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Stroitel`nye Materialy №11

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N.P. LUKUTTSOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (nutluk58@mail.ru), O.A. POSTNIKOVA, Engineer (Chudakovachka@mail.ru), G.N. SOBOLEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (soboleva.g.n@mail.ru), D.V. ROTAR’, Engineer (karanecho@rambler.ru), E.V. OGLOBLINA, Master student (ekaterina.vladimirovna6@gmail.com) Bryansk State Engineering-Technological University (3, Stanke Dimitrova Avenue, Bryansk, 241037, Russian Federation)

Photo-Catalytic Pavement on the Basis of Additive of Nano-Disperse Titanium Dioxide
The possibility to use the additive of nano-disperse titanium dioxide in the structural form of anatase, obtained by the ultra-sound dispersion of pigment powder in water medium of sodium oleate, as a phto-catalytic pavement on the concrete surface ensuring its high self-cleaning capacity is theoretically and experimentally substantiated. Theoretical and experimental assessment of the photo-catalytic activity of the additive containing nano-particles TiO2 is made. The dependences of changing the intensity of coloring of organic pigments, methylene red and methylene blue, on the duration of the ultraviolet radiation exposure are obtained. The established change in optical density of the coating from 0.328 to 0.093 (by 3.5 times) demonstrates the decrease in the concentration of the organic pigment on the substrate of the additive of nano-dispersed titanium dioxide confirming the intensity of the photocatalytic reaction due to the high oxidizing capacity of the medium formed on the surface of particles TiO 2 under the impact of UV light.

Keywords:additive, titanium dioxide, anatase form of titanium dioxide, nano-particles, organic pigments, photo-catalytic properties, ultraviolet radiation.

References
1. Lukutcova N.P., Postnikova O.A., Nikolaenko A.N., Macaenko A.A., Tuzhikova M.Ju. Increase of ecological safety of decorative fine concrete through the use of manmade sand glauconite. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstrukcija. 2014. No. 1, pp. 79–83. (In Russian).
2. Falikman V.R. On the use of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in construction. Part 2. Nanotehnologii v stroitel'stve: scientific online journal.2009. No. 1, pp. 24– 34. http://www.nanobuild.ru/ru_RU/journal/ Nanobuild_1_2009_RUS.pdf (date of access 08.10.2015). (In Russian).
3. Alekseev I.S., Miklis N.I., Klimenkov S.S. Study of bactericidal properties of coatings based on titanium dioxide. Vestnik Vitebskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta. 2012. No. 2, pp. 91–94. (In Russian).
4. Stepanov A.Ju., Sotnikova L.V., Vladimirov A.A., Djagilev D.V., Larichev T.A., Pugachev V.M., Titov F.V. Synthesis and study of the properties of the photocatalytic TiO2 based materials. Vestnik Kemerovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2013. No. 2. Vol. 1, pp. 249–255. (In Russian).
5. Linsebigler A. L., Lu G., Yates J. T. Photocatalysis on TiO2 Surfaces: Principles, Mechanisms, and Selected Results. Chemical Reviews.1995. Vol. 95, pp. 735–758.
6. Tanaka K., Mario F.V. Capule, Hisanaga T. Effect of crystallinity of TiO 2 on its photocatalytic action. Chemical Physics Letters.1991. Vol. 187. No. 1, pp. 73–76.
7. Munuera G., Gonzalez-Elipe A.R., Rives-Arnau V., Navio A., Malet P., Sokia J., Conesa J.C., Sanz J. Photoadsorption of oxygen on acid and basic TiO 2 surfaces. Adsorption and Catalysis on Oxide Surfaces.1985. Vol. 21, pp. 113–120.
8. Chudakova, O.A., Lukutcova, N.P., Hotchenkov, P.V. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide in the conditions of various stabilizers. Problems of innovative biospherecompatible social and economic development in the construction, housing and communal and road complex: Proceedings of the 2-nd International Scientific and Practical Conference. Brjansk: BGITA. 2010. Vol. 1, pp. 273–278. (In Russian).
9. Hela R., Bodnarova L. Research of possibilities of testing effectiveness of photoactive TiO 2 in concrete. Stroitel'nye Materialy[Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 77– 81. (In Russian).
10. Porev V.N. Komp'juternaja grafika [Computer graphics]. SPb: BHV-Peterburg. 2002. 432 p.

E.G. KARPIKOV, Engineer (johnjk@mail.ru), V.S. YANCHENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (vsy50@mail.ru), E.L. KOROLEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (korolewael@yandex.ru), S.M. SEMICHEV, Engineer (s.semichev@bk.ru), V.I. NOVIKOVA, Master student (nviktorya@rambler.ru), A.S. PATUGIN, Master student (mr.patugin@mail.ru) Bryansk State Engineering-Technological University (3, Stanke Dimitrova Avenue, Bryansk, 241037, Russian Federation)

Extreme Simulation of Optimal Composition and Content of Micro-Filler in Concrete
On the basis of the environment of engineering and scientific computations Scilab, the programs of extreme simulation of experimental data Extr.sce and Interp.sce have been developed. The program Extr.sce makes it possible to optimize the initial compositions of micro-fillers with the use of data of the central composite orthogonal design of the full factorial experiment. On the basis of results of experimental data on determining physical-mechanical characteristics of fine concrete modified with micro-fillers of an optimal composition, the program Interp.sce makes it possible to define the optimal content of fillers in the composition of fine concrete. The solution of optimization problems is performed with the help of the search algorithm of maximal elements Max_zof interpolation data massive with obtaining their coordinates corresponding to the content of primary components of the micro-filler max_xand max_y, and plotting of visual models of data processing in the form of contour plots and 3d-plots of the interpolation surface for the program Extr.sce, as well as the search for maximal elements Max_ywith obtaining coordinates corresponding to the content of the microfiller in the composition of МЗБ max_x, with plotting of interpolation surface plots for the program Interp.sce. As a result of the use of the micro-filler content of which is optimized with the help of the developed program Extr.scr, on the basis of the extreme simulation in the program Interp.sce, it is possible to obtain the fine concrete with flexural strength 10,5 MPa at the filler content 10.3% of cement mass, compressive strength 47.37 MPa – 11.82%, density 2300.36 kg/m 3 – 9.24%. The most optimal content of the micro-filler on the basis of wollastonite for producing the efficient fine concrete with high physical-mechanical characteristics is 10%.

