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Stroitel`nye Materialy №12

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E.I. YUMASHEVA, Engineer (mail@mail.ru) OOO RIF «STROYMATERIALY» (9, structure 3, office 225, Dmitrovskoye Hwy, 127434, Moscow, Russian Federation)

The Role of Scientific-Technical Periodicals in Development of Building Materials Industry and Branch Science Doesn’t Decrease

It is shown that, despite the development of computer communications, scientific and science-technical publications continue to play an important role of connecting information link between enterprises of building materials industry, specialized higher educational establishments, and branch science. The periodization of the creation of branch scientific-technical journals, coinciding with priorities of development of economy and science, is revealed. On the example of the “Construction Materials” Journal, the evolution of the mission of scientif ic-technical periodicals, the transformation of relationship with the target readership and authors are considered. The enduring demand for the journal by industrial enterprises, scientific organizations, specialized higher educational establishments is substantiated.

Keywords: scientific journal, higher education, industrial enterprise, branch exhibition, editorial board.

References
1. Khanova A. The first magazine in the world – «Journal des Savants»: the history of creation. RELGA. 2004. No. 12. http://www.relga.ru/Environ/WebObjects/tgu-www.woa/ wa/Main?textid=295&level1=main&level2=articles (date of access 14.01.2015). (In Russian).
2. Akopov A.I. Otechestvennye spetsial’nye zhurnaly (1765– 1917). Istoriko-tipologicheskii obzor [Domestic special magazines (1765–1917). Historical and typological over view]. Rostov-on-Don. 1995. 132 p.
3. The journal “Tsement i ego primenenie” 110 years. Tsement i ego primenenie. 2011. No. 1–2, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).
4. Shvetsov V.N. 95 years since the founding of the magazine. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika. 2008. No. 3. Part 1, pp. 2–3. (In Russian).
5. Rublevskaya M.G. Journal “Stroitel’nye Materialy “1955– 1995. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1995. No. 2, pp. 3–6. (In Russian).
6. One cannot conquer alone: necessity of association of branch has ripened (The information on a meeting of heads of branch associations of the building materials industry of Russia). Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 1, pp. 26–27. (In Russian).

O.A. FOMINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (soa2@mail.ru), A.Yu. STOLBOUSHKIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (stanyr@list.ru) Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirov Street, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)

Formation of Rational Porous Structure of Wall Ceramics from Slimy Iron-Ore Tailings*

Results of the study of the porous structure of ceramic matrix composites on the basis of the slime part of tailings of iron ores beneficiation by methods of mercury porometry, optical and scanning electronic microscopy are presented. It is established that high values of flexural strength and frost resistance of a product are connected with peculiarities of formation of the matrix structure of ceramic brick when using waste as an aggregated filler and activated loam as a tie as well as introducing the additive-flux into the composition of charge. It is revealed that closed pores of a rounded shape are formed in granules, a boundary layer, formed of solidified melt, has its own developed porous structure and creates, at the macro level, loopy texture of the ceramic material due to outlining of granules by concentric chain of macro-pores having the elongated form. It is established that macro-pores are filled, par tially or fully, with a glass-crystal substance which is formed as a result of outlet of a pyroplastic phase into the inner space of pores that provides the significant increase in the frost resistance of wall ceramics.

Keywords: iron-ore beneficiation, slime part, porous structure, ceramic matrix composite, wall ceramic, waste utilization.

References
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2. Kotlyar V.D., Ustinov A.V., Kovalev V.Y. Ceramic stones of compression moulding on the basis of gaizes and coal preparation waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4. pp. 44–48. (In Russian).
3. Gurieva V.A., Prokofieva V.V. Structural and phase features of building ceramics based on technogenic magnesia raw materials and low-grade clay. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4. pp. 55–57. (In Russian).
4. Knigina G.I., Tatski L.N., Kucherova E.A. Sovremennyie fiziko-himicheskie metodyi issledovaniya stroitelnyih materialov. Termicheskiy analiz. Metodyi izucheniya poristoy strukturyi. [Modern physical and chemical methods of investigation of building materials. Thermal analysis. Methods of study of the porous structure]. Novosibirsk. INEI. 1981. 81 p.
5. Pavlov V.F. Physical and chemical processes during the fast firing and their regulation. Keramicheskaya promyishlennost. Sat. Scien. tr. Institute-ESM. Moscow: 1982. Vol. 2, pp. 30–45. (In Russian).
6. Stolboushkin A.Y., Ivanov A.I., Storozhenko G.I., Urazov S.I. Obtaining frost-resistant ceramic bricks of moist pressing from industrial waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 4–7. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2500647. Syirevaya smes dlya izgotovleniya stenovoy keramiki i sposob ee polucheniya [The raw material mixture for the ceramic wall production and method for its preparing]. Stolboushkin A.Y., Storozhenko G.I., Ivanov A.I., Berdov G.I., Stolboushkina O.A. Declared 20.04.2012. Published 10.12.2013. Bulletin No. 34. (In Russian).
8. Plachenov T.G., Kolosentsev S.D. Porometriya [Porosimetry]. Leningrad: Himiya. 1988. 175 p.
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10. Stolboushkin A.Y., Ivanov A.A., Druzhinin S.V. Peculiarities of the pore structure of wall ceramic materials based on coal wastes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 46–51. (In Russian).
11. Everett D.H. Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units: Appendix II: Definitions, terminology and symbols in colloid and surface chemistry – part 1: Colloid and surface chemistry. Pure Appl. Chem. 1972. No. 31, pp. 577–638.
12. Tihov S.F., Fenelonov V.B., Sadyikov V.A. Porous Fe2O3/Al ceramics obtained by oxidation aluminum powder under hydrothermal conditions, followed by thermal dehydration. The composition and characteristics of composites. Kinetics and Catalysis. 2000. Vol. 41. No. 6, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
13. Karnauhov A.P. Adsorbtsiya. Tekstura dispersnyih i poristyih materialov [Adsorption. The texture of dispersed and porous materials]. Novosibirsk: Nauka.1999. 470 p.

