132. (In Russian).
3. Zenin S.A., Sharipov R.Sh., Kudinov O.V., Semyonov V.A. Static analysis of members of structural systems with post-tensioned concrete floors having unbonded tendons. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenii. 2017. No. 4 (273), pp. 11–16. (In Russian).
4. Matar P.Yu., Barkaya T.R., Brovkin A.V., Demidov A.V. Losses of prestressing in post-tensioned reinforced concrete structures without adhesion of reinforcement to concrete. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2015. No. 6, pp. 10–15. (In Russian).
5. Kishinevskaya E.V., Vatin N.I., Kuznetsov V.D. Strengthening of building structures using post-tensioned reinforced concrete. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyy zhurnal. 2009. No. 3, pp. 29–32. (In Russian).
6. Polikarpov D.E. Pre-stressed reinforced concrete structures with reinforcement tension on concrete. Regional building complex: problems and development prospects in modern conditions Collection of materials of the regional scientific and practical conference. East European Institute, Research Institute “Construction Laboratory”, Union of Builders of the Udmurt Republic. 2016. pp. 91–95. (In Russian).
7. ACI 423.7-07. Specification for unbounded single-strand tendon. American Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills. USA. 2008.
8. Integrated solutions for building prestressing by posttensioning. Freyssinet Report CIII 2, 2012.
9. Dywidag-Systems International. Post-Tensioning Kit for Prestressing of Structures with Unbonded Monostrands for Concrete (1 to 5 Monostrands), 2009.
10. European committee for standardization. EN 1992-1-1. Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. Part 1-1. General rules and rules for buildings.
11. ACI 423.3R-05. Recommendations for concrete members prestressed with unbonded tendons. American Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills. USA. 2005.
Five Stories of Production of Precast Concrete Elements (Information) . 38
V.S. GRYZLOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gryvs@mail.ru), D.V. ZAVIALOVA, Engineer Cherepovets State University (6, Lunacharsky prospect, 162600, Cherepovets, Russian Federation)

Screenings of Crushing of Broken Slag as an Efficient Component of Concrete Results of the experimental research concerning the use of chippings of slag stone as a mineral finely ground additive and a filler in fine structural concretes are presented. The rational composition of the finely ground additive in the course of the joint grinding of granulated blast furnace slag and gravel screenings was established. Compositions of fine concretes recommended for producing products by the method of off-formwork forming are presented. It is shown that the research conducted will help to rationally use the screenings of slag stone when producing fine slag concrete with reduced heat conductivity.

Keywords: screenings of crushed slag stone, finely ground additive, fine concrete, strength, heat conductivity, resource efficiency, resource saving.

For citation: Gryzlov V.S., Zavialova D.V. Screenings of crushing of broken slag as an efficient component of concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 40–43. (In Russian).