Keywords:extreme simulation, optimization, micro-filler, wollastonite, fine concrete.

References
1. Bukhanovskii A.E., Ivanov S.V., Nechaev Yu.I. Characteristics of experimental design while simulating extreme situations in the intelligent system of design research. Iskusstvennyi intellekt.2012. No. 3, pp. 228–240. (In Russian).
2. Emel’yanov V.V., Kureichik V.V., Kureichik V.N. Teoriya i praktika evolyutsionnogo modelirovaniya [Theory and practice of evolutionary modeling]. Moscow: Fizmatlit. 2003. 432 p.
3. Thom R. Catastrophe theory: Its present state and future perspectives. Соmmutation on the ASM. 1994. Vol. 37. No. 3, pp. 77–84.
4. Yanchenko V.S. Osnovy raboty v matematicheskoi srede Scilab [Basics of mathematical environment Scilab]. Bryansk: BGITA. 2013. 124 p.
5. Alekseev E.R. Scilab: Reshenie inzhenernykh i matematicheskikh zadach [Scilab: Solving engineering and mathematical problems]. Moscow: ALT Linux. 2008. 260 p.
6. Lukuttsova N.P., Karpikov E.G., Dyagterev E.V., Tuzhikova M.Yu. High-performance fine concrete modified with nano-disperse wollastonite-based additive. Concrete and reinforced concrete – prospection: Materials of III All-Russian (II International) Conference on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. Moscow: MGSU. 2014, pp. 180–184. (In Russian).
7. Lukuttsova N., Luginina I., Karpikov E., Pykin A., Ystinov A., Pinchukova I. High-performance fine concrete modified with nano-dispersion additive. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER).2014. Vol. 9. No. 22, pp. 15825–15833.
8. Bazhenov Yu.M., Lukuttsova N.P., Karpikov E.G. Fine concrete modified by complex micro-dispersed additive. Vestnik MGSU.2013. No. 2, pp. 94–100. (In Russian).
9. Geger’ V.Ya., Lukuttsova N.P., Karpikov E.G., Petrov R.O Improving the efficiency of fine concrete by complex micro-dispersed additive. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova.2013. No. 3, pp. 15–18. (In Russian).
10. Lukuttsova N.P., Karpikov E.G. Energy-efficient fine concrete with complex microfiller. Stroitel’stvo i rekonstruktsiya.2014. No. 5 (55), pp. 94–100. (In Russian).

E.Yu. GORNOSTAEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (egomostay@mail.ru), I.A. LASMAN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (i.lasman@mail.ru), E.A. FEDORENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (e.a.fedorenko@yandex.ru), E.V. KAMOZA, Master student (lena.kamoza@bk.ru) Bryansk State Engineering-Technological University (3, Stanke Dimitrova Avenue, Bryansk, 241037, Russian Federation)

Wood-Cement Compositions with Structures Modified at Macro-, Micro-, and Nano-Levels
The possibility of improvement of physical-technical characteristics of wood-cement compositions (WCC) by optimizing the structure at micro-, macro-, and nano-levels due to the regulation of sizes of wood filler particles and the use of additives of micro- and nano-dispersed silica is considered. It is established that the optimization of the grain composition of an organic filler makes it possible to obtain wood-cement compositions with compressive strength of 3.24 MPa that exceeds the compressive strength of samples produced without optimizing the grain composition of the filler by 45–49%. It is proved that the maximum increase of the compressive strength up to 9.4 MPa takes place when 30% of micro-silica is introduced into the composition. This is caused by two factors: the presence of silicon dioxide of amorphous modification in the additive of micro-silica which reacts with calcium hydroxide with formation of low-basic calcium hydro-silicates; compacting action of micro-particles filling the space between cement particles in the paste and products of hydration in the cement stone. The use of additives is due to their ability to interact with Portlandite and other products of cement hydration forming hardly soluble mixed salts which seal the pores. The structures with more dense packing are created and, as a result, WCCs with high physical-technical characteristics are produced.

Keywords:micro-silica, wood-cement compositions, additives with nano-size particles, ultrasound dispersion, sol-gel method.

References
1. Nanazashvili I.H. Stroitelnye materialy iz drevesno-tsementnoi kompozitsii [Building materials of wood-cement composition]. Leningrad: Stroyizdat. 1990. 415 p.
2. Rudenko B.D. Characteristics of wood-cement composite when using square chips. Lesnoy Zhurnal. 2009. No. 1, pp. 90–94. (In Russian).
3. Ugolev B.N. Experimental research of the influence of the nanostructure changes on wood deformability. Vestnik MGUL. 2012. Vol. 90. No. 7, pp. 124–126. (In Russian).
4. Lukutsova N., Lukashov S., Matveeva E. Research of the fine-grained concrete modified by nanoadditive. SITА. 2010. Vol. 12. No. 3, pp. 36–39.
5. Lukuttsova N.P., Gornostaeva E.Y., Polyakov S.V., Petrov R.O. Modification of wood-cement compositions with complex additives. Vestnik BGTU im V.G. Shukhova. 2013. No. 2, pp. 13–16. (In Russian).
6. Bazhenov Y.M., Alimov L.A., Voronin V.V. Struktura i svoystva betonov s nanomodifikatorami na osnove tekhnogennykh otkhodov. Monografiya [The structure and properties of concrete with nanomodifiers based on anthropogenic wastes. Monograph]. Moscow: MGSU. 2013. 204 p.
7. Dorzhieva E.V. Effect studies of sol-gel processes on the properties of cement stone. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve. 2011. No. 6, pp. 66-73. (In Russian).

