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Жилищное строительство №1-2

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A.V. BASOV, Director (info@faufcc.ru) Federal Center of Regulation, Standardization and Technical Assessment of Compliance in Construction (FAU “FTSS”) (3, bldg. 1, Orlikov Lane, Moscow, 107139, Russian Federation)

Technical Regulation and Standardization in Construction Technical regulation is the main tool to ensure safety at all stages of the life cycle of buildings and structures due to the development and monitoring of compliance with quality requirements of construction works, used building materials and products. The regulatory framework of the construction industry is the main component of technical regulation in construction. Technical Committee TC 465 «Construction» works on the basis of the Ministry of Construction of Russia. The main tasks in the field of technical regulation are given. At present, the structure of TC 465 consists of 27 subcommittees, in which specialists work in all areas of development and examination of normative technical documents, including requirements for the processes of research, design, construction and operation of buildings and structures, building materials, products and structures. The main activities of TC 465 «Construction» are formulated.

Keywords: technical regulation, expertise, normative documents, technical rules, national standards, technical committee.

For citation: Basov A.V. Technical regulation and standardization in construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 3–7.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-3-7 (In Russian).
M.K. ISHCHUK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kamkon@ya.ru)
1 Central Research Institute of Building Constructions named after A.V. Kucherenko (TSNIISK named after A.V. Kucherenko) (6, 2-nd Institutskaya Street, Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation)
2 Federal center for rationing, standardization and technical conformity assessment in construction, Technical committee 465 (3, bldg. 1, Orlikov Lane, Moscow, 107139, Russian Federation)

New in the Design of Exterior Walls with a Facing Layer of Brick Masonry
Existing SNiP II-22–81 «Stone and reinforced masonry structures» has been developed for buildings with exterior walls of solid masonry. The distance between the vertical deformation joints in them was appointed 35–120 m. Horizontal deformation joints were not provided for. Mass defects of external walls made of stone masonry began in the late 1990s after toughening the requirements for heat transfer resistance and the beginning of the construction of multilayer walls of the new design. The main reasons were design errors and poor construction quality. Defects appear and now mainly on previously built buildings. Provisions for the design of external walls of the new design were introduced only in 2012 in the updated version of SNiP (SP 15.13330.2012), including the requirements for the execution of horizontal and vertical deformation joints. Since then, a number of changes have been made to it, as well as the SP 327.1325800.2017 «External walls with a facing brick layer», which take into account the results of recent experimental and numerical studies, has been developed.

Keywords: multi-layer walls, two-layer walls, three-layer walls with flexible connections, the facing layer of brick masonry, vertical and horizontal deformation joints, optimization of distances between temperature seams, stresses in flexible tils, temperature and humidity deformations, cracks in masonry, braced grid, methods of calculation of multilayer walls, tensile strength of masonry, pull-out bond strength, regulations, codes of practice.

For citation: Ishchuk M.K. New in the design of exterior walls with a facing layer of brick masonry. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 8–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-8-13 (In Russian).
A.P. KONSTANTINOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (apkonst@yandex.ru), A.M. IBRAGIMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (igasu_alex@mail.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoe Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation))

Complex Approach to Calculation and Design of Translucent Structures
The analysis of the existing approach to calculation and design of the modern translucent structures, used when constructing civil buildings of various functional purposes, is presented in this work. The existing requirements of regulatory documents were analyzed. The review of the conducted scientific works devoted to the study of requirements for translucent structures as structural elements of the building, as well as different technical characteristics of translucent structures and methods of their calculation, was performed. It is established that the existing approach and the provisions of the existing regulations don’t take into account the entire complex of requirements for translucent structures, and for some performance characteristics of translucent structures, at that the necessary engineering methods of calculation are not available. The concept of a complex approach to the calculation and design of translucent structures is presented, as well as the directions of further research relating to the issue under consideration are outlined.

Keywords: translucent structures, windows, window structures, external balcony glazing, translucent facades, translucent roofs.

For citation: Konstantinov A.P., Ibragimov A.M. Complex approach to calculation and design of translucent structures. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 12, pp. 14–17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-14-17 (In Russian).
Transition to Project Financing and the Availability of Counterfeit Products in Construction Can Reduce the Volume of Sales of Manufacturers of Building Materials (Information) . . . . . . . 18
E.Yu. AGEEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy) (ag-eu11@yandex.ru), N.A. GOGOLEVA, Candidate of Architecture (entazis@me.com) Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (65, Il’inskaya Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation)

