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Stroitel`nye Materialy №2

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V.V. STROKOVA1, Doctor of Science (Engineering); A.M. AIZENSHTADT2, Doctor of Science (Chemistry); M.N. SIVAL’NEVA1, Engineer, V.A. KOBZEV 1, Engineer, V.V. NELUBOVA1 , Candidate of Science (Engineering) (nelubova@list.ru)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (17, Severnaya Dvina Embankment, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation)

Activity Evaluation of Nanostructured Binders with Using Thermodynamic Method* This paper analyzes the process of obtaining nanostructured binder (NB) on the basis of materials of different genetic types. An increase in dispersion of binders aside from their com- position during the process of mechanical activation of the solid phase and the formation of fraction in nanosized range was shown. Effectiveness of the thermodynamic method for estimating the energy state of the materials developed by scientists NArFU to predict the formation of active connections and, as a consequence, the binding properties of the studied materials were confirmed. It was shown that the kinetics of the activity in case of silicate NB has a wavelike nature, alternating extremes of system activity in general. Herein minimum of activity coincides with the reloading of solid phase when grinding, however it is noted that the system is ready for transformation. In the case of the aluminosilicate binder an increase in activity occurs continuously and reaches its maximum during grinding for 10–11 hours.

Keywords: nanostructured binder, Gibbs energy, mechanical activation, silicate, aluminosilicate.

References
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E.A. KHUDOVEKOVA1, Engineer (Khudovekova_ea@mail.ru); M.S. GARKAVI2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Deputy Chief Engineer for Science and Innovation
1 Magnitogorsk State Technical University named after G.I. Nosov (38, Lenin Avenue, Magnitogorsk, 455000, Russian Federation)
2 ZAO «Ural-Omega» (structure 7, 89, Lenina Avenu, Magnitogorsk, 455037, Chelyabinskaya Oblast, Russian Federation)

Formation of Nanosystems During Slag-Alkaline Binder Hydration
The process of nanosystem forming during interaction alkali activator ions with particles of ground-granulated blast furnance slag have been discussed. The effect of positive and nega- tive hydration of ions on the properties and structure of water solution has been analyzed. Taking into account structural changes of mixing liquid, optimal concentration of activators were selected. It was shown that activators having as a part of ions with negative hydration promote to increase as curing rate and 28-age strength of stone. The strength of samples prepared from GGBFS and KOH solution is 27% higher, then strength of sample on a base of NaOH solution (under normal curing conditions).

Keywords: ground-granulated blast furnance slag, nanosystems, slag structure, slag-alkaline binder, activators, mechanism of hydration.

References
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G.D. FEDOROVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (fedorovagd@mail.ru), G.N. ALEXANDROV, Undergraduate, S.A. SMAGULOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics) North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk (58, Belinskogo Street, Yakutsk, 677000, Russian Federation)

Research of Stability of Water Suspension of Graphene Oxide One of new regulation techniques of concrete mixes and concretes behaviors management of structurization of cement concrete on a nanolevel. To open the nature of structure manage- ment of cement matrix on a nanolevel for the purpose of receiving composites of new generation, it is necessary to combine efforts of different professions experts. For this reason, considering that in «Graphene Nanotechnologies» laboratory of North-Eastern Federal University graphene oxide is received, in this work the task was to establish prospects of carrying out researches on modification of cement matrix by graphene oxide. Prospects of graphene oxide use as modifier of a cement matrix are shown in the article. Results of sizes measure- ment of graphene oxide nanosheets and also results of assessment of stability of water suspension of graphene oxide are given.

Keywords: cement, matrix, nanomodifier, graphene oxide, size, water suspension, optical density, colloidal stability.

References
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V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (hozin@ksaba.ru), L.А. ABDRAKHMANOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (laa@kgasu.ru), R.К. NIZAMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (Nizamov@kgasu.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Common Concentration Pattern of Effects of Construction Materials Nanomodification * The article covers the results of experimental researches of nanomodification of different types of construction materials: polymer materials (PVC, epoxides), ceramics, Portland cement, bitumen-polymer binders with industrial nanoproduct concentrates and premixes, containing carbon nanotubes, metal-carbon composites, and silica sols. The definite («acute») extreme dependence of technological, performance and technical properties on the concentration of nanoadmixtures is established: the peak values of indices of materials are attained at 0,001–0,01 wt. %. The dependence has a general character.

