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Stroitel`nye Materialy №9

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УДК 691.327
E.M. CHERNYSHOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS (chem@vgasu.vrn.ru), G.S. SLAVCHEVA 1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gslavcheva@yandex.ru); L.V. KIM 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kimlv2@yandex.ru)
1 Voronezh State University of Architecture and Сivil Engineering (84, 20-letija Oktjabrja Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)
2 School of Engineering of the Far Eastern Federal University (Far Eastern Federal University, Housing 12, OPS Russian-2, Vladivostok, 690922, Russian Federation)

About Constructional Potential of High Performans Concretes Structures with Due Regard for Temperature-Humidity Operational Conditions A generalized interpretation of the mechanism of interrelation of strength, regularities of humidity deformation and frost-resistance of concretes with their temperature-humidity state is presented. The system of structural characteristics influencing on the manifestation and realization of the structural potential of the material is also presented. The generalization of the study results makes it possible to reveal the interrelation between parameters of composition and structure of high performans concretes and the realization of their structural potential under various temperature-humidity conditions.

Keywords:high performans concretes, structure, strength, humidity deformations, frost-resistance

References
1. Ananyan A.A. Features of water in the freezing-through fine mountain breeds. Superficial forces in thin films and disperse systems: International Scientific Conference. 1972, pp. 116–127. (In Russian).
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6. Gorchakov G.I. Sostav, struktura i svoistva tsementnykh betonov [The composition, structure and properties of cement concrete]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1976. 144 p.
7. Lykov, A.V. Yavleniya perenosa v kapillyarno-poristykh telakh [The transfer phenomena in capillary and porous bodies]. Moscow: Gostekhizdat. 1954. 320 pp.
8. Bogoslovskiy V.N., Gagarin V.G. Potential humidity. Theoretical basis. Bulletin RAASN OSN. 1996. Vol. 1, pp. 12–14. (In Russian).
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10. Bazhenov Yu.M., Chernyshov E.M., Korotkikh D.N. Designing of structures of modern concrete: the defining principles and technological platforms. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 6–14. (In Russian).

V.S. LESOVIK1 Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding member of RAACS (naukavs@mail.ru), L.H. ZAGORODNYUK 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); I.L. CHULKOVA2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (chulkova_il@sibadi.org); A.D. TOLSTOY 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.A. VOLODCHENKO1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhova (46, 2Kostyukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)
2 Siberian automobile and highway academy (5, Mira Avenue, Omsk, 644080, Russian Federation)

Affinity of Structures as a Theoretical Basis for Designing Composites of the Future Implementation of the law of the affinity of structures allows to create effective systems with anisotropic hardening of the composite, which includes the foundations for responding to the changing conditions of synthesis and service. It has been established and proved that within the system new fomations are synthesized and nano-, micro- and macrostructure is cre ated, possessing self-healing ability in mending defects, caused by a particular range of operating loads. When designing the composites of the future it is advisable to use the provi sions of the law of the affinity with the creation of highly reliable internal structure of the composite. Theoretical and practical approaches should be the prerequisite for the creation of a new class of “smart” construction materials with isotropic structure and effective properties.

Keywords: law of affinity structures, materials, composites, functional properties of materials.