N.P. LUKUTTSOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (natluk58@mail.ru), A.G. USTINOV, Engineer (allexian@mail.ru), I.Yu. GREBENCHENKO, Master student (grebenchencko2015@yandex.ru) Bryansk State Engineering-Technological University (3, Stanke Dimitrova Avenue, Bryansk, 241037, Russian Federation)

A New Type of the Modifier of Concrete Structure is an Additive on the Basis of Bio-Silicified Nano-Tubes
Results of the study of a new type of the modifier of concrete structure, a nano-disperse additive on the basis of bio-silicified nano-tubes from cyanobacteria of Leptolyngbya sp. 0511, Leptolyngbya laminosa 0412, Leptolyngbya sp. 0612 of the Baikal Rift Zone, are presented. Various types of stabilizers of the additive have been studied. It is shown that the dependence of sizes of bio-silicated nanotubes particles and the stability of dispersed phases of suspensions in water medium of the superplasticizer C-3 and polyvinyl alcohol on the duration of ultrasound dispersion has an extreme character. It is established that the maximum effect of the use of the nano-dispersed additive on the basis of bio-silicated nanotubes and C-3 is achieved when the additive content is 0.3–0.5% of the cement mass. At that, the concrete compressive strength increases after 3 days of hardening by 1.7–2.5 times, after 28 days of hardening – by 1.6–2 times, flexural strength – by 2–3.6 times, water absorption reduces by 2.3–4 times.

Keywords:cyanobacteria, bio-silicified nano-tubes, ultra-sound dispersion, stabilizers, nano-disperse additive, concrete, strength.

References
1. Bazhenov Y.M., Alimov L.A., Voronin V.V. Struktura i svoistva betonov s nanomodifikatorami na osnove tekhnogennykh otkhodov. Monografiya [The structure and properties of concrete with nanomodifiers based on anthropogenic wastes. Monograph]. Moscow: MGSU. 2013. 204 p.
2. Lukuttsova N.P., Pykin A.A. Teoreticheskie i tekhnologicheskie aspekty polucheniya mikro- i nanodispersnykh dobavok na osnove shungitosoderzhashchikh porod dlya betona. Monografiya [Theoretical and technological aspects of production of schungite-based micro- and nanodisperse additives to concrete. Monograph]. Bryansk: BGITA. 2014. 216 p.
3. Lukuttsova N., Luginina I., Karpikov E., Pykin A., Ystinov A., Pinchukova I. High-performance fine concrete modified with nano-dispersion additive. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2014. Vol. 9. No. 22, pp. 16725–16733.
4. Sorokovnikova E.G., Danilovceva E.N., Annenkov V.V., Karesoja M., Lihoshvaj E.V. Learning silicification cyanobacteria by chemical analysis and electron microscopy. Abstracts of the IV Congress of the Russian Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Novosibirsk. 2008, pp. 484–486. (In Russian).
5. Patent RF 2539734 Sposob poluchenija biosilificirovannyh nanotrubok [The process for producing biosilifisayted nanotubes]. Lukutcova N.P., Ustinov A.G. Declared 22.11.2013. Published 27.01.2015. Bulletin No. 3. (In Russian).
6. LukuttsovaN., Pykin A. Stability of nanodisperse additives based on metakaolin. Glass and Ceramics.2015. Vol. 71. No. 38, pp. 383–386.
7. Frolov Ju.G. Kurs kolloidnoj himii: poverhnostnye javlenija i dispersnye sistemy [Course of Colloid Chemistry: Surface phenomena and disperse systems]. Moscow: Al'jans. 2009. 464 p.
8. Patent RF 2557412 Sposob poluchenija nanodispersnoj dobavki dlja betona [A method for producing nanodispersed additives for concrete]. Lukutcova N.P., Ustinov A.G. Declared 12.12.2013. Published 20.07.2015. Bulletin No. 20. (In Russian).

A.A. PYKIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (alexem87@yandex.ru), S.V. VASYUNINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (lady-vasunina@yandex.ru), A.A. KALUGIN, Engineer (karanecho@rambler.ru), A.A. SPODENEYKO, Engineer (aly-spodenejko@yandex.ru), Yu.A. AVER’YANENKO, Master student (missjuly93@mail.ru), M.N. ALEKSANDROVA, Master student (m.semen4enko028@yandex.ru) Bryansk State Engineering-Technological University (3, Stanke Dimitrova Avenue, Bryansk, 241037, Russian Federation) Improvement of Efficiency of No-Fines Haydite Concrete with Nano-Disperse Additives *

Physical-mechanical properties and structure of no-fines (no-sand) haydite concrete (NHC) with the use of haydite gravel modified by nano-disperse additive-suspensions obtained as a result of the ultra-sound dispersion of meta-kaolin in water media of organic stabilizer: the superplasticizer C-3 and polyvinyl alcohol have been studied. It is established that the saturation of haydite gravel with developed additives before mixing with Portland cement leads to increase (by 55–75%) in the compressive strength of no-fines haydite concrete. Increasing the strength of NHC is due to the interaction of meta-kaolin particles with Portlandite with formation, on the haydite surface and in the surface layer of haydite granules, of additional quantity of crystal new-formations identical to hydrosilicate and calcium hydro-aluminate, as well as ettringite facilitating compaction and strengthening of a contact zone of the cement matrix with a filler.