A.I. FOMENKO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (fomenko@chsu.ru), A.G. KAPTYUSHINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), (a.kaptyushina@mail.ru), V.S. GRYZLOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (gryvs@mail.ru) Cherepovets State University (5, Lunacharsky Avenue, 162600, Cherepovets, Russian Federation)

Expansion of Raw Material Resources Base for Construction Ceramics
Issues of the expansion of a raw material resources base of production of ceramic brick with high physical-mechanical properties and small coefficient of heat conductivity due to the use of widespread large-tonnage waste of crushed brick which is formed when replacing the old brick masonry or crushing of rejected products are considered. The influence of an additive of this scrap to clay raw materials on technological properties of the raw masses intended for production of construction ceramic brick is investigated. Main physical-mechanical and heat-technical properties of ceramic crock making it possible to judge the possibility of using the crushed brick as anthropogenic raw materials for obtaining the ceramic brick are defined. Calculation of the economic effect of using the secondary raw materials in production leads to reduction in the prime cost of one ton of production in comparison with the current production.

Keywords: ceramic brick, leaning additives, clay raw materials, waste of brick crushing, physical-mechanical properties, heat conductivity coefficient.

References
1. Semyonov A.A. The State of the Russian Market of Ceramic Wall Materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
2. Lisachuk G.V., Schukina L.P., Tsovma V.V., Belostotskaya L.A., Trusova Yu.D. Estimating the appli cability of clay raw materials for wall and facing ceramics production. Steklo i keramika. 2013. No. 3, pp. 14–19. (In Russian).
3. Dovzhenko I.G. The influence of metallurgical slurries on drying behaviour of ceramic masses for lining brick production. Steklo i Keramika. 2013. No. 12, pp. 24–27.
4. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N. D., Verevkin K.A. Keramichesky a brick on the basis of various clays: phase structure and properties. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 11, pp. 47–49. (In Russian).
5. Osipov V.I., Sokolov V.N. Gliny i ikh svoistva. Sostav, stroenie i formirovanie svoistv [Clays and their properties. Сomposition, structure and formation of properties]. Moscow.: GEOS. 2013. 576 p.
6. Ashmarin G.D., Kondratenko V.A., Lastochkin V.G., Pavlenko A.P. Ceramic Ecological Heat-Efficient Walls – the Reality of Contemporary Construction. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Constraction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 10–11. (In Russian).
7. Tkachev A.G., Yatsenko E.A., Smolii V.A. et al. Influence of coal-mining waste on the molding, drying and burning properties of ceramic masses. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya si likatov. 2013. No. 2, pp. 17–21. (In Russian).
8. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Berdov G.I., Stolboushkina O.V., Zlobin V.I. Firing temperature impact on structure form ing in ceramic wall materials produced of fine dispersed iron ore enrichment wastes. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 1, pp. 33–42. (In Russian).
9. Andrianov N.T., Balkevich V.L., Belyakov A.V., Vlasov A.S., Guzman I.Ya., Lukin E.S., Mosin Yu.M., Skidan B.S. Khimicheskaya tekhnologiya keramiki [Chemical engineering ceramics]. Moscow: OOO RIF «Stroimaterialy». 2011. 496 p.

V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (diatomit_kvd@mail.ru), K.A. LAPUNOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (keramik_kira@mail.ru), I.V. LAZAREVA, Engineer (yana-cherevkova@yandex.ru), I.M. USEPYAN, Student Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-na-Donu, 344022, Russian Federation)

Main Trends and Prospective Types of Raw Material When Producing Ceramic Tile

Features of the use of ceramic tile in the modern construction and main interconnected trends of its production and application in construction – weight reduction, water absorption reduction, strength increase, variety of decoration – are considered. The solution of assigned tasks is substantiated by means of selection of optimal raw material, formulation of multi- component batch compositions of forming masses that determines the complication of technology. As a main raw material, it is proposed to use argillite-like clays properties of which make it possible to conduct the production by the technology of compressive forming which is simpler and less costly. The account of identified trends will contribute to the develop ment of the industry and increasing the production of ceramic tile in our country.

Keywords: ceramic tile, strength, water absorption, argillite-like clays.

