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Stroitel`nye Materialy №8

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A.A. VISHNEVSY1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), G.I. GRINFELD2, Engineer (greenfeld@mail.ru)
1 PSO «Teplit», OOO (39/4 Chapaeva Street, Berezovsky, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russian Federation)
2 National Association of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Producers (40 A Oktyabr’skaya Embankment, 193091, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Choice of Production Technology of Autoclaved Cellular Concrete: Impact Or Molding

The history and current stage of development of two technologies of autoclaved aerated concrete manufacturing, molding and impact, are considered. It is shown that at present, basic volume of autoclaved aerated concrete in Russia is produced with the use of the molding technology, and this proportion tends to slow increase. However, noted that characteristics of ready-made articles produced with using different technologies don’t have principal differences, clearly indicating the manufacturing technology (except for homogeneity of pores and after-autoclaved humidity). It is concluded that each technology has its own features which can be described as advantages and disadvantages separately, but the comprehensive com parison does not allow us to make a conclusion without any relation to the features of the resource base and technological traditions. At present, the dispute about the benefits of both technologies is essentially subjective in nature.

Keywords: autoclaved aerated concrete, manufacturing technology, gas concrete products, autoclaving.

References
1. Avtoklavnyy yacheistyy beton [Autoclaved aerated con crete]. Trans. from English / Ed. Board: G. Bove and others. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1981. 88 p.
2. Khigerovich M.I., Merkin A.P. Intensifikatsiya izgotov leniya yacheistykh betonov putem primeneniya vibrirovaniya. [Intensification of production of cellular concrete by applying vibration]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1961. 16 p.
3. Sazhnev N.P., Dombrovskii A.V., Novakov Yu.A. i dr. Shock molding technology. The collection of materials and information CMEA Standing Commission on Cooperation in the field of construction. ICI. 1983. No. 2 (73). (In Russian).
4. Sazhnev N.P., Goncharik V.N., Garnashevich G.S., Sokolovskiy L.V. Proizvodstvo yacheistobetonnykh izdelii: teoriya i praktika. [Production of cellular concrete products: Theory and Practice] Minsk: Strinko. 1999. 284 p.
5. Sazhnev N.P., Sazhnev N.N. Energy-saving technology of cellular concrete impact of products and designs. Budivel’ni materiali virobi ta sanitarna tekhnika. 2009. No. 32, pp. 102–106. (In Ukraine).
6. Rudchenko D.G.Some ways to improve the quality of energy saving and cost of raw materials in factories AEROC. Proceedings of the VI scientific-practical confer ence “Cellular concrete in modern construction”. 2009. St.-Petersburg, pp. 36–42. (In Russian).
7. Krutilin A.B., Rykhlenok Yu. A., Leshkevich V.V. Thermal characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete of low densities and their impact on the durability of the exterior walls of buildings. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2015. No. 2 (54), pp. 46–55. (In Russian).
8. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfel’d G.I., Smirnova A.S. Production of Autoclaved aerated concrete in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 6, pp. 52–54. (In Russian).
9. Vishnevskii A.A., Levchenko V.N. Manufacture of auto claved aerated concrete based on fly ash in terms of LLC “Reftinskaya association “Teplit”. Belorusskiy stroitel’nyi rynok. 2006. No. 9–10, pp. 10–12. (In Russian).
10. Vishnevskiy A.A., Bovykin I.A. Production of low density of autoclaved aerated concrete. Proceedings of the scientif ic-practical conference “Modern autoclaved aerated con crete”. Krasnodar. 2013, pp. 106–109. (In Russian).

N.N. MOROZOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (ninamor@mail.ru), G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer, V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1 Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Facing Layer and Hydrophobizator in Manufacture of Aerated Concrete*

New aerated concrete plants use a unilateral tilting of the array in cutting process which improves the production quality and increases the coefficient of utilization of the autoclave. A drawback of the unilateral canting is a formation of a facing layer. The use of the crushed facing layer as hydro-silicates, crystallization centers, is efficient, but it is connected with the increase in water demand of the mix. The work presents the research in the use of the facing layer pre-treated with a hydrophobizator. The study of the influence of water repellents on the lime slaking is also presented; a minimal impact on the lime slaking temperature has been defined. The study determined the composition of a complex additive containing the crushed facing layer and water repellent. The use of the additive treated with the hydrophobizator maintains the fluidity of the mix and leads to improving the strength.