References
1. Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovsky V.N., Shkol’nik Ya.Sh. Sostoyaniye and the prospects of use of by-products of technogenic educations in the construction industry. Еkologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii. 2012. No. 10, рр. 50–55. (In Russian).
2. Gorshkov V.S., Alexandrov S.E., Ivashchenko S.I., Gorshkova I.V. Kompleksnaya pererabotka i ispol’zovanie metallurgicheskikh shlakov v stroitel’stve [Complex processing and use of metallurgical slags in construction]. Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1985. 272 p.
3. Yarmakovsky V.N., Semchenkov A.S., Kozelkov M.M., Shevtsov D.A. About energy saving when using innovative technologies in the constructive systems of buildings in the course of their creation and construction. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. No. 3. Vol. 1, pp. 209–215. (In Russian).
4. Bolshakov V.I., Yeliseyev M.A., Shcherbak S.A. Contact durability of the mechanoactivated fine-grained concrete from the domain granulated slags. Nauka ta progres transportu. 2014. No. 5 (53), pp. 138–149.
5. Dvorkin L.I., Dvorkin O.L. Osnovy betonovedeniya [Betonovedeniye bases]. Saint Petersburg: Stroy-Beton. 2006. 692 p.
6. Chernousov N.N., Chernousov R.N., Sukhanov A.V. A research of mechanics of work of a fine-grained shlakobeton at axial stretching and compression. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 59–64. (In Russian).
7. Panova V.F., Panov S.A. Regulation of grain structure of a decorative shlakobeton. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2007. No. 8, pp. 24–29. (In Russian).
8. Chernousov N.N., Chernousov R.N., Sukhanov A.V., Bondarev B.A. Influence of age of a fine-grained shlakobeton on his strength characteristics. Nauchnyi zhurnal stroitel’stva i arkhitektury. 2015. No. 1 (37), pp. 41–50. (In Russian).
9. Gryzlov V.S. Formirovanie struktury shlakobetonov [Formation of structure of shlakobeton]. Lambert Academic Publishing SaarbÜcken Deutchland, 2012. 347 p.
10. Gryzlov V.S. Shlakobeton in large-panel housing construction. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 40–41. (In Russian).
11. Gatylyuk A.G., Gryzlov V.S. Determination of optimum structure of a fine-grained shlakobeton on waste of metallurgical production. Vestnik Cherepovetskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2013. Vol. 1. No. 2 (47), pp. 9–11. (In Russian).
N.S. SOKOLOV1,2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Associate Professor, Director (forstnpf@mail.ru, ns_sokolov@mail.ru)
1 OOO NPF «FORST» (109a, Kalinina Street, 428000, Cheboksary, Russian Federation)
2 I.N. Ulianov Chuvash State University (15, Moskovskiy pr., 428015, Cheboksary, Russian Federation)

One of Approaches to Solve the Problem of Increasing the Bearing Capacity of Bored Piles In modern geotechnical construction, a number of technologies for the construction of bored piles are available. It is known that the bearing capacity on the ground Fd of any pile is the main indicator for the purposes of perception of increased loads from over-foundation structures. To achieve higher Fd values for most technologies of the arrangement of buried structures, the main direction is either an increase in the diameter of the pile or its length. With this approach, the bored piles under heavy loads on them will be cumbersome. The second approach to increasing Fd is the progressive technology of bored pile arrangement with the help of intermediate broadenings. For these piles, the main for increasing the bearing capacity of bored piles is not to increase their diameter, but the number of broadenings along their length. This article considers the third approach to the construction of bored piles with an increased bearing capacity, based on the joint work of the soil-cement pile, the SFA pile (NPSh), and the surrounding soil mass.

Keywords: bored pile, load-bearing capacity, soil-cement pile, electric discharge technology, continuous feed-through screw technology SFA (NPSh), soil-concrete pile (GBS).

For citation: Sokolov N.S. One of approaches to solve the problem of increasing the bearing capacity of bored piles. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).