References
1. Salakhov A.M. Keramika dlya stroiteley i arkhitektorov [Ceramics for builders and architects]. Kazan: ID Paradigm. 2009. 296 p.
2. Salakhov А.М., Tuktarova G.R., Mochalov A.Yu., Salakhova R.A. There is Ceramic tile in Russia and it Should exist. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 9, pp. 18–19. (In Russian).
3. Bender W. Vom Ziegelgott zum Jndustieelektroniker. Bonn. 2004.
4. STB EN 1304–2009. Cherepitsa krovel’naya glinyanaya i dobornye elementy. Opredeleniya i tekhnicheskie usloviya na produk-tsiyu» [Roofing clay tiles and non-standard precast component. Definitions and technical conditions for production]. Minsk: Gosstandart. 2009. 55 p.
5. EN 1304:2005 Dachziegel und Formziegel. Begriffe und Produkt an forderunge. 22 р.
6. Eriton K. Roofing. Fine Homebuilding. Newtown. Connecticut: Taunton press. 1997. 110 р.
7. GOST 530–2012 Kirpich i kamen’ keramicheskie. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviya [All Union State stan dard 530–2012. Bricks and stones made from ceramics. General characteristics and conditions]. Мoscow: Standardinform. 2012. 39 p.
8. Eremenko G.N. Compositional decisions ceramic and tile decoration technology on basis of claystone-like clays. Modern technology, building materials and building quality: international student’s research and practice con ference. Building and architecture. Rostov-on-Don: RGSU. 2015, pр. 139–142. (In Russian).
9. Kotlyar V.D., Kozlov A.V., Terekhina U.V. The pecu liarities of lithoid clay rock materials of east Donbass as raw materials for wall tile production. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 10, pp. 95–105. (In Russian).
10. Talpa B.V., Kotlyar V.D. Mineral and raw base of lith ified clay materials of southern Russia for ceramics pro duction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
11. Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina U.V., Kotlyar A.V. Lithoid raw materials testing procedure for production of compres sion-molding-type wall products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
12. Stolobushkin A.U., Storozhenko G.I. Waste of coal preparation as a raw materials and energy base of wall ceramic materials factories. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 4, pp. 43–46. (In Russian).
13. Stolobushkin A.U. Ceramic wall materials of matrix ar rangement on basis of enrichment of carbon-bearing clay-rock waste products. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 2–3, pp. 28–36. (In Russian).
14. Kara-sal B.K., Kotelnikov V.I., Sapelkina T.V. Getting of ceramical wall materials from overburden rock coal benefication. Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki. 2015. No. 2, pp. 160–163. (In Russian).
15. Kotlyar V.D., Talpa B.V. Lithoid clay rock of the east Donbass perspective raw materials for production of wall ceramics. Collected works of academic conference for stu dents and young scientists with in-ternational participation of «Geosciences topical issues». Rostov-on-Don. 2015, pр. 49–51. (In Russian).
16. Kotlyar V.D., Talpa B.V. The peculiarities of claystone like clays of the southern Russia as raw materials for arch brick production. Collected works of academic conference for students and young scientists with international partici pation of «Geosciences topical issues». Rostov-on-Don. 2015, pр. 51–53. (In Russian).

A.A. SEMENOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Director (info@gs-expert.ru) OOO «GS-Expert» (18, 1st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Lane, Moscow, 125047, Russian Federation)

Silicate Wall Materials Market and Problems of Providing Industry with Raw Materials

The development of the Russian industry of silicate wall materials and problems providing the industry with raw material resources are analyzed. The dynamics and volumes of silicate wall materials production are presented, regional structure of production is assessed, the rating of leading enterprise-manufacturers is prepared. Volumes of the production of the most dynamically developing segment, medium- and large-format silicate wall and partition blocks, are evaluated both for the Russian Federation as a whole and for manufacturers. The structure of piece wall materials consumption is presented, it is shown that silicate wall materials consistently occupy 21–22% on the background of significant reduction in the con sumption of ceramic wall materials. Data on the provision of silicate industry enterprises with basic raw materials, the number and age of operating lime burning kilns, prospects of the preservation of own lime production at enterprises of the industry are presented.

Keywords: silicate wall materials, silicate brick, piece wall materials, raw material base, lime production, depreciation of production capacities.

G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer (kuznetzowa.gal@yandex.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Method for Pressing of Silicate Brick and Method for Defining Its Raw Strength

Data on the method for pressing (bed of brick, stretcher) of silicate brick at Russian silicate brick factories are presented. Raw strength is one of the indicators of press equipment operation and quality of molding sand composition. Press equipment of foreign producers requires strict compliance with a particular quality of the molding sand and raw components. General recommendation on selecting the press equipment and dependence on the coarseness of sand are made. Methods for the determination of strength at adobe brick compression (raw strength) are considered. It is shown that the methods of testing of adobe brick molded as bed of brick and as stretcher should be different. Studies of the influence of the method for adobe brick molding on the value of raw strength and the testing methodology are presented.

Keywords:silicate brick, adobe brick, press, raw strength, molding mix

References
1. Khvostenkov S.I. Development of production of silica brick in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].2007. No. 10, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).
2. Ponomarev I.G. The Russian market of sand-lime brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].2009. No. 12, pp. 4–11. (In Russian).
3. Khavkin L.M. Tekhnologiya silikatnogo kirpicha [Technology of sand-lime brick]. Moscow: Ekolit. 2011. 384 p.
4. Kuznetsova G.V. Optimization of calculating the composition of lime-sand mixture to form a silicate brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].2011. No. 9, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).
5. Sulima-Grudzinskii A.V. Some topical issues in the field of equipment for the production of silicate products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].2015. No. 3, 53–62 pp. (In Russian).
6. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Problems replace conventional technology with the preparation of a silicate brick lime-silica binder on the line technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].2013. No. 9, рр. 14–18. (In Russian).
7. Shmit'ko E.I. Problems replace conventional technology with the preparation of a silicate brick lime-silica binder on the line technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials].2015. No. 10, рр. 5–7. (In Russian).

V.A. VOYTOVICH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.N. KHRYAPCHENKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (irina-xr@mail.ru) Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (65 Ilyinskaya Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation)

The Role of Nano-Technologies in Improving the Quality and Durability of Brick Masonry

An issue of improving the vibro- and earthquake resistance of brick masonries with the use of nano-technologies is considered. It is proposed to use methods which don’t require significant capital expenditures. The efficiency of using self-compacting cement mixes obtained with the help of superplasticizers– polycarboxylates, molecules of which are nano-particles, is shown. The use of the sol-gel method when preparing brickwork mortars, modification of cement polyvinyl acetate mortars with esters of orthosilicic acid is very effective. A method for protection of silicate brick against destruction during the fire with the help of intumescent paints, which contain fullerene-like nano-particles – fulleroids, is proposed. Introduction of basalt microfiber in the form of fibers with a nano-modifier fixed on them in cement mixes efficiently affects the strength of masonry mortar.