Keywords:no-fines haydite concrete, nano-disperse additives, meta-kaolin, haydite, Portlandite.

References
1. Gorin V.M., Vytchikov Y.S., Shiyanovi L.P., Belyakov I.G. Study of heat protection characteristics pf wall enclosing structures of cottage buildings built with the use of no-sand haydite concrete. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
2. Patent RF 2448930. Keramzitobeton na modifitsirovannom keramzitovom gravii[Ceramsite concrete on the modified claydite gravel]. Minakov Y.A., Kononova O.V., Sofronov S.P. Declared 09.11.2010. Published 27.04.2012. Bulletin No. 12. (In Russian).
3. Lukuttsova N.P., Pykin A.A. Teoreticheskie i tekhnologicheskie aspekty polucheniya mikro- i nanodispersnykh dobavok na osnove shungitosoderzhashchikh porod dlya betona. Monografiya [Theoretical and technological aspects of production of schungite-based micro- and nano-disperse additives to concrete. Monograph]. Bryansk: BGITA. 2014. 216 p.
4. Bazhenov Y.M., Alimov L.A., Voronin V.V. Struktura i svoistva betonov s nanomodifikatorami na osnove tekhnogennykh otkhodov. Monografiya [The structure and properties of concrete with nanomodifiers based on anthropogenic wastes. Monograph]. Moscow: MGSU. 2013. 204 p.
5. Kirsanova A.A., Kramar L.Y. Organomineral modifiers on the basis of meta-kaolin for cement concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 54–56. (In Russian).
6. Patent RF 2563264. Sposob izgotovleniya kompleksnoi nanodispersnoi dobavki dlya vysokoprochnogo betona [The Method for producing of complex nano-disperse additive for high-performance fine concrete]. Lukuttsova N.P., Pykin A.A., Suglobov A.V. Declared 30.07.2014. Published 20.09.2015. (In Russian).
7. Koshevar V.D. Organo-mineral’nye dispersii. Regulirovanie ikh svoistv i primenenie. Monografiya [Organo-mineral dispersion. Their properties and applications control. Monograph]. Minsk: Belorusskaya nauka. 2008. 312 p.
8. Merlin A. Etzold, Peter J. McDonald, Alexander F. Routh. Growth of sheets in 3D confinements – a model for the C–S–H meso structure. Cement and Concrete Research.2014. Vol. 63, pp. 137–142.
9. Papatzani S., Paine K., Calabria-Holley J. A comprehensive review of the models on the nanostructure of calcium silicate hydrates. Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 74, pp. 219–234.
10. Romanenkov V.E. Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy gidratatsionnogo tverdeniya poroshkovykh sred. Monografiya [Physical and chemical bases of hydration hardening of powder media. Monograph]. Minsk: Belorusskaya nauka. 2012. 197 p.
11. Grishina A.N., Korolev E.V. Effectivness of cement composite nanomodification with nanoscale barium hydrosilicates. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 72–76. (In Russian).

L.I. EVEL’SON, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (levelmoscow@mail.ru), N.P. LUKUTTSOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (natluk58@mail.ru), A.N. NIKOLAENKO, Engineer (wnav111@yandex.ru), E.N. KHOMYAKOVA, Chemist (kat-himik@inbox.ru), Ya.A. RIVONENKO, Master student (riyanaone@yandex.ru) Bryansk State Engineering-Technological University (3, Stanke Dimitrova Avenue, Bryansk, 241037, Russian Federation)

Some Practical Aspects of Fractal Simulation of a Structure of Nano-Composite Material*
Some practical aspects of the fractal simulation of a structure of nono-modified concretes containig serpentinite, wollastonite, schungite, and meta-kaolin are considered for the purpose to apply them for solving optimization problems. Two fractal characteristics of the micro-structure of nano-modified concretes are studied; they are fractal dimension D and lacunarity L with the use of the ImagelJ program with a set extension (plugin) FracLac. It is established that the value of fractal dimension is more significantly invariant than lacunarity. It is shown that the important feature is the fact that when ranking results according to fractal dimension and lacunarity, the sequence order of nano-modifiers doesn’t change at various enlargements and adjustments. The applied methods for using the fractal analysis for simulation of the structure of composite materials is standardized and can be suitable for the description of similar characteristics of other objects of this kind.

Keywords:fractal simulation, lacunarity, structure, nano-modifiers, nano-modified concrete.

References
1. Evelson L., Lukuttsova N. Application of statistical and multi-fractal models for parameter optimization of nanomodified concrete. International. Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015. Vol. 10. No. 5, pp. 12363– 12370.
2. Evel’son L.I. Parametric optimization of thermal gas absorbing apparatus HA-500. Dynamics, loading and reliability of rolling stock. Interuniversity collection of scientific papers. Dnepropetrovsk: DTIS. 1985, pp. 29–36. (In Russian).
3. Evel’son L.I., Ryzhikova E.G. A numerical method for optimization through planning computational experiment. Vestnik BGTU.2015. No. 1, pp. 14–19. (In Russian).
4. Mandel’brot B. Fraktal’naya geometriya prirody [Fractal Geometry of Nature]. Moscow: Institute of Computer Science. 2002. 656 p.
5. Lukuttsova N.P., Pykin A.A. Teoreticheskie i tekhnologicheskie aspekty polucheniya mikro- i nanodispersnykh dobavok na osnove shungitosoderzhashchikh porod dlya betona. Monografiya [Theoretical and technological aspects of production of schungite-based micro- and nano-disperse additives to concrete. Monograph]. Bryansk: BGITA. 2014. 216 p.
6. Montgomeri D.K. Planirovanie eksperimenta i analiz dannykh. [Experimental Design and Analysis]. Leningrad: Sudostroenie.1980. 384 p.

