Table of contents
I.P. SAZHNEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Chairman of the Organizing Committee of the International Scientific
and Practical Conference “Experience in Manufacturing and Using Cellular Autoclave-Hardened Concrete”
Chist settlement, Maladzyechna District, Minsk Oblast, 222321, Republic of Belarus
Manufacturing and Using Cellular Concrete in the Republic of Belarus: 50 Years
The article presents the history of creation and development of cellular concrete production in the Republic of Belarus as well as the most important process of exchange of knowledge,
research and development results, architectural and planning, structural and technological solutions of designs of buildings made of cellular concrete in the course of seminars and scientific-
practical conferences over the past 26 years. The main characteristics of the enterprises producing cellular concrete now, normative documentation developed during the past
years and regulating the production and use of cellular concrete in the construction of the Republic of Belarus are shown.
Keywords: cellular concrete, autoclaved treatment, casting technology, impact technology, cellular concrete blocks.
For citation: Sazhnev N.P. Manufacturing and using cellular concrete in the republic of Belarus: 50 Years. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 4–10.
1. Moyseevich A.F., Bildyukevich V.L., Sazhnev N.P.
Production of cellular and concrete products in
Respubliye Belarus. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 1992. No. 9, pp. 2–5. (In Russian).
2. Bildyukevich V.L., Sazhnev N.P., Borodovskiy Yu.D.
State and the main directions of development of production
of cellular and concrete products in the CIS and
abroad. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
1992. No. 9, pp. 5–8. (In Russian).
3. Sazhnev N.P., Dombrovskiy A.V., Novakov Yu.Ya.,
Povel’ E.V., Veretevskaya I.A., Sudelaynen N.N. Some
technical and economic indicators of the yachisty concrete
made on molding and shock technologies.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1992.
No. 9, pp. 11–13. (In Russian).
4. Garnashevich G.S., Podluzskiy E.Ya., Sazhnev N.P.
Research of heatphysical and operational properties of
cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 1992. No. 9, pp. 24–26. (In Russian).
5. Vigdorchik R.I., Telesh A.M. Use of cellular concrete in construction
of residential and public buildings. Progressive projects
and design decisions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 1992. No. 9, pp. 27–29. (In Russian).
6. Galkin S.L., Sazhnev N.P., Sokolovskiy L.V., Sazhnev
N.N. Primenenie yacheisto-betonnyh izdeliy. Teoriya i
praktika. [Application of cellular and concrete products.
Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2006. 446 p.
7. Nguen Than Kkien, Kudryashov V.A., Drobysh A.S.
Modeling of warming up of designs from autoclave cellular
concrete in the conditions of the fire. Vestnik komandno-
inzhenernogo instituta MChS Respubliki Belarus.
2016. No. 2, pp. 20-31. (In Belarus).
8. Sazhnev N.P., Goncharik V.N., Garnashevicv G.S.,
Sokolovskiy A.S. Proizvodstvo yacheisto-betonnyh izdeliy.
Teoriya I praktika [Production of cellular and concrete
products. Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 1999. 283 p.
9. Sazhnev N.P., Goncharik V.N., Garnashevicv G.S.,
Sokolovskiy A.S., Sazhnev N.N. Proizvodstvo yacheistobetonnyh
izdeliy. Teoriya I praktika [Production of cellular
and concrete products. Theory and practice]. Minsk:
Strinko. 2004. 381 p.
10. Sazhnev N.P., Sazhnev N.N., Sazhneva N.N., Golubev
N.M. Proizvodstvo yacheisto-betonnyh izdeliy. Teoriya I
praktika [Production of cellular and concrete products.
Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2010. 459 p.
11. Batyanovskiy E.I., Golubev N.M., Sazhnev N.P.
Proizvodstvo yacheisto-betonnyh izdeliy avtoklavnogo
tverdeniya [Production of cellular and concrete products
of autoclave curing]. Minsk: Strinko. 2009. 127 p.
12. Sazhnev N.P., Sokolovskiy A.S., Zhuravlev I.S., Tkachik
P.P. Kak postroit individualny dom iz yacheistogo betona
[How to build the individual house of cellular concrete].
Minsk: Strinko. 2003. 156 p.
13. Series B2.000-3.07. Knots and details of interfaces of
structural elements of buildings to complex use of cellular
concrete. Release 0. Materials for design. Minsk: Institut
BelNIIS. 2007. 39 p.
14. Series B2.030-13.10. Knots and details of walls of residential
and public buildings from effective the small of
wall materials. Release 1. Working drawings. Minsk:
Institut BelNIIS. 2010. 62 p.
15. Recommendations about design poetazhno the opertykh
of walls and partitions from effective small wall materials.
Minsk: Institut BelNIIS. 2011. 50 p.
16. Hartmut R., Fridemann Sh. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo.
Shtukaturka. Materialy, tekhnika proizvodstva rabot,
predotvrashchenie defektov [Practical guidance. Plaster.
Materials, technology of works, prevention of defects].
Saint-Petersburg: Kvintet. 2006. 273 p.
17. Sazhnev N.P. Experience of production and application
of cellular and concrete products of autoclave curing in
Republic of Belarus. Materials of the 7th international scientific
and practical conference “Experience of Production
and Use of Cellular Concrete of Autoclave Curing”. Brest,
Malorita. 2012, pp. 5–16
A.A. PAK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com)
The I.V. Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw Materials of the Russian Academy
of Sciences Kola Science Center (26a, «Academic Town», Apatity, 184209, Murmansk region, Russian Federation)
Study of Si-stoff as a Mineral Additive to Cellular Concrete on Anthropogenic Raw Material
of the Kola Mining Industrial Complex
Si-stoff is a by-product of the complex nitic-acid treatment of apatite-nepheline ore. Due to the content of over 80 mass % of micro-silica as a main mineral in amorphous state, Si-stoff
is of great interest as an active mineral additive for producing binders and cellular concretes. But the study conducted by authors according to GOST 25094–2015 “Additives active mineral
for cement. Methods for determining the activity” shows that the compression strength indicators of Si-stoff don’t make it possible to recommend it as an active mineral additive to
cements, but it is reaction-active concerning the lime absorption that makes it prospective in cellular-concrete lime containing mixes. The article presents the results of experimental
studies of efficiency of the use of Si-stoff in cellular-concrete mixes on the basis of anthropogenic raw material of the Kola mining industrial complex. It is established that the introduction
of 15–20 mass% of Si-stoff in cellular-concrete mixes of less than 500 kg/m3 density increases the strength of concrete by 1.5–2.2 times. Addition of Si-stoff to concrete mixes of
higher densities leads to the reduction in the density of gas concrete by 12–20% and compression strength by 35–42%.