Keywords:nano-technology, brick masonry, silicate brick, sol-gel technology

References
1. Krogstad N.V. Shear keys. Masonry construction.2007. July–August, pp. 32–35.
2. Bessonov I.V., Baranov V.S., Baranov V.V., Knyazeva V.P., El’chishcheva T.F. Causes and Remedies of efflorescence on the brick walls of buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo[Housing Construction].2014. No. 7, pp. 39–43. (In Russian).
3. Pogosyan V.V. Structural and mechanical characteristics of concrete on the basis of the cement-polymer binder. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo.2009. No. 6, pp. 54–44. (In Russian).
4. Khauk Kh.-G. High-performance superplasticizers based on polycarboxylate ethers. Potential applications in modern concrete technology. Alitinform. 2010. No. 1, pp. 78–84. (In Russian).
5. Fedosov S.V., Ibragimov A.M., Solov’ev R.A., Murzin N.V., Tarakanov D.V., Lapshin S.S. A mathematical model of development of a fire in the premises. Vestnik MGSU.2013. No. 4, pp. 121–126. (In Russian).
6. Babkin O.E., Zybina O.A., Tanklevskii L.T., Mnatsakanov S.S. Diagnostics application quality and efficiency of gas-flame retardant coatings for steel structures. Promyshlennye pokrytiya.2014. No. 7–8, pp. 50–54. (In Russian).
7. Korolev E.V. Nanotechnology in construction materials. Analysis of the status and achievements. Ways of Development. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 11, pp. 47–79. (In Russian).

E.S. SHINKEVICH, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (elena_shinkevich@ukr.net), E.S. LUTSKIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (lutskin@ukr.net) Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (4, Didrihsona Street, Odessa, 65029, Ukraine)

Porous Composites of Non-Autoclave Hardening on the Basis of Complexly Activated Silicate Raw Mixes
The development of materials of a new generation on the basis of a complexly activated silicate mix, which combine a number of unique properties and are manufactured by the cast technology, is presented. The transition from the autoclave treatment to curing with energy saving regimes is provided due to the realization of complex activation of the silicate-concrete mix that is one of the technological features of producing this kind of material. Advantages and prospects of the manufacture of silicate products of a new generation of non-autoclave hardening with the use of energy saving and environmentally friendly technologies and available technological methods aresubstantiated. Possibilities of the computerization of production processes on the basis of software creation from the blocks of experimental-statistic models and developed methods for the mobile and qualitative selection of compositions with a high degree of reliability of results are shown.

Keywords:silicate products of non-autoclave hardening, low-temperature porous making, cast technology, complex activation.

References
1. Bazhenov Yu.M., Chernyshov E.M., Korotkikh D.N. The construction of modern concrete structures: defining the principles and technological platforms. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 6–14. (In Russian).
2. Bedarev A.A., Shmitko E.I. Optimization of structure of gas silicate whit using a multiparametric models. Stroitel’nye Materialy[Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4. pp. 89–93. (In Russian).
3. Patent for invention 64603 А Ukraine, MKI 7 С04В28/20. Syr’evaya smes’ dlya polucheniya modifitsirovannykh silikatnykh materialov i sposob ee prigotovleniya[The raw mixture for the modified silicate material and a method for it is prepared]. Shinkevich E.S., Sidorova N.V., Lutskin E.S., Sidirov V.I. Politkin S.I. Declared 15.07.2003. Published. 16.02.2004. Bulletin No. 2. (In Russian).
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E.V. FOMINA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (fomina.katerina@mail.ru), N.P. KUDEYAROVA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kudeyarova@intbel.ru); V.V. TYUKAVKINA 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (vv@chemy.kolasc.net.ru)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw Materials named after I.V.Tananaev of the Kola Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (26a, «Academic Town», Apatity, 184209, Murmansk region, Russian Federation)

Activation of Hydration of a Composite Binder on the Basis of Anthropogenic Raw*

The change in the kinetics of hydration of a silicate binding mix containing the belite phase of slag at the initial stages of hardening with the use of micro-calorimetry method has been studied. The low hydraulic activity of the belite phase of slag under the natural conditions of hydration has been established.The level and conditions of the preliminary lime slaking significantly influence on the velocity and intensity of the hydration reaction of a lime-slag binder. The reasonability of increasing the reaction activity of a raw mix of the binder due to the preliminary sulfate activation of lime with possible acceleration of processes of the hydration of slag belite phase is shown. In the complex, the use of the proposed methods will make it possible to replace the cement in the composition of the raw mix of gas concretes by steel-smelting slag, to regulate the processes of hydration of the binder for combining the structure formation and gas release of cellular concrete mix when developing highly efficient construction materials.

