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Stroitel`nye Materialy №10

Stroitel`nye Materialy №10
October, 2015

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E.I. SHMIT’KO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), N.A. VERLINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (verlnata@mail.ru) Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Press-Molding Processes and Their Influence on Adobe Brick Quality
Scientific basis and practical results concerning the reasons for structure decompaction of pressed adobes of silicate and ceramic bricks are presented. The main reason for this phe nomenon lies in the large surface energy of disperse particles of the solid phase, under the influence of which the water in the molding mixture becomes connected in the form of sur face films or inter-granular capillaries. Under the impact of internal forces, self-compaction or self-decompaction of the molding mix occurs. An internal stress in the molded brick caused by hydro-static pressure of entrapped air is also important. Practical recommendations for optimizing the action of these factors are made. They are the control over humidity state of an initial molding mixture and the use of molding presses implementing the two-stage regime of press-molding.

Keywords: silicate brick, molding, adobe, molding mixture, disperse particles.

References
1. Deryagin V.V., Churaev A.V., Ovcharenko F.D. ets. Voda v dispersnykh sistemakh [The water in dispersed systems]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1989. 288 s.
2. Shmit’ko E.I., Verlina N.A., Krylova A.V., Rezanov A.A. The evolution of the stress state of the “cement-water- builder” from the time of its preparation until complete solidification. Collection of articles on materials of the 7-th International Conference “Fracture mechanics of concrete, reinforced concrete and other building materials”. Voronezh. 2013. Vol. 2, pp. 35–44. (In Russian).
3. Shmit’ko E.I. Process management and structure of hardening concrete. Doct. Diss. (Engineering). Voronezh. 1994. 525 p.(In Russian).
4. Shmit’ko E.I., Titova M.V. Management of structure of the dispersion-grained material to the dispersion and in ternal forces. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 8, pp. 72–73. (In Russian).
5. Titova M.V. Optimization of press molding of products from fine concrete criterion depending on the energy dispersion of solid particles. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Voronezh. 2007. 147 p. (In Russian).
6. Taman M.Kh.A. Management of processes of structure formation and hardening of the modified cement systems with regard to the conditions of dry and hot climate. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Voronezh. 2011. 157 p. (In Russian).

M.V. KORNEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Deputy Director for research and development (apsi2011@yandex.ru), T.P. KORNEVA, Chief Foreman of Brick Shop OOO «Silikatstroy» (111 Lenina Avenue, 606000 Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russian Federation)

Resistance of Silicate Materials in Water and Aggressive Media
In a number of Russian normative-technical documents there is a prohibition against the use of silicate products in foundations, basements and socles of buildings and structures as well as in premises with humid and wet conditions (SP 15.13330, SP 28.13330, SP 70.13330). These limits are partly correct with regard to products of 50–70 th of the XX century. During the last decades the technology of production was enhanced and the quality of manufactured products was significantly improved. The experience in the use of silicate materials under moisture impact in many countries of the West Europe (Germany, Netherland, Swiss, Austria) calls into question the fairness of limitation of their application. That’s why the Association of silicate products manufacturers sets the task to prove or disprove the proposition that silicate materials, when they are in water or under impact of salt solution, are destroyed or lose their consumer properties.

Keywords: silicate products, silicate brick, water resistance, softening coefficient.

References
1. Khavkin L.M. Tekhnologiya silikatnogo kirpicha [Techno logy of sand-lime brick]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1982. 384 p.
2. Cherepanov V.I., Nekrasova E.V., Chernykh N.A., Panchenko Yu.F. Waterproofness of Silicate Brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, pp. 10–11. (In Russian).

I.A. GALEEV, General Director (galeev_w@mail.ru) OOO «INVEST-TEKHNOLOGIA» (20P, Nakhimova Street, 454119, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation)

The Use of Pumps with Servomotors at Permanent Magnets in Heavy Hydraulic Presses
Traditional hydraulic systems for heavy hydraulic presses exhaust themselves from the point of view of energy efficiency, fast operation and accuracy. The hydro-systems of presses with the use of frequency regulation drives (FRD) are the most prospective alternative of the traditional hydro-system. There are various types of hydro-systems with FRD. The NSMPM system is the most efficient. This article considers main variants of hydro-systems with FRD and gives a comparative analysis with NSMPM.