I.Yu. MARKOVA, Engineer (irishka-31.90@mail.ru), V.V. STROKOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), T.V. DMITRIEVA, Engineer Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shoukhov (46, Kostukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Influence of Fly Ashes on the Viscoelastic Characteristics of the Bitumen* The influence of the addition of fly ashes as fine-grained silica-alumina industrial raw materials of fuel and energy enterprises (power plants) of various genetic types on the visco-elastic characteristics of the bitumen was studied. Rutting resistance of the modified binder was measured by method Superpave (USA) in the temperature range 46–76 о C. The dependence of the rutting resistance on the composition, characteristics and concentration in the composition of the binder of used thermal power plants fly ashes was determined. A ranking of aluminosilicate industrial materials according to the degree of efficiency of its use as bitumen structuring additive was performed. It is shown that the use of low calcium and high calcium fly ashes allows raising the temperature of transformation of bitumen from viscous state into liquid state, that leads to increased resistance of the bitumen binder to shear stresses. The obtained results can be used as a predictive parameter of shear resistance of asphalt concrete based on modified bitumen.

Keywords:rutting, reological characteristics, bitumen, fly ash, industrial raw materials.

References
1. Sobolev K., Ismael F., Saha R., Wasiuddin N., Saltibus N. The effect of fly ash on the rheological properties of bituminous material. Fuel.January 2014. Vol. 116, pp. 471–477.
2. Sobolev K., Florens I., Bohler J., Faheem A., Covi A. Application of fly ash in ASHphalt concrete: from Challenges to Opportunities. http://www.flyash.info/2013/012-Sobolev-2013.pdf (date of access 11.02.2015).
3. Markova I.Yu., Dmitrieva T.V., Kozhuhova N.I., Markov A.Yu. The composition and properties of fly ashes as modifiers of bitumen. Scientific and practical problems in the field of chemistry and chemical technology: Proceedings of the IX inter-regional scientific-technical conference of young scientists, professionals and university students.Apatity. 2015, pp. 77–79. (In Russian).
4. Lebedev M.S., Strokova V.V., Potapova I.Yu., Kotlyarskii E.V. Effect of additives of CHP low-calcium fly ash on characteristics of a road bitumen binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 11, pp. 8–11. (In Russian).
5. Jarmolinskaya N.I., Cupikova L.S. Improving ofresistanceto corrosive attack for asphalt concrete based on power station wastes. Stroitel’nye Materialy[Construction materials]. 2007. No. 9, pp. 46–47. (In Russian).
6. Putilin E.I., Cvetkov V.S., Primenenie zol unosa I zoloshlakovyh smesej pri stroitel’stve avtomobil’nyh dorog: obzornaja informacija otechestvennogo i zarubezhnogo opyta primenenija othodov ot szhiganija tverdogo topliva na TJeS. [Application of fly ash and bottom-ash mixture when road construction: review information of domestic and abroad experience of application of solid fuel combustion wastes]. Moscow: Sojuzdornii. 2003. 60 p.
7. Nagesh Tatoba Suryawanshi, Samitinjay S. Bansode, Pravin D. Nemade Use of Eco-Friendly Material like Fly Ash in Rigid Pavement Construction & It’s Cost Benefit Analysis. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering.2012. Vol. 2. No. 12, pp. 795–800.
8. Standard Test Method for Determining Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binder Using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), AASHTO Designation: TP5, based on SHRP Product 1007, September 1993.
9. AASHTO T315-10, Standard Method of Test for Determining the Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binder Using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 2010. 32 p.

A.V. KOCHETKOV 1 , Doctor Sciences (Engineering), L.V. YANKOVSKY 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); N.E. KOKODEEVA 2 , Doctor Sciences (Engineering); Sh.N. VALIEV 3 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering);
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29a Komsomolsky Avenue, 614600, Perm, Russian Federation)
2 Saratov State Technical University named after Yu.A. Gagarin (77 Politekhnicheskaya Street, 410054, Saratov, Russian Federation)
3 Moscow Automobile and Road Construction University (64 Leningradsky Avenue, 125319, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Design of Lightweight Mounds on Weak Bases with the Use of Geo-Composite Materials for Construction of Transport Structures

Issues of the design of lightweight mounds with the use of light geo-composition materials including expanded polystyrene (EPS) are considered. The main sphere of using lightweight mounds constructed of EPS blocks: linear sections of structures on lightweight base, approaches to bridge structures on lightweight base, widening of a bank on lightweight base, construction of roads on areas of possible landslides, infilling behind retaining walls. A criterion when designing the structure made of EPS blocks is a prevention of premature failures of pavement such as the rutting, cracks etc. which are beyond the requirements for the limit state of serviceability. It seems to be prospective to approbate this innovative technique of construction since the use of up-to-date EPS blocks, mastered by domestic production, makes it possible to complexly influence on the workability of hydrotechnic or transport structures.

Keywords:expanded polystyrene, lightweight mounds, hydrotechnic construction, sustainability.

References
1. Evtiukov S.A., Matiusova E.Iu. The bearing capacity of the embankment of the EPS-blocks. Algorithm selection blocks with optimal density. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2012. No. 1, рр. 127–130. (In Russian).
2. Design and construction of embankments using lightweight EPS-blocks. Avtomobil’nye dorogi. 2007. No. 10, рр. 73–75. (In Russian).
3. Evtiukov S.A., Ryabinin G.A., Spektor A.G. Stroitel’stvo, raschet i proektirovanie oblegchennykh nasypei [Construction, calculation and design of lightweight embankments. Ed. by E.P. Madres]. SPb.: «Petropolis». 2009. 260 p.
4. EN 13163:2001 Thermal insulation products for buildings – Factory made products of expanded polystyrene (EPS) – Specification.
5. ISO 12491:1997 Statistical methods for quality control of building materials and components.
6. ASTM D 6817–04 Standard Specification for Rigid Cellular Polystyrene Geofoam.
7. «Guideline and recommended standard for application in highway embankments» Transportation Research Board. Washington. DC. 2004. 58 p.
8. 4-th International Conference of Geofoam Blocks in Construction application. Norway, 2011.