Keywords:steel-smelting slag, anthropogenic waste, composite binder, hydration, autoclave, cellular concrete

References
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6. Klassen V.K., Shilova I.A., Tekucheva E.V. Features of clinker formation processes and cement hydration when using of steelmaking slag and partially decarbonized chalk as raw components. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya silikatov. 2007. No. 2, pp. 2–10. (In Russian).
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9. Gostishcheva M.A., Kudeyarova N.P. Activation of hydration process of belite phase in steelmaking slags under hydrothermal treatment. Uspekhi v khimiii i khimicheskoy
tekhnologii. 2008. Vol. 22. No. 7 (87), pp. 77–80. (In Russian).
10. Zeifman M.I. Izgotovlenie silikatnogo kirpicha i silikatnykh yacheistykh materialov [Production of silicate brick and silicate cellular materials]. Moscow: Stroyisdat. 1990. 184 pp.
11. Fomina E.V., Strokova V.V., Altynnik N.I., Bukhalo A.B. Regulation ofrheological characteristics of binder when formation of cellular structure of autoclave products. Stroitel’nye Materialy[Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 33–35. (In Russian).
12. Fomina E.V., Strokova V.V., Kudeyarova N.P. Features of usage of preliminary lime slacking in cellular autoclave concretes. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo.2013. No. 5 (653), pp. 29–34. (In Russian).
13. Fomina E.V., Kudeyarova N.P. Strength of blended binder based on preliminary slacked lime and rock gypsum. Izvestiya vuzov. Severo-Kavkazkiy region. Tekhnicheskie nauki. 2006. No. 6, pp. 17–19. (In Russian).
14. Fomina E.V., Strokova V.V., Kozhukhova M.I. Effect of Previously Slacked Lime on Properties of Autoclave Composite Binders. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2013. Vol. 24. No. 11, pp. 1519–1524.

S.V FEDOSOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (fedosov-academic53@mail.ru), N.A. GRUZINTSEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (gruzincevan@mail.ru), A.Yu. MATROKHIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (matrokhin.igta@mail.ru) Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (20, 8 Martha Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)

Simulation of Conditions for Ensuring the Product Quality of Enterprises Manufacturing Building Materials with Due Regard for Level of Professionalism of Staff Potential*

The quantitative analysis of the influence of the professional level of staff potential of enterprise manufacturing building materials on the quality of manufactured products has been made. In the course of the study, main components of workers professionalism have been determined and appropriate scales for their transition into quantitative form have been established. With the help of geometric averaging, a generalized criterion of professionalism, which can be considered as a controlled independent variable, has been formed. On the basis of accumulated empiric data, the mathematical model of the influence of workers professionalism, evaluated according to the proposed criterion, on the expected level of products defectiveness has been obtained. The use of this mathematical model will allow the employees of staff services of enterprises to plan and correct the personnel structure of employees of the main production of building products on the basis of the criterion “professionalism” relying on established target indicators in the field of the quality of ready-made products.

Keywords:building complex enterprises, quality of products, professionalism criteria of staff potential, level of production defectiveness.

References
1. The Karpushin, E. S. the Relationship between quality of work and professionalism of the staff. Upravlenie personalom.2012. No. 8 (http://www.top-personal.ru/issue. html?1643, date of access 11.09.15). (In Russian).
2. Mazaev E. V. development of a method of making management decisions based on programmed management decisions (the case of SMEs). Ekonomika i predprinimatel’stvo.2015. No. 4–1 (57–1), pp. 950–953. (In Russian).
3. Lysova M. A., Lomakin I. A., Lunkova S. V., Gusev B. N. Matematicheskie metody v proektirovanii i otsenivanii kachestva tekstil’nykh materialov i izdelii [Mathematical methods in engineering and quality evaluation of textile materials and products]. Ivanovo: IGT. 2012. 252 p.
4. Gitman E. K., Gitman M. B., Stolbov V. Yu., the Model of resource planning, synchronized the producer and the consumer products. Izvestiya vuzov. Tekhnologiya tekstil’noi promyshlennosti.2012. No. 5, pp. 8–12. (In Russian).
5. Fedyukin V.K. Qualimetry. Measuring the quality of industrial products. Series: Training manual. Moscow: KnoRus. 2009. 320 p.
6. Treshchalin M.Yu., Kiselev M.V., Mukhamedzhanov G.K., Treshchalina A.V. Tremaine Design, production methods and quality evaluation of nonwovens. Kostroma: KGTU. 2012. 360 p.
7. Lemeshko B. Yu., Lemeshko S. B., Gorbunova A. A. About application and power of criteria for testing the homogeneity of variances. Part I. Parametric criteria. Izmeritel’naya tekhnika.2010. No. 3, pp. 10–16. (In Russian).

L.A. VAISBERG 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gornyi@mtspb.com), E.E. KAMENEVA 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (elena.kameneva@mail.ru), A.V. SINITSIN 3 Engineer
1 Mechanobr-Tekhnika Research and Engineering Corporation (3, 22 liniya, V.O., 199106, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)
2 Petrozavodsk State University (33, Lenin Street, Petrozavodsk, 185910, Russian Federation)
3 Mining company Basalt AG (Russian) (49, of. 507, Krasnaja Street, Petrozavodsk, 185000, Russian Federation)

Contemporary Methods for Study of Strength Characteristics of Building Rocks When Producing Crushed Stone* Methods for the study of strength characteristics of building rocks are considered. The differences of methodic approaches to the evaluation of rock strength in domestic and foreign practice are revealed. It is noted that the domestic practice of design of crushing-and-sorting complexes assesses the strength of rocks according to the value of ultimate compressive strength. Abroad, the criterion of rock strength is a resistance to impact loads – the standardized method of drop weight (DWT), which makes it possible to determine the specific energy of destruction and impact strength of a material on the basis of which the simulation of crushing technology and selection of crushing equipment are executed. The need for comparing results of strength properties tests of rocks which are conducted with the use of different methods and assessed according to different values is indicated. Results of the strength study, using different methods, of gabbro-diabase of one of industrially developed deposits of Karelia are presented. The comparative assessment of results obtained with the use of different methods is made. On the basis of experiments, significant fluctuations in the obtained values both of the specific energy of destruction and ultimate compressive strength are revealed. The need to test a significant number of samples to obtain statistically significant and reliable results is indicated. The identification of heterogeneity in the strength properties of rocks is of great importance for operative control over the process of disintegration. It is substantiated that the solutionof this problem requires the development and standardization of techniques for operative determination of strength of rocks in factory laboratories.