Keywords: anthropogenic raw material, micro-silica, Si-stoff, gas concrete, gas silicate concrete, silica component, mineral additive.
For citation: Pak A.A. Study of si-stoff as a mineral additive to cellular concrete on anthropogenic raw material of the Kola mining industrial complex. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 11–15. (In Russian).
1. Zakharov V.I., Matveev V.A., Matveenko S.I. Studies on
the nitric acid processing of poor apatite-nepheline ore.
Research in the field of chemistry and technology of mineral
raw materials of the Kola Peninsula. Leningrad: Nauka.
1986, pp. 52–58. (In Russian).
2. Matveev V.A., Maiorov D.V., Zakharov V.K. On the use
of amorphous silica – product acid processing of nepheline
in the production of building and technical materials.
Problems of rational use of natural and technogenic raw
materials in the Barents region in the technology of construction
and technical materials. Second International scientific
conference. Petrozavodsk. Karelian research centre of
RAS. 2005, pp. 119–121.
3. Tkachev V.K., Plyshevsky J.S., Ufimtsev V.M., Plechev
V.A. Systof and its use. Tekhnologiya koagulyantov.
1975, pp. 117–119. (In Russian).
4. Gorbunov S.P., Zinov I. High-strength concrete with the
addition of microsilica. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy.
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5. Lesovik V.V., Potapov V.V., Alfimova N.I., Ivashova
O.V. Improvement of efficiency of binders using nanomodifiers.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2011. No. 12, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).
6. Fomina E.V., Strokova V.V., Kudeyarova N.P. Features
of the application of pre-slaked lime in aerated concrete
cured concrete. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy.
Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 5 (653), pp. 29–34. (In Russian).
7. Savenkov A.I., Baranov A.A. Influence of microsilica on
basic physical and mechanical properties of foam concrete
of non-autoclaved hardening. Vestnik Angarskoy
gosudarstvennoy tekhnicheskoy akademii. 2013. Vol. 1.
No. 1, pp. 39–41. (In Russian).
8. Baranov A.A., Savenkov A.I. Foam concrete modified
with silica fume of JSC “Silicon”. Vestnik Irkutskogo
gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2014. No. 8,
pp. 78–81. (In Russian).
A.Yu. SMIRNOV1, General Director, A.M. RUBLEV1, Director for Production,
A.A. BARANOV1, Engineer-Technologist, Chief Technologist (firstname.lastname@example.org); M.V. AKULOVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
Increase of Efficiency of Operation of Autoclaved Gas Concrete Production
by the Shock Technology at Egorievsky Building Materials Factory
The production experience of Yegoryevsky Plant of Building Materials in the production of autoclaved gas concrete at the technological line Vano-Block 1440 of German Firm Masa-
Henke is described. It is shown that the impact technology makes it possible to solve many production goals directed at increasing volumes of finished production output and reducing
its self-cost. Information on the conducted modernization of the equipment is presented. The estimation of the professional work of the enterprise staff is made. The increase in the productivity
of the technological line by 7.8% of the design capacity, up to1552.5 m3/day of gas concrete products, has been achieved. At that, the total self-cost of production is reduced
by 7.8% despite the growth of price of materials, electric energy, gas and transport expenses.
Keywords: autoclaved gas concrete, impact technology, production experience, productivity increase, cost saving.
For citation: Smirnov A.Yu., Rublev A.M., Baranov A.A., Akulova M.V. Increase of efficiency of operation of autoclaved gas concrete production by the shock technology at Egorievsky
building materials factory. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 16–19. (In Russian).
1 OOO “Yegoryevsky Plant of Building Materials (3B, Melanzhistov Street, Yegoryevsk, 140301, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation)
2 Ivanovo State Polytechnic University (20, 8 Marta Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)
1. Klare M., Ivanov A.K. Production of cellular concrete
products using the technology of the company «Maza-
Henke». Stroitel’ny rynok. 2008. No. 5, pp. 11–14.
2. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfeld G.I. Shock or injection?
Paper reports of the scientific-practical conference «Modern
autoclaved aerated concrete». Saint-Petersburg. 2015,
pp. 25–31. (In Russian).
3. Sazhnev N.N. etc. Proizvodstvo yacheistobetonnykh izdeliy:
teoriya i praktika [Production of cellular concrete
products: theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2010. 464 p.
4. Kaftaeva M.V. Theoretical substantiation of the main
redistribution of the technology of production of cellular
silicate materials of autoclave hardening. Doctor Diss.
(Engeeniring). Belgorod. 2013. 299 p. (In Russian).
5. Korolev A.S., Voloshin E.A., Trofimov B.Ya. Optimization
of composition and structure structural-heat-insulating
cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2004. No. 3, pp. 30–32. (In Russian).
6. Sazhnev N.P., Sazhnev N.N. Energy-saving shock technology
for the production of cellular concrete products
and structures. Budivel’ni materiali virobi ta sanitarna
tekhnika. 2009. No. 327, pp. 102–106.
7. Baranov A.A. Resursosberegajushchaja technology of application
of a multistage method of processing of undercutting
layer. Paper reports of the scientific-practical conference
«Modern autoclaved aerated concrete».
Ekaterinburg. 2017, pp. 22–26. (In Russian).
8. Fedosov S.V., Gruzintseva N.A., Matrokhin A.Yu.
Modeling of conditions for ensuring the quality of products
of the enterprise for the production of building materials,
taking into account the level of professionalism of
the personnel potential. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Constrution
Materials]. 2015. No. 12, pp. 65–67. (In Russian).