Keywords: aerated concrete, waste, strength, repellent (hydrophobizator).

References
1. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfeld G.I., Kulikova N.O. Analysis of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Market of Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 40–44. (In Russian).
2. Sazhneva N.N., Sazhnev N.P., Uretskaya E.A. Protective Systems for Finishing of Cellular Concrete of Low Compactness. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 1, pp. 17–19. (In Russian).
3. Morozova N.N., Kuznetsova G.V., Golosov A.S. Influence of Cements from Different Producers on Properties of Cellular-Concrete Mix of Autoclaved Gas Concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 49. (In Russian).
4. Sinyansky V.I., Leont’ev E.N. A Role of Synthesis of Hydrosilicates from Calcium and Silicon Oxides in Technology of Autoclave Cellular Concretes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 9, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).
5. Khozin V.G., Morozova N.N., Sibgatullin I.R., Sal’nikov A.V. Modification of cement concrete small alloying ad ditions. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 10, pp. 30–32. (In Russian).
6. Sal’nikov A.V., Khozin V.G., Morozova N.N., Dem’yanova V.S. Influence of complex modifier on the properties of the cement binder. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 8, pp. 36–37. (In Russian).

S.D. LAPOVSKAYA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), O.V. SIROTIN2, Engineer, G.I. GRINFELD3, Engineer (greenfeld@mail.ru)
1 Ukrainian Scientific and Research Institute of Building Materials and Products (68 Konstantinovskaya Street, Kiev, Ukraine)
2 All-Ukrainian Association of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Producers (7 Borisa Grinchenko Street, 010011, Kiev, Ukraine)
3 National Association of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Producers (40 A Oktyabr’skaya Embankment, 193091, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Experimental Definition of Speed of Initial Moisture Escape from Masonry Made of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete under Climatic Conditions of Kiev

Results of measurements of humidity of the masonry made of wall blocks of cellular concrete of autoclaved hardening of the average density D300, D400, D500, D600 of 300 mm thick ness at the initial stage of operation under climatic conditions of the city of Kiev are presented. A full-scale study of the kinetics of moisture transfers in single-layer enclosing structures made of autoclaved cellular concrete has been conducted; terms of reducing the moisture content of wall from the initial until the equilibrium (operational) have been defined. In the course of the experiment the temperature and humidity of the inside air in the premises with experimental enclosing structures and factual values of monthly mean temperatures and humidity in Kiev from November 2011 until August 2013 were controlled. The conclusion about possibility to reduce the calculated moisture content of autoclaved cellular concrete in DBN «Heat protection of buildings» is made.

Keywords: initial moisture content, masonry, autoclaved aerated concrete, single layer enclosing structures.