Keywords:frequency control with electric drives, presses for silicate brick, pumps with servo-motor at permanent magnets

References
1. Онищенко Г.Б., Юньков М.В. Электропривод турбо-механизмов. М.: Энергия, 1972. 240 с.
2. SVP Technology – Injection Moulding Machine. Purchase. 2010. April, pp. 58-59. http://indianpurchase. com/admin/articles_pdf/1308051237-IW%20-%20 E % 2 0 & % 2 0 E % 2 0 - % 2 0 T E C H N I C A L % 2 0 ARTICLE%20-4.pdf (date of access: 01.09.2015).
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7. Patent JP2000027766. Energy saving type hydraulic pump operating device. Matsumoto Kinji. Published 25.01.2000.
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10. Patent JP2003070279. Electric power unit. Ohira Akihiko, Morota Takashi, Nakazawa Shunichi, Yoshida Seio. Published 07.03.2003
11. Patent JP2003172302. Inverter drive hydraulic unit. Oba Koichi, Ichikava Junichi. Published 20.06.2003.
12. Patent JP2004332563. Inverter control system of hydraulic pump. Ichihashi Tatsumi. Published 25.11.2004.
13. Patent JP2005014474. Hydraulic control device and method for injection molding mashine. Ishikawa Takashi. Published 20.01.2005.
14. Patent JP2005169807. Method for optimally controlling inverter of hydraulic molding mashine. Anmen Takashi, Murozaki Takashi, Miyuzaki Mitsutoshi, Nishida Ryozo, Nagae Katsutoshi, Tsuchiya Toshiki. Published 30.06.2005.
15. Patent JP2003056469. Hydraulic mashine unit. Matsumura Masao, Yamamoto Masao, Yamamoto Masakazu. Published 26.02.2003.

G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer (kuznetzowa.gal@yndex.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1 Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Steam Curing of Silicate Brick in Autoclave
The analysis and results of the study of conditions of silicate adobe brick steam curing are presented. Expansion of the range of silicate brick and manufacture of color brick in particular, requires a new approach to the technology. The stage of steam supply into the autoclave or the new separate stage of brick steam curing at atmospheric pressure is considered. Steam characteristic at the stage of 0–0,1 MPa is given. Variants of the product heating in the autoclave are analyzed in the form of graphs.

Keywords:silicate brick, silicate products, autoclave, autoclave curing.

References
1. Khavkin L.M. Tekhnologiya silikatnogo kirpicha [Technology of sand-lime brick]. Moscow: Ekolit. 2011. 384 p.
2. Sazhnev. N.P, Sazhnev N.N., Sazhneva N.N., Golubev N.M. Proizvodstvo yacheistobetonnykh izdelii. Teoriya i praktika [Production of cellular concrete products. Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2010. 464 p.
3. Mukhina T.G. Proizvodstvo silikatnogo kirpicha [Production of lime-sand brick]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1967. 179 p.
4. Vakhnin M.P., Anishchenko A.A. Proizvodstvo silikatnogo kirpicha [Production of lime-sand brick] Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1989. 200 p.
5. Kuznetsova G.V., Sannikova V.I. Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Quality of Colored Silicate Brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 36–39. (In Russian).
6. Rudchenko D.G. Autoclave treatment of products from cellular concrete. Ves’Beton: elektronnyi zhurnal (date of access 20.08.2015). (In Russian).
7. Bazhenov Yu.M. Tekhnologiya betona. Moscow: ASV. 2002. 500 p.

A.I. KUDYAKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.S. PLEVKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), K.L. KUDYAKOV, Engineer, A.V. NEVSKY, Engineer, A.S. USHAKOVA, Engineer (tsuab_rc@mail.ru) Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (2, Solyanaya Street, 634003, Tomsk, Russian Federation)

Improvement in Manufacturing Technology of Basalt Fiber Concrete with Increased Uniformity
Technological methods for preparing the basalt fiber concrete mix with increased uniformity are studied. It is established that 5% of basalt fibers of cement mass is an optimal content ensuring the uniform distribution of fibers in the concrete volume, the growth of compression strength of concrete by 51.2% and tensile strength by 28.8%. In the course of microscopic study of basalt fiber, new formations on the surface of basalt fibers are revealed; it shows the increase in adhesion of cement stone to fibers. The introduction of basalt fibers in the concrete mix significantly improves the uniformity of concrete quality indicators.