G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer, (email@example.com), N.N. MOROZOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org),
I.D. YUSUPOV, Student
Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)
Research in Influence of Disperse Additives on Properties of Autoclaved Gas Concrete
The possibility to use powder-like additives from waste of own production – hydro-silicates in production of autoclaved gas concrete with a specific surface equal to not less than the
fineness of cement grinding is considered. Hydro-silicates contribute to improving the strength due to the better recrystallization of CSH (I) in tobermorite. Ground additives as an independent
component are considered depending on the sand mass. Dry powders, ground wastes of gas concrete and brick, reduce the mix mobility that leads to reducing the amount of
free water in the mortar mix and increasing the porization. The introduction of additives contributes to the growth of strength and density of products which is not desirable in the production
of gas concrete. Water demand of gas concrete and brick powders is presented. The recalculation of water-solid ratio with due regard for the need of powder is proposed.
Properties of the mortar mix with water correction providing the density reducing are presented.
Keywords: autoclaved gas concrete, additive, brick, plasticizer, density.
For citation: Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N., Yusupov I.D. Research in influence of disperse additives on properties of autoclaved gas concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).
1. Bedarev A.A. Effect of plasticizing additives on the temperature
and visco-plastic properties of the silicate mixture
for the production of gas silicate. Izvestiya KGASU.
2013. No. 2, pp. 208–214. (In Russian).
2. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N., Potapova L.I.,
Klokov V.V. A Complex Additive for Autoclaved
Concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2017. No. 5, pp. 36–40. (In Russian).
3. Kashapov R.R. Krasinikova N.M., Khozin V.G.,
Galeev A.F., Shamsin D.R. Complex additive based on
sodosulphate mixture. Izvestiya KGASU. 2015. No. 2,
pp. 239–243. (In Russian).
4. Laukaitis A.A. Investigation of the effect of the addition
of ground waste of cellular concrete on its properties.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004.
No. 3, p. 33. (In Russian).
5. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N., Klokov V.V.,
Zigangaraeva S.R. Silicate Brick and Autoclaved Gas
Concrete with the Use of Waste of Own Production.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016.
No. 4, pp. 76–80. (In Russian).
6. Baranov A.A. Resource-saving technology of application
of multistage method of processing of undercut layer.
Scientific and practical conference “Modern autoclaved
aerated concrete”. Collection of reports. Ekaterinburg.
2017, pp. 22–26. (In Russian).
7. Nelyubova V.V. Autoclaved aerated concrete with the use
of mineral modifiers of various composition / Scientific
and practical conference “Modern autoclaved aerated
concrete”. Collection of reports. Ekaterinburg. 2017,
pp. 56–61. (In Russian).
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V.A. Experience in obtaining autoclave heat-insulating
gas concrete. Vestnik YuUrGU. 2014. Vol. 14. No. 1,
pp. 46–48. (In Russian).
9. Khavkin L.M. Tekhnologiya silikatnogo kirpicha
[Technology of silica brick]. Moscow: Ekolit, 2011. 243 p.
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V.N. MORGUN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com); L.V. MORGUN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Substantiation of One of the Methods for Improving the Structure of Foam Concretes
The relevance of development of the theory and practice of gas-filled concretes is reflected. It is shown that till now the modern construction materials science doesn’t have the
necessary volume of knowledge, relying on which the design of the composition of foam concretes is possible. Differences in the features of the formation of the structure of interporous
partitions in foam- and fibrous foam concrete mixes are considered from the position of the theory of fractal clusters. It is shown that the length of the fiber is the most
important parameter that predetermines the sizes of clusters formed in inter-porous partitions of gas-filled concrete. It is the length of the fiber that causes an increase in the density of
inter-porous partitions and the value of plastic strength in foam concrete mixtures.
Keywords: foam concrete, foam concrete mix, plastic strength, fractal cluster.
For citation: Morgun V.N., Morgun L.V. Substantiation of one of the methods for improving the structure of foam concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5,
pp. 24–26. (In Russian).
1 Southern Federal University (05/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russian Federation)
2 Don State Technical University (1, Gagarina Square, Rostov-on-Don, 344010, Russian Federation)
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praktika [Technology of foam concrete. Theory and practice].
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of foam concrete. Izvestiya KazGASU. 2009.
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A.A. KETOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com);
V.S. KORZANOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) (firstname.lastname@example.org), M.P. KRASNOVSKIKH2, Master (email@example.com)
Peculiarities of Gas Formation in One-Stage Synthesis of Foamed Glass Using Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Sulfate
Issues of the gas generation in the one-stage synthesis of silicate foam glass from the traditional glass compounds using sodium carbonate and sodium sulfate are discussed in the article.
The differences in silicate formation in oxidative and inert atmospheres were revealed by the method of synchronous thermal analysis combined with mass spectroscopy. The formation
of silica from sodium sulfate occurs through the intermediate formation of sulfite is assumed. It is established that the single-stage production of foamed glass from sodium sulfate
and silicon oxide is impossible due to the proceeding of silica formation reactions at high temperatures, at which the melt of silicate has a low viscosity, and the gases formed easily
leave the formed glass. It is determined that gas generation in the synthesis of silicate glass from sodium carbonate and amorphous silicon oxide can be used for one-stage foaming of
the composition and foamed glass preparation. The use of amorphous silicon oxide instead of crystalline one leads to a significant decrease in the temperatures of silica formation and
opens up the possibility of one-stage foamed glass technology. The mechanism of gas formation for the direct synthesis of gas-filled cellular silicates, such as foamed glass, from
amorphous silica and sodium carbonate is revealed
Keywords: foamed glass, chemical mechanism of gas formation, synchronous thermal analysis.
For citation: Ketov A.A., Korzanov V.S., Krasnovskikh M.P. Peculiarities of gas formation in one-stage synthesis of foamed glass using sodium carbonate and sodium sulfate. Stroitel’nye
Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 27–31. (In Russian).
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolsky Prospect, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 Perm State National Research University (15, Bukireva Street, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
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of reservoir sediment and Na2CO3. Ceramics International.