References
1. Vasil’ev B.F. Naturnye issledovaniya temperaturno-vla zhnostnogo rezhima zhilykh zdanii [Field investigations of temperature and humidity conditions of residential buildings]. Moscow: State Publishing House of Literature on construction and architecture. 1957. 215 p.
2. Gaevoi A.F., Kachura B.A. Kachestvo i dolgovechnost’ ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsii iz yacheistogo betona [The quality and durability of the frame structures of cel lular concrete]. Kharkov: Vishcha shkola. 1978. 224 p.
3. Avtoklavnyi yacheistyi beton [Autoclaved aerated con crete]. Trans. from English / Ed. Board: G. Bove and others. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1981. 88 p.
4. Silaenkov E.S. Dolgovechnost’ izdelii iz yacheistykh bet onov. [Durability of products from cellular concrete]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1986. 176 p.
5. Semchenkov A.S., Ukhova T.A., Sakharov G.P. On the adjustment of the equilibrium moisture content and ther mal conductivity of aerated concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials] 2006. No. 6, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
6. Grinfel’d G.I., Kuptaraeva P.D. Autoclaved aerated con crete masonry with external insulation. Features of mois ture conditions during the initial period of operation. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2011. No. 8 (26), pp. 41– 50. (In Russian).
7. Slavcheva G.S., Chernyshov E.M., Korotkikh D.N., Kukhtin Yu.A. Comparative performance heat-shielding characteristics of one- and two-layer silicate wall con structions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 4, pp. 13–15. (In Russian).
8. Schoch T., Kreft O. The influence of moisture on the thermal conductivity of AAC. 5 th International conference on Autoclaved Aerated Concrete «Securing a sustainable future». Bydgoszcz, Poland. 2011. September, 14–17, pp. 361–370.
9. Krutilin A.B., Rykhlenok Yu. A., Leshkevich V.V. Thermal characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete of low densities and their impact on the durability of the exterior walls of buildings. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2015. No. 2 (54), pp. 46–55. (In Russian).
10. Gagarin V.G., Pastushkov P.P. Quantitative assessment of energy efficiency of energy saving measures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 7–9. (In Russian).
11. Pastushkov P.P., Grinfel’d G.I., Pavlenko N.V., Bespalov A.E., Korkina E.V. Calculated certain operat ing humidity of AAC in different climatic zones of con struction. Vestnik MGSU. 2015. No. 2, pp. 60–69. (In Russian).

A.V. GRANOVSKIY1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (1747787@list.ru), B.K. DZHAMUEV1 Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (dbk-07@mail.ru); A.A. VIShNEVSKIY 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Executive Director; G.I. GRINFELD3 , Engineer, Executive Director (greenfeld@mail.ru)
1 Central Research Institute of Building Constructions named after V.A. Kucherenko (6, 2nd Institutskaya Street, Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation)
2 “Teplit” PSO OOO (39/4, Chapaeva Street, Berezovskiy, 623700, Sverdlovsk Region, Russian Federation)
3 National Association of autoclaved aerated concrete (Letter A, 40, Oktyabrskaya Embankment, Saint Petersburg, 193230, Russian Federation)

Experimental Determination of Normal and Shear Adhesion in the AAC-Blocks Masonry at Various TLM Adhesive Compositions In 2013–2014, Laboratory of seismic stability of structures of the Research Center of Earthquake Resistance of Structures of TSNIISK named after V.A. Kucherenko (JSC Research

Center of Construction) by the order of the National Association of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Producers executed the work on “Experimental determination of normal and shear adhe sion of mortars and adhesive compositions, laid by thin layers, to cellular concrete blocks of autoclaved hardening”. Masonry joints of up to 2 mm thickness formed by three types of cement mortars for the thin-layer masonry and a layer of polyurethane assembly adhesive have been studied in this work. Joints in the masonry made of cellular concrete of autoclaved hardening of 300–600 kg/m 3 density and 1.7–7.3 MPa strength have also been studied. By results of studies, it is established that the masonry of the first category (with a tensile strength along the non-tied section -180 kPa) can be made of blocks of B1.5 strength).

Keywords: autoclaved aerated concrete, cellular concrete of autoclaved hardening, normal adhesion, shear adhesion, mortar for thin-layered masonry, adhesion for masonry, masonry joint.