References
1. Ilyichev V.A., Mangushev R.A., Nikiforova N.S. Experience in the development of the underground space of Russian megacities. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov. 2012. No. 2, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).
2. Ulitsky V.M., Shashkin A.G., Shashkin K.G. Geotechnical support of urban development. Saint Petersburg: Georekonstrukciya, 2010. 551 p.
3. Razvodovsky D.E., Chepurnova A.A. Evaluation of the effect of strengthening the foundations of buildings on the technology of jet cementation on their sediment. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 10, pp. 64–72. (In Russian).
4. Sokolov N.S., Sokolov S.N., Sokolov A.N. Fine-grained concrete, as a structural construction material for flight augering piles-EDT. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 16–20. (In Russian).
5. Sokolov N.S., Viktorova S.S., Smirnova G.M., Fedoseeva I.P. Flight augering piles-EDT as a buried reinforced concrete structure. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 47–50. (In Russian).
6. Sokolov N.S., Viktorova S.S. Research and development of a discharge device for the production of a flight augering pile. Vestnik Chuvashskogo universiteta. 2017. No. 3, pp. 152–159. (In Russian).
7. Sokolov N.S., Kadyshev E.N. Electrodischarge technology for the device flight augering piles. Vestnik Chuvashskogo universiteta. 2017. No. 3, pp. 159–165. (In Russian).
8. Sokolov N.S. The use of flight augering piles-ERT as the bases of the foundations of high bearing capacity. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2017. No. 8, pp. 74–79. (In Russian).
9. Sokolov N.S., Sokolov A.N., Sokolov S.N., Glushkov V.E., Glushkov A.E. Calculation of flight augering piles of high bearing capacity. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2017. No. 11, pp. 20–26. (In Russian).
10. Sokolov N.S. The foundation of the increased load-bearing capacity with the use of flight augering piles-ERT with multiplies broadening. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 25–29. (In Russian).
11. Sokolov N.S., Viktorova S.S Research and development of a discharge device for the production of a flight augering pile. Stroitel’stvo: Novye tekhnologii – Novoe oborudovanie. 2017. No. 12, pp. 38–43. (In Russian).
12. Nikolay Sokolov, Sergey Ezhov, Svetlana Ezhova. Preserving the natural landscape on the construction site for a sustainable ecosystem. Journal of applied engineering science. 15 (2017) 4, 482, pp. 518–523. (In Russian).
13. Sokolov N.S. Electroimpulse installation for the production of flight augering piles. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2018. No. 1–2, pp. 62–66. (In Russian).
I.Ya. HARCENKO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (iharcenko@mail.ru), D.A. BAJENOV, Specialist (bajenov.da@gmail.com) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Shosse, 29337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Efficient Self-Compacting Fine Concrete with Compensated Shrinkage The article describes the results of experimental studies of self-compacting fine concretes on the basis of composite binders prepared with the use of mineral micro-fillers. The aim of this work was to study the kinetics of structure formation and the impact of the introduction of mineral micro-fillers of various hydration activity on the characteristics of fine concrete, for obtaining self-compacting fine concrete with improved crack-resistance and durability. As raw materials were used: plain base Portland cement with different fine disperse mineral micro-fillers in the form of carbonate flour, fine-grinded quartz sand after its mechanical-chemical activation, an expanding additive on the sulphate-aluminate basis. Has been conducted the study of the kinetics of structure formation and physical-mechanical properties of fine concrete on the basis of composite binders with mineral micro-fillers at different stages of structure formation.

Keywords: fine concrete, mineral micro-filler, expanding additive, expansion, porosity, durability.

For citation: Harcenko I.Ya., Bajenov D.A. Efficient self-compacting fine concrete with compensated shrinkage. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 48–52. (In Russian).