2012. Vol. 38. Issue 5, pp. 4415–4420.
E.A. CHISTYAKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org), S.A. ZENIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering),
R.Sh. SHARIPOV (email@example.com), Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), O.V. KUDINOV, Engineer
Research Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete named after A.A. Gvozdev (NIIZHB), JSC “Research Center of Construction”
(6, 2nd Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)
Prestressing Unbonded Tendons for Cast In-Situ Post-Tensioned Reinforced Concrete Members
The description of the adopted technical solutions of prestressing tendons for post-tensioned members is presented. Post-tensioned members in which the prestressing steel has
not bond with concrete are considered. Issues of unbonded tendons of such members as well as instructions for design of cast in-situ structures of normal weight concrete with
post-tensioning of tendons under the construction conditions are outlined in details in the new methodical manual “Reinforced cast in-situ post-tensioned concrete structures with
unbonded tendons. Design Rules”. One of the important sections of the manual described in this article is the section about prestressing steel used in post-tensioned concrete
structures. These tendons for post-tensioned members (without bond with concrete) are conducted with special prestressing elements which include high-strength steel strands
coated with the closed flexible plastic sheaths. Sheaths contain a protective grease. As a rule, strands of the highest level of quality (low relaxation steel strands) made of round
smooth wire (K7) and compacted strands made of round smooth wire (K7O) are used. The existing technical solutions of anchorages and couplers for such prestressing elements
are also considered.
Keywords: prestressing element, post-tensioning, steel strands, anchorages, reinforced concrete.
For citation: Chistyakov E.A., Zenin S.A., Sharipov R.Sh., Kudinov O.V. Prestressing unbonded tendons for cast in-situ post-tensioned reinforced concrete members. Stroitel’nye
Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 32–37. (In Russian).
1. Methodical Manual “Post-tensioned concrete structures
with unbonded tendons. Design rules». Moscow: FAU
FTsS Minstroya Rossii, 2017. 108 p. https://www.faufcc.
2. Sharipov R.Sh., Zenin S.A., Kudinov O.V. Problems of
analysis of post-tensioned concrete structures with unbonded
tendons of the first and second groups of limit
states and solutions. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo.
2017. No. 1, рр. 129–132. (In Russian).
3. Zenin S.A., Sharipov R.Sh., Kudinov O.V., Semyonov
V.A. Static analysis of members of structural systems
with post-tensioned concrete floors having unbonded
tendons. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenii.
2017. No. 4 (273), pp. 11–16. (In Russian).
4. Matar P.Yu., Barkaya T.R., Brovkin A.V., Demidov A.V.
Losses of prestressing in post-tensioned reinforced concrete
structures without adhesion of reinforcement to
concrete. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2015. No. 6, pp. 10–15.
5. Kishinevskaya E.V., Vatin N.I., Kuznetsov V.D.
Strengthening of building structures using post-tensioned
reinforced concrete. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyy zhurnal.
2009. No. 3, pp. 29–32. (In Russian).
6. Polikarpov D.E. Pre-stressed reinforced concrete structures
with reinforcement tension on concrete. Regional
building complex: problems and development prospects in
modern conditions Collection of materials of the regional
scientific and practical conference. East European Institute,
Research Institute “Construction Laboratory”, Union of
Builders of the Udmurt Republic. 2016. pp. 91–95.
7. ACI 423.7-07. Specification for unbounded single-strand
tendon. American Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills.
8. Integrated solutions for building prestressing by posttensioning.
Freyssinet Report CIII 2, 2012.
9. Dywidag-Systems International. Post-Tensioning Kit for
Prestressing of Structures with Unbonded Monostrands
for Concrete (1 to 5 Monostrands), 2009.
10. European committee for standardization. EN 1992-1-1.
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. Part 1-1.
General rules and rules for buildings.
11. ACI 423.3R-05. Recommendations for concrete members
prestressed with unbonded tendons. American
Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills. USA. 2005.
Пять этажей производства сборных бетонных элементов (Информация) ..... 38
V.S. GRYZLOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org), D.V. ZAVIALOVA, Engineer
Cherepovets State University (6, Lunacharsky prospect, 162600, Cherepovets, Russian Federation)
Screenings of Crushing of Broken Slag as an Efficient Component of Concrete
Results of the experimental research concerning the use of chippings of slag stone as a mineral finely ground additive and a filler in fine structural concretes are presented. The rational
composition of the finely ground additive in the course of the joint grinding of granulated blast furnace slag and gravel screenings was established. Compositions of fine concretes
recommended for producing products by the method of off-formwork forming are presented. It is shown that the research conducted will help to rationally use the screenings of slag
stone when producing fine slag concrete with reduced heat conductivity.
Keywords: screenings of crushed slag stone, finely ground additive, fine concrete, strength, heat conductivity, resource efficiency, resource saving.
For citation: Gryzlov V.S., Zavialova D.V. Screenings of crushing of broken slag as an efficient component of concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5,
pp. 40–43. (In Russian).
1. Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovsky V.N., Shkol’nik Ya.Sh.
Sostoyaniye and the prospects of use of by-products of
technogenic educations in the construction industry.
Еkologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii. 2012. No. 10, рр. 50–55.
2. Gorshkov V.S., Alexandrov S.E., Ivashchenko S.I.,
Gorshkova I.V. Kompleksnaya pererabotka i ispol’zovanie
metallurgicheskikh shlakov v stroitel’stve [Complex processing
and use of metallurgical slags in construction].
Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1985. 272 p.
3. Yarmakovsky V.N., Semchenkov A.S., Kozelkov M.M.,
Shevtsov D.A. About energy saving when using innovative technologies in the constructive systems of buildings
in the course of their creation and construction. Vestnik
MGSU. 2011. No. 3. Vol. 1, pp. 209–215. (In Russian).
4. Bolshakov V.I., Yeliseyev M.A., Shcherbak S.A. Contact
durability of the mechanoactivated fine-grained concrete
from the domain granulated slags. Nauka ta progres transportu.
2014. No. 5 (53), pp. 138–149.
5. Dvorkin L.I., Dvorkin O.L. Osnovy betonovedeniya
[Betonovedeniye bases]. Saint Petersburg: Stroy-Beton.
2006. 692 p.
6. Chernousov N.N., Chernousov R.N., Sukhanov A.V. A
research of mechanics of work of a fine-grained shlakobeton
at axial stretching and compression. Stroitel’nye materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 59–64.
7. Panova V.F., Panov S.A. Regulation of grain structure of a
decorative shlakobeton. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii.
Stroitel’stvo. 2007. No. 8, pp. 24–29. (In Russian).