References
1. Lesovik V.S. Chulkov I.L. Upravlenie strukturoobra zovaniem stroitel’nykh kompozitov: monografiya [Control of building composite structure formation: Monograph]. Omsk. SibADI. 2011. 462 p.
2. Lesovik V.S., Zagorodnuk L.H., Chulkova I.L. Law of the affinity of structures in materials science. Funda mental’nye issledovaniya. 2014. No. 3. P. 2, pp. 267– 271. (In Russian).
3. Chulkova I.L. Structurization of building composites on the basis of the affinity structures. Vestnik SibADI. 2012. No. 6, pp. 83–88. (In Russian).
4. Lesovik V.S., Zagorodnuk L.H., Belikov D.A., Shche kina A.U., Kuprina A.A. Effective dry mixes for repair and restoration works. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construc tion Materials]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 82–85. (In Russian).
5. Lesovik V.S., Zagorodnuk L.H., Shkarin A.V, Beli- kov D.A., Kuprina A.A. Creating effective insulation solutions, taking into account the law of affinity struc tures in construction materials. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2013. No. 24 (11), pp. 1496–1502.
6. Lesovik, V.S., Zagorodnuk L.H., Elias G.G., Belikov D.A. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi dlya remont nykh rabot na kompozitsionnykh vyazhushchikh: monografiya [Dry mixes for repairs on composite bind ers: monograph]. Belgorod: BSTU. 2013. 147 p.
7. Lesovik V.S. Mospan A.V. Pressed silicate products for granular aggregates. Izvestiya KGASU. 2012. No. 3, pp. 144–150. (In Russian).
8. Lesovik V.S., Mospan A.V., Belentsov Yu.A. Silicate products to granular aggregates for earthquake engi neering. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2012. No. 4, pp. 62–65. (In Russian).
9. Kuprina A.A., Lesovik V.S., Zagorodnyk L.H., Elistrat- kin M.Y. Anisotropy of materials properties of natural and man-triggered origin. Research Journal of Applied Sciences. 2014. Vol. 9. No. 11, pp. 816–819.

A.S. INOZEMTCEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (InozemcevAS@mgsu.ru), E.V. KOROLEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), director, research and educational center «Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology» Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Deformations of High-Strength Lightweight Concrete Having Hollow Microspheres and Method of Reduce Them*

The paper presents the researching results of deformation properties of the high-strength lightweight concrete with hollow microspheres. The method of increasing the fracture tough ness of high-strength lightweight concrete with aluminosilicate microspheres by using the modifier as a coupling agent on the surface of the microparticles of aggregate is proposed. The hollow microspheres are perspective filler for lightweight concrete with high performance characteristics; the increasing of content of the spherical microparticles in the concrete composition promotes to forming close-packed structure with low deformations. The coefficient of fracture toughness of the high-strength lightweight concrete is comparable with the same parameter for fine-grained high-strength heavy concrete (more than 0.1) and is limited by strength characteristics of micrometric particles of aggregate. It is to create the active iron-silica shell on the surface of the hollow filler, which interacts with the major components and products of the cement hydration and reinforces the phase boundary. The proposed method of modifying allows to reduce the longitudinal and transverse deformations of the high-strength lightweight concrete at 7–12% and 8.5–16.5% respectively. The elastic modulus of the high-strength lightweight concrete is 6–8.5 GPa, and Poisson’s ratio is 0.08–0.14. The nanomodifier reduces the intensity of the cracking under the influence of shrinkage stress es of high-strength lightweight concrete by 56.9%.

Keywords: high-strength lightweight concrete, structural lightweight concrete, hollow microspheres, nanoscale modifier, nanotechnology.

References
1. Wilson H.S., Malhotra V.M. Development of high strength lightweight concrete for structural applica tions. International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete. 1988. Vol. 10. Iss. 2, pp. 79–90.
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20. Inozemtcev A.S., Korolev E.V. Structuring and prop erties of the structural high-strength lightweight con cretes with nanomodifier BisNanoActivus. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. No. 1–2, pp. 33– 37. (In Russian).