References
1. Galkin S.L. i dr. Primenenie yacheistobetonnykh izdelii. Teoriya i praktika [The use of cellular concrete products. Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2006. 448 p.
2. Grinfeld G.I., Kharchenko A.P. Comparative tests of fragments of autoclaved gas concrete masonry with differ ent execution of a masonry joint. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 30–34. (In Russian).
3. Derkach V.N. Normal adhesion strength of cement mor tars in masonry. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2012. No. 7, pp. 6–13. (In Russian).
4. Derkach V.N. Shear adhesion strength of cement mortar in the masonry. Inzhenerno-stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2012. No. 3, pp. 19–28. (In Russian).
5. Granovskiy A.V., Dzhamuev B.K. Test wall constructions of cellular concrete blocks on the seismic effects. Modern production of autoclaved aerated concrete: a collection of reports scientific and practical conference. St. Petersburg. 16–18 November 2011, pp. 104–108. (In Russian).
6. Gorshkov A.S., Grinfeld G.I., Mishin V.E., Nikifo rov E.S., Vatin N.I. Improvement of thermotechnical uniformity of walls made of cellular concrete products through the use of polyuretane glue in masonry. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 57– 64. (In Russian).
7. Scientific and Technical Report “Investigation of physi cal and mechanical properties of the material Baumit Artoplast, designed for thin-layer plastering of the outer walls on the basis of autoclaved aerated concrete blocks”. Ufa State Petroleum Technological University. The de partment of building structures. (In Russian).

A.A. MORDVOV1,2 Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Chief Architect, M.V. LIKHTAROVICH 1, Engineer, Head of Technical Support Department (m.lihtarovich@ao-gns.ru)
1 «Glavnovosibirksstroy» OAO (52a 2nd Stantsionnaya Street, 630041, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation)
2 Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (113, Leningradskaya Street, 630008, Novosibirsk-8, Russian Federation)

Optimization of Fastening of AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) Structures When Filling External and Internal Walls of Frameworks of Buildings of up to 80 m Height

Developers of normative documents, which regulate the use of autoclaved aerated concrete, faced the problem of the absence of experimental studies. As a result of this, documents contain a large number of elements and requirements which were executed with a large reserve according to the well-established practice of applying. The tests of structures conducted at SIBIT fac tory will make it possible to revise some of these «reserves» that under conditions of market competition will favor the improvement of competitive advantages of aerated concrete.

Keywords: autoclaved aerated concrete, external walls, insert, frame buildings.

References
1. Standard of Organization NAAG 3.1–2013. Designs us ing autoclaved gas concrete in the construction of build ings and
structures. Rules of design and construction. St. Petersburg. 2013. 171 p. (In Russian).
2. Gorshkov A.S. Stability conditions simply supported by floor walls made of porous concrete masonry units, taking into account the exposure to wind loads. Proceedings of the SPC “Modern autoclaved gas concrete”. Krasnodar. 2013. 186 p. (In Russian).
3. GOST 31360–2007. Wall unreinforced products of cel lular autoclave curing concrete. Technical conditions. M.: Standartinform. 2008. 20 p. (In Russian).
4. SP 20.13330.2011. Loads and effects. The updated edition of SNiP 2.01.07–85*. Moscow. 2011. 81 p. (In Russian).

V.A. PARUTA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), (docent2155@gmail.com); E.V. BRYNZIN2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Commercial Director; G.I. GRINFELD 3, Engineer, Executive Director(greenfeld@mail.ru)
1 Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (4 Didrihsona st., Odessa, 65029, Ukraine)
2 OOO UDK (7-D Komissara Krylova Street, Dnepropetrovsk, 49051, Ukraine)
3 National Association of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Producers ( 40, liter A Oktyabrskaya Embankment, 193091, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Physical-Mechanical Design Basics of Plaster Mortars for Aerated Concrete Masonry

Normative requirements (compression strength and bending strength, adhesion to the masonry) for plastering mortars for finishing of walls made of autoclaved aerated concrete in the EU countries Ukraine, Russia are contradictory and not always substantiated. The plaster mortar is to be considered as a coating connected with masonry through the contact zone. The design of compositions and properties of plaster mortars should be carried out with due regard for stresses occurring in the plastering coating because of its shrinkage and the differ ence of deformations with masonry as well as deformations of the wall structure and the coating itself. Components of the mix and their number should be selected with due regard for the processes taking place in the course of plaster coating hardening and destruction of the “masonry–plaster coating” system. The result of selecting the composition should ensure the reducing of stresses in the plaster coating and contact zone up to values lesser than the destructive stress.

Keywords: aerated concrete masonry, plaster mortars, “masonry–coating” system.