References
1. König, G., Holschermacher, K., Dehn, F. Selbstverdichtender Beton [Self-compacting concrete]. Berlin: bauwerk Verlag GmbH. 2001. 249 p.
2. Okamura H., Ozawa K., Ouchi M. Self-compacting concrete. Structural Concrete. 2000. No. 1, pp. 3–17.
3. Ozawa K. Development of high performance concrete based on the durability design of concrete structures. Proceedings of the second East-Asia and Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction (EASEC-2). 1989. Vol. 1, pp. 445–450.
4. Wenchen Li, Mamadou Fall. Sulphate effect on the early age strength and self-desiccation of cemented paste backfill. Construction and Building Materials. 2016. Vol. 106. March, pp. 296–304.
5. Harchenko A.I., Harchenko I.J. Fine-grained self-compacting concrete based on modified binder for monolithic construction. International conference «Ibausil». Weimar. 2012.
6. Stark J., Wicht B. Dolgovechnost’ betona [Durability of concrete]. Kiev: Oranta. 2004. 301 p.
7. Mihajlov V.V., Litver S.L. Tehnologija naprjagajushhih cementov i samonaprjagajushhihsja zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij [Technology of self-stressing reinforced structures]. Moscow: Strojizdat. 183 p.
8. Gajfullin A.R., Rahimov R.Z., Rahimova N.R. The effect of clay additives in portland cement on compression strength of hardened cement paste. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyj zhurnal. 2015. No. 7 (59), pp. 66–73. (In Russian).
9. Chartschenko I., Stark J. Control of the structure formation of expanding cements and concretes based on them. Weimar: Wiss. Zeitschr. Hochsch. Arch. BauwesenWeimar. No. 39/3, pp. 163–171.
10. Stark J., Wicht B. Cement i izvest’ [Cement and lime]. Kiev: Birkchojzer – baupraksis. 2008. 469 p.
11. Mihajlov V.V., Litver S.L. Rasshirjajushhiesja cementy, naprjagajushhie cementy i samonaprjazhennye zhelezobetonnye konstrukcii [Expansding cements, self-stressing cements and self-stressed reinforced concrete structures]. Moscow: Strojizdat. 1974. 311 p.
12. Carballosa P., García Calvo J.L., Revuelta D., Sánchez J.J., Gutiérrez J.P. Influence of cement and expansive additive types in the performance of self-stressing and self-compacting concretes for structural elements. Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 93, September, pp. 223–229.
13. Boxin Wang, Teng Man, Henan Jin. Prediction of expansion behavior of self-stressing concrete by artificial neural networks and fuzzy inference systems. Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 84, June, pp. 184–191.
14. Djatlov A.K., Harchenko A.I., Bazhenov M.I., Harchenko I.J. Fine-grained self-compacting concretes for monolithic housing construction based on composite binders. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 11, pp. 59–61. (In Russian).
15. Sayed Horkoss, Gilles Escadeillas, Toufic Rizk, Roger Lteif. The effect of the source of cement SO3 on the expansion of mortars. Case Studies in Construction Materials. 2016. Vol. 4. June, pp. 62–72.
V.A. RASSULOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy); R.A. PLATOVA2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (raisa.platova@yandex.ru), Yu.T. PLATOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Mineral Resources named after N.M. Fedorovsky (31, Staromonetny per., 119017, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (36, Stremyanny Lane, 119017, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Quality Сontrol of Metakaolin by the Method of Spectroscopy in the Near Infrared Region of the Spectrum The express-method for control of kaolin calcination in terms of spectra of diffusion reflection in UV-VIS-NIR-field is proposed. The stages and temperature ranges of the heat treatment within the range of 600–1000оC of the transformation of kaolinite to metakaolinite in terms of changes in the spectrum profile and the square of the characteristic bands of OH and AI-OH centers in the NIR field are determined. It is established that the greatest decrease in the absorption area of the OH center and the disappearance of structuring of OH and AI-OH centers is connected with almost complete dehydroxylation of kaolinite. Structural disordering of metakaolinite is most clearly interconnected with the reduction of the band square of AI-OH center. The advantage of measuring the spectra of diffusion reflection in the near infrared area comparing with infrared transmission spectra is shown: there is no need for sample preparation, the measurement is performed in situ and in on-line regime.

Keywords: kaolin, metakaolin, pozzolanic activity, diffusion reflection spectra, near infrared field, OH and AI-OH centers.

For citation: Rassulov V.A., Platova R.A., Platov Yu.T. Quality сontrol of metakaolin by the method of spectroscopy in the near infrared region of the spectrum. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 53–56. (In Russian).