8. Chernousov N.N., Chernousov R.N., Sukhanov A.V.,
Bondarev B.A. Influence of age of a fine-grained shlakobeton
on his strength characteristics. Nauchnyi zhurnal
stroitel’stva i arkhitektury. 2015. No. 1 (37), pp. 41–50.
9. Gryzlov V.S. Formirovanie struktury shlakobetonov
[Formation of structure of shlakobeton]. Lambert
Academic Publishing SaarbÜcken Deutchland, 2012.
10. Gryzlov V.S. Shlakobeton in large-panel housing construction.
Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials].
2011. No. 3, pp. 40–41. (In Russian).
11. Gatylyuk A.G., Gryzlov V.S. Determination of optimum
structure of a fine-grained shlakobeton on waste of metallurgical
production. Vestnik Cherepovetskogo gosudarstvennogo
universiteta. 2013. Vol. 1. No. 2 (47), pp. 9–11.
N.S. SOKOLOV1,2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Associate Professor, Director (email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org)
One of Approaches to Solve the Problem of Increasing the Bearing Capacity of Bored Piles
In modern geotechnical construction, a number of technologies for the construction of bored piles are available. It is known that the bearing capacity on the ground Fd of any pile is the
main indicator for the purposes of perception of increased loads from over-foundation structures. To achieve higher Fd values for most technologies of the arrangement of buried structures,
the main direction is either an increase in the diameter of the pile or its length. With this approach, the bored piles under heavy loads on them will be cumbersome. The second
approach to increasing Fd is the progressive technology of bored pile arrangement with the help of intermediate broadenings. For these piles, the main for increasing the bearing capacity
of bored piles is not to increase their diameter, but the number of broadenings along their length. This article considers the third approach to the construction of bored piles with an
increased bearing capacity, based on the joint work of the soil-cement pile, the SFA pile (NPSh), and the surrounding soil mass.
Keywords: bored pile, load-bearing capacity, soil-cement pile, electric discharge technology, continuous feed-through screw technology SFA (NPSh), soil-concrete pile (GBS).
For citation: Sokolov N.S. One of approaches to solve the problem of increasing the bearing capacity of bored piles. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5,
pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
1 OOO NPF «FORST» (109a, Kalinina Street, 428000, Cheboksary, Russian Federation)
2 I.N. Ulianov Chuvash State University (15, Moskovskiy pr., 428015, Cheboksary, Russian Federation)
1. Ilyichev V.A., Mangushev R.A., Nikiforova N.S. Experience
in the development of the underground space of
Russian megacities. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika
gruntov. 2012. No. 2, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).
2. Ulitsky V.M., Shashkin A.G., Shashkin K.G. Geotechnical
support of urban development. Saint Petersburg:
Georekonstrukciya, 2010. 551 p.
3. Razvodovsky D.E., Chepurnova A.A. Evaluation of the
effect of strengthening the foundations of buildings on the
technology of jet cementation on their sediment.
Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 10,
pp. 64–72. (In Russian).
4. Sokolov N.S., Sokolov S.N., Sokolov A.N. Fine-grained
concrete, as a structural construction material for flight
augering piles-EDT. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2017. No. 5, pp. 16–20. (In Russian).
5. Sokolov N.S., Viktorova S.S., Smirnova G.M., Fedoseeva
I.P. Flight augering piles-EDT as a buried reinforced
concrete structure. Stroitel’nye Materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 47–50.
6. Sokolov N.S., Viktorova S.S. Research and development
of a discharge device for the production of a flight augering
pile. Vestnik Chuvashskogo universiteta. 2017. No. 3,
pp. 152–159. (In Russian).
7. Sokolov N.S., Kadyshev E.N. Electrodischarge technology
for the device flight augering piles. Vestnik Chuvashskogo
universiteta. 2017. No. 3, pp. 159–165. (In Russian).
8. Sokolov N.S. The use of flight augering piles-ERT as the
bases of the foundations of high bearing capacity.
Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2017. No. 8,
pp. 74–79. (In Russian).
9. Sokolov N.S., Sokolov A.N., Sokolov S.N., Glushkov
V.E., Glushkov A.E. Calculation of flight augering piles
of high bearing capacity. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing
construction]. 2017. No. 11, pp. 20–26. (In Russian).
10. Sokolov N.S. The foundation of the increased load-bearing
capacity with the use of flight augering piles-ERT with
multiplies broadening. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing
construction]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 25–29. (In Russian).
11. Sokolov N.S., Viktorova S.S Research and development
of a discharge device for the production of a flight augering
pile. Stroitel’stvo: Novye tekhnologii – Novoe oborudovanie.
2017. No. 12, pp. 38–43. (In Russian).
12. Nikolay Sokolov, Sergey Ezhov, Svetlana Ezhova.
Preserving the natural landscape on the construction site
for a sustainable ecosystem. Journal of applied engineering
science. 15 (2017) 4, 482, pp. 518–523. (In Russian).
13. Sokolov N.S. Electroimpulse installation for the production
of flight augering piles. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo
[Housing construction]. 2018. No. 1–2, pp. 62–66.
I.Ya. HARCENKO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com), D.A. BAJENOV, Specialist (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Shosse, 29337, Moscow, Russian Federation)
Efficient Self-Compacting Fine Concrete with Compensated Shrinkage
The article describes the results of experimental studies of self-compacting fine concretes on the basis of composite binders prepared with the use of mineral micro-fillers. The aim of
this work was to study the kinetics of structure formation and the impact of the introduction of mineral micro-fillers of various hydration activity on the characteristics of fine concrete,
for obtaining self-compacting fine concrete with improved crack-resistance and durability. As raw materials were used: plain base Portland cement with different fine disperse mineral
micro-fillers in the form of carbonate flour, fine-grinded quartz sand after its mechanical-chemical activation, an expanding additive on the sulphate-aluminate basis. Has been conducted
the study of the kinetics of structure formation and physical-mechanical properties of fine concrete on the basis of composite binders with mineral micro-fillers at different stages of
Keywords: fine concrete, mineral micro-filler, expanding additive, expansion, porosity, durability.
For citation: Harcenko I.Ya., Bajenov D.A. Efficient self-compacting fine concrete with compensated shrinkage. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 48–52.
1. König, G., Holschermacher, K., Dehn, F. Selbstverdichtender
Beton [Self-compacting concrete]. Berlin: bauwerk
Verlag GmbH. 2001. 249 p.