Keywords: nanotechnologies, nanomodifiers, PVC, ceramics, epoxy polymers, bitumen-polymer binders, CNT, silica sol.

References
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K.A. SARAIKINA1, Master of Engineering and Technology in Construction (Ksenya_s2004@mail.ru); V.A. GOLUBEV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); G.I. YAKOVLEV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (jakowlew@udm.net); S.A. SEN’KOV1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (ssa@cems.pstu.ru); A.I. POLITAEVA 2, Undergraduate
1 Perm State National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolskiy Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)

Nanostructuring of Cement Stone at Disperse Reinforcing with Basalt Fiber Cement concrete is the most widely distributed material in the present construction. But this composite is characterized by a series of negative parameters, low ultimate tensile strains are among them. To improve their performance and also to increase the resistance to abrasion, chilling, and impact actions it is possible to apply various techniques, disperse reinforcement of the cement matrix with basalt fiber is the most prospective method among them. To increase the resistance of basalt fiber to a strongly alkali environment a hypothesis about the reasonabili- ty to introduce the dispersion of modified carbon nanotubes (MCNT) into the mix has been put forward. Results of the microscopic analysis of the structure of cement-sand mortar in the course of joint introduction of basalt fibers and MCNT dispersion are presented; they show that, despite the lack of homogeneity of the MCNT dispersion, a dense new growth is crystallized, the adhesion of the cement stone with basalt fiber is improved, and shrinkage cracks are reduced in the zone of the contact of cement stone, basalt fiber, and nanotubes.

Keywords: disperse reinforcement, basalt fiber, carbon nanotubes, modification, shrinking deformations.

References
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Will It Be Possible to Reduce Expenditures for Education and Successfully Implement the Strategy of Innovative Development of Russia?
E.A. KARPOVA1, Master Student, ALI ELSAED MOHAMED1, Ph. D. Student; G. SKRIPKI – UNAS2, Professor; Ja. KERIENE2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); A. KI AITE 2, Assoc. Prof; G.I. YAKOVLEV1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (jakowlew@udm.net); M. MACIJAUSKAS2, Ph. D. Student, I.A. PUDOV 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); E.V. ALIEV1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.A. SEN’KOV3, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)
2 Gediminas Vilnius Technical University (11, Saul etekio al., LT–10223, Vilnius, Lithuania)
3 Perm State National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolskiy Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation) Modification of Сement Сoncrete by use of Сomplex Additives Based on the Polycarboxylate Ether, Carbon Nanotubes and Microsilica The use of complex modifiers based on polycarboxylate plasticizers and carbon nanostructures is becoming increasingly popular in modern materials science. The influence of complex additives on the rheological characteristics of cement paste and as well on the physico-mechanical characteristics of heavy concrete is described in this paper. The presence of multi- walled carbon nanotubes in DC-5 additive contributes to better compaction of the concrete structures, but insufficient dispersing of nanotubes in the carboxylate medium and the het- erogeneity of their distribution in the cement matrix reduce their effectiveness. Using the complex additive with DC-5 and MS-85 microsilica results in additional compaction of the cement matrix structure with calcium hydrosilicates, thus improving the mechanical properties of the modified concrete.

Keywords: concrete, cement paste, complex modifier, carbon nanostructures, rheological properties.

References
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Yudovich M.E. The study of possibility of modification of carboxylate plasticizers in modified fine concrete mor- tars. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2012. No. 8 (34), pp. 42–46. (In Russian).
10. Ledenev V.V., Yartsev V.P., Strulev S.A., Odnolko V.G. Influence of nanomodification on the strength and flow ability of concretes and development of foam nanocon crete. Voprosy sovremennoi nauki i praktiki. 2012. No. 37 (1), pp. 24–29. (In Russian).
11. WO 2014/080144A1. Method for producing a master mix ture based on carbonaceous nanofillers and superplasticiser and the use there of in hardenable inorganic systems. Korzhenko A., Nincendeau Ch., Lushnikova A., Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N. Declared 25.11.2013. Published 30.05.2014.
A.I. POLITAEVA1, Bachelor (politaevaalyona@mail.ru); N.I. ELISEEVA2, Engineer (eliseeva.ni@yandex.ru); G.I. YAKOVLEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gyakov@istu.ru), G.N. PERVUSHIN 1, Doctor Sciences (Engineering); JI Í HAVRÁNEK2, CSc.; O.Yu. MIKHAILOVA1, Master
1 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «Komplekt» (20, 50 let Pionerii Street, Izhevsk, 426033, Russian Federation)
3 STACHEMA CZ s.r.o. (Hasi ská 1, 280 02, Kolín-Zibohlavy, Czech Republic)

Role of Silica Fume in Formation of Cement Matrix Structure and Efflorescence in Vibrocompressed Products This study investigates the causes and the mechanism of efflorescence on the surface of vibrocompressed products. It has been found that the main reason for the formation of efflo- rescence on the surface of vibrocompressed products is unbound calcium hydroxide in the composition of concrete. In order to reduce efflorescence dispersed silica fume is added to cement matrix in the amount of up to 8% from the weight of Portland cement. It is shown that silica fume densifies the structure of vibrocompressed products due to the binding of free calcium hydroxide with the formation of extra content of calcium hydrosilicates, thus, preventing efflorescence on the surface of molded products.

Keywords: calcium hydrosilicates, calcium hydroxide, efflorescence, microstructure, silica fume.

References
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15. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Kerene Ya., ets. Nanostrukturirovanie kompozitov v stroitel'nom materialovedenii: monografiya [Nanostructuring of composites in construction materials]. Izhevsk: Izhevsk State Technical University. 2014. 196 p.
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YU.V. TOKAREV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (tokarev_01@list.ru), D.V. GOLOVIN1, Master of 2 course (danil@golovin.pro); A.F. BURYANOV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); HUIGANG XIAO3 , Ph.D., TAO DU3, Graduate Student 1st year
1 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
3 Harbin Institute of Technology, (92 Xidazhi Street, Nangang, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China, 150001) On Influence Mechanism of Magnesite-Based Active Additives and Carbon Nanotubes on Structure and Properties of Anhydrite Binder The substantiation of the necessity to use a complex of additives to improve properties of anhydrite binder and influence mechanism on structure with the help of methods of quantum- chemical modeling and physical-chemical analysis is given. Particles of dispersed magnesite act as crystallization centers, along the surface of which crystalline hydrates of calcium sul- fate dihydrate are formed, and they also contribute to structuring of anhydrite matrix increasing the durability up to 100% at optimal additive content of 3%. Based on the results of IR-spectra, carbon nanotubes have much more influence on calcium sulfate dihydrate structure than caustic magnesite. The more compact and durable structure with the increased durability characteristics up to 150% in comparison with reference composition with optimal concentration of carbon nanotubes – 0,001% and magnesite – 3% is formed during joint use of additives.

Keywords: anhydrite, magnesite, carbon nanotubes, microstructure.

References
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13. Bobryshev A.N., Kozomazov V.N., Avdeev R.I., Solomatov V.I. Sinergetika dispersno-napolnennych kompositov [Synergetics of disperse-filled composites]. Moscow: TSKT. 1999. 252 p.

O.V. IZRYADNOVA, Master of Engineering and Technology in Construction (Lese4k9@yandex.ru), S.V. SYCHUGOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.S. POLYANSKIKH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), G.N. PERVUSHIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), G.I. YAKOVLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (jakowlew@udm.net) Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426000, Russian Federation)

Polyfunctional Admixture Based on Carbon Nanotubes and Nanosilica for Enhancing Physical and Mechanical Properties of Gypsum Cement Pozzolanic Binder The paper studies the influence of polyfunctional admixture based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersion in combination with nanosilica (NS) on the structure and properties of gypsum cement pozzolanic binder (GCPB). The percentage of polyfunctional admixture varied. The results of the physical and mechanical tests have shown that adding polyfunctional admixture at the amount of 0,006% (MWCNT) and 10% of NS-85 from Portland cement to gypsum cement system leads to the increase of compressive strength by 52% and water resistance by 35%. Physical and chemical methods of the study have confirmed that polyfunctional admixture is reactive concerning the original gypsum cement pozzolanic binder changing the intensity and shifts of the absorption lines in the IR spectra.

Keywords: gypsum cement pozzolanic binder, polyfunctional admixture, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, dispersion, nanosilica, crystalline hydrates, morphology.

References
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M. R. NURTDINOV, Еngineer, V.G. SOLOVYEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (s_vadim_g@mail.ru), A.F. BURYANOV, Doctor of Science es (Engineering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (129337, Moscow, 26 Yaroslavskoe sh.)

Fine Concretes Modified with AlOOH and Al2O3 Nanofibers The article discusses the prospects and features of application of the nano-fibers from AlOOH and γ, δ-Al2O3 in fine concrete. Showed the results experimental studies to determine the properties of fine concretes with the addition of nanofibers in an amount of 3,8 and 13% by weight of the binder. Determined the influence on the properties of fine concrete mixtures by different content of nanofibers. Maximal effect from introducing nanofibers into fine concretes affects on elastic modulus, whose value is increased from 18,3 GPa to 40,9 GPa, depend- ing on the dosage of the additive. Found that the introduction of 8% nanofibers by weight of the binder causes a decrease in strength characteristics due to the increased porosity of the composites, and only entering 13% of the fibers increases the strength characteristics on 25%.

Keywords: fine concrete, elastic modulus, porosity, strength characteristics, AlOOH and γ, δ-Al2O3 nanofibers.

References
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A.N. GRISHINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), E.V. KOROLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (KorolevEV@mgsu.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation) Effectivness of Cement Composite Nanomodification with Nanoscale Barium Hydrosilicates

Nanoscale modification of building materials often leads to significant improvement of operational properties. To obtain apparent and stable nanomodification effect for composites with inhomogeneous structure (cement, gypsum and similar matrices) it is necessary to eliminate defects on different spatial levels. It is evident that to increase the effectiveness of nanoscale additives it is necessary to reduce the amount of capillaries and large macropores in material. The necessary preliminary operation is the optimization of structure at micro scale level. Only after such stage the nanomodification should be performed. The applicability of such approach was examined with the most used binder which is subject to further nanomodification – portland cement, and also with the binder composition, which is the mixture of portland cement optimally matched with the mineral additive based on micro-scale reactive barium hydrosilicates (with diameter d ~ 6 mm) of the composition BaO·SiO2·6H2O. The composition of the nanoscale additives with barium hydrosilicates was obtained in dilute solutions by means of low-temperature sol-gel synthesis. It is shown that total porosity of the material significantly changes due to of the decrease in the proportion of macro- scale pores. The variation in pore size distribution is examined and the effect of nanoscale modification on the structural parameters of the pore space is established. Examination of the strength of the obtained artificial stone confirms the assumption that composites which are optimized at all structural levels possess higher properties.

Keywords: nanomodification, barium hydrosilicates, building materials.

References
1. Korolev E.V. Principle of realization of nanotechnology in constructional material science. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 60–64. (In Russian).
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10. Grishina A.N., Satyukov A.B., Korolev E.V. Early struc ture forming of the modified cement stone with nanoscale barium hydrosilicates. Nauchnoe obozrenie. 2014. No. 7-1, pp. 134–139. (In Russian).
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R. HELA, Professor (helar.l@fce.vutbr.cz), L. BODN ´ AROV ´ A Assoc. prof. (bodnarova.l@fce.vutbr.cz) Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology of Building Materials and Components (Veveri 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic)

Research of Possibilities of Testing Effectiveness of Photoactive TiO2 in Concrete* This paper is focused on gathering all available information on the application forms of photocatalytic TiO2 in concretes, especially in the surface layers of precast and monolithic struc- tures. The paper describes in detail the properties of titanium dioxide alone and its special abilities leading to a substantial improvement of the environment through photocatalysis. Further verification methods of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide and titanium dioxide application in real projects are described.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, concrete, monolithic structures.

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