References
1. Rakhimov R.Z., Rakhimova N.R., Gayfullin A.R., Stoyanov O.V. Influence of additive in a portlandtsement of the calcinated and ground polymineral clay containing kaolinite on durability of a cement stone. Vestnik tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2015. Vol. 18. No. 5, pp. 80–83. (In Russian).
2. Platova R.A., Argynbaev T.M., Stafeeva Z.V. Influence of Dispersion of Kaolin from Zhuravliny Log Deposit on Pozzolan Activity of Metakaolin. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 2, pp. 75–80. (In Russian).
3. Platova R.A., Platov Yu.T., Argynbaev T.M., Stafeeva Z.V. White Metakaolin: Factors Influencing on Coloring and Evaluating Methods. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 6, pp. 55–60. (In Russian).
4. Platova R.A., Rassulov V.A., Platov Yu.T., Argynbaev T.M., Stafeeva Z.V. Luminescence Control of Pozzolanic Activity of Metakaolin. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 6, pp. 67–72. (In Russian).
5. Guatame-Garcia L.А., Buxton М. Visible and infrared reflectance spectroscopy for characterization of iron impurities in calcined kaolin clays. Proceeding of the 2nd International conference on optical characterization of materials. Karlsruhe. 2015, pp. 215–226.
6. Crowley J.K., Vergo N. Near-infrared reflectance spectra of mixtures of kaolin-group minerals: use in clay mineral studies. Clays and Clay Minerals. 1988. Vol. 36. No. 4 pp. 310–316.
7. Hunt G.R. Spectral signatures of particulate minerals in the visible and near infrared. Geophysics. 1977. Vol. 42. No. 3, pp. 501–513.
8. Bergaya F., Dion P., Alcover J.F., Clinard C., Tchoubar D. TEM study of kaolinite thermal decomposition by controlled-rate thermal analysis. Journal of Materials Science. 1996. Vol. 31. No. 19, pp. 5069–5075.
L.D. SHAHOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (shahova_ld@polyplast-nm.ru), R.A. KOTLIAROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kotliarov.ra@polyplast-nm.ru) OOO “Polyplast Novomoskovsk” (72, Komsomolskoye Highway, Novomoskovsk, 301661, Tula Region, Russian Federation)

Requirements for Normal Consistency, Water Demand and Water Separation of Cements for Transport Construction At present, in the Russian Federation, there are several parallel standards on cement for the transport construction which differ by technical requirements for production quality. The comparative data on the regulatory requirements for the quality indexes of cement for the transport construction with regard to water set out in various regulatory documents of the RF and foreign countries are presented. It is shown that in ASTM and European norms there is no such indicator of cement quality as water separation. Regulation of this indicator of cement at cement factories is impossible since it is among the uncontrolled parameters. Analysis of the technical literature shows that the water separation of cement does not carry any technological load when producing the concrete mix. The water separation of the concrete mix depends on many factors, and first of all on the composition of the concrete mix itself and quality of its mixing. It is proposed to replace this indicator of cement quality with the indicator of “normal consistency” in the standard GOST P 55224–2012.

Keywords: cement, transport construction, water separation, normal consistency, water demand.

For citation: Shahova L.D., Kotliarov R.A. Requirements for normal consistency, water demand and water separation of cements for transport construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 57–60. (In Russian).

Список литературы/ References
1. TL Beton StB 07. Technische Lieferbedingungen für Baustoffe und Baustoffge-mische für Tragschichten mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln und Fahrbahndecken aus Beton. http://www.gesetze-bayern.de/Content/ Document/BayVwV290273 (Date of access 27.04.18).
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2. GOST No. 30515–2013 Cements. General specifications. Moscow: Standartinform. 38 p. (In Russian).
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A.V. KOCHETKOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (soni.81@mail.ru); S.Yu. ANDRONOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), N.V. SHCHEGOLEVA2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); Sh.N. VALIEV3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.V. TALALAY3, Engineer
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29a, Komsomolsky prospect, Perm. 614600, Russian Federation)
2 Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov (77, Politekhnicheskaya Street, Saratov, 410054, Russian Federation)
3 Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (64, Leningradsky prospect, Moscow, 125319, Russian Federation) A Branch System of Risk Control in Technical Regulation of Transport Construction In 2017 the State Company Avtodor developed a draft GOST R “Public Automobile Roads. Risk Assessment Guidance during the Life Cycle” which can be useful as a manual for a designer assessing risks during the whole life cycle of an automobile road. The authors of GOST substantiate that the risk must be considered in unbreakable unity with the safety of the object, since the level of risk (the probability of harm) directly depends on the level of providing safety of objects of technical regulation. As a meter of the required level of safety, a universal indicator is provided – the admissible risk of harm. At that, this conformity check is determined through the summary risk of the application of the conformity assessment scheme and the risk of the use of products that have passed this check. It is shown that the created branch system of risk control in the technical regulation of transport construction should correspond to the practice of countries with developed market economy in this field. The necessity of harmonization of Russian standards in the construction field with advanced international standards is substantiated.