2. Okamura H., Ozawa K., Ouchi M. Self-compacting concrete.
Structural Concrete. 2000. No. 1, pp. 3–17.
3. Ozawa K. Development of high performance concrete
based on the durability design of concrete structures.
Proceedings of the second East-Asia and Pacific Conference
on Structural Engineering and Construction (EASEC-2).
1989. Vol. 1, pp. 445–450.
4. Wenchen Li, Mamadou Fall. Sulphate effect on the early
age strength and self-desiccation of cemented paste backfill.
Construction and Building Materials. 2016. Vol. 106.
March, pp. 296–304.
5. Harchenko A.I., Harchenko I.J. Fine-grained self-compacting
concrete based on modified binder for monolithic construction.
International conference «Ibausil». Weimar. 2012.
6. Stark J., Wicht B. Dolgovechnost’ betona [Durability of
concrete]. Kiev: Oranta. 2004. 301 p.
7. Mihajlov V.V., Litver S.L. Tehnologija naprjagajushhih
cementov i samonaprjagajushhihsja zhelezobetonnyh
konstrukcij [Technology of self-stressing reinforced
structures]. Moscow: Strojizdat. 183 p.
8. Gajfullin A.R., Rahimov R.Z., Rahimova N.R. The effect
of clay additives in portland cement on compression
strength of hardened cement paste. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyj
zhurnal. 2015. No. 7 (59), pp. 66–73. (In Russian).
9. Chartschenko I., Stark J. Control of the structure formation
of expanding cements and concretes based on them.
Weimar: Wiss. Zeitschr. Hochsch. Arch. BauwesenWeimar.
No. 39/3, pp. 163–171.
10. Stark J., Wicht B. Cement i izvest’ [Cement and lime].
Kiev: Birkchojzer – baupraksis. 2008. 469 p.
11. Mihajlov V.V., Litver S.L. Rasshirjajushhiesja cementy,
naprjagajushhie cementy i samonaprjazhennye zhelezobetonnye
konstrukcii [Expansding cements, self-stressing
cements and self-stressed reinforced concrete structures].
Moscow: Strojizdat. 1974. 311 p.
12. Carballosa P., García Calvo J.L., Revuelta D.,
Sánchez J.J., Gutiérrez J.P. Influence of cement and expansive
additive types in the performance of self-stressing
and self-compacting concretes for structural elements.
Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 93,
September, pp. 223–229.
13. Boxin Wang, Teng Man, Henan Jin. Prediction of expansion
behavior of self-stressing concrete by artificial neural
networks and fuzzy inference systems. Construction and
Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 84, June, pp. 184–191.
14. Djatlov A.K., Harchenko A.I., Bazhenov M.I.,
Harchenko I.J. Fine-grained self-compacting concretes
for monolithic housing construction based on composite
binders. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2012.
No. 11, pp. 59–61. (In Russian).
15. Sayed Horkoss, Gilles Escadeillas, Toufic Rizk, Roger
Lteif. The effect of the source of cement SO3 on the expansion
of mortars. Case Studies in Construction Materials.
2016. Vol. 4. June, pp. 62–72.
V.A. RASSULOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy); R.A. PLATOVA2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com),
Yu.T. PLATOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
Quality Сontrol of Metakaolin by the Method of Spectroscopy in the Near Infrared Region of the Spectrum
The express-method for control of kaolin calcination in terms of spectra of diffusion reflection in UV-VIS-NIR-field is proposed. The stages and temperature ranges of the heat treatment
within the range of 600–1000оC of the transformation of kaolinite to metakaolinite in terms of changes in the spectrum profile and the square of the characteristic bands of OH and
AI-OH centers in the NIR field are determined. It is established that the greatest decrease in the absorption area of the OH center and the disappearance of structuring of OH and AI-OH
centers is connected with almost complete dehydroxylation of kaolinite. Structural disordering of metakaolinite is most clearly interconnected with the reduction of the band square of
AI-OH center. The advantage of measuring the spectra of diffusion reflection in the near infrared area comparing with infrared transmission spectra is shown: there is no need for sample
preparation, the measurement is performed in situ and in on-line regime.
Keywords: kaolin, metakaolin, pozzolanic activity, diffusion reflection spectra, near infrared field, OH and AI-OH centers.
For citation: Rassulov V.A., Platova R.A., Platov Yu.T. Quality сontrol of metakaolin by the method of spectroscopy in the near infrared region of the spectrum. Stroitel’nye Materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 53–56. (In Russian).
1 All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Mineral Resources named after N.M. Fedorovsky (31, Staromonetny per., 119017, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (36, Stremyanny Lane, 119017, Moscow, Russian Federation)
1. Rakhimov R.Z., Rakhimova N.R., Gayfullin A.R.,
Stoyanov O.V. Influence of additive in a portlandtsement
of the calcinated and ground polymineral clay containing
kaolinite on durability of a cement stone. Vestnik tekhnologicheskogo
universiteta. 2015. Vol. 18. No. 5, pp. 80–83.
2. Platova R.A., Argynbaev T.M., Stafeeva Z.V. Influence
of Dispersion of Kaolin from Zhuravliny Log Deposit on
Pozzolan Activity of Metakaolin. Stroitel’nye Materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 2, pp. 75–80.
3. Platova R.A., Platov Yu.T., Argynbaev T.M., Stafeeva Z.V.
White Metakaolin: Factors Influencing on Coloring and
Evaluating Methods. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2015. No. 6, pp. 55–60. (In Russian).
4. Platova R.A., Rassulov V.A., Platov Yu.T., Argynbaev T.M.,
Stafeeva Z.V. Luminescence Control of Pozzolanic
Activity of Metakaolin. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction
Materials]. 2016. No. 6, pp. 67–72. (In Russian).
5. Guatame-Garcia L.А., Buxton М. Visible and infrared
reflectance spectroscopy for characterization of iron impurities
in calcined kaolin clays. Proceeding of the 2nd
International conference on optical characterization of materials.
Karlsruhe. 2015, pp. 215–226.
6. Crowley J.K., Vergo N. Near-infrared reflectance spectra
of mixtures of kaolin-group minerals: use in clay mineral
studies. Clays and Clay Minerals. 1988. Vol. 36. No. 4
7. Hunt G.R. Spectral signatures of particulate minerals in
the visible and near infrared. Geophysics. 1977. Vol. 42.