Keywords:fiber concrete, basalt fiber, fiber distribution, compression strength, tensile strength, uniformity, basalt fiber concrete.

References
1. Kudyakov A.I., Ushakova A.S., Kudyakov K.L., Dubasarov D.I., Efremova V.A. Trends in technology development of high strength heavy cement concrete. Building of energy-efficient full assembly economy-class housing: Collection of scientific papers. Tomsk: TSUAB. 2014, pp. 125–131. (In Russian).
2. Kudyakov A.I., Ushakova A.S., Kudyakov K.L., Nevskii A.V. Influence of plasticizers and microarming additives on strength and rheological characteristics of the concrete. Resource-saving technologies and efficient using of local materials in building. International collection of scientific papers. Novosibirsk: NGAU. 2013, pp. 10– 14. (In Russian).
3. Vasilovskaya N.G., Endzhievskaya I.G., Kalugin I.G. Cement compositions disperse-reinforced by the basalt fiber. Vestnik TGASU.2011. № 3, pp. 153–158. (In Russian).
4. Voilokov I.A., Kanaev S.F. Bazaltofibrobeton. Historical excursus. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2009. № 4. pp. 26–31. (In Russian).
5. Rabinovich F.N. Kompozity na osnove dispersnoarmirovannykh betonov. Voprosy teorii i proektirovaniya, tekhnologiya, konstruktsii [Composites based on concrete with dispersed reinforcement. Issues of theory and design, technology, design]. Moscow: ASV. 2004. 560 p. (In Russian).
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7. Abdulhadi M. A comparative study of basalt and polypropylene fibers reinforced concrete on compressive and tensile behavior. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT). 2014. Vol. 9. № 6. pp. 295–300. (In English).
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I.V. ZHERNOVSKIY 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), V.V. NELYUBOVA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (309991@mail.ru), V.V. STROKOVA 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); E.G. OSADCHIY 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry) (euo@iem.ac.ru)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 Institute of Experimental Mineralogy Russian Academy of Sciences (4, Academic Osip’yan Street, Moscow Region, Chernogolovka, 142432, Russian Federation)

Phase Formation of Binders in the System «Lime – Granite NB» in Autoclaved Hardening Conditions*
This work introduces the results of X-ray diffraction study of phase formation in model systems, hardened in hydrothermal conditions in accordance with the parameters of the production of autoclaved materials. Reaction activity of the mineral components of granite NB is presented. Quantitative ratios of crystalline growths depending on the initial compound of the test composition were found. On the basis of X-ray diffraction analysis data a mechanism of phase formation of system «lime – Granite NB», which consists of the following: reactive silica contained in the binder composition assists the formation of low-basic calcium hydrosilicates (tobermorite and foshagite) – the main contributers of the strength properties of autoclaved materials. The presence of the aluminosilicate component in the binder leads to the formation of the zeolite phase as wairakite which is responsible for durability of products during their operation, as well as hydrogarnets. At the same time the studied system is characterized by the superposition of the hardening mechanisms of the composition: hydrational and geopolymeric.

Keywords:nanostructured binder, magmatic genesis, phase formation, mineral phases, aluminosilicate.