Renovation of Water Towers: Typological Analysis
The article analyzes the examples of renovation of ancient water towers. The solution of problems in renovation, such as changes in the architectural composition and functional content of these objects, is considered. The presented examples of renovation of water towers in Russia and abroad prove the possibility of transforming such a characteristic industrial facility as a water tower into a full-fledged residential facility, office, museum, restaurant building. With this transformation, there is a complete change in the functional solution, as well as the exterior and interior, but in most cases, the renovation remains the main constructive volume. The analysis shows the use of the following basic composite methods of adaptation of buildings of water towers: application, analogy, integration. The following architectural methods of transformation of water towers during the renovation are revealed: modification of an object; replacement-introduction of new forms, functions, designs; joining or reducing shapes, structures that extend functionality; combinatorics of ideas, properties; inversion; analogy; adaptation to specific conditions. The examples of renovation of water towers with changes in the functional solution, among which there are residential and public facilities, are presented. The geography of these objects is extensive and makes it possible to draw a conclusion about the regularity of adaptation processes of water towers: Germany, Sweden, Norway, Great Britain, Austria, Spain, Finland, Poland, Belgium, Russia, Moldova, USA, South Africa, Australia, etc. Water towers are the emphasis of development. These industrial buildings are suitable for adapting to a variety of functions. Renovation of historical water towers is an integral part of the modern development of the urban environment, influences on the economic, social, cultural, psychological, aesthetic spheres of life.

Keywords: renovation of water towers for housing, offices, museums, restaurants; typological analysis of realized projects of renovation of water towers; adapting the volume of water towers to different functions.

For citation: Ageeva E.Yu., Gogoleva N.A. Renovation of water towers: typological analysis. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 19–29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-19-29 (In Russian).
G.N. AIDAROVA, Doctor of Sciences (Architecture) (aidagalnik@mail.ru), I.V. KRASNOBAEV, Candidate of Sciences (Architecture) (ymit@list.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelyonaya, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Wood in the Architecture of Coastal Areas of the Historical Center of Kazan A comparative analysis of historical morphotypes of the coast wooden architecture of Kazan and modern urban quays is presented. It is shown that the specificity of the historical landscape of Kazan is the presence of external and internal waters: the Volga and Kazanka rivers, lakes Nizhny, Sredny and Dalny Kaban, Lake Chernoye, the Bolaq channel. The features of continuity in the use of building materials (wood) in the modern architecture of the city embankments, as well as the change of the historical paradigm in respect of coastal production and transport areas on the concept of open public spaces that improve the quality of life of citizens are revealed. The problem of the organization of the Volga coastal area, which can embody the idea of a new city center with a multi-kilometer city embankment, can be solved with the use of wood, which will preserve the continuity in the material and typology of coastal architecture, enrich the water facade of the city with innovative solutions of environmentally sustainable architecture.

Keywords: timber in architecture of the coastal zones; historical city; morphology of the coastal zones; modern architecture of embankments.

For citation: Aidarova G.N., Krasnobaev I.V. Wood in the architecture of coastal areas of the historical center of Kazan. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 30–34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-30-34 (In Russian).
M.A. GRANSTREM, Candidate of Architecture (arch_project@bk.ru) Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (4, 2nd Krasnoarmeiskaya Street 190005, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

To the Issue of Preservation of Volumetric-Spatial Characteristics of the Historical Industrial Environment of St. Petersburg The unique environment of St. Petersburg is formed not only by palaces, temples and rental houses. A significant share of the historic city is occupied by industrial zones. The industry of St. Petersburg is the same age as the Northern сapital, its historical factory-production areas play a significant environment-forming role. This development, which has a characteristic industrial colour, is concentrated, due to its production specifics, along the banks of the Neva river – the main waterway of the city, as well as on the banks of small rivers and canals. Red brick factory buildings with a characteristic silhouette of chimneys and water towers organically fit in the panorama of the Neva banks. The industrial environment is adjacent to residential areas, it is integrated into the fabric of the city and forms a single whole with it. The modern policy of protection of single objects does not satisfy more the concept of preservation of the integral historical environment in which the industrial architecture is integrated into the fabric of the city. It is possible to preserve the volumetric-spatial identity of historical industrial zones only when creating new principles for the protection of monuments based on comprehensive urban studies.

Keywords: historical industrial zone, architectural monument, identity, renovation, preservation of cultural heritage objects.