Keywords: normal distribution, distribution density, critical value, mathematical expectation, mean-square deviation, risk theory, road facilities, automobile road, geometric and strength parameters, risk of passing, model, distribution histogram, Laplace’s function.

For citation: Kochetkov A.V., Andronov S.Yu., Shchegoleva N.V., Valiev Sh.N., Talalay V.V. A branch system of risk control in technical regulation of transport construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 61–67. (In Russian).

References
1. Arzhanuhina S.P., Kochetkov A.V., Kozin A.S., Strizhevskij D.A. Normative and technological development of road sector innovation activity. Naukovedenie. Internetjournal. 2012. No. 4 (13), p. 69. (In Russian).
2. Arzhanuhina S.P., Kochetkov A.V., Kozin A.S., Strizhevskij D.A. Improvement of the structure of industry diagnostics of federal highways. Naukovedenie. Internetjournal. 2012. No. 4 (13), p. 70. (In Russian).
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T.EH. HAEV, Engineer (haevt@mail.ru), E.V. TKACH, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (ev_tkach@mail.ru), D.V. ORESHKIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (dmitrii_oreshkin@mail.ru)
1 Moscow state university of civil engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
2 Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences (4, Kryukovskiy Tupik, Moscow, 111020, Russian Federation)

Lightened Strengthened Gypsum Stone for Restoration of Architectural Monuments A way for further strengthening of modified lightened gypsum stone of white color for restoration of stucco in architectural monuments due to the use of metakaolin, superplasticizer, and hydrophobizator is proposed. The structure of this stone has been studied. It is proved that the introduction of metakaolin and a hydrophobic-plastisticizing additive in the gypsum mix compacts the gypsum matrix due to the change in element composition of the gypsum system with hollow glass micro-spheres, the increase in inter-planar distances and sizes of gypsum crystals. The authors consider that such changes increase the cross-sectional square and bearing capacity of gypsum crystals. It is established that the developed material has technical efficiency in terms of average density, specific strength, cohesion strength to the base, water resistance, and sorption humidity.

Keywords: lightened strengthened gypsum stone, structure and properties of stone, hollow glass micro-spheres, inter-planar distances and sizes of gypsum crystals.

For citation: Haev T.EH., Tkach E.V., Oreshkin D.V. Lightened strengthened gypsum stone for restoration of architectural monuments. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 68–72. (In Russian).
A.M. IBRAGIMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (igasu_alex@mail.ru), A.V. LIPENINA, Student, (atuxin@mail.ru), L.Yu. GNEDINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Design of the Blast Furnace Wall Structure Made of Efficient Materials. Part 2. Solution of Boundary Problems of Heat Transfer This work is a continuation of the cycle of articles under the general title “Heat transfer in enclosing structures of a blast furnace”. Typical multilayered enclosing structures of the blast furnace are considered in the part 1 [1]. The description of layers which are a part of these designs is resulted. The main attention is paid to the lining layer. The process of iron smelting and operating temperatures in the characteristic layers of the internal environment of the blast furnace is briefly described. On the basis of the theory of A.V. Lykov, initial equations describing the interconnected heat transfer and mass in the solid body applying to the set task, an adequate description of the processes with the purpose of further rational design of the multilayered enclosing structure of the blast furnace, are analyzed. Apriori, from the mathematical point of view the enclosing structure is considered as an unbounded plate. Boundary problems of the heat transfer in separate layers of the structure with different boundary conditions are considered in the part 2, their solutions, which are basic when developing the mathematical model of the non-stationary process of the heat transfer in the multilayered enclosing structure, are presented.

Keywords: blast furnace, multilayered structures, lining layer, heat-mass transfer, mathematical model.

For citation: Ibragimov A.M., Lipenina A.V., Gnedina L.Yu. Design of the blast furnace wall structure made of efficient materials. Part 2. Solution of boundary problems of heat transfer. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 73–76. (In Russian).

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