Stroitel`nye Materialy №2

Table of contents

V.V. STROKOVA1, Doctor of Science (Engineering); A.M. AIZENSHTADT2, Doctor of Science (Chemistry); M.N. SIVAL’NEVA1, Engineer, V.A. KOBZEV 1, Engineer, V.V. NELUBOVA1 , Candidate of Science (Engineering) (
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (17, Severnaya Dvina Embankment, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation)

Activity Evaluation of Nanostructured Binders with Using Thermodynamic Method* This paper analyzes the process of obtaining nanostructured binder (NB) on the basis of materials of different genetic types. An increase in dispersion of binders aside from their com- position during the process of mechanical activation of the solid phase and the formation of fraction in nanosized range was shown. Effectiveness of the thermodynamic method for estimating the energy state of the materials developed by scientists NArFU to predict the formation of active connections and, as a consequence, the binding properties of the studied materials were confirmed. It was shown that the kinetics of the activity in case of silicate NB has a wavelike nature, alternating extremes of system activity in general. Herein minimum of activity coincides with the reloading of solid phase when grinding, however it is noted that the system is ready for transformation. In the case of the aluminosilicate binder an increase in activity occurs continuously and reaches its maximum during grinding for 10–11 hours.

Keywords: nanostructured binder, Gibbs energy, mechanical activation, silicate, aluminosilicate.

1. Miroshnikov E.V., Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V. A nanostructured perlite binder and foam concrete on its base. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 105–106. (In Russian).
2. Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V. Foam-concrete on the basis of nanostructured binder. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2009. No. 3, pp. 115–119. (In Russian).
3. Pavlenko N.V., Kapusta M.N., Miroshnikov E.V. Features of reinforcement of non-autoclave curing cel- lular concretes based on nanostructured binder. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo univer- siteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2013. No. 1, pp. 33–36. (In Russian).
4. Zhernovskii I.V., Osadchaya M.S., Cherevatova A.V., Strokova V.V. Aluminum-silicate nano-structured binder on the basis of granite raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2. pp. 38–41. (In Russian).
5. Tutygin A.S., Aizenshtadt A.M., Lesovik V.S., Frolo va M.A. Design of compositions of building composites with due regard for thermodynamic compatibility of fine grained systems of rocks. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 74–76. (In Russian). 6. Voitovich E.V., Aizenshtadt A.M. Designing of compos ite gypsum binder compositions using nanostructured silica component (thermodynamic aspect). Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. No. 5. 2014, pp. 16–20. (In Russian).

E.A. KHUDOVEKOVA1, Engineer (; M.S. GARKAVI2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Deputy Chief Engineer for Science and Innovation
1 Magnitogorsk State Technical University named after G.I. Nosov (38, Lenin Avenue, Magnitogorsk, 455000, Russian Federation)
2 ZAO «Ural-Omega» (structure 7, 89, Lenina Avenu, Magnitogorsk, 455037, Chelyabinskaya Oblast, Russian Federation)

Formation of Nanosystems During Slag-Alkaline Binder Hydration
The process of nanosystem forming during interaction alkali activator ions with particles of ground-granulated blast furnance slag have been discussed. The effect of positive and nega- tive hydration of ions on the properties and structure of water solution has been analyzed. Taking into account structural changes of mixing liquid, optimal concentration of activators were selected. It was shown that activators having as a part of ions with negative hydration promote to increase as curing rate and 28-age strength of stone. The strength of samples prepared from GGBFS and KOH solution is 27% higher, then strength of sample on a base of NaOH solution (under normal curing conditions).

Keywords: ground-granulated blast furnance slag, nanosystems, slag structure, slag-alkaline binder, activators, mechanism of hydration.

1. Shi C., Krivenko P.V., Roy D.M. Alkaliactivated ce- ments and concretes. London and New York: Taylor & Francis Publisher. 2006. 376 p.
2. Zhang Z., Provis J., Reid A., Wang H. Geopolymer foam concrete: An emerging material for sustainable construc- tion. Construction and Building Materials. 2014. Vol. 56, pp. 113–127.
3. Zhernovski I.V., Osadchaya M.S., Cherevatova A.V., Strokova V.V. Nanostructured aluminosilicate binder based on granite. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 38–41. (In Russian).
4. Shkolnik Y.A. Structure and hydration activity sulfide containing slag. Doc. Diss. (Engineering). Moscow. 1999. 276 p. (In Russian).
5. Panfilov M.I. Pererabotka shlakov I bezothodnaya tekh- nologiya v metallurgii [Recycling waste and non-waste tech- nology in metallurgy]. Moscow: Metallurgy. 1987. 238 p.
6. Vernigorova V.N., Sadenko D.S., Ulyanov V.V. About the mechanism of alkali activated slag cement. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 2, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
7. Sychev M.M. Neorganicheslie klei [Inorganic adhesives]. Leningrad: Chemistry. 1986. 152 p.
8. Krivenko P.V. The mechanism and kinetics of structure formation in low-basic alkaline cementitious systems. Cement. 1993. No. 4–5, pp. 27–31. (In Russian).
9. Yuan B. Investigation on the activating effect of Na2CO3 and NaOH on slag. Non-Traditional Cement & Concrete V Proceedings of the International Symposium. Brno. 2014. Vol. 1, pp. 301–305.
10. Artamonova A.V., Voronin K.M. Slag-alkaline binders based on blast furnace slag centrifugal impact grinding. Cement i ego primenenie. 2011. No. 4, pp. 108–113. (In Russian).
11. Buchachenko A.L. Nanochemistry – a direct path to the high technology of the new century. Uspekhi khimii. 2003. Vol. 75. No. 5, pp. 419–437. (In Russian).
12. Mishchenko K.P., Ravdel A. Kratkii spravochnic fiziko- khimicheskih velichin [Quick Reference of physico- chemical variables]. Leningrad: Khimiya. 1974. 200 p.
13. Zolotov Y., Dorokhova B.N., Fadeev V.I. Osnovi anal- iticheskoi khimii [Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola.1996. 383 p.
14. Mishchenko K.P., Poltoratsky G.M. Termodinamika i stroenie vodnih i nevodnih rastvorov electrolitov [Thermodynamics and structure of water and non-aqueous electrolyte solutions]. Leningrad: Chemistry. 1976. 328 p.
15. Benz D.P. Additives compounds of lithium, potassium and sodium. Cement i ego primenenie. 2011. No. 4, pp. 82–88. (In Russian).