References
1. Granau E. Preduprezhdenie defektov v stroitel’nykh kon struktsiyakh [Warning defects in structures]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1980. 217 p.
2. Sazhneva N.N., Sazhnev N.P., Uretskaya E.A. Protective Systems for Finishing of Cellular Concrete of Low Compactness. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 1, pp. 17–19. (In Russian).
3. Khalimov R.K. Research collaboration building materi als as part of today’s multi-layer thermal efficiency of exterior walls of buildings. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Ufa. 2007. 178 p. (In Russian).
4. Paplavskis Ya., Frosh A. Requirements plaster composi tions for exterior finish walls from cellular concrete. Problems operational reliability exterior walls based on autoclaved aerated concrete blocks and their possible pro tection against moisture. Proceedings of the seminar «Plaster formulations for external wall decoration of aerated concrete». Sankt-Peterburg. 2010, pp. 10–15. (In Russian).
5. Powers T.S. A Hypothesis on carbonation shrinkage. Journal of Portland Cement Association. 1962. V. 4. No. 2, pp. 26–31.
6. Grinfel’d G.I. Inzhenernye resheniya obespecheniya en ergoeffektivnosti zdanii. Otdelka kladki iz avtoklavnogo gazobetona [Engineering solutions for energy efficiency of buildings. Finish the masonry of autoclaved aerated concrete]. Sankt-Peterburg: Izdatel’stvo politekh- nicheskogo universiteta. 2011. 130 p.
7. Vasicek J. Trvanlivost aodolnost autoklavovanych poro vitych betonu pri posobeni susnych vnejsich jevu. Stavivo. 1965. № 6, pp. 24–28.
8. Homann M. Richtig Bauen mit Porenbeton. Stuttgart: Fraunhofer IRB Verlag. 2003. 268 p.
9. Struble L. Microstructure and Fracture at the Cement Paste-Aggregate Interface. Bond. Cementitious Cmpos.: Symp. Boston. 2–4 December 1987, pp. 11–20.
10. Galkin S.L., Sazhnev N.P., Sokolovskii L.V., Sazhne va N.N. Primenenie yacheistobetonnykh izdelii. Teoriya i praktika [The use of cellular concrete products. Theory and practice]. Minsk: Strinko. 2006. 448 p.

G.I. STOROZHENKO1, Doctor of Sciences, Technical Director (storojenko_gi@mail.ru); A.Yu. STOLBOUSHKIN 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (stanyr@list.ru), A.I. IVANOV2 , Engineer
1 «Baskey Keramik» OOO (1b, Stepana Razina Street, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Chelyabinsk, 454111, Russian Federation)
2 Institute of Thermophysics named after S.S. Kutateladze SB RAS (1, Lavrentev Lane, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation)

Coal argillite recycling in ceramic raw materials and process fuel production*
The research results of the material, chemical and mineral compositions of waste coal from Korkino open-pit coal mine are provided, and the dependence of the percentage of organic component in coal argillites on the size of the rock is revealed. The technology of waste coal recycling is offered to produce coal fuel and raw material for the industry of ceramic mate- rials. On the basis of pilot industrial tests it was shown that a pneumatic waste classification allows to extract the remains of coal from argillite and get a stable ceramic raw material for brick production. Such complex processing of waste coal provides not only a significant expansion of the raw material base for construction materials sub-sector and generation of additional energy, but will also help to solve environmental problems and improve the environmental situation in industrial regions.

Keywords: waste coal, coal argillites, ceramic brick, complex processing of waste coal.