For citation: Granstrem M.A. To the issue of preservation of volumetric-spatial characteristics of the historical industrial environment of St. Petersburg. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 35–38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-35-38 (In Russian).
A.Z. TER-MARTIROSYAN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gic-mgsu@mail.ru); A.V. MANUKYAN2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (a.manukyan@mon-arch.ru); E.S. SOBOLEV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (e.s.sobolev@mail.ru); G.O. ANZHELO1, Engineer (nocgeo@mail.ru)
1 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoye Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
2 LLC «Concern Mon-Arch» (31A, Leningradsky Prospekt, Moscow, 125284, Russian Federation)

Influence of Soils Damping on the Interaction of the Base and Structure Under Seismic Action Forecasting of seismic influences on the foundations of industrial and civil buildings and structures under the complex engineering-geological conditions is an actual task of modern soil dynamics. At the present stage, such a forecast is carried out mainly by numerical methods using various mathematical models of the soil environment. In this paper, we determine the characteristics of the physical damping of sand and clay soils based on the results of special laboratory studies. The description of laboratory equipment for dynamic testing of soils is given. The analysis of the parameters obtained during the tests is performed. The transition from parameters obtained directly from the results of triaxial dynamic tests to parameters of mathematical models of soils used in modern geotechnical software complexes is shown. The numerical solution of several dynamic problems by the finite elements method is performed with due regard for various damping characteristics of the ground base of a high-rise buildings with a developed underground part. Recommendations are made for choosing a mathematical model of soils under the dynamic impact and the required set of parameters, and as well as an analysis of the solutions obtained is presented.

Keywords: dynamics of soils; damping of soils; damping by Relay; seismic action; dynamic tests; dynamic parameters of soils; numerical simulation.

For citation: Ter-Martirosyan A.Z., Manukyan A.V., Sobolev E.S., Anzhelo G.O. Influence of soils damping on the interaction of the base and structure under seismic action. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 39–44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-39-44 (In Russian).
I.S. RODIONOVSKAYA, Candidate of Architecture (RodiIS@yandex.ru), Al-Haddad ESKANDAR, Architect (eskandar_arch@hotmail.com) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoye Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Renovation Approach to Restoration of Settlements Destroyed when Social Cataclysms in Syria Catastrophes of different scale, nature and degree of destructive impacts have always accompanied the development of mankind. In a number of countries and regions, they are still taking place, bringing with them untold disasters and damage to the population associated with the tragic loss of life and the destruction of many material and cultural values. The particular severity of the cataclysms also concerns the architecture, the space and environment of which, as you know, are a necessary life-supporting component of humanity. In the aspect of the initial causality, the disasters are divided into three main categories: natural, man-made and social. The first category includes geo-climatic, the second – man-made disasters, the third category includes various socio-political events (wars, terrorist attacks, political conflicts, etc.), which recently occur in different regions of the world. In Syria, combat operations are still conducted, that’s why it is vital already now to develop the project of adaptation of residential areas to modern conditions of life and vital activity. It requires large-scale international work on the revival of centuries-old monuments, all countries of the world need to consolidate to protect and save these important objects.

Keywords: renovation approach, man-made and social disasters, archetype, atrium buildings, eco-ethno-restorations.

For citation: Rodionovskaya I.S., Eskandar Al-Haddad. Renovation approach to restoration of settlements destroyed when social cataclysms in Syria. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 45–50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-45-50 (In Russian).
XIA QING, Architect (xiaqing900520@mail.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoye Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Architectural and Landscape Specifics of the Recreational Environment of China in the Traditions and Novations of Modernity The article is devoted to the necessity of formation of special spaces for recreational leisure of the population in modern architecture. The problem arose due to changes in the environmental conditions of the urban environment and the nature of life of the population in the new modern conditions in Metropolitan areas. It is noted that under the conditions of China, the living environment of the population has always been formed specifically. It is based on the concepts of «Taoism» and «Confucianism», in which the «philosophy of nature» prevails. The article focuses on the aspects that should be implemented in the multistorey and high-rise architecture of modern China in order to optimize the architectural environment and the organization in it, taking into account the ethnic traditions of spaces for recreation. In the Athens Charter in 1933 at the IV Congress of SIAM (International Congresses of Modern Architecture), the international organization of architects, was formed the concept of» recreational environment» as a special functional space, as well as the concept of «space for rest» as compensating human rest in the environment. In fact it, has already begun to be solved by forming an innovative concept of «ARCHITECTURE GREEN», which is an optimization ecological innovation of the modern architecture of the world. In connection with this innovation, the task of modern Chinese architecture has become a stylistic development of appropriate landscape architecture of the interior garden, which seems to be in mini-forms and ethno-traditions of environment design should meet the leading aspects of Chinese culture.

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b>Keywords: ecological construction, recreational space, ecological and recreational space (ERS), interior space, Athens Charter, environment of interiors of «green building», recreational landscape space, ethno-Chinese design, natural components of environment, artificial anthropogenic environment.