G.D. FEDOROVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, G.N. ALEXANDROV, Undergraduate, S.A. SMAGULOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics) North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk (58, Belinskogo Street, Yakutsk, 677000, Russian Federation)

Research of Stability of Water Suspension of Graphene Oxide One of new regulation techniques of concrete mixes and concretes behaviors management of structurization of cement concrete on a nanolevel. To open the nature of structure manage- ment of cement matrix on a nanolevel for the purpose of receiving composites of new generation, it is necessary to combine efforts of different professions experts. For this reason, considering that in «Graphene Nanotechnologies» laboratory of North-Eastern Federal University graphene oxide is received, in this work the task was to establish prospects of carrying out researches on modification of cement matrix by graphene oxide. Prospects of graphene oxide use as modifier of a cement matrix are shown in the article. Results of sizes measure- ment of graphene oxide nanosheets and also results of assessment of stability of water suspension of graphene oxide are given.

Keywords: cement, matrix, nanomodifier, graphene oxide, size, water suspension, optical density, colloidal stability.

1. Pajakkala P. Outlook for construction and cement use until 2025 in the EU, the USA and Russia. ALITinform. 2014. No. 01 (33), pp. 6–11. (In English).
2. Kaprielov S.S., Sheinfel'd A.V., Kardumyan G.S. Novye modifitsirovannye betony [New modified concretes]. Moscow: «Paradiz». 2010. 238 p.
3. Каlashnikov V.I., Gulayeva Е.V. The effect of type and dosage of superplasticizer on rheotehnological properties cement slurries, concrete mixes and powder-activated concretes. Cement i ego primenenie. 2012. No. 3–4, pp. 66–68. (In Russian).
4. Nesvetaev G.V., Davidyuk А.N., Hetagurov B.А. Self- compacting concrete: some of the factors determining the fluidity of the mixture. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 3, pp. 54–57. (In Russian).
5. Bazhenov Y.М., Demyanova V.S., Каlashnikov V.I. Modifitsirovannye vysokokachestvennye betony368 p.
6. Makar J.M., Margeson J.C., Luh J. Carbon nanotube/ cement composites – early results and potential applications. 3 rd International Conference on Construction Materials: Performance, Innovation and Structural Implications. Vancouver B.C. 2005. August 22–24, pp. 1–10.
7. Li G.Y., Wang P.M., Zhao X. Mechanical behavior and microstructure of cement composites incorporating surface-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Carbon. 2005. Vol. 43, pp. 1239–1245.
8. Metaxa Z.S., Konsta-Gdoutos M.S., Shah S.P. Carbon nano reinforced concrete. ACI Special Publications Nanotechnology of Concrete: The Next Big Thing is Small SP. 2009. Vol. 267. No. 2, pp. 11–20.
9. Shah S.P., Konsta-Gdoutos M.S., Metaxa Z.S., Mon- dal P. Nanoscale modification of cementitious mate- rials. Nanotechnology in Construction. 2009. No. 3, pp. 125–130.
10. Yakovlev G. I., Pervushin G. N., Korzhenko A., etc. Modification of cement concretes with multilayer carbon nanotubes. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 47–51. (In Russian).
11. Tolchkov Y.N., Mikhalev Z.A., Tkachev A.G., Po- pov A.I. Modification of construction materials by carbon nanotubes: actual directions of working out of industrial technologies. Nanotechnologii v stroitel’stve: scientific Internet magazine. 2012. No. 6, pp. 57–66. (
12. Fedorova G.D., Savvina A.E., Yakovlev G.I. Estimation of the multifunctional modifier of PFM-NLK concrete as surfactantat carbon nanotubes dispersion. Stroitel'- nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 48–51. (In English).
13. Fedorova G.D., Mestnikov V.V., Matveeva O.I., Nikolaev E.P. Features of high-strength concrete creation for concreting of monlitthic constructions in the far north conditions. Procedia Engineering. 2013. No. 57, pp. 264–269.
14. Aleksandrov G.N., Fedorova G.D. Microscopic research of multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersion. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 25–32. (In English).
15. Fakhim Babak, Hassani Abolfazl, Rashidi Alimorad, Ghodousi Parviz. Preparation and mechanical properties of graphene oxide: cement nanocomposites. The Scientific World Journal. 2014. Article ID 276323 (http://dx.doi. org/10.1155/2014/276323)
16. Ahmadreza Sedaghat, Manoj K. Ram, A. Zayed, Rajeev Kamal, Natadia Shanahan. Investigation of Physical Properties of Graphene-Cement Composite for Structural Applications. Open Journal of Composite Materials. 2014. No. 4, pp. 12–21 (http://dx.doi. org/10.4236/ojcm.2014.41002)
17. Graphene oxide reinforced cement. (http://www.
18. Shenghua Lv, Yujuan Ma, Chaochao Qiu, Ting Sun, Jingjing Liu, Qingfang Zhou. Effect of graphene oxide nanosheets of microstructure and mechanical properties of cement composites. Construction and Building Materials. 2013. Vol. 49, pp. 121–127 (http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.08.022)
19. Dreyer D.R., Park S., Bielawski W., Ruoff R.S. The chemistry of graphene oxide. Chemical society reviews. 2010. Vol. 39, pp. 228–240.
20. Chun-Hua Lu, Huang-Hao Yang, Chun-Ling Zhu, Xi Chen, and Guo-Nan Chen. A graphene platform for sensing biomolecules. Angewandte Chemie. 2009. Vol 48, pp. 4785–4787. (http://www.physics.purdue.ed

V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, L.А. ABDRAKHMANOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, R.К. NIZAMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Common Concentration Pattern of Effects of Construction Materials Nanomodification * The article covers the results of experimental researches of nanomodification of different types of construction materials: polymer materials (PVC, epoxides), ceramics, Portland cement, bitumen-polymer binders with industrial nanoproduct concentrates and premixes, containing carbon nanotubes, metal-carbon composites, and silica sols. The definite («acute») extreme dependence of technological, performance and technical properties on the concentration of nanoadmixtures is established: the peak values of indices of materials are attained at 0,001–0,01 wt. %. The dependence has a general character.