Keywords:efficiency of production, standardization, rocks, methods for strength determination, statistical reliability, factory laboratory.


1. Napier-Munn T.J., Morrell S., Morrison R.D., Kojovic T. Mineral comminution circuits: their operation and optimization. Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre. Australia, Brisbane: JKMRC. 2005, pp. 57–66.
2. Skarin O.I., Arustamyan K.M. Modern estimation methods of ores crushability in the semi self crushing cycles. Gornyi Zhurnal.2012. No. 11, pp. 6–11. (In Russian).

M.S. GARKAVI1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (mgarkavi@mail.ru); H.-B. FISHER 2 , Doctor-Engineer; A.F. BURIANOV 3 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 ZAO «Ural-Omega» (89, structure 7, Lenina Avenue, 455037, Magnitigirsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russian Federation)
2 Bauhaus-Universität Weimar (8, Geschwister-Scholl-Straβe, 99423 Weimar, Germany)
3 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Hwy, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Features of Crystallization Of Gypsum Dihydrate in the Course of Artificial Aging of Gypsum Binder

Features of the crystallization of gypsum dihydrate, appearing in the process of the artificial aging, in micro-pores of the initial gypsum binder are considered. The influence of artificial aging conditions and the degree of supersaturation on the morphology of gypsum dihydrate crystals is established. The characterof crystallization and morphology of crystals are defined by conditions of the initial hemihydrate surface.

Keywords:crystallization, gypsum dehydrate, artificial aging, gypsum binder.

References
1. Garkavi M., Nekrasova S., Melchaeva O., Garkavi S., Fischer H.-B., Nowak S. Thermodynamic explanation of rational conditions of the “aging” of plaster binder. 18. ibausil. Internationale Baustofftagung.Weimar. 2012, pp. 1-0741-0748.
2. Greg S., Singh K. Adsorbtsiya, udel’naya poverkhnost’, poristost’ [Adsorption, surface area, porosity]. Moscow: Mir. 1984. 306 p.
3. Polak A.F., Babkov V.V., Andreeva E.P. Tverdenie mineral’nykh vyazhushchikh veshchestv [Hardening of mineral binders]. Ufa: Bashkirskoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo. 1990. 216 p.
4. Melikhov I.V. Fiziko-khimicheskaya evolyutsiya tverdogo veshchestva [Physico-chemical evolution of the solid]. Moscow: BINOM. Laboratoriya znanii. 2012. 309 p.
5. Severin A.V., Melikhov I.V., Komarov V.F. Adsorption inhibition of the growth of crystals of CaSO 4 ·2H2 O from aqueous solutions. Kristallografiya.2009. Vol. 54. No. 1, pp. 164–170. (In Russian).
6. Linnikov O.D. Kinetics and mechanism of the crystal growth of calcium sulfate when crystallization is on the surface of the heat exchange. Zhurnal prikladnoi khimii. 1996. Vol. 69. No. 1, pp. 89–93. (In Russian).
7. Ustinov Y.V., Sivkov S.P., Barinov O.P., Sanzharovsky A.Y. Influence of various additives on the morphology of gypsum dihydrate crystals. Vestnik MGSU.2012. No. 4, pp. 140–144. (In Russian).
8. Nekrasova S.A., Garkavi M.S. Influence of aging conditions on the structural and mechanical properties of gypsum binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy[Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 5, pp. 72–73. (In Russian).

Z. PASTORI, PhD 1 (zoltan.pasztory@skk.nyme.hu), Director of Innovation Center, Z. BORCHOK, PhD 1 ; G.A. GORBACHEVA 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (gorbacheva-g@yandex.ru)
1 University of West Hungary (4. Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Street, Sopron 9400 Hungary)
2 Moscow State Forest University (1, 1st Institutskaya Street, 141005, Mytischi, Moscow Region, Russia)

Balance of CO2 of Different Types of Wall Structures

Four different types of wall structures with the same heat transfer coefficient are considered. Values of the СО2emission during the process of their manufacturing are presented. It is shown that in the course of manufacture of 1.0 m 2 of wall structures the significant emission of CO 2per 1.0 m 2 of wall surface takes place. In the course of production of timber wall structures, the amount of tied carbon emitted during the manufacturing is lesser than the amount of carbon contained in materials which the wall is made of. The conclusion about ecological friendliness and energy efficiency of frame and timber buildings is made. It is shown that in the course of timber structures manufacturing the least amount of СО 2 is emitted comparing with the variants considered.

Keywords:energy efficiency, energy consumption, ecological friendliness, timber wall structures, accumulation of carbon, balance of СО 2 of wall structures, timber frame buildings, timber houses.