References
1. Zhernovskii I.V., Osadchaya M.S., Cherevatova A.V., Strokova V.V. Aluminum-silicate nano-structured binder on the basis of granite raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 38–41. (In Russian).
2. Neljubova V.V., Kobzev V.A., Kapusta M.N., Podgornyj according to the genesis of raw materials. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2015. No. 2, pp. 25–28. (In Russian).
3. Miroshnikov E.V., Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V. A Nanostructured perlite binder and foam concrete on its base. Stroitel’nye Materialy[Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 9, pp. 105–106. (In Russian).
4. Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V. Foam-concrete on the basis of nanostructured binder // Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova.2009. No. 3. pp. 115–119. (In Russian).
5. Pavlenko N.V., Kapusta M.N., Miroshnikov E.V. Features of reinforcement of non-autoclave curing cellular concretes based on nanostructured binder. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2013. No. 1, pp. 33–36. (In Russian).
6. Ovcharenko G.I., Mihajlenko A.A. Interconnection of strength and phase composition of the autoclaved limeash stone. Part I. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 10, pp. 28–32. (In Russian).
7. Ovcharenko G.I., Mihajlenko A.A. Interconnection of strength and phase composition of the autoclaved limeash stone. Part II. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 1, pp. 26–32. (In Russian).
8. Ovcharenko G.I., Gil’mijarov D.I. Phase composition of the autoclaved lime-ash materials. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 9, pp. 28–33. (In Russian).
9. Solovyov L.A. Full-profile refinement by derivative difference minimization. Journal of Applied Crystallography. 2004. No. 37, pp. 743–749

E.M. CHERNYSHEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAAСS (chem@vgasu.vrn.ru), O.V. ARTAMONOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) (ol_artam@rambler.ru), G.S. SLAVCHEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Concepts and Technology Base Nanomodification of Structures of Building Composites. Part 3: Effective Nanomodification of Systems and Structures of Cement Hardening Cement Stone (Criteria and Conditions)*
The problem of the effectiveness of the nanomodification of systems and structures of cement hardening cement paste. Implemented kinetic approach in studying the process of hydration of cement in a modification of the nanostructure of cement stone. Evaluation of nanomodification of carried out by analyzing the performance criterion is integrated into the «anchor» to the conditions of the nanomodification of measure is achieved by varying the flow of kinetic parameters of hydration and hardening of cement and related criteria Е, τ, R. The introduction of nano modifiers optimal dosages accelerates the hydration of cement, with the modification taking place by cement stone structure and morphology of dispersion of tumors is accompanied by elevated-strength values at 28 days age 45–65% depending on the kind of additive.

Keywords:system hardening cement, performance criteria, efficiency of the nanomodification of activation energy, efficiency of the nanomodification of strength.

References
1. Artamonova O.V., Chernyshov E.M. Conceptions and bases of nano-modification technologies of building composites structures. Part 1. General problems of fundamentality, main direction of investigations and developments. Stroitel’nye Materialy[Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 82–95. (In Russian).
2. Chernyshov E.M., Artamonova O.V., Slavcheva G.S. Concepts and bases of technologies of nanomodification of building composite structures. Part 2. to the problem of conceptual models of nanomodification of the structure. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 73–84. (In Russian).
3. Artamonova O.V., Korotkikh D.N., Chernyshev E.M. Formation of the structure and management of the strength properties of modified systems in hydrosilicate ultra- and nano-sized particles. Deformation and fracture of materials: Proceedings of the First International Conference. Moscow. 2006, pp. 514–516. (In Russian).
4. Artamonova O.V., Kukina O.B., Solokhin M.A. Investigation of the structure and properties of cement paste, modified complex nano-additive. Deformacija i razrushenie materialov. 2014. No. 11, pp. 18–22. (In Russian).
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K.A. SARAYKINA 1 , Master (Ksenya_s2004@mail.ru), V.A. GOLUBEV 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (Golubev_va@cems.pstu.ru); G.I. YAKOVLEV 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (jakowlew@udm.net); G.D. FEDOROVA 3 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (fedorovagd@mail.ru), G.N. ALEKSANDROV 3 , Engineer; T.A. PLEKHANOVA 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (tat-plekhanova@yandex.ru), I.G. DULESOVA 2 , Engineer
1 Perm State National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolskiy Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 Izhevsk State Technical University named after M.T. Kalashnikov (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)
3 North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk (50, Kulakovskogo Street, Yakutsk, 677000, Russian Federation) Modification of Dasaltfiberconcrete by Nanodispersed System Management of cement systems structure formation can be achieved by introducing nano-dispersed components, which is supported by studies of various scientists. However, the effect of their use in basaltfiberconcrete to date has not been studied. The article presents the results of research modification basaltfiberconcrete various nano- and ultradisperse carbon-based additives. According to the research found that by the introduction of multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersion is possible to differentiate the composition of the electoral of tumors on the surface of basalt fibers, providing increased adhesion in the boundary layers of the system, contributing to a significant increase in strength characteristics of modified basaltfiberconcrete samples. A modification at basaltfiberconcrete by soot dispersion is formed partially crystallized calcium hydrosilicate tobermorit structure, also sealing the contact zone of reinforcing fibers and a cement matrix. Based on the results of the research we can talk about structural modification of basaltfiberconcrete by nano- and ultradisperse carboncontaining systems, intensifying the process of hydration of Portland cement matrix and the seal on the border with the surface of basalt fiber.