Keywords: nanotechnologies, nanomodifiers, PVC, ceramics, epoxy polymers, bitumen-polymer binders, CNT, silica sol.

1. Korolev E.V. Nanotechnology in material science. Analysis of achievements and current state. Ways of de- velopment. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Mate- rials]. 2014. No. 11, pp. 47–79. (In Russian).
2. Van Krevelen D.V. Svoistva i chimicheskoye sostoyaniye polimerov [Properties and chemical state of polymers]. Moscow: Chimiya. 1976. 416 p.
3. Askadskii А.А., Matveev Yu.N. Chimicheskoye stroeniye i phizicheskiye svoistva polymerov [Polymer structure and physical properties of polymers]. Moscow: Chimiya. 1983. 248 p.
4. Bazhenov Yu.M., Korolev E.V. Estimation of technical and economic efficiency of nanotechnologies in building materiology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 6, pp. 66–67. (In Russian).
5. Gusev A.I. Nanomaterialy, nanostructury, nanotechno loguii [Nanomaterials, nanostructures, nanotechnolo- gies]. Moscow: Phizmatlit. 2005. 416 p.
6. Khozin V.G. Usileniye epoksidnych polimerov [Strengthening of epoxy polymers]. Kazan: Dom Pechati. 2004. 446 p. (In Russian).
7. Komokhov P.G Sol-gel as a conception of the cement com posite nanotechnology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 9, pp. 14–15. (In Russian).
8. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzhenko A.A., Burianov A.F., Pudov I.A., Lushnikova A.A. Modification of cement concretes with multilayer carbon nanotubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 47–51. (In Russian).
9. Khozin V.G., Nizamov R.K. Polymer nanocomposites for construction purpose. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 8, pp. 32–35. (In Russian).
10. Mikhailov Yu.A. Polymer nanocomposite materials. Polymer materials. 2009. No. 7, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
11. AshrapovA.Kh., Abdrakhmanova L.A. Nizamov R.K., Khozin V.G. Research of PVC compound with carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnologies in Construction: Scientific Internet Journal. 2011. No. 3, pp. 13–24. (http://www.
12. Burnashev A.I., Asrapov A.Kh., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Nizamov R.K. Using of the nanomodified polyvinylchlo- ride in wood-polymer composite’s receipt. Izvestiya KSUAE. 2013. No. 2 (24), pp. 226–232. (In Russian).
13. Khozin V.G., Starovoitova I.A., Maisuradze N.V., Zykova E.S., Khalikova R.A. Korzhenko, А.А., Trinee- va V.V., Yakovlev. G.I. Nanomodification of polymer binders for constructional composites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 4–10. (In Russian). м14. Bogdanov A.N., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Khozin V.G. Modification of clay mass by plasticizing admixtures. High technologies and innovations – XXI scientific confer- ence: Proceedings of the anniversary international scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 60th anniversary of BSTU named after V.G. Shukhov. Belgorod. 2014. pp. 46–49. (In Russian).
15. Ayupov D.A., Murafa A.V., Khakimullin Yu.N., Maka rov D.B., Kharitonov V.A. Bitumen-polymer bindings for building. Polymers in construction: scientific Internet journal. 2014. No. 2, pp. 27–35. (http://polymer.kgasu. ru). (In Russian).
K.A. SARAIKINA1, Master of Engineering and Technology in Construction (; V.A. GOLUBEV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); G.I. YAKOVLEV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (; S.A. SEN’KOV1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (; A.I. POLITAEVA 2, Undergraduate
1 Perm State National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolskiy Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)

Nanostructuring of Cement Stone at Disperse Reinforcing with Basalt Fiber Cement concrete is the most widely distributed material in the present construction. But this composite is characterized by a series of negative parameters, low ultimate tensile strains are among them. To improve their performance and also to increase the resistance to abrasion, chilling, and impact actions it is possible to apply various techniques, disperse reinforcement of the cement matrix with basalt fiber is the most prospective method among them. To increase the resistance of basalt fiber to a strongly alkali environment a hypothesis about the reasonabili- ty to introduce the dispersion of modified carbon nanotubes (MCNT) into the mix has been put forward. Results of the microscopic analysis of the structure of cement-sand mortar in the course of joint introduction of basalt fibers and MCNT dispersion are presented; they show that, despite the lack of homogeneity of the MCNT dispersion, a dense new growth is crystallized, the adhesion of the cement stone with basalt fiber is improved, and shrinkage cracks are reduced in the zone of the contact of cement stone, basalt fiber, and nanotubes.

Keywords: disperse reinforcement, basalt fiber, carbon nanotubes, modification, shrinking deformations.