N.N. SINITSYN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (sinitsyn@chsy.ru), A.V. MAKONKOV, Engineer Cherepovets State University (5 Lunacharskogo Avenue, 162600, Cherepovets, Russian Federation

Evaluation of Temperature of Road Surface during Construction

The process of cooling of road pavement of hot asphalt concrete mixes at construction of highways is considered. The article presents the description of a mathematical model of calculation of temperature fields of pavement. The mathematical model contains the one-dimensional non-stationary heat conduction equations for each layer. Boundary conditions on the surface of the top layer take into account the heat transfer by convection and radiation. The boundary conditions of the fourth kind are between the layers. The temperature boundaries of the lower layer are constant. Testing the model is performed for limited and semi-infinite rods. The article presents the results of testing the mathematical model. The numerical solution of heat conduction equations held by the implicit scheme. In article the method for calculating the temperature of paving surface is offered. The calculated values of the temperature of paving depending on the speed of a wind, solar radiation, thickness of a coat layer, a difference of thickness of a layer of hot asphalt concrete and reference temperature of a layer are presented. It is established that under identical conditions the porosity of material of the layer has the greatest impact on the change in temperature.

Keywords:asphalt concrete mixture, paving, temperature pattern of layers.

References
1. Nikolenko M.A., Besschetnov B.V. The increase in longterm cracking resistance of asphalt pavements. Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona. 2012. Vol. 20. Is. 2, pp. 665–670. (In Russian).
2. Zubkov A.F.. About a non-stationary heat transfer in processes of construction of road surfaces non-rigid type. Vestnik TGTU. 2007. Vol. 13. No. 2b, pp. 589–597 (In Russian).
3. Kudinov V.V., Kartashov E.M., Kalashnikov V.V. Analytical solutions of problems of heat and mass transfer and thermoelasticity for multilayered constructions [Analytical problem solving heat and mass transfer and thermoelasticity for multilayer designs]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 2005. 430 p.
4. Belitsky V.D., Katunin A.V. Analysis of the condition of the road asphalt pavement by means of thermodynamics. Omskiy nauchnyy vestnik. 2014. Vol. 1 (127), pp. 93–95. (In Russian).
5. Iliopolov S.K., Cherskov R.M., Mardirosova I.V. Increase of thermal resistance of asphalt concrete by use rubber-polymer additives. Vestnik Khar’kovskogo natsional’nogo avtomobil’no-dorоzhnogo universiteta. 2006. Vol. 34–35. http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/ povyshenie-temperaturnoy-stoykosti-asfaltobetonovputem-ispolzovaniya-rezino-polimernoy-dobavki (date of access 21.07.2015). (In Russian).
6. Hristoforova A.A, Gogolev I.N., Fillipov S.E. Development of rigid coverings of career roads with the use of activated rubber crumb. Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona. 2011. Vol. 18. Iss. 4, pp. 347–350. (In Russian).
7. Makonkov A.V., Kuzmina A.L., Belozor M.Yu. Research use of prospects of use granulated asphalt concrete mixture, received hot regeneration method. Vestnik Cherepovetskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2014. Vol. 2 (55), pp. 13–15. (In Russian).

G.R. BUTKEVICH 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (georgybutkevich@gmail.com) A.A. SEMYONOV 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (info@gs-expert.ru)
1 Research and Design Institute for Extraction, Transportation and Processing of Mineral Raw Materials in Building Materials Industry (1, Volokolamskoe Highway, Moscow, 125080, Russian Federation)
2 «GS-Expert», OOO (18, office 207, the 1st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Line, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

The State of the Non-Metallic Building Materials Industry. On the Example of Russia and the USA

25 years of development of the non-metallic industries of Russia and the USA have been analyzed. The periodicity of the decline in production is shown. Peculiarities of the overcoming of crisis phenomena are noted. In Russia, they are the change in the structure of products manufactured towards higher value products, mastering of mobile crushing and grading plants, manufacture of rubble from construction scrap. In the USA, the consolidation of production occurs, a great attention is paid to increasing the production efficiency, the loyalty of the population and ecology.

Keywords:rubble, sand-gravel mix, modular mobile crushing and grading complexes, decline in production, ecology, production efficiency, resource saving.

References
1. Construction in Russia. Statistical Yearbook Rosstat. Moscow. 2014. (In Russian).
2. Industry of Russia. Statistical Yearbook Rosstat. Moscow. 2014. (In Russian).
3. The socio-economic situation in Russia. Yearbook Rosstat. Moscow. 2014. (In Russian).
4. Semenov A.A. Results of development of the construction complex and building materials industry in 2013, the forecast for 2014. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 81–85. (In Russian).
5. Butkevich G.R. Development of Non-Metallic Building Materials Industry of Russia and the USA. Past and Prospects. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 10, pp. 4–9. (In Russian).
6. Pit & Quarry. 2015. February, pp. 46–51.
7. Pit & Quarry. 2015. June, p. 6.
8. Pit & Quarry. 2015. March, pp. 56–59.
9. Pit & Quarry. 2015. June, p. 33.