Keywords:basaltfiberconcrete, modification, multi-walled carbon nanotube, soot, structural.

References
1. Zimin D.E., Tatarinceva O.S. Reinforcement of cement concrete particulate materials from basalt. Polzunovskiy vestnik.2013. No. 3, pp. 286–289. (In Russian).
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A.V. OSTROUH 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (ostroukh@mail.ru), I.V. NEDOSEKO 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (Nedoseko1964@mail.ru), A.A. AJSARINA 3 , Engineer (mail@mfmgutu.ru), M.I. STRUGOVEC 2 , Engineer (st--08@yandex.ru)
1 Moscow State Automobile and Road Technical University (64, Leningradsky Avenue, Moscow, 125319, Russian Federation)
2 Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)
3 The branch of FSEI HPE MSUTM named after K.G. Razumovskiy in Meleuz , Bashkortastan (34, Smolenskaja Street, Meleuz, 453850, Respublika Bashkortostan)

Design of Automated System of Control of Factories and Plants for Production of Mortar and Concrete Mixes
A new approach to the design of an automated system of control of a concrete factory which is a complex of means of technical, information, mathematical and software provision for managing technological objects is proposed. The system ensures the optimal level of automation of accumulation and processing of information for the formation of control signals and transmitting them without losses and distortion to actuators for achieving the most efficient operation of the management object as a whole.

Keywords:concrete, concrete factory, mnemonic, automated control system, programmed logical controller, management, technologival process

References
1. Ostroukh A.V., Nikolaev A.B. Intellektual’nye sistemy v nauke i proizvodstve [Intelligent systems in science and industry]. Saarbrucken: Palmarium Academic Publishing. 2012. 312 p.
2. Ostroukh A.V., Tyan’ Yu. Modern methods and approaches to building management systems of production and technological activities of industrial enterprises. Avtomatizatsiya i upravlenie v tekhnicheskikh sistemakh. 2013. No. 1, pp. 29–31. (In Russian).
3. Ostroukh A.V., Glebov A.O., Karpov S.V., Karpushkin S.V., Krasnyanskiy M.N. Optimization of design and performance characteristics of heating system of press equipment. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 2014. Vol. 11. No. 6, pp. 939–946.
4. Kalashnikov V.I. How to transform old generation of high-performance concretes concretes new generation. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2012. No. 1, pp. 82. (In Russian).
5. Kalashnikov V.I., Borisov A.A., Polyakov L.G., Krapchin V.Yu., Gorbunova V.S. Modern views on the use of fine ground cement and concrete in the VNV. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2000. No. 7, pp. 12–13. (In Russian).
6. Vei P.A., M’o L.A., Ostroukh A.V., Ismoilov M.I. Overview of the current state of development of automation of production of dry construction mixtures. V mire nauchnykh otkrytii. 2012. No. 12, pp. 12–19. (In Russian).
7. Ostroukh A.V., Vei P.A. Optimization of the process parameters of mixing of dry building mixes in a horizontal drum mixer by continuous simulation. Avtomatizatsiya i upravlenie v tekhnicheskikh sistemakh. 2014. No. 2, pp. 21–28. (In Russian).
8. Kabir M.R., Ismoilov M.I., Ostroukh A.V. Automated Control System for concrete plant. Avtomatizatsiya i upravlenie v tekhnicheskikh sistemakh. 2014. No. 3, pp. 178–190. (In Russian).
9. Ostroukh A.V., Aisarina A.A. Development of an automated control system of concrete mixing plants with twin-shaft mixer. Avtomatizatsiya i upravlenie v tekhnicheskikh sistemakh. 2015. No. 1, pp. 51–59. (In Russian)