1. Rabinovich F.N. Kompozity na osnove dispersno armirovannykh betonov. Voprosy teorii i proektirovaniya, tekhnologiya, konstruktsii: monografiya [Composites based on fiber concrete. Theory and design, technology, construction: monograph]. Moscow: ASV. 2004. 560 p.
2. Alekseev L.L. Innovatsionnye tekhnologii i materialy v stroitel'noi industrii [Innovative technologies and materials in the construction industry]. Angarsk: AGTA. 2010. 104 p.
3. Kalugin I.G. Dispersed reinforcement of cellular concrete basalt fiber. Polzunovskii al'manakh. 2009. No. 3. Vol. 2, pp. 37–39. (In Ruassian).
4. Bin Wei, Hailin Cao, Shenhua Song Tensile behavior contrast of basalt and glass fibers after chemical treatment. Materials and Design. 2010. No. 31, pp. 4244–4250.
5. Gutnikov S.I. Effect of aluminum oxide on the basic properties of basalt glasses and fibers on their basis. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Moscow. 2009. 127 p.
6. Batalin B.S., Saraykina K.A.The study of the interaction of cement stone with fiberglass. Steklo i keramika. 2014. No. 8, pp. 37–40. (In Russian).
7. Saraykina K.A., Semkova E.N., Golubev V.A. Alkali basalt fiber and how to improve. Vestnik PNIPU. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura. 2012. No. 1, pp. 185–192. (In Russian).
8. Knotko A.V., Meledin A.A., Garshev A.V., Putlyaev V.I. Modification of surface layer of basalt fibre for improvement of corrosion resistance in fibre-cement composites. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9. pp. 89–93. (In Russian).
9. Knotko A.V., Meledin A.A., Garshev A.V., Putlyaev V.I. The process of ion exchange at the surface treatment of basaltic glass. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 75–77. (In Russian).
10. Fiziko-mekhanicheskie osnovy kompozitsii neorgani- cheskoe vyazhushchee – steklovolokno [Physical and mechanical basics of composition of inorganic binders– fiberglass]. Ed. Pashchenko A.A. Kiev: Vysshaya shkola. 1979. 224 p.
11. Saraykina K.A., Golubev V.A., Yakovlev G.I. Structuring of cement stone on the surface of the reinforcing fibers of basalt. Intellektual'nye sistemy v proizvodstve. 2014. No. 2 (24), pp. 203–207. (In Russian).
12. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Keren Ya., Machulaytis R., Pudov I.A., Polyanskikh I.S., Senkov S.A., Politae- va A.I., Gordin A.F., Shaybadullina A.V. Nanostruk- turirovanie kompozitov v stroitel'nykh materialakh: monografiya [Nanostructuring of composites in construction materials: monography]. Ed. Yakovlev G.I. Izhevsk: IzhSTU. 2014. 196 p.

Will It Be Possible to Reduce Expenditures for Education and Successfully Implement the Strategy of Innovative Development of Russia?
E.A. KARPOVA1, Master Student, ALI ELSAED MOHAMED1, Ph. D. Student; G. SKRIPKI – UNAS2, Professor; Ja. KERIENE2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); A. KI AITE 2, Assoc. Prof; G.I. YAKOVLEV1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (; M. MACIJAUSKAS2, Ph. D. Student, I.A. PUDOV 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); E.V. ALIEV1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.A. SEN’KOV3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)
2 Gediminas Vilnius Technical University (11, Saul etekio al., LT–10223, Vilnius, Lithuania)
3 Perm State National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolskiy Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation) Modification of Сement Сoncrete by use of Сomplex Additives Based on the Polycarboxylate Ether, Carbon Nanotubes and Microsilica The use of complex modifiers based on polycarboxylate plasticizers and carbon nanostructures is becoming increasingly popular in modern materials science. The influence of complex additives on the rheological characteristics of cement paste and as well on the physico-mechanical characteristics of heavy concrete is described in this paper. The presence of multi- walled carbon nanotubes in DC-5 additive contributes to better compaction of the concrete structures, but insufficient dispersing of nanotubes in the carboxylate medium and the het- erogeneity of their distribution in the cement matrix reduce their effectiveness. Using the complex additive with DC-5 and MS-85 microsilica results in additional compaction of the cement matrix structure with calcium hydrosilicates, thus improving the mechanical properties of the modified concrete.

Keywords: concrete, cement paste, complex modifier, carbon nanostructures, rheological properties.

1. Lasman I.A., Vasyunina S.V., Dunin A.V. Effectiveness of applying plasticizing additives in producing concrete mortars and concretes. Tekhnologii betonov. 2012. No. 1–2, pp. 16–17. (In Russian)/
2. Dauk ys M., Skipki unas G., Ivanauskas E. Microsilica and plasticizing admixtures influence on cement slurry dilatancy. Materials Science (Med iagotyra). 2008. Vol. 14. No. 2, pp. 143–150.
3. Dauk ys M., Skipki unas G., Janavi ius E. Complex influ- ence of plasticizing admixtures and sodium silicate solu- tion on rheological properties of Portland cement paste. Materials Science (Med iagotyra). 2009. Vol. 15. No. 4, pp. 349–355.
4. Smirnova O.M. Dependency of strength of concrete based on polycarboxylate on the properties of Portland cement after low-temperature steam curing. Izvestiya vu- zov. Stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 9, pp. 20–27. (In Russian).
5. Zhdanov R.B., Manukyan A.V. Influence of plasticizing additive on rheological properties of cement system. Youth and Science: information package of VIII All-Russian scientific and technological conference of students, post graduate students and young scientists devoted to155th an- niversary of K.E. Tsiolkovsky’s birthday [Electronic re source]. Krasnoyarsk. 2012. ( sites/mn2012/section35.html, Date of access 28.01.2015). (In Russian).
6. Bogdanov R.R., Ibragimov R.A., Izotov V.S. The study of influence of hyper- and superplasticizers on the main properties of cement paste. Izvestiya KSUAE. 2013. No. 2 (24), pp. 221–225. (In Russian).
7. Pukharenko Y.V., Staroverov V.D. Role of complex addi tives in producing durable cement composites. Scientific electronic archive ( Date of access 10.01.2015). (In Russian).
8. Nizina T.A., Kochetkov S.N., Ponomaryov A.N., Kozeyev A.A. Influence of nanomodified polycarboxylate plasticizers on the strength and rheological properties of cement composites. Collection of abstracts of the fifth an- nual conference of Nanotechnological Society of Russia. Moscow. 2013, pp. 145–148. (In Russian).
Yudovich M.E. The study of possibility of modification of carboxylate plasticizers in modified fine concrete mor- tars. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2012. No. 8 (34), pp. 42–46. (In Russian).
10. Ledenev V.V., Yartsev V.P., Strulev S.A., Odnolko V.G. Influence of nanomodification on the strength and flow ability of concretes and development of foam nanocon crete. Voprosy sovremennoi nauki i praktiki. 2012. No. 37 (1), pp. 24–29. (In Russian).
11. WO 2014/080144A1. Method for producing a master mix ture based on carbonaceous nanofillers and superplasticiser and the use there of in hardenable inorganic systems. Korzhenko A., Nincendeau Ch., Lushnikova A., Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N. Declared 25.11.2013. Published 30.05.2014.
A.I. POLITAEVA1, Bachelor (; N.I. ELISEEVA2, Engineer (; G.I. YAKOVLEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, G.N. PERVUSHIN 1, Doctor Sciences (Engineering); JI Í HAVRÁNEK2, CSc.; O.Yu. MIKHAILOVA1, Master
1 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Komplekt» (20, 50 let Pionerii Street, Izhevsk, 426033, Russian Federation)
3 STACHEMA CZ s.r.o. (Hasi ská 1, 280 02, Kolín-Zibohlavy, Czech Republic)