References
1. IPCC Climate Change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 2014.
2. Omer A.M., Energy use and environmental impacts. A general review. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy.2009. No. 1. Article Number: 053101.
3. Zecca A., Chiari L. Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming. Energy Policy.2010. No. 38, pp. 1–3.
4. Upton B., Miner R., Spinney M., Heath L.S. The greenhouse gas and energy impacts of using wood instead of alternatives in residential construction in the United States. Biomass and Bioenergy.2008. No. 32, pp. 1–10.
5. Bribián I.Z., Capilla A.V., Usón A.A. Life-cycle assessment of building materials: Compearative analysis of energy and environmental impacts of the eco-efficiency improvement potential. Building and Environment.2001. No. 46, pp. 1133–1140.
6. Shukla A., Tiwari G.N., Sodha M.S. Embodied energy analysis of adobe house. Renewable Energy.2009. No. 34, pp. 755–761.
7. Hammond G. P., Jones C. I. Embodied energy and carbon in construction materials. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Energy.2008. No. 161 (2), pp. 87–98.
8. Karjalainen T., Kellomäki S., Pussinen A. Role of woodbased products in absorbing atmospheric carbon. Silva Fennica.1994. No. 28 (2), pp. 67–80.
9. Reddy B.V.V., Jagadish K.S. Embodied energy of common and alternative building materials and technologies. Energy and Buildings.2003. No. 35, pp. 129–137.
10. Pingoud K., PeräläA.L., Pussinen A. Carbon dynamics in wood products. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 2001. No. 6, pp. 91–111

A.A. GUVALOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (abbas.quvalov@akkord.az), S.I. ABBASOVA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry); T.V. KUZNETSOVA 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Azerbaijan University of Architecture and Construction (5, Sultanova Street, Baku, AZ-1073)
2 D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (7, Miusskaya Square, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Improvement of High-Strength Concretes Structure Using Modifiers

It is established that the use of a complex additive consisting of a plasticizer and a fine mineral component (OMD) makes it possible to obtain high-strength self-compacting concrete. It is found that the partial substitution of micro-silica for the equivalent rate of a fine filler, zeolite in particular, reduces deformations of autogenous shrinkage without reducing the strength characteristics of concrete.

Keywords:modifier, high-strength concrete, autogenous shrinkage, additives.

References
1. Guvalov A.A. Influence the organomineralnykh of modifiers on concrete durability. The VI International conference “Durability and Destruction of Materials and Designs”.Orenburg, 2010, pp. 221–225. (In Russian).
2. Guvalov A.A., Kuznetsova T.V. Influence of the modifier on properties of cement suspensions. Stroitel’nye materialy[Construction materials]. 2013. No. 8, pp. 86–88. (In Russian).
3. Guvalov A.A. Impact of poliarilsulphonosulphonic Superplasticizer on hidration and hardening of cements SCIENCE WITHOUT BORDTERS. Transactions of the International Academy of Science H&E. Volume 3 2007\2008.Innsburk. 2009, pp. 605–610.
4. Guvalov A.A. The self-condensed high-strength concrete in technology of monolithic housing construction. Collection of scientific works of MGSU, on materials of the International scientific and technical conference “Industrial and Civil Engineering in Modern Conditions”.M.: MGSU, 2011, pp. 150–152. (In Russian).
5. Mounanga P., Bouasker M., Pertue A., Perronnet A., Khelidj A. Early-age autogenous and micro/macro investigations. Materials and Structures,2011, v. 44, No. 4, pp. 749–772.
6. Nnadi F., Brave C. Environmentally friendly superabsorbent polymers for water conservation in agricultural lands. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management.2011, No. 2, pp. 206–211.

P.S. BASKAKOV, Engineer (rockbas@ya.ru), V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (vvstrokova@gmail.com), K.P. MAL’TSEVA, Student (ksy6323.95@mail.ru) Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Influence of Alkaline Impact on Properties of Acrylic and Styrene-Acrylic Dispersions for Water Paintwork Materials
Criteria of using water-dispersion synthetic polymers for interior finish of pre-plastered or pre-puttied premises are determined. Acrylic and styrene-acrylic dispersions, due to containing ion carboxylic groups, are exposed to the alkaline impact that requires their study in the course of their interaction withhigh-alkaline cement systems. To analyze the degrees of influence of an alkaline agent, rheological peculiarities of dispersions have been determined with increasing the PH level. It is revealed that acrylic dispersions have higher viscosity at high shear rates; styrene-acrylic dispersions are the least susceptible to the impact of calcium hydroxide, have low viscosity at an equal concentration and size of polymer particles. These properties are used for producing efficient water priming compositions of deep penetration on the basis of styrene-acrylic dispersions, and, on the basis of acrylic dispersions, for producing paints with a high content of pigments.

Keywords:water dispersions of polymers, acrylates, rheological peculiarities, alkaline impact.

References
1. Kozhukhova M.I., Flores-Vivian I., Rao S., Strokova V.V., Sobolev K.C. Complex siloxane coating for super-hydrophobicity of concrete surfaces. Stroitel’nye Materialy[Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 26– 30. (In Russian).
2. Kozhukhova M.I., Strokova V.V., Sobolev K.G, Features of hydrophobic fine grained concrete surfaces. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova.2014. No. 4, pp. 33–35 (In Russian).
3. Yakovlev A.D. Khimiya i tekhnologiya lakokrasochnykh pokrytii. [Chemistry and technology paint coatings]. SPb: KhIMIZDAT. 2010. 448 p.
4. Tolmachev I.A., Petrenko N.A. Vodno-dispersionnyye kraski: kratkoye rukovodstvo dlia inzhenerov-tekhnologov [Water-based paints a brief guide for industrial engineers]. Moscow: Paint-Media. 2010. 106 p.
5. Onoprienko N.N., Rakhimbaev Sh.M. Influence of viscosity water soluble polymers on their effectiveness as components of construction mortars. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova.2015. No. 3, pp. 62–66. (In Russian).
6. Khailen V. Dobavki dlya vodorastvorimykh lakokrasochnykh materialov [Additives for water-based paints and varnishes]. Moscow: Paint Media. 2011. 176 p.
7. Starovoitova I.A., Drogun A.V., Zykova E.S., Semenov A.N., Khozin V.G., Firsova E.B. Colloidal-chemical stability of water dispersion of epoxy resins. Stroitel’nye Materialy[Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 10, pp. 74–77. (In Russian).
8. Brok T. Evropeiskoe rukovodstvo po lakokrasochnym materyalam y pokrytyiam [European guidance for paints and coatings]. Moscow: Paint Media. 2004. 548 p.