A.N. DAVIDYUK, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Director, Yu.S. VOLKOV, kand. tekhn. nauk, Scientific Secretary (volkov@cstroy.ru) Research, Design and Technological Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete named after A.A. Gvozdev (6/5, Institutskaya Street, Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation)

The XVII ERMCO Congress The XVII ERMCO Congress was held on June 4–5, 2015 in Istanbul, Turkey. It was organized by the Turkish Ready Mixed Concrete Association under the auspices of the European Ready Mixed Concrete Organization (ERMCO), but in essence, the Congress had world-wide nature. National Associations of Ready Mixed Concrete (ready-mix concrete (RMC) according to Russian standard) of the USA, India, Australia, countries of Latin America, Japan expressed a desire to participate in the Congress. 350 specialists from over 40 countries took part in the Congress. For the first time specialists of Azerbaijan participated in this Congress and after the Congress they decided to recommend their National Association to become a member of ERMCO.

Keywords:congress, concrete, concrete mixes.

K.V. ZAYTSEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kseniya_zaiceva@mail.ru), L.A. TIKHOMIROVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.A. TITUNIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.M. IBRAGIMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Kostroma State Technological University (17 Dzerzhinskogo Street, 156005, Kostroma, Russian Federation)

Ways of Cutting Barked Logs for Creation of Glued Designs with Changing Geometrical Characteristics of Section on Length The rounded logs are used for creation of glued timber designs that causes big percent of waste (or a small exit). The use of barked of logs with preservation of a taper is a feature of approach to cutting of round forest products in this article. It allows: 1. to minimize waste; 2. to create glued designs of variable section on length with increased geometrical characteristics (the section resistance moment) and increased bearing capacity in relation to the initial round section.

Keywords:cutting of logs, peripheral zone, taper, glued designs, section resistance moment.

References
1. Ershov S.V. Delimitation of dimensional ranges of the sawn raw materials at effective operation of the sawing equipment. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Lesnoy zhurnal.2013. No. 4, pp. 72–79. (In Russian).
2. Yanushkevich A.A., Larchenko A.V., Chernyavskiy E.A. Individual cutting of logs on radial timber for glued bars. Aktual’nye problemy lesnogo kompleksa. 2012. No. 34, pp. 104–106. (In Russian).
3. Patent RF 2415749. Sposob polucheniya kleenykh pilomaterialov iz breven (varianty) [Way of receiving glued timber from logs (options)] / Chervinskiy V.A., Boldyrev V.S., Shchepkin V.B., Kozhukhova I.G. Declared 09.06.2009. Published 10.04.2011. (In Russian).
4. Patent RF 2185280. Sposob pererabotki breven [Way of processing of logs] / Isaev S.P. Declared 09.06.2001. Published 20.07.2002. (In Russian).
5. Patent RF 2438861. Sposob polucheniya kleenykh pilomaterialov iz bokovykh dosok brevna (varianty) [Way of receiving glued timber from side boards of a log (options)] / Chervinskiy V.A., Boldyrev V.S., Shchepkin V.B., Kozhukhova I.G.; Declared 05.04.2010. Published 10.01.2012. (In Russian).
6. Volynskiy V.N., Plastinin S.N. Pervichnaya obrabotka pilomaterialov na lesopil’nykh predpriyatiyakh [Preprocessing of timber at the sawing enterprises]. SaintPetersburg: «Lan’». 2012. 264 p.

E.M. CHERNYSHEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAAСS (chem@vgasu.vrn.ru), N.D. POTAMOSHNEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), O.V. ARTAMONOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) (ol_artam@rambler.ru) Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Concepts and Substantiations of Nano-Modification Technology of Building Com-posites Structures. Part 4. Sol-gel Technology of Nano-, Micro-Disperse Crystals of Portlandite for Contact-Condensation Compaction of Structures of Portlandite Stone and Composites on Its Base Results of studies and developments concerning the use of a mono-mineral binder, quick lime, for hydration structure formation of artificial Portlandite stone and production of clinkerless composites on its base are presented. It is shown that for producing the durable artificial Portlandite stone it is necessary to separate the stage of formation of individual crystals Са(ОН)2 from the stage of their aggregate formation. Technological options of the lime hydration under different conditions with the purpose to obtain individual micro- and nano-size crystals of Portlandite with non-equilibrium energy state are presented. The formation of artificial stone from individual crystals of Portlandite is made by compaction into the aggregates of a contact-condensation type. A possibility to obtain Portlandite, Portlandite-calcium carbonate, and Portlandite -aluminum silicate cementless contact-condensation systems of hardening which are able to harden directly under the forced compaction of nano- and micro-disperse particles of initial alkali and acid oxides and their hydrates endowed or purposefully endowed with the non-equilibrium energy state is shown.

Keywords:sol-gel technology, Portlandite crystals, non-equilibrium state, clinkerless composites, contact-condensation hardening

References
1. Chernyshov E.M., Potamoshneva N.D. Artificial stone on the basis of crystallization portlandite. Modern problems of building materials. Future directions in the theory and practice of mineral binders and related materials: Materials academic readings RAASN. International scientific and technical conference. Samara. 1995. Part 1, pp. 20–21. (In Russian).
2. Belov N.V. Protsessy real’nogo kristalloobrazovaniya. [The process of real crystal formation]. Moscow: Nauka. 1977. 235 p.
3. Volmer M. Kinetika obrazovaniya novoi fazy. [Kinetics of formation of a new phase]. Moscow: Nauka. 1986. 208 p.
4. Kozlova O.G. Rost i morfologiya kristallov. [Growth and morphology of crystals]. Moscow: Publishing house of the Moscow University. 1980. 368 p.
5. Camski E.V. Kristallizatsiya v khimicheskoi promyshlennosti. [Crystallization in the chemical industry]. Moscow: Chemistry. 1969. 344 p.
6. Lodiz R., Parker R. Rost monokristallov. [Single crystal growth]. Moscow: Mir. 1974. 540 p.
7. Logginov G.I., Rebinder P.A., Sukhov V.P. Research hydration hardening quicklime. DAN SSSR. 1954. Vol. 99. No. 4, pp. 569–572. (In Russian).
8. Osin B.V., Ulyanov V.A., Volkov V.V. Terms high hydration hardening lime. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura.1973. No. 10, pp. 73–76. (In Russian).
9. Chernyshov E.M., Potamoshneva N.D. Development of research on pattern formation portlanditovogo stone. Actual problems of building materials: Materials of AllRussian scientific and technical conference.Tomsk. 1998, pp. 4–7. (In Russian).