M. SABER1, Assistant Lecturer (Eng.m.saber@hotmail.com); K. SARAYKINA2, Master (Ksenya_s2004@mail.ru); G. YAKOVLEV3, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (jakowlew@udm.net); A. SHERIF 1, Professor of Concrete Structures and Vice Dean of Faculty of Engineering – Helwan University (agbsherif@yahoo.com), S. ABD ELNABY 1, Professor of Materials (sherifsens@yahoo.com), S. HELMY1 , Professor оf Concrete Structures (president@eruegypt.com)
1 Egyptian Russian University (Cairo-Suez road, Badr City, 11829, Egypt)
2 Perm State National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolskiy Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
3 Izhevsk State Technical University named after M.T. Kalashnikov(7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)

Shear Strength of Concrete Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bars (BFRP)

The application of fiber reinforced polymers in construction became an important research topic in construction. Reinforced polymers have many advantages such as high tensile strength, corrosion resistance, light weight and non conductivity. This study presents an experimental investigation into the direct shear behavior of concrete, reinforced using basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) bars, by testing Push-off specimens. The main objective of the study is to compare the behavior of concrete S-shaped push-off specimens reinforced using ordinary mild steel bars or BFRP bars to the plain control specimens. Twelve specimens were molded and tested under compression force. They were divided into four groups dif fering in the type and detailing of their main reinforcement. Based on the obtained results, the equations used to predict the shear capacity of reinforced concrete were modified to suit the reduced stiffness of the BFRP.

Keywords: basalt fiber reinforced polymer, concrete, strength, shift.

References
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G.V. NESVETAEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); G.S. KARDUMYAN2, Candidate of Sciences(Engineering) (kardumyan@mail.ru)
1 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)
2 Research, Design and Technological Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete named after A.A. Gvozdev (6/5, Institutskaya Street, Moscow,109428, Russian Federation)

Influence of strain on own porosity and properties of cement stone

Models establishing the relationship between the total porosity of cement stone and its properties such as the ultimate compressive strength, E-modulus and creep coefficient are pro posed. Compliance of models with the experimental data is shown. Models make it possible to predict changes in the strength and deformation properties of cement stone depending on changes in its total porosity under the influence of prescription or technological factors.

Keywords: cement stone, porosity, ultimate compressive strength , E-modulus , creep coefficient, deformation properties, the model, the expanding additive, deformation of expansion.

References
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12. Nesvetaev G.V., Kardumyan G.S. Modulus of Cement Stone Elasticity with Superplasticizers and Organic Mineral Modifiers with Due Regard for its Own Deformations at Hardening. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2013. No. 6, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
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15. Kaprielov S.S., Karpenko N.I., Sheynfeld A.V., Kuznetsov E.N. About Regulation of Elasticity Modulus and Creep of High-Strength Concretes with Modifier MB-50C. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2003. No. 6, pp. 8–12. (In Russian).
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V.G. SOLOVEV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (s_vadim_g@mail.ru), A.F. BURYANOV 1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (rga-service@mail.ru); H.-B. FISCHER2 , Dr. Engineer
1 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering(26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
2 Bauhaus-Universit ät Weimar (8, Geschwister-Scholl-Straβe, Weimar, 99423, Germany)

Features of Structure Formation During Heat Treatment of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete In this article are listed the results of the theoretical and practical research in structure formation of steel fiber reinforced concrete during heat treatment. It was found that in a certain combination of the composition of the concrete matrix and the mode of heat treatment may receive volume-prestressed steel fiber reinforced concretes. Determined the residual deformations of various compositions of steel fiber reinforced concretes after heat treatment. Determined the main conditions ensuring prestressed state formation in steel fiber after heat treatment. The equations obtained which are showing the dependence of strength characteristics after heat treatment and the hardening in normal conditions. Founded that the formation of prestressed fiber carcass can increase strength characteristics of steel fiber reinforced concrete up to 25% in compare with the same compositions was curing in normal conditions.

Keywords: steel fiber reinforced concrete, heat treatment, volume prestressing, strength characteristics.