L.V. YANKOVSKY 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (yanekperm@yandex.ru), N.E. KOKODEEVA 2 , Doctor Sciences (Engineering); Yu.A. TROFIMENKO 2 , Engineer; Sh.N. VALIEV 3 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); I.G. SHASHKOV 4 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29a, Komsomolsky Avenue, 614600, Perm, Russian Federation)
2 Saratov State Technical University named after Yu.A. Gagarin (77, Politekhnicheskaya Street, 410054, Saratov, Russian Federation)
3 Moscow Automobile and Road Construction University (64, Leningradsky Avenue, 125319, Moscow, Russian Federation)
4 Air Force Academy named after professor N.E. Zhukovsky and Yu.A. Gagarin (54A, Starykh Bolshevikov Street, 394064, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

The Use of a Digital Microscope When Monitoring Macro-roughness of Pavements of Pedestrian Bridge Structures The development of methods for technical rate setting and instrumental monitoring of the geometry of the composite material surface with preserved properties after aggressive media and climatic impacts is presented. As an instrumental device for monitoring, a digital video- and photo-microscope with two hundredfold increase has been selected. Recommendations on the selection of increase of the investigated object depending on its size are formulated. A mean square deviation of the difference in height is 0.3 – 1 mm that meets the requirement for the coefficient of friction. The digital microscope was used when monitoring the quality of floor pavements of pedestrian bridge structures on the highway “Don”. Among others, the results of monitoring were used for evaluating parameters of macro-roughness of the floor pavement of the aboveground pedestrian crossing. Monitoring data were stored in the software complex for the consistent accumulation and subsequent analysis of the efficiency of the innovation use at objects of the state company “Avtodor”. In the course of monitoring, the road mobile laboratory of the Volga educational-scientific center “Volgodortrans” of the Saratov State Technical University named after Yu.A. Gagarin was used.

Keywords:monitoring, automobile road, aboveground pedestrian crossing, bridge structure, macro-roughness.

References
1. Nemchinov M.V. Tekstura poverkhnosty dorozhnykh pokrytiy. Tom 1. Obosnovanie, normirovanie i proektirovanie parametrov tekstury poverkhnosti dorozhnykh pokrytiy [The texture of the road surface. Vol. 1. Justification, regulation and design parameters of the surface texture of pavements]. Moscow: TekhPoligrafTsentr. 2010. 380 p.
2. Nemchinov M.V. Tekstura poverkhnosti dorozhnykh pokrytiy. Tom 2. Opisanie i kolichestvennye rezul’taty eksperimental’nykh issledovaniy. Primery raschetov. Metodika rascheta glubiny tekstury poverkhnosti sloia iznosa (po tipu poverkhnostnoi obrabotki) [The texture of the road surface. Vol. 2. The description and the quantitative results of experimental studies. Sample calculations. Methods of calculating the depth of the surface texture of the wear layer (type surface treatment)]. Moscow: TekhPoligrafTsentr. 2010. 156 p.
3. Yankovskiy L.V., Kochetkov A.V., Trofimenko Yu.A. Method of selection of the material for the device layers of rough pavement. Nauchnyi vestnik Voronezhskogo GASU. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2015. No. 1/(37), pp. 99–111. (In Russian).
4. Chvanov A.V. Rationing, the device and quality control of the macro-rough road surfaces. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Volgograd. 2010. (In Russian).
5. Susliganov P.S. Improving the quality control methods for paving with a rough surface. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Volgograd. 2006. (In Russian).
6. Kochetkov A.V., Yankovsky L.V., Kadyrov Zh.N. Standardization of roughness of products of the machinebuilding industry on the basis of variable height indicator of ledges and variable depth indicator of hollows as an extension of state Standard GOST 2789–73. Chemical and Petroleum Engineering(2014). Volume 50, Issue 1–2, June 2014, Pages 50–57.
7. Kochetkov A.V., Yankovskiy L.V., Sukhov A.A. Rationing macro-rough surfaces. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. Seriia «Arkhitektura. Stroitel’stvo. Transport». 2013. No. 1(36), pp. 137–144. (In Russian).
8. Sukhov A.A. Improving traffic safety research methods taking into account the variability of the coefficient of adhesion macro-rough road surfaces. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Volgograd. 2014. (In Russian)