V.D. СHERKASOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (vd–cherkasov@yandex.ru), V.I. BUZULUKOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (buzulukov–v@yandex.ru), O.V. TARAKANOV 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (zigk@pguas.ru), A.I. YEMELYANOV 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (emeljanovai@list.ru)
1 Mordovia State University named after N.P. Ogarev (68, Bolshevistskaya Street, Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation)
2 Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (28, Germana Titova Street, Penza, 440028, Russian Federation)

Structure Formation of Cement Composites with Addition of Modified Diatomite The introduction of additives of various functional purposes in cement systems is the most efficient method for improving the concrete quality. Mineral additives developed early by authors on the basis of the chemically modified diatomite, when introduced in the quantity of 1–1,5% of cement mass, increase the cement stone strength at compression up to 40% on the average. To determine the participation of particles of the modified diatomite in processes taking place in cement composites, time changes of the quantitative phase composition of materials of the raw mix have been studied with the help of X-ray diffractometry. It is shown that the modified diatomite actively participates in the processes of crystallization of products of cement hydration that leads to improving the structure and strength of the cement stone.

Keywords:modified diatomite, cement composite, X-ray diffraction, concrete admixes.

References
1. Batrakov V. G. Modifitsirovannye betony [Modified concretes]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1998. 768 p.
2. Bazhenov Yu.M., Dem’yanova V.S., Kalashnikov V.I. Modifitsirovannye vysokokachestvennye betony [Modified high quality concrete]. Moscow: ASV, 2006. 368 p. (In Russian).
3. Demyanovа V. S., Kalashnikov V. I., Borisov A. A. About the use of particulate fillers in cement systems. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 1999. No. 1, pp. 17–18. (In Russian).
4. Kalashnikov V.I., Erofeev V.T., Moroz M.N., Troyanov I.Yu., Volodin V.M., Suzdal’tsev O.V. Nanohydrosilicate technologies in concrete production. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 88–92. (In Russian).
5. Kalitina M.A., Kazmina A.V., Arslanbekova F.F. Influence of complex multicomponent additives on properties of a cement stone and concrete. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 3, pp. 23–26. (In Russian).
6. Dvorkin L.I., Dvorkin L.O. Osnovi betonovedeniya [Concrete science]. St. Petersburg. 2006. 690 p.
7. Dvorkin L.P., Solomatov V.I., Vyrovoy V.N., S.M. Chudnovsky. Cementnye betony s mineral’nymi napolniteljami [Cement concretes with mineral fillers]. Kiev: Budivelnik. 1991. 136 р.
8. Cherkasov V.D., Buzulukov V.I., Emel’yanov A.I., Kiselev, E.V., Cherkasov D.V. Active mineral additive on the basis of chemically modified diatomite. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo.2011. No. 12, рр. 11–21. (In Russian).
9. Cherkasov. V.D., Buzulukov V.I., Emel’yanov A.I., Cherkasov D.V. On the chemical modification of diatomite and the possibility of its further use as an active mineral additives. Vestnik VolGASU. Seriya: «Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura».2013. No. 31 (50), P. 2, рр. 30–31. (In Russian).
10. Buzulukov V.I., Erofeev V.T., Emel’yanov A.I., Cherkasov, D.V. Effectiveness of carbonized diatomite in cement composites. Tekhnologii betonov.2015. No. 1–2, рр. 30–31. (In Russian).

A.F. BURIANOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)(rga-service@mail.ru), V.V. KRIVENKO, Engineer, A.D. ZHUKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Physical-Chemical Nature of Marble Decorativeness Marble is fully metamorphic recrystallized limestone, decorative properties of which are formed as a result of geological processes. Natural marble is characterized by strength, resistance to atmospheric impacts and, primarily, by decorativeness. Decorativeness factors are the marble structure, its transparency and coloration.

Keywords:marble, metamorphism, limestone, structure, coloration.

References
1. Krivenko V.V., Ovchininskii D.V., Vainshtein M.M., Bur’yanov A.F., Goncharov Yu.A. Artifical marble: the ancient traditions and modern technologies. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 8, pp. 16–18. (In Russian).
2. Kuz’mina V.P. Color composite materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 2, pp. 16–17. (In Russian).
3. Karasev Yu.G., Karaseva O.Yu. Natural stone cladding: production, exports, imports, prices. Gornyi zhurnal. 1996. No. 6, pp. 15–17. (In Russian).
4. Fornaro M., Bosticco L. Undeground Stone Quarrying in Italy. Marmo Macchine International. 1994. No. 6, pp. 28–54.
5. Zhukov A.D., Bobrova Ye.Yu., Zelenshchikov D.B., Mustafaev R.M., Khimich A.O. Insulation systems and green sustainable construction. Advanced Materials, Structures and Mechanical Engineering. 2014. Vol. 1025 – 1026, pp. 1031–1034.
6. Lebedinskiy V.I. V udivitel’nom mire kamnya [In the wonderful world of stone.]. Moscow: Nedra. 1978. 159 p.
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2021