Role of Silica Fume in Formation of Cement Matrix Structure and Efflorescence in Vibrocompressed Products This study investigates the causes and the mechanism of efflorescence on the surface of vibrocompressed products. It has been found that the main reason for the formation of efflo- rescence on the surface of vibrocompressed products is unbound calcium hydroxide in the composition of concrete. In order to reduce efflorescence dispersed silica fume is added to cement matrix in the amount of up to 8% from the weight of Portland cement. It is shown that silica fume densifies the structure of vibrocompressed products due to the binding of free calcium hydroxide with the formation of extra content of calcium hydrosilicates, thus, preventing efflorescence on the surface of molded products.

Keywords: calcium hydrosilicates, calcium hydroxide, efflorescence, microstructure, silica fume.

1. M. Peck, D. Bosold, Т. Richter. Ausbluhungen. Zement- Merkblatt Betontechnik. 2013. Vol. 27. (http://www.vdz- Zementmerkblaetter/B27.pdf date of access 26.08.2014).
2. Fressel' F. Remont vlazhnykh i povrezhdennykh solyami stroitel'nykh sooruzhenii [Repair wet and damaged salts of building structures]. Moscow: Peint-Media. 2006. 320 p.
3. Yakovlev G., Gailyus A. Salt corrosion of ceramic brick. Glass and Ceramics. 2005. Vol. 62 (9–10), pp. 321–323.
4. Inchik V.V. Salt corrosion brickwork. Stroitel'nye Mate rialy [Construction Materials]. 2001. No. 8, pp. 35–37. (In Russian).
5. Bolte G., Dienemann W. Efflorescence on concrete products – causes and strateqies for avoidance. ZKG International. 2004. Vol. 57 (9), pp. 78–86.
6. Singh L.P., Bhattacharyya S.K., Shah S.P., Mishra G., Ahalawat S., Sharma U.. Studies on early stage hydration of tricalcium silicate incorporating silica nanoparticles: Part I. Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 74, pp. 278–286.
7. Quercia G., Lazaro A., Geus J.W., Brouwers H.J.H. Characterization of morphology and texture of several amorphous nano-silica particles used in concrete. Cement & Concrete Composites. 2013. Vol. 44, pp. 77–92.
8. Pengkun Hou, Jueshi Qian, Xin Cheng, Surendra P. Shah. Effects of the pozzolanic reactivity of nano SiO2 on cement-based materials. Cement & Concrete Composites. 2015. Vol. 55, pp. 250–258.
9. Hou P., Cheng X., Qian J., Zhang R., Cao W., Shah S.P. Characteristics of surface-treatment of nano-SiO2 on the transport properties of hardened cement pastes with different water-to-cement ratios. Cement & Concrete Composites. 2015. Vol. 55, pp. 26–337.
10. Singh L.P., Karade S.R., Bhattacharyya S.K., Yousuf M.M., Ahalawat S. Beneficial role of nanosilica in cement based materials. Construction and Building Materials. Vol. 47, pp. 1069–1077.
11. Grangeon S., Claret F., Lerouge C., Warmont F., Sato T., Anraku S., Numako C., Linard Y., Lanson B. On the nature of structural disorder in calcium silicate hydrates with a calcium/silicon ratio similar to tobermorite. Cement and Concrete Research. 2013. Vol. 52, pp. 31–37.
12. Merlin A. Etzold, Peter J. McDonald, Alexander F. Routh. Growth of sheets in 3D confinements – a model for the C–S–H meso structure. Cement and Concrete Research. 2014. Vol. 63, pp. 137–142.
13. Papatzani S., Paine K., Calabria-Holley J. A compre hensive review of the models on the nanostructure of calcium silicate hydrates. Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 74, pp. 219–234.
14. Laukaitis А., Kerien . e J., Kligys M., Mikulskis D., Lek unait e L. Influence of Amorphous Nanodispersive SiO2 additive on structure formation and properties of autoclaved aerated concrete. Materials Science (Med iagotyra). 2010. Vol. 16 (3), pp. 257–263.
15. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Kerene Ya., ets. Nanostrukturirovanie kompozitov v stroitel'nom materialovedenii: monografiya [Nanostructuring of composites in construction materials]. Izhevsk: Izhevsk State Technical University. 2014. 196 p.
16. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Keriene Ja., Poliyans kich I.S., Pudov I.A., Chazeev D.R., Senkov S.A. Complex additive based on carbon nanotubes and silica fume for modifying autoclaved aerated gas silicate. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
17. Gorshkov V.S., Savel'ev V.G., Abakumov A.V. Vyazhushchie, keramika i steklokristallicheskie materialy: struktura i svoistva: spravochnoe posobie [Binders, ceramics and glassy-crystalline materials: structure and properties]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1994. 584 p.