N.I. KOZHUKHOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kozhuhovanata@yandex.ru), I.V. ZHERNOVSKY, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy) (zhernovsky.igor@mail.ru), E.V. FOMINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (fomina.katerina@mail.ru) Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Phase Formation in Geo-Polymer Systems on the Basis of Fly Ash of Apatity TPS*
A possibility to produce geo-polymer binders on the basis of fly ash of the Apatity TPS has been studies and proved. Main criteria of the efficiency of its use as an active component for producing alkali-activated binders are identified. Among them, the content of free CaO is less than 5% and a high concentrationof the X-ray amorphous component (a glass phase) in the composition of ash-slag mixture – over 60%. It is established that the mechanical activation positively effects on the reaction activity of the fly ash when it is alkali activated by two types of alkali activators studied, in this case the most efficient agent for the fly ash of the Apatity TPS is NaOH.

Keywords:fly ash of Apatity TPS, alkali activation, mechanical activation, phase formation

References
1. Boroukhin D.S. Problems of sustainable development of electric power enterprises in the Murmansk Region in terms of global financial crisis. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2010. Vol. 13. No. 1, pp. 165–170. (In Russian).
2. Pak. A.A., Sukhorukova R.N. Polistirolgasobeton: tekhnologia i svoistva kompositsionnyih materialov [Polystyrene gas concrete: technology and properties of composite products]. Apatity. 2012. 101 p.
3. Solovyov L.A. Includes Rietveld and Derivative Difference Minimization (DDM) methods. J. Appl. Cryst. 2004. No. 37, pp. 743–749.
4. Fomina E.V., Kozhukhova M.I., Kozhukhova N.I. Estimation of efficiency of aluminosilicate rocks application in composite binders. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova.2013. No. 5, pp. 31–35. (In Russian).
5. Oh J.E., Moon J., Mancio M. Bulk modulus of basic sodalite, Na8[AlSiO 4 ] 6 (OH) 2 ·2H2 O, a possible zeolitic precursor in coal-fly-ash-based geopolymers // Cement and Concrete Research.2011. No. 41, pp. 107–112.

Ya.I. VAYSMAN 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Medicine), D.D. ZHUKOV 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Yu.A. KETOV 1 , Undergraduate (ketov1992@list.ru)
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolsky Avenue, 614600, Perm, Russian Feferation)
2 Belorussian State Academy of Arts (81, Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220012, Minsk, Republic of Belarus)

Utilization of Mineral Wools When Producing Cellular Glass

Issues of the utilization of mineral wool heat insulating material after the completion of the life cycle are considered. It isshown that one of the prospective ways of secondary use of mineral wool can be its use as an additive when preparing the batch for manufacturing foam glass materials. Technological operations of utilization are substantiated. Proposals about the boundaries of using the proposed method and the spheres of application of the material obtained are made.

Keywords:heat insulating materials, mineral wool, energy efficiency, foam glass

References
1. Bobrov Yu.L., Ovcharenko E.G., Shoikhet B.M., Petukhova E.Yu. Teploizolyatsionnye materialy i konstruktsii [Thermal insulation materials and constructions]. Moscow: INFRA-M. 2003. 268 p.
2. Bobrov Yu.L. Dolgovechnost’ teploizolyatsionnykh mineralovatnykh materialov [The durability of thermal insulation of mineral materials]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1987. 164 p.
3. Lotov V.A., Krasheninnikova N.S., Nefedova I.N. Method and technology of solid waste mineral wool production. Izvestiya Tomskogo Politekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2004. Vol. 307. No. 6, pp. 89–92. (In Russian).
4. Kadykova Yu.A. The polymer composite structural purpose, reinforced with basalt fiber. Zhurnal prikladnoi khimii. 2012. Vol. 85. Book. 9, pp. 1523–1527. (In Russian).
5. Salthammer T., Mentese S., Marutzky R. Formaldehyde in the Indoor Environment. Chemical Reviews. 2010. No. 110, pp. 2536–2572.
6. Krasnovskikh M.P., Maksimovich N.G., Vaisman Ya.I., Ketov A.A. The thermal stability of mineral wool thermal insulation materials. Zhurnal prikladnoi khimii. 2014. Vol. 87. Book. 10, pp. 1429–1433. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2453510. Sposob polucheniya penosteklyannykh izdelii[The process for producing foamed glass products]. Kapustinskii N.N., Ketov P.A., Ketov Yu.A. Declared 14.10.2010. Published 20.06.2012. Bulletin No. 17. (In Russian).
8. Utility patent 115351. Tekhnologicheskaya liniya proizvodstva granulirovannogo penosilikatnogo materiala [Technological line of granular foam silicat material]. Bubenkov O.A., Ketov P.A., Ketov Yu.A., Lobastov S.V. Published 27.04.2012. Bulletin No. 12. (In Russian).
9. Vaisman Ya.I., Ketov A.A., Ketov P.A. Scientific and technological aspects of the production of foam glass. Fizika i khimiya stekla. 2015. Vol. 41. No. 2, pp. 214–221. (In Russian)
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2021