References
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S.V. FEDOSOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAACS, President, A.A. KOTKOV1, Engineer; V.E. MIZONOV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); N.N. YELIN1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Ivanovo State Polytechnic University (20, 8 Marta Street, Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation)
2 Ivanovo State Power Engineering University (34, Rabfakovskaya Street, Ivanovo, 153003, Russian Federation)

Simulation of Drying Kinetics of Sheet Material at Reversible Supply of Drying Gas* A non-linear cell mathematical model of drying kinetics of long-measuring sheet material by parallel gas flow is proposed. The model allows calculating the drying kinetics based on the local state of material and gas and takes into account longwise heat conduction and moisture conduction. It is shown that the reverse of gas supply at rationally chosen moments of time allows considerable decrease of the non-homogeneity of moisture content distribution during drying process.

Keywords: sheet porous material, moisture content, drying, heat emission, moisture emission, heat conduction, moisture conduction, cell model, state vector, transition matrix, reverse of gas supply.

References
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G.S. SLAVCHEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (gslavcheva@yandex.ru) Voronezh State University of Architecture and Сivil Engineering (84, 20-letija Oktjabrja Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Structural Factors Ensuring the Frost Resistance of Cement Foam Concretes

For macro-porous concretes, a generalized interpretation of the mechanism of frost destruction with the substantiation of structure parameters criterial for its regulatory is proposed. Results of dilatometric studies of cement foam concretes, which revealed the interrelationship of the parameters of their structure with the measure of deformation of the material during the freezing of water-saturated samples, are presented.

Keywords: foam concretes, structure, frost resistance, dilatometry.

References
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S.I VAITKUS, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (saulius.vaitkus@vgtu.lt), I.J. GNIP, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)

Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Scientific Institute «Insulation») (28, Linkmyanu Street, Vilnius, 08217, Lithuania)

Research of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Stress Relaxation Under Uniaxial Loading Conditions Using Statistical Design Method of Experiments The results of stress relaxation under uniaxial compression experimental research of expanded polystyrene products with the types of EPS 80/90/100/120 and EPS 150 at a constant ε0=(1,2-0,2)%, that was fixed at a specific compressive load σс(=0,35·σ10%) acting perpendicular to the surface of products, are presented. The method of mathematical and statistical experimental design optimization models taking into account the thickness of specimens is proposed to determine the relaxation coefficient Kr at the time t=8 h, the attenuation factor to reduce the compressive stress Katten and relaxation compliance Jr. The graphical interpretation of the models is presented: depending level line of the relaxation coefficient Kr at the time t=8 h, relaxation resistance coefficient Kr and compliance with the relaxation Jr to t. On the basis of quantitative experimental values of compliance Jr with the relaxation in the range of permanent compressive strain ε0=(1,2-0,2)%, the linear equations of interdependence between Jr and Jc(tn=122 days) are given. Empirical equations for the calculation of the established equilibrium stress at a relaxation are offered.

Keywords: expanded polystyrene (EPS), long-term compression, experimental design, optimisation of specimens thickness, stress relaxation, relaxation compliances, prediction.

References
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M.S. LEBEDEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (lebedevms@mail.ru), I.V. ZHERNOVSKIY, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), E.V. FOMINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.E. FOMIN, Master Student

Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov(46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Features of Clay Rocks Application when Construction Material Production *

On the basis of the analysis of literature data and experimental results with due regard for characteristics of composition and properties of aluminum silicate raw materials from sedi mentation mass, the opportunities of its usage in construction materials as a raw component for production of cement, ceramic, porous aggregates; as a component in composite bind ers of hydration, air and autoclaved hardening; additives, aggregates and fillers in cement, ceramic, organo-mineral systems are demonstrated. However, on the basis of genetic fea tures of these non-traditional raw materials there are restrictions on its application. Therefore, in most cases, a modification is required to increase its efficiency. In this paper the expan sion of fields of application of aluminum silicate rocks from sedimentation mass modified by heat treatment at 300–900 оС is considered. Thermal modification makes it possible to improve qualitative and techno-economic characteristics of polyfunctional composites for the construction industry.

Keywords: clay rocks, aluminum silicate raw materials, composite binder, construction materials, thermal activation.

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