YU.V. TOKAREV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, D.V. GOLOVIN1, Master of 2 course (; A.F. BURYANOV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); HUIGANG XIAO3 , Ph.D., TAO DU3, Graduate Student 1st year
1 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
3 Harbin Institute of Technology, (92 Xidazhi Street, Nangang, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China, 150001) On Influence Mechanism of Magnesite-Based Active Additives and Carbon Nanotubes on Structure and Properties of Anhydrite Binder The substantiation of the necessity to use a complex of additives to improve properties of anhydrite binder and influence mechanism on structure with the help of methods of quantum- chemical modeling and physical-chemical analysis is given. Particles of dispersed magnesite act as crystallization centers, along the surface of which crystalline hydrates of calcium sul- fate dihydrate are formed, and they also contribute to structuring of anhydrite matrix increasing the durability up to 100% at optimal additive content of 3%. Based on the results of IR-spectra, carbon nanotubes have much more influence on calcium sulfate dihydrate structure than caustic magnesite. The more compact and durable structure with the increased durability characteristics up to 150% in comparison with reference composition with optimal concentration of carbon nanotubes – 0,001% and magnesite – 3% is formed during joint use of additives.

Keywords: anhydrite, magnesite, carbon nanotubes, microstructure.

1. Shakhmenko G., Juhnevica I., Korjakins A. Influence of sol-gel nanosilica on hardening processes and physicallymechanical properties of cement paste. Procedia Engineering. 2013. No. 57, pp. 1013–1021.
2. Starovoitova I.A., Khozin V.G., Korzhenko A.A., Khalikova R.A., Zykova E.S. Structure formation in organicinorganic binders modified by concentrates of multiwall carbon nanotubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 12–20. (In Russian).
3. Siddique R., Mehta A. Effect of carbon nanotubes on properties of cement mortars. Construction and Building Materials. 2014. No. 50, pp. 116–129.
4. Setina J., Gabrene A., Juhnevica I. Effect of pozzolanic additives on structure and chemical durability of concrete. Procedia Engineering. 2013. No. 57, pp. 1005– 1012.
5. Inozemtsev A.S., Korolev E.V. Structure formation and properties of constructional high-duty light concretes with the application of nanomodifier BisNanoActivus. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 33–37. (In Russian).
6. Trunilova D.S., Garkavi M.S., Shlenkina S.S. Features of anhydrite hardening in the presence of lime and asbestos. Vestnik of SUSU. 2010. No. 15, pp. 54–55. (In Russian).
7. Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Voitovich E.V. Features of phase-formation in composite nanostructured gypsum binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 9–13. (In Russian).
8. Tokarev Yu.V., Yakovlev G.I., Buryanov A.F. Anhydrite compositions modified by ultradispersed additive based on MgO. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 17–24. (In Russian).
9. Izryadnova O.V., Yakovlev G.I., Polyanskikh I.S., Fischer H.-B., Senkov S.A. Change in the morphology of crystalline hydrates when introducing ultra- and nanodispersed structure modifiers into gypsum-cement-pozzolanic binders. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 25–28. (In Russian).
10. Ye Qing, Zhang Zenan, Kong Deyu, Chen Rongshen. Influence of nano-SiO2 addition on properties of hardened cement paste as compared with silica fume. Construction and Building Materials. 2007. Vol. 21, pp. 539–545.
11. Sychev M.M. Neorganicheskie klei [Inorganic glues]. Leningrad: Chimiya. 1974. 160 p.
12. Chen S.J., Collins F.G., Macleod A.J.N., Pan Z., Duan W.H., Wang C.M. Carbon nanotube–cement composites: A retrospect. Civil&Structural Engineering. 2011. Vol. 4. No. 4, pp. 254–265.
13. Bobryshev A.N., Kozomazov V.N., Avdeev R.I., Solomatov V.I. Sinergetika dispersno-napolnennych kompositov [Synergetics of disperse-filled composites]. Moscow: TSKT. 1999. 252 p.

O.V. IZRYADNOVA, Master of Engineering and Technology in Construction (, S.V. SYCHUGOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.S. POLYANSKIKH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), G.N. PERVUSHIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), G.I. YAKOVLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426000, Russian Federation)

Polyfunctional Admixture Based on Carbon Nanotubes and Nanosilica for Enhancing Physical and Mechanical Properties of Gypsum Cement Pozzolanic Binder The paper studies the influence of polyfunctional admixture based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersion in combination with nanosilica (NS) on the structure and properties of gypsum cement pozzolanic binder (GCPB). The percentage of polyfunctional admixture varied. The results of the physical and mechanical tests have shown that adding polyfunctional admixture at the amount of 0,006% (MWCNT) and 10% of NS-85 from Portland cement to gypsum cement system leads to the increase of compressive strength by 52% and water resistance by 35%. Physical and chemical methods of the study have confirmed that polyfunctional admixture is reactive concerning the original gypsum cement pozzolanic binder changing the intensity and shifts of the absorption lines in the IR spectra.

Keywords: gypsum cement pozzolanic binder, polyfunctional admixture, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, dispersion, nanosilica, crystalline hydrates, morphology.