Yu.G. MESHCHERYAKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Head of «Building Materials» Department, S.V. FEDOROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Head of Division, Center of competences in operational and supporting processes (Fedorov.Sergey@atomprof.spb.ru) Saint-Petersburg Branch of Rosatom Central Institute for continuing education and training (4 A Aerodromnaya Street, 187348 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Problems of Use of Penetrating Waterproofing
An issue of application of a dry mix of «penetrating waterproofing», which makes it possible to improve the density and water resistance of the wet concrete and mortar on the basis of Portland cement and its species in construction, is considered. However, there are some factors which ambiguously influence on the final state of the concrete stone. When applying the «penetrating waterproofing», improving the water resistance is achieved due to changing the structure of concrete, reducing its porosity, but the solubility of components of the cement stone does not change. Therefore, in the course of subsequent operation an increase in water permeability at dissolving the components of cement stone is possible. The wide use of «penetrating water proofing» in the construction practice requires the development of methods for control over mass-exchange processes.

Keywords:penetrating waterproofing, sulfoaluminate corrosion of cement stone, mass-exchange process

References
1. Popchenko S.N. Gidroizolyatsiya sooruzheniy i zdaniy [Waterproofing of constructions and buildings]. Leningrad: Stroyizdat. 1981. 304 p.
2. Hrulev V.M. Gidroizoljacionnye i germetizirujushhie materialy [Waterproofing and sealing materials]. Novosibirsk: NISI. 1985.75 p.
3. Iskrin V.S. Gidroizolyatsiya ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy promyshlennykh i grazhdanskikh sooruzheniy [Waterproofing of the protecting designs of industrial and civil constructions]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1975. 318 p.
4. Savilova G.N. Waterproofing buildings. Stroitel’nye Materialy[Construction Materials]. 2003. No. 7, pp. 32– 34. (In Russian).
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7. Babushkin V.I., Proshhin O.Ju., Kondrashhenko E.V. i dr. The new guide-roizolyatsionye materials penetrating type VIATRON. StrojPrajs.2004. No. 40 (210), pp. 8–9.
8. Leoushin V.U., Grigoriev I.A. The effective method of protection of concrete and reinforced concrete structures: penetrating waterproofing. Byulleten’ stroitel’noy tekhniky.2010. No. 2 (906), pp. 54–56. (In Russian).
9. Valtsifer I.V., Sizeneva I.P., Saenko E.V., Valtsifer V.N., Strelnikov V.N. Development of penetrating waterproofing composition for the concrete constructional elements. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 12, pp. 46–48. (In Russian).
10. Moskvin V.N. i dr. Korroziya betona i zhelezobetona, metody zashchity [Corrosion of concrete and reinforced concrete, protection methods]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1980. 536 p.

A.I. PIMENOV, Engineer (kreation02@mail.ru) , R.A. IBRAGIMOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.S. IZOTOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Influence of Ultrasonic Treatment of Cement Paste on Physical-Mechanical Properties of Cement Compositions
The article presents the data on the impact of activation of mixing water and ultrasonic treatment on the kinetics of heat emission and time of setting of cement paste as well as on the strength of cement-sand mortar. It is shown that increasing the intensity of ultrasonic impact reduces both the beginning of setting and the end of setting of cement paste. The joint combination of mixing water activation and ultrasonic treatment of the modified cement paste makes it possible to significantly improve the strength of mortar mixes. The kinetics of heat emission of cement paste mixed with activated water and subjected to the ultrasonic impact demonstrates the acceleration of processes of hydration and structure formation of cement stone that is of practical importance for monolithic construction.

Keywords:ultrasonic, cement paste, mortar, electrochemical activation of water, superplasticizer.