For citation: Qing Xia. Architectural and landscape specifics of the recreational environment of Сhina in the traditions and novations of modernity. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 52–57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-52-57 (In Russian).
A.V. MASLYAEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (victor3705@mail.ru) Scientific-Research Seismic Laboratory (27, bldg. A, room 51, Zemlyachki Street,Volgograd, 400117, Russian Federation)

Protection of Life and Health of People – the Main Function of Buildings and Facilities During Earthquake In par. 1 of Art 1 of the Federal Law No. 384-FZ of the Russian Federation “Technical Regulations on the Safety of Buildings and Facilities « the main function of buildings and facilities is the protection of life and health of citizens at dangerous natural and anthropogenic influences. For the normative documents of the Russian Federation of construction content, this means that they must ensure the implementation of this construction normative task. Moreover, Article 26 of the Federal law No. 384-FZ specifies, even specifically, that, for example, during an earthquake «...vibration in a building and structure does not cause harm to human health». This requirement in Art. 26 of the Federal Law № 384-FZ is not accidental, since the level of vibration depends not only on the parameters of the external seismic impact (earthquake), but also on the specific dynamic characteristics of the building, which should always be provided by the designer according to the requirements of Federal regulations of the Russian Federation. But despite these specific requirements in the Federal law № 384-FZ, in the specialty 05.23.01 «Construction designs, buildings and facilities» the main objects of the study are only construction designs, buildings and structures excluding their main function of protecting life and health of citizens at all the likely normative seismic effects, making the erection of construction objects on the territory of Russia in an extremely dangerous occupation. Therefore, it can be recognized that in seismic regions of the Russian Federation in the event of a possible earthquake with the maximum regulatory intensity can be formed numerous destruction of buildings with the death of a large number of people. The article analyzes the content of the specialty 05.23.01 from the standpoint of the requirements of the Federal Law № 384-FZ.

Keywords: protection of life and health of people, structures, buildings, earthquake, vibration, RF Federal Laws, RF regulatory documents.

For citation: Maslyaev A.V. Protection of life and health of people – the main function of buildings and facilities during earthquake. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 69–75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-69-75 (In Russian).
A.A. HOODIN, Candidate of Architecture (hoodin-alex@rambler.ru) Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (65, Ilyinskaya St., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation)

«Contemporary traditionalism» in the Works of the Architect Robert Stern This article is an overview-analytical. It examines the work of one of the leaders of American architecture – Robert Stern. He is both a theorist and a practitioner, which makes it possible to understand the concept of his work on the basis of his theoretical work and architecture ( on the example of country villas and multiapartment urban dwellings) in the USA and Europe. R.Stern’s books and articles about him are practically unknown in Russia, therefore his statements are of interest. R. Stern reveals his understanding of architecture, which opposes the abstract geometry of modernism, and addresses the accounting of the tastes and opinions of the customer, as well as to the peculiarities of the particular design site with due regard for the historical context. Thus, ideas such as contextualism, «contemporary traditionalism» and partial historicism, which interacting with each other, create an individual architecture, become decisive for him. Remaining modern, it evokes associations with traditional forms.

Keywords: style, postmodernism, contextualism, traditionalism, classicism, architecture of dwelling houses, American architecture.

For citation: Hoodin A.A. «Contemporary traditionalism» in the works of the architect Robert Stern. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 58–62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-58=62 (In Russian).
E.G. MALYAVINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (emal@list.ru), A.A. FROLOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (FrolovaAA@mgsu.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (26, Yaroslavskoye Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Selection of Energy-Reasonable Thermal Protection of Office Buildings with Year-Round Maintenance of the Thermal Microclimate The annual energy consumption of the building is greatly influenced by the internal heat gains to the premises. When heating the heat gains play a positive role. During the working day, they compensate part or all of the heat loss. As for cooling, the heat dissipations in the building play a negative role, and the specific need for cold increases with increasing specific heat emissions. The aim of this work was to identify the dependence of the annual heat consumption for heating, as well as the cold for natural and artificial cooling of the building due to various factors, such as the shape of the building and its thermal protection. In the climate of Moscow, for office premises with internal heat emissions, the duration of time is long, when the maintained room temperature is higher than the outside air temperature. Therefore, during the year the load on the natural and artificial cooling systems is less in buildings with the least thermal protection and with less heat gains in the room. It is also interesting that the load on cooling is less when the facade is more glazed, since the thermal protection of the building is reduced, which only confirms the previous thesis (heat gains from solar radiation is usually minimal, since the windows in buildings with cooling are shaded). Than smaller the building volume, moreover at higher heat inputs the lowest energy consumptions during the year are achieved with the greatest insulation. The ratio between the consumption of heat and cold during the year is also important information, as for cooling of the building is spent 3–4 times more primary fuel than for heating.

Keywords: options of heat protection, faсade glazing, heating of building, cooling of building, heat dissipation in premise.

For citation: Malyavina E.G., Frolova A.A. Selection of energy-reasonable thermal protection of office buildings with year-round maintenance of the thermal microclimate. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 63–68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-63-68 (In Russian).
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