No. 3, pp. 501–513.
8. Bergaya F., Dion P., Alcover J.F., Clinard C., Tchoubar
D. TEM study of kaolinite thermal decomposition by
controlled-rate thermal analysis. Journal of Materials
Science. 1996. Vol. 31. No. 19, pp. 5069–5075.
L.D. SHAHOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org),
R.A. KOTLIAROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com)
OOO “Polyplast Novomoskovsk” (72, Komsomolskoye Highway, Novomoskovsk, 301661, Tula Region, Russian Federation)
Requirements for Normal Consistency, Water Demand and Water Separation of Cements for Transport Construction
At present, in the Russian Federation, there are several parallel standards on cement for the transport construction which differ by technical requirements for production quality. The
comparative data on the regulatory requirements for the quality indexes of cement for the transport construction with regard to water set out in various regulatory documents of the RF
and foreign countries are presented. It is shown that in ASTM and European norms there is no such indicator of cement quality as water separation. Regulation of this indicator of
cement at cement factories is impossible since it is among the uncontrolled parameters. Analysis of the technical literature shows that the water separation of cement does not carry any
technological load when producing the concrete mix. The water separation of the concrete mix depends on many factors, and first of all on the composition of the concrete mix itself
and quality of its mixing. It is proposed to replace this indicator of cement quality with the indicator of “normal consistency” in the standard GOST P 55224–2012.
Keywords: cement, transport construction, water separation, normal consistency, water demand.
For citation: Shahova L.D., Kotliarov R.A. Requirements for normal consistency, water demand and water separation of cements for transport construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy
[Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 57–60. (In Russian).
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A.V. KOCHETKOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org); S.Yu. ANDRONOV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering),
N.V. SHCHEGOLEVA2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); Sh.N. VALIEV3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.V. TALALAY3, Engineer
Keywords: normal distribution, distribution density, critical value, mathematical expectation, mean-square deviation, risk theory, road facilities, automobile road, geometric and strength
parameters, risk of passing, model, distribution histogram, Laplace’s function.
For citation: Kochetkov A.V., Andronov S.Yu., Shchegoleva N.V., Valiev Sh.N., Talalay V.V. A branch system of risk control in technical regulation of transport construction. Stroitel’nye
Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 61–67. (In Russian).
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29a, Komsomolsky prospect, Perm. 614600, Russian Federation)
2 Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov (77, Politekhnicheskaya Street, Saratov, 410054, Russian Federation)
3 Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (64, Leningradsky prospect, Moscow, 125319, Russian Federation)
A Branch System of Risk Control in Technical Regulation of Transport Construction
In 2017 the State Company Avtodor developed a draft GOST R “Public Automobile Roads. Risk Assessment Guidance during the Life Cycle” which can be useful as a manual for a
designer assessing risks during the whole life cycle of an automobile road. The authors of GOST substantiate that the risk must be considered in unbreakable unity with the safety of the
object, since the level of risk (the probability of harm) directly depends on the level of providing safety of objects of technical regulation. As a meter of the required level of safety, a
universal indicator is provided – the admissible risk of harm. At that, this conformity check is determined through the summary risk of the application of the conformity assessment
scheme and the risk of the use of products that have passed this check. It is shown that the created branch system of risk control in the technical regulation of transport construction
should correspond to the practice of countries with developed market economy in this field. The necessity of harmonization of Russian standards in the construction field with advanced
international standards is substantiated.
1. Arzhanuhina S.P., Kochetkov A.V., Kozin A.S., Strizhevskij
D.A. Normative and technological development of
road sector innovation activity. Naukovedenie. Internetjournal.
2012. No. 4 (13), p. 69. (In Russian).
2. Arzhanuhina S.P., Kochetkov A.V., Kozin A.S., Strizhevskij
D.A. Improvement of the structure of industry
diagnostics of federal highways. Naukovedenie. Internetjournal.
2012. No. 4 (13), p. 70. (In Russian).
3. Vasil’ev Yu.Em., Valiev SH.N., Shchegoleva N.V.
Ocenka tekhnicheskih riskov v tekhnicheskom regulirovanii
dorozhnogo hozyajstva [Assessment of technical
risks in the technical regulation of road facilities].
Moscow: MADI. 2017. 295 p.
4. Kochetkov A.V., YAnkovskiy L.V. Prospects for the development
of innovative activities in the road sector.
Innovatsionniy transport. 2014. No. 1 (11), pp. 42–45.
5. Kochetkov A.V., Gladkov V.YU., Nemchinov D.M.
Designing the structure of information support for the
quality management system of road facilities.
Naukovedenie. Internet-journal. 2013. No. 3 (16), pp. 72.
6. Kokodeeva N.E., Talalay V.V., Kochetkov A.V.,
Arzhanukhina S.P., Yankovskiy L.V. Methodological
basis for technical risk assessment. Vestnik Volgogradskogo
gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta.
Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2012. No. 28,
pp. 126–134. (In Russian).
7. Katasonov M.V., Leskin A.I., Kochetkov A.V.,
Syroezhkina M.A., Shchegoleva N.V., Zadvornov V.Yu.
Mathematical model for prediction of traffic accidents on
the road network and in places where traffic accidents are
concentrated. Naukovedenie. Internet-journal. 2017.
Vol. 9. No. 1 (38), p. 33. (In Russian).
8. Murav’eva N.A., Stolyarov V.V Estimation of influence
of road conditions on the mechanism of road and transport
incidents. Al’ternativnye istochniki energii v transportno-
tekhnologicheskom komplekse: problemy i perspektivy
ratsional’nogo ispol’zovaniya. 2016. Vol. 3. No. 3 (6),
pp. 330–334. (In Russian).
9. Arzhanukhina S.P., Sukhov A.A., Kochetkov A.V.,
Yankovskiy L.V. Organizational and economic mechanism
of innovative activity of road economy.
Innovatsionnyy Vestnik Region. 2012. No. 4, pp. 40–45.
10. Chelpanov I.B., Evteeva S.M., Talalay V.V., Kochetkov
A.V., Yushkov B.S. Standardization of tests of construction,
road materials and products. Transport.