1. Volzhenskii A.V., Stambulko V.I., Ferronskaya A.V. Gipsotsementno-putstsolanovye vyazhushchie, betony i izdeliya [Gypsum cement-pozzolanic binders, concrete and products]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1971. 318 p.
2. Ferronskaya A.V. Dolgovechnost’ gipsovykh materialov, izdelii i konstruktsii [Durability of gypsum materials, components and structures] Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1984. 256 p.
3. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Maeva I.S., Korzhenko A., Buryanov A.F., Machyulaytis R. Modification of anhydrite compositions with multilayer carbon nanotubes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 7, pp. 25–27. (In Russian).
4. Frias M., Rodriguez O., Sanchez de Rojas M.I. Paper sludge, an environmentally sound alternative source of MK-based cementitious materials. A review. Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 74, pp. 37–48.
5. Hela R., Marsalova J. Possibilities of nanotechnology in concrete. Nanotechnology for environmentally friendly and sustainable construction: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference. Cairo (Egypt). March 14–17, 2010, pp. 8–15. (In Russian).
6. Izryadnova O.V., Gordina A.F., Yakovlev G.I., Fisher Kh.-B. Regulation of crystalline morphology in the structure of gypsum matrix ultra- and nano-dispersed additives. Izvestiya KGASU. 2014. No. 3 (29), pp. 108–113. (In Russian).
7. Brykov A. S., Kamaliev R.T., Mokeev M.V. Influence of ultrafine silica on the hydration of Portland cement. Zhurnal prikladnoi khimii. 2010. Vol. 83. No. 2, pp. 211– 216. (In Russian).
8. Patent WO2012085445 A1. D’introduction de nanocharges carbonees dans un inorganique durcissable / Gaillard P., Havel M., Korzhenko A., Oreshkin D.V. Pervuchin G.N., Yakovlev G.I. Declared 20.12.1011. Published 28.06.12. Bulletin 12/25.
9. Pudov I.A. Nanomodification Portland cement aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes. Diss ... Cand. (Engineering). Kazan. 2013. 185 p.
10. Izryadnova O.V., Plekhanov T.A., Sychugov S.V., Shayhalislamova A.F., Nureyev L.Z., Hrushkova N.V. Nanodisperse complex influence of additives on the physical and mechanical properties of gypsum cementpozzolan binder. Collection of scientific works of the International Scientific and Technical Conference «Youth and knowledge – a guarantee of success» Kursk. 2014, pp. 140–143. (In Russian).
11. Izryadnova O.V., Maeva I.S. Influence of nano-dispersed modifiers on the structure of gypsum composite. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference of graduate students, undergraduates and young scientists «Young scientists – to accelerate scientific and technological progress in the XXI century» Izhevsk. 2011, pp. 13–16. (In Russian).
12. Izryadnova O.V., Yakovlev G.I., Polyanskikh I.S., Fisher H.-B., Senkov S.A. Change of morphology of crystal hydrates at incorporation of ultra- and nano disperse modifiers structures into gypsum cement-pozzolana binders. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 25–27. (In Russian).
13. Zinyuk R.Yu., Balykov A.G., Gavrilenko I.B., Shevyakov A.M. Ik-spektroskopiya v neorganicheskoi tekhnologii [IR-spectroscopy inorganic technology]. M.-L.: Khimiya, 1983. 160 p.
14. Gorshkov V.S., Timashev V.V., Savel’ev V.G. Metody fiziko-khimicheskogo analiza vyazhushchikh veshchestv [Methods of physic-chemical analysis of binders]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 1981. 197 p.
15. Nakomoto K. IK-spektry i spektry KR neorganicheskikh i koordinatsionnykh soedinenii [Infrared and raman spectra of inorganic and coordination compounds]. Moscow: Mir, 1991. 536 p.
16. Naser Gharehbash, Alireza Shakeri. Modification of the surface of silica nanoparticles; studying its structure and thermal properties in order to strengthen it in preparing Nano composites. Journal of American Science. 2013. No. 9 (4), pp. 602–606.

M. R. NURTDINOV, Еngineer, V.G. SOLOVYEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (, A.F. BURYANOV, Doctor of Science es (Engineering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (129337, Moscow, 26 Yaroslavskoe sh.)

Fine Concretes Modified with AlOOH and Al2O3 Nanofibers The article discusses the prospects and features of application of the nano-fibers from AlOOH and γ, δ-Al2O3 in fine concrete. Showed the results experimental studies to determine the properties of fine concretes with the addition of nanofibers in an amount of 3,8 and 13% by weight of the binder. Determined the influence on the properties of fine concrete mixtures by different content of nanofibers. Maximal effect from introducing nanofibers into fine concretes affects on elastic modulus, whose value is increased from 18,3 GPa to 40,9 GPa, depend- ing on the dosage of the additive. Found that the introduction of 8% nanofibers by weight of the binder causes a decrease in strength characteristics due to the increased porosity of the composites, and only entering 13% of the fibers increases the strength characteristics on 25%.

Keywords: fine concrete, elastic modulus, porosity, strength characteristics, AlOOH and γ, δ-Al2O3 nanofibers.

1. Kienskaya K.I., Kuzovkova A.A., Marchenko I.N. Synthesis and some of the applications hydrosols boehm ite. Nauchnye vedomosti. Estestvennye nauki. 2014. No. 3 (174). Issue 26, pp. 123–127. (In Russian).
2. Solovyev V.G., Bur’yanov A.F., Elsuf’eva M.S. Features of the production of steel fibre concrete products and designs. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 18–21. (In Russian).
3. Kochanov D.I. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for engineering: current status and prospects of application. Armaturostroenie. 2011. No. 4 (73), pp. 55–61. (In Russian).
4. Falikman V.R., Sobolev K.G. Plenty of room beyond, or how nanotechnology can change the world of concrete. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: nauchnyi internet-zhurnal. 2010. No. 6. Vol. 2, pp. 17–31. http://www.nanobuild. ru/ru_RU/journal/Nanobuild_6_2010_RUS.pdf (date of access 24.12.2014). (In Russian).
5. Campillo A. Guerrero J.S., Dolado A., Porro J.A., Ibanez S., Goni. Improvement of initial mechanical strength by nanoalumina in belite cements. Materials Letters. 2007. Vol. 61, pp. 1889–1892.
6. Elsuf’eva M.S., Solovyev V.G., Bur’yanov A.F. The use of expanding additives in steel fiber concrete. Stroitel’ nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 60–63. (In Russian).