References
1. Kroichuk L.A. Use of non-traditional raw material for the production of bricks and tiles in China. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2003. No. 7, p. 62. (In Russian).
2. Nikiforova E.M., Eromasov R.G., Vlasov O.A. et al. Utilization of wet magnetic separation iron ore slimes in the production of expanded clay. Obogashchenie rud. 2015. No. 1, pp. 43–46. (In Russian).
3. Tkachev A.G., Yatsenko E.A., Smolii V.A. et al. Influence of coal-mining waste on the molding, drying and burning properties of ceramic masses. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya si likatov. 2013. No. 2, pp. 17–21. (In Russian).
4. Lyutenko A.O., Nikolaenko M.A., Khodykin E.I. et al. Composite binders based on co-extracted roaches of coal deposits for strengthening soil for road construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 7, pp. 22–23. (In Russian).
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6. Kotlyar V.D., Ustinov A.V., Kovalev V.Yu. et al. Ceramic stones of compression moulding on the basis of gaizes and coal preparation waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 44–48. (In Russian).
7. Klassen V.K., Borisov I.N., Manuilov V.E. et al. Theoretical underpinning and efficiency of coal mining waste in cement technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 8, pp. 20–21. (In Russian).
8. Santos C.R., Amaral J. R., Tubino R. M. et al. Use of coal waste as fine aggregates in concrete paving blocks. Geomaterials. 2013. No. 3, pp. 54–59.
9. Skarzynska K.M. Reuse of coal mining wastes in civil engineering. Part 2: Utilization of minestone. Waste Management. 1995. No. 2, pp. 83–126.
10. Avdokhin V.M., Morozov V.V., Boiko D.Yu. et al. Modern methods of coals enrichment by pneumatic sep- aration. Zbagachennya korisnikh kopalin. 2008. No. 34 (75), pp. 132–140.
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V.A. KLEVAKIN1, Chief Executive (nanokeramika2012@mail.ru), E.V. KLEVAKINA2, Engineer
1 NANO KERAMIKA, ООО (18a-25, 50 let SSSR Street, Pervoural’sk, Sverdlovskaja Region, 623103, Russian Federation)
2 Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin (19, Mira Street, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russian Federation)

Efficient Solution of Reducing Increased Moisture of Clays

The complex organic-mineral polyfunctional aqua-bond “KOMPAS” developed by authors is presented. It is intended for reducing the moisture content of raw materials without the pro cess of their pre-drying. The bond “KOMPAS” is a mixture of cellulose-containing powder and a mineral additive or an organic plasticizer depending on the index of clay plasticity. It is recommended to introduce the additive in the amount of 0.1–0.4% of the total charge mass. On the example of the experience of some brick factories, it is shown that the introduction of the bond “KOMPAS” facilitates more dense packing of particles in the molding composition, improvement in mechanical strength of semi-products and ready-made articles, as well as reducing the open porosity and water absorption. Compositions of the additive for plastic and high plastic clays, moderately plastic and lean clays have been patented.

Keywords: energy saving, resource saving, ceramic brick, humidity, plasticity, molding composition, drying, technological additive, aqua-bond, KOMPAS.

References
1. Patent RF No. 2518614. Kompleksnaya modifitsiruyush chaya dobavka dlya proizvodstva stroitel’nykh kerami cheskikh izdelii dlya maloplastichnykh glin [Integrated builder for production of construction ceramic products for low-plasticity clay]. Klevakin V.A. Published 10.06.2014. Bulletin No. 16. (In Russian).
2. Patent RF No. 2518993. Kompleksnaya modifitsiruyush chaya dobavka dlya proizvodstva stroitel’nykh kerami cheskikh izdelii dlya vysokoplastichnykh glin [Integrated builder for production of construction ceramic products for highly plastic clay]. Klevakin V.A. Published 10.06.2014. Bulletin No. 16. (In Russian).
3. Markova S.V., Klevakin V.A., Turlova O.V., Klevaki na E.V. Introduction of liquefiers of OOO “Polyplast- Novomoskovsk” in brick fabrication. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 90–92. (In Russian).