Transportnye sooruzheniya. Ekologiya. 2011. No. 2,
pp. 57–68. (In Russian).
11. Valiev Sh.N., Kokodeeva N.E., Karpeev S.V.,
Borodin R.K., Kochetkov A.V. Proposals for the improvement
of normative documents on the assessment of
reliability, uniformity and technical risks in the road
economy of the Russian Federation. Gruzovik. 2017.
No. 1, pp. 32–39. (In Russian).
12. Kochetkov A.V., Vasil’ev Yu.E., Kamenev V.V.,
Shlyafer V.L. Statistical methods of organization of quality
control in the production of road building materials.
Kachestvo. Innovatsii. Obrazovanie. 2011. No. 5 (72),
pp. 46–51. (In Russian).
13. Stolyarov V.V., Nemchinov D.M., Gusev V.A., Shchegoleva
N.V. The mathematical model of the transport flow,
based on the microscopic theory of “following the leader”.
Dorogi i mosty. 2016. No. 34, p. 20. (In Russian).
14. Stolyarov V.V., Shchegoleva N.V. Some historical
boundaries of the development of the theory of risk (from
inception to our days). Transportnye sooruzheniya
Internet-journal. 2016. Vol. 3. No. 3. http://t-s.today/
PDF/02TS316.pdf (date of access 15.01.2018).
15. Stolyarov V.V., Shchegoleva N.V. On the limits of applicability
of the normal distribution law instead of the binomial
distribution in the statistical processing of discrete
integer values. Transportnye sooruzheniya Internetjournal.
2016. Vol. 3. No. 3. http://t-s.today/
PDF/05TS316.pdf (date of access 15.01.2018).
16. Stolyarov V.V., SHCHegoleva N.V. Examples of calculating
probabilities for processing discrete data for normal
and binomial distributions. Transportnye sooruzheniya.
Internet-journal. 2016. Vol. 3. No. 3. https://t-s.today/
PDF/06TS316.pdf (date of access 15.01.2018).
17. Skachkov Yu.P., Stolyarov V.V., Bazhanov A.P.
Nauchno-metodicheskiy podkhod k otsenke tekhnicheskikh
i ekologicheskikh riskov v protsesse primen
T.EH. HAEV, Engineer (email@example.com), E.V. TKACH, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org),
D.V. ORESHKIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (email@example.com)
Lightened Strengthened Gypsum Stone for Restoration of Architectural Monuments
A way for further strengthening of modified lightened gypsum stone of white color for restoration of stucco in architectural monuments due to the use of metakaolin, superplasticizer,
and hydrophobizator is proposed. The structure of this stone has been studied. It is proved that the introduction of metakaolin and a hydrophobic-plastisticizing additive in the gypsum
mix compacts the gypsum matrix due to the change in element composition of the gypsum system with hollow glass micro-spheres, the increase in inter-planar distances and sizes of
gypsum crystals. The authors consider that such changes increase the cross-sectional square and bearing capacity of gypsum crystals. It is established that the developed material has
technical efficiency in terms of average density, specific strength, cohesion strength to the base, water resistance, and sorption humidity.
Keywords: lightened strengthened gypsum stone, structure and properties of stone, hollow glass micro-spheres, inter-planar distances and sizes of gypsum crystals.
For citation: Haev T.EH., Tkach E.V., Oreshkin D.V. Lightened strengthened gypsum stone for restoration of architectural monuments. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].
2018. No. 5, pp. 68–72. (In Russian).
1 Moscow state university of civil engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
2 Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences (4, Kryukovskiy Tupik, Moscow, 111020, Russian Federation)
A.M. IBRAGIMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (firstname.lastname@example.org), A.V. LIPENINA, Student, (email@example.com),
L.Yu. GNEDINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)
Design of the Blast Furnace Wall Structure Made of Efficient Materials.
Part 2. Solution of Boundary Problems of Heat Transfer
This work is a continuation of the cycle of articles under the general title “Heat transfer in enclosing structures of a blast furnace”. Typical multilayered enclosing structures of the blast
furnace are considered in the part 1 . The description of layers which are a part of these designs is resulted. The main attention is paid to the lining layer. The process of iron smelting
and operating temperatures in the characteristic layers of the internal environment of the blast furnace is briefly described. On the basis of the theory of A.V. Lykov, initial equations
describing the interconnected heat transfer and mass in the solid body applying to the set task, an adequate description of the processes with the purpose of further rational design of
the multilayered enclosing structure of the blast furnace, are analyzed. Apriori, from the mathematical point of view the enclosing structure is considered as an unbounded plate.
Boundary problems of the heat transfer in separate layers of the structure with different boundary conditions are considered in the part 2, their solutions, which are basic when developing
the mathematical model of the non-stationary process of the heat transfer in the multilayered enclosing structure, are presented.
Keywords: blast furnace, multilayered structures, lining layer, heat-mass transfer, mathematical model.
For citation: Ibragimov A.M., Lipenina A.V., Gnedina L.Yu. Design of the blast furnace wall structure made of efficient materials. Part 2. Solution of boundary problems of heat transfer.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 5, pp. 73–76. (In Russian).
1. Ibragimov A.M., Lipenina A.V. Design of the blast furnace
wall structure made of efficient materials. Part 1.
Statement of a problem and calculation prerequisites.
Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018.
No. 3, pp. 70–74. (In Russian).
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in a multilayered enclosing structure. Problems of building
thermophysics of microclimate and energy saving systems
in buildings: Coll. reports of the IV scientific-practical
conference. 27–29 April 1999. Mosscow. 343–348 p.
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Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo. 1996. No. 10, pp. 25–27.
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Kisel’nikov V.N. Modelirovanie nestatsionarnogo teploperenosa
v reaktore gidroliza tsiansoderzhashchikh polimerov
[Modeling of non-stationary heat transfer in the
reactor of hydrolysis of cyanide-containing polymers].
Ivanovo Chemical Technology Institute. 1988. Dep. in
the NIITEKhIM. N1076-XII88.
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Gushchin A.V. Mathematical model of non-stationary
heat transfer in a multilayered enclosing structure. Reports
of the XII Russian-Polish seminar “Theoretical Foundations
of Construction”. Warsaw: 2003, pp. 253–261. (In Russian).