A.N. GRISHINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), E.V. KOROLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) ( Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation) Effectivness of Cement Composite Nanomodification with Nanoscale Barium Hydrosilicates

Nanoscale modification of building materials often leads to significant improvement of operational properties. To obtain apparent and stable nanomodification effect for composites with inhomogeneous structure (cement, gypsum and similar matrices) it is necessary to eliminate defects on different spatial levels. It is evident that to increase the effectiveness of nanoscale additives it is necessary to reduce the amount of capillaries and large macropores in material. The necessary preliminary operation is the optimization of structure at micro scale level. Only after such stage the nanomodification should be performed. The applicability of such approach was examined with the most used binder which is subject to further nanomodification – portland cement, and also with the binder composition, which is the mixture of portland cement optimally matched with the mineral additive based on micro-scale reactive barium hydrosilicates (with diameter d ~ 6 mm) of the composition BaO·SiO2·6H2O. The composition of the nanoscale additives with barium hydrosilicates was obtained in dilute solutions by means of low-temperature sol-gel synthesis. It is shown that total porosity of the material significantly changes due to of the decrease in the proportion of macro- scale pores. The variation in pore size distribution is examined and the effect of nanoscale modification on the structural parameters of the pore space is established. Examination of the strength of the obtained artificial stone confirms the assumption that composites which are optimized at all structural levels possess higher properties.

Keywords: nanomodification, barium hydrosilicates, building materials.

1. Korolev E.V. Principle of realization of nanotechnology in constructional material science. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 60–64. (In Russian).
2. Korolev E.V. Estimation of nanoscale components con centration for modification of constructional composites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 6, pp. 31–34. (In Russian).
3. Dvorkin L.I., Dvorkin L.O. Osnovi betonovedeniya [Concrete science]. St. Petersburg. 2006. 690 p.
4. Grishina A.N., Korolev E.V., Satyukov A.B. Radiation protective composite binder extended with barium hy drosilicates. Advanced Materials Research. 2014. Vol. 1040, pp. 351–355.
5. Grishina A.N., Korolev E.V., Satyukov A.B. Products of reaction between barium chloride and sodium hyrdosili cates: examination of composition. Advanced Materials Research. 2014. Vol. 1040, pp. 347–350.
6. Loganina V.I., Kislitsina S.N., Zhegera K.V. Application of artifical alumina silicates for cement-based tiling glue. Izvestiya visshih uchebnih zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 10 (658), pp. 23–27. (In Russian).
7. Grishina A.N., Korolev E.V. Selection of the barium based dispersed phase for radiation-protective material. Proc. of VIII Intl. Conf. «Theory and practice of effective ness improvement of construction materials». RF. Penza. 2013, pp. 48–53. (In Russian).
8. Kalashnikov V.I., Erofeev V.T., Moroz M.N., Troya nov I.Yu., Volodin V.M., Suldaltcev O.V. Nanohydro silicate technologies in production of concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 88– 91. (In Russian).
9. Korolev E.V., Grishina A.N., Satyukov A.B. Chemical composition of nanomodified composite binder with nano- and microsized barium silicate. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: scientific Internet-journal. 2014. Vol. 6. No. 4, pp. 90–103. Available at:
10. Grishina A.N., Satyukov A.B., Korolev E.V. Early struc ture forming of the modified cement stone with nanoscale barium hydrosilicates. Nauchnoe obozrenie. 2014. No. 7-1, pp. 134–139. (In Russian).
11. Rebinder P.A. Physical-chemical mechanics of disperse structures // Physical-chemical mechanics of disperse structures. Moscow: Nauka. 1966, pp. 3–16.
R. HELA, Professor (, L. BODN ´ AROV ´ A Assoc. prof. ( Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology of Building Materials and Components (Veveri 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic)

Research of Possibilities of Testing Effectiveness of Photoactive TiO2 in Concrete* This paper is focused on gathering all available information on the application forms of photocatalytic TiO2 in concretes, especially in the surface layers of precast and monolithic struc- tures. The paper describes in detail the properties of titanium dioxide alone and its special abilities leading to a substantial improvement of the environment through photocatalysis. Further verification methods of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide and titanium dioxide application in real projects are described.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, concrete, monolithic structures.

1. Ballari M.M.; Hunger M., Husken G. et al. Heterogeneous photocatalysis applied to concrete pavement for air remediation. Conference «3rd International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction». Prague, Czech Republic. 2009. Nanotechnology in Construction 3, Proceedings, pp. 409–414.
2. Guerrini G.L., Peccati E. Tunnel “Umberto I”, in Rome: Monitoring program results. Report n. 24. CTG, Italcementi S.p. A., Calci Idrate Marcellina (C.I.M.). 2008.
3. Bartos P.J. M. E -GCR: Impoving appearance of concrete buildings and quality of urban environment. Beton TKS. 2009. No. 2. Vol. 9, pp. 3–10.
4. Sliwinski J., et al. New Generation Cement Concretes. Ideas, design, technology and aplication. Self-cleaning concrete. 3rd ed. Cracow: Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering. 2010. p. 144–146.
5. Fujishima A., Rao T.N., TRYK D.A. Titanium dioxide photocatalysis. ScienceDirect. 2000 Available at: http:// article/pii/S1389556700000022#. [cit. 2012-08-27].
6. Sanchez F., Sobolev K. Nanotechnology in concrete. Construction and Building Materials. 2010. Vol. 24. Issue 11, pp. 2060–2071.
7. Bolte G. Innovative Building Material – Reduction of Air Pollution through TioCem (R). Conference «3rd International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Con- struction». Prague, Czech Republic. 2009. Nanotechno- logy in Construction 3, Proceedings, pp. 55–61.
8. UNI 11259:2008. Determination of the photocatalytic activity of hydraulicbinders – rodammina test method. UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione, 2008.
9. EN 196–1. Methods of testing cement – Part 1: Determination of strength. 2005.
10. ISO 22197-1: 2007. Fine ceramics, advanced technical ceramics – Test method for air-purification performance of semiconducting photocatalytic materials – part 1: Removal of nitric oxide. ISO, Geneva, 2007.
11. P ikryl J., Hela R., Holák M. Photocatalytic activity of prefabricated concrete. Conference «10 Concrete Technology». Pardubice. Czech Republic. 2012.
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary Baltimix 2019 interConPan_2018 EIRICH masa