A.E. BURUCHENKO 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.I. VERESHCHAGIN 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), S.I. MUSHARAPOVA 1 , Engineer (swetmush@mail.ru), V.K. MENSHIKONA 1 , Engineer (vi1222@mail.ru)
1 Siberian Federal University (79/10, Room P7-04, Svobodny Avenue, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation)
2 National ResearchTomsk Polytechnic University (30,Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, RussianFederation)

Influence of Dispersity of Non-Plastic Components of Ceramic Masses on Sintering and Properties of Building Ceramics

Results of the study of influence of dispersity of quartz-feldspar waste and a diopside concentrate in ceramic masses on the sintering and properties of building ceramics are pre sented. It is established that reducing the dispersity of quartz-feldspar waste in the samples entails the fire shrinkage, decrease in the optimal burning temperature, strength growth. The diopside concentrate with dispersity of 150 mkm in the composition of ceramic masses ensures the obtaining of a non-shrink building material with high physical-mechanical properties.

Keywords: building ceramic, sintering, burning temperature, dispersity, qurtz-feldspar waste, diopside concentrate.

References
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2. Semyonov A.A. Ceramic Wall Materials Market: Results of 2014 and Forecast for 2015. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 3–5. (In Russian).
3. Gur’eva V.A., Prokof’eva V.V. Structural and phase char acteristics of building ceramics based of industrial magne sium raw materials and low-grade clay. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 55–57. (In Russian).
4. Rajamannan B., Kalyana Sundaram C., Viruthagiri G., Shanmugan N. Effects of fly ash addition on the me chanical and ather properties of ceramic. International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology. 2013. Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 486-491.
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6. Ilina L.V., Berdov G.I., Gichko N.O., Teplov A.N. Changing structure and mechanical strength portland ce ment stones when introducing complex dispersive min eral fillers. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 4, pp. 38–44. (In Russian).
7. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Berdov G.I., Stolboushkina O.V., Zlobin V.I. Firing temperature impact on structure form ing in ceramic wall materials produced of fine dispersed iron ore enrichment wastes. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 1, pp. 33–42. (In Russian).
8. Vereshchagin V. I., Men’shikova V. K., Buruchenko A. E., Mogilevskaya N. V. Diopside-based ceramic materials. Steklo i keramika. 2010. No. 11, pp. 13–16. (In Russian).
9. Stolboushkin А.Yu. Influence of the wollastonite additive on the structure of wall ceramic materials from techno genic and natural resources. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 13–17. (In Russian)

A.M. SALAKHOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (salakhov8432@mail.ru), L.R. TAGIROV, Doctor of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics) Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics (18, Kremlумылфнф Street, Kazan, 420008, Russian Federation)

Structure Formation of Ceramic with Clays Which Form Various Phases at Burning *

Characteristics of clays of Sakharovskoye, Alekseevskoye, Salmanovskoye, Novoorskoye, and Yuzhno-Ushkotinskoye deposits, silica rocks of Tatarsko-Shatrashanskoye deposit are pre sented; peculiarities of their mineral compositions have been investigated. It is shown that in the process of burning of fusible polymineral clays, clays with a high content of aluminum oxide and clays with a high content of carbonates, significantly different various mineral phases, which influence on macroscopic characteristics of materials, are formed. The character istic of natural and anthropogenic modifiers is given, their influence on the structure of materials is described. On the example of the “Alekseevskaya keramika” brick factory, it is shown that the purposeful combination of clays, silica rocks and modifiers at the optimal burning temperature makes it possible to produce the ceramic with the set phase composition and, subsequently, properties.

Keywords: ceramics, ceramic brick, sintering, mineral phases, modification of raw materials, structure of materials.

References
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6. Petelin A.D., Saprykin V.I., Klevakin V.A., Klevakina E.V. Features of the use of Nizhneuvelsky deposit clays in produc tion of ceramic brick. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).
7. Saifullin R.S., Saifullin A.R. Sovremennaya khimiko fizicheskaya entsiklopediya – leksikon [Modern chemi cal and physical encyclopedia – lexicon]. Kazan’: «Fen» AN RT. 2010. 696 p.
8. Bakunov V.S., Belyakov A.V., Lukin E.S., Shayakhme- tov U.S. Oksidnaya keramika i ogneupory. Spekanie i polzuchest’ [Oxide ceramics and refractories. Sintering and creep]. Moscow: MUCTR named after D.I. Mendeleev. 2007. 584 p.
9. Andrianov N.T., Balkevich V.L., Belyakov A.V., Vlasov A.S., Guzman I.Ya., Lukin E.S., Mosin Yu.M., Skidan B.S. Khimicheskaya tekhnologiya keramiki [Chemical engineering ceramics]. Moscow: OOO RIF «Stroimaterialy». 2011. 496 p.
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12. Gorbachev B.F., Krasnikova E.V. State and possible ways of development of raw material base of kaolins, refractory and high melting clays in the Russian Federation. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 4, pp. 6–17. (In Russian).
13. Biffi G. Book for the production of ceramic tiles. Faenza Editoriale, 2003. 376 p.
14. Gorshkov V.S., Savel’ev V.G., Abakumov A.B. Vyazhushchie, keramika i steklokristallicheskie materialy: struktura i svoistva [Cementing, ceramics, and glass-crystalline materials: struc ture and properties.]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1994. 564 p.
15. Stid Dzh. V., Etvud Dzh. L. Supramolekulyarnaya khimiya [Supramolecular chemistry. Trans. from English. In 2 Vol.]. Moscow: «Akademkniga», Vol. 1. 2007. 480 p.

V.A. EZERSKIY, Candidate of Science (Engineering) (niikeram@mail.ru) NIIKERAM, OOO (Gzhel ceramic plant, Gzhel, Moscow Region, 140165, Russian Federation)

Quantitative Assessment of Color of Ceramic Facing Products

Quantitative assessment of the color of ceramic facing products with the use of the spectrophotometer is considered. It is shown that the use of the spectrophotometer makes it possi ble to compare the efficiency of various pigments, determine the deviation from etalons, compare the gloss numbers, determine the color temperature, influence of a pigment content on the color of ceramic stone etc. The quantitative assessment of the color was used in the course of developing the «Russian Manganese» project which refers to import substitution technologies and will be economically profitable for domestic brick factories.

Keywords: facing brick, volumetric coloring, color, spectrophotometer, pigment, «Russian Manganese».

References
1. Al’perovitch I.A., Varlamov V.P., Lebedeva E.P. Receiving a front clay brick by method of volume coloring of weight manganese ore. Sbornik trudov VNIISTROM. 1975. Vol. 33 (61), pp. 31–38. (In Russian).
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4. Al’perovitch I.A., Vot’eva G.I., Krjukov V.K. Deve lopment of production of a front brick of volume color ing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1992. No. 4. pp. 2–4. (In Russian).
5. Ashmarin A.G., Mustafin N.R., Oparina I.S. Coloristic researches of influence of mineral additives on color scale of pottery. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 2, pp. 38–39. (In Russian).
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7. Shhepina N.S. Osnovy svetotehniki [Lighting engineer ing bases]. Moscow: Jenergoatomizdat. 1985. 344 p.
8. Maslennikova G.N., Pishh I.V. Keramicheskie pigment [Ceramic pigments]. Moscow: RIF «Strojmaterialy». 2009. 224 p.
9. Sedel’nikova M.B., Pogrebenkov V.M. Keramicheskie pigmenty na osnove prirodnogo i tehnogennogo mineral’nogo syr’ja [Ceramic pigments on the basis of natural and technogenic mineral raw materials]. Tomsk: Tomskij politehnicheskij universitet, 2014. 262 p.
10. Tzvet v promyshlennosti [Color in the industry]. Moscow: Logos. 2002. 596 p.

V.S. LESOVIK, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.A. GRIDCHINA, Engineer (alla-gridchina@yandex.ru) Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukov Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Monolithic Concretes on the Basis of Expanding Agents and Chemical Modifiers

The information on basic advantages of the monolithic construction technology is presented. Issues of improving qualitative and technological characteristics of ready-mixed concretes including durability and crack resistance are considered. Compositions of concrete composites with water tightness W16 and frost-resistance F300 have been developed with the use of expanding agents and complex of chemical additives. The