References
1. Robler C., Stockigh M., Peters S., Ludwig H.-M. Power- ultrasound – an efficient method to accelerate setting and early strength development of concrete. F.A. FingerInstitute for building Materials Science, Bauhaus- University Weimar, Germany, 2009.
2. Daniel Peter Kennedy. A study to determine and quantify the benefits of using power ultrasound technology in a precast concrete manufacturing environment. Trinity College Dublin, 2012.
3. Patent RF 2371414 C1. Betonnaya smes’ [Concrete mix]. Belov V.V., Kuznecov M.Yu., Brycov A.S.; Declared 03.04.2008, Published 27.10.2009. (In Russian).
4. Safronov V.N., Kugaevskaya S.A., Rumyantseva E.V. Cyclic magnetic activation of liquid environments of a zatvoreniye with the broken structure of various chemical composition. Vestnik TGASU. 2012. No. 3, pp. 133–142. (In Russian).
5. Bazhenov Yu.M., Fomichev V.T. Theoretical justification of receiving concrete on the basis of electrochemical and elektromagnitnoaktivirovanny water of mixing. Internet-vestnik VolgGASU. 2012. No. 2 (22) (date оf access 30.09.2015). (In Russian).
6. Kudyakov A.I., Petrov A.G., Petrov G.G., Ikonnikova K.V. Improvements of quality of a cement stone by multifrequency ultrasonic activation of water of mixing. Vestnik TGASU. 2012. No. 3, pp. 143–152. (In Russian).
7. Luk’yanchenko M., Dzhelyal A., Strubalin A. Influence of technological parameters on durability of different types of water firm suspensions knitting at ultrasonic processing. Motrol. Сommission of motorization and energetic in agriculture. Lublin-Rzeszow. Vol.15. 2013. No. 5, pp. 17–22.
8. Fedorkin S.I., Makarova E.S., Elkina E.E. Increase of durability of a cement stone by cement modification by the mechanoactivated small particles. Kommunal’noe khozyaistvo gorodov. Khar’kov: KhNUGKh imeni A.N. Beketova. 2012. No. 105, pp. 22–27. (In Russian).

V.I. LOGANINA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (loganin@mail.ru), M.V. ARISKIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), O.V. KARPOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), K.V. ZHEGERA, Engineer Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (28, Germana Titova Street, Penza, 440028, Russian Federation)

Evaluation of Crack Resistance of a Finishing Layer on the Basis of Dry Glue Mix with the Use of Synthesized Aluminum Silicates
The composition of dry glue mix with a cement binder and an additive on the basis of synthesized aluminum silicates are presented. The recipe includes Portland cement, filler (sand), plasticizer, polymeric and mineral additives. The calculation of temperature distribution along the section of the enclosing structure is made. The stress state of the glue layer depending on temperature stresses occurring in the enclosing structure is considered. Values of maximal tensile and compressive stresses along the strike and thickness of the glue layer are presented. It is shown that the glue layer on the basis of the dry mix on the cement base with use of synthesized aluminum silicates is a crack resistant.

Keywords:dry glue mix, synthesized aluminum silicates, crack resistance, temperature stresses.

References
1. Loganina V.I., Zhegera K.V. Influence on structure synthesized alumosilicate cement dry building mixes. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shuhova. 2014. No. 5, pp. 36–40. (In Russian).
2. Loganina V.I., Zhegera K.V. Evaluating the effectiveness of the use of synthetic alumosilicates in cement systems. Akademicheskiy vestnik UralNIIproekt RAASN. 2014. No. 3, pp. 84–87. (In Russian).
3. Fokin K.F., Tabunshhikova Ju.A., Gagarina V.G. Stroitel’naja teplotehnika ograzhdajushhih chastej zdanij [Thermal engineering envelope of the building]. Moscow: AVOK-PRESS. 2006. 256 p.
4. Gorchakov G.I., Lifanov I.I., Terehin L.N. Kojefficienty temperaturnogo rasshirenija i temperaturnye deformacii stroitel’nyh materialov [Coefficients of thermal expansion and thermal deformation of building materials]. Moscow: Committee of standards, measures and instruments at the Council of Ministers USSR. 1968. 167 p.
5. Il’inskiy V.M. Stroitel’naja teplofizika (ograzhdajushhie konstrukcii i mikroklimat zdanij) [Building thermal physics (envelope and the microclimate of buildings)]. Moscow: Vysshaja shkola. 1974. 320 p.
6. Il’ichenko O.T. Raschety teplovogo sostojanija konstrukcij. [Calculations of the thermal state structures]. Kharkov: Vishcha shkola. 1979. 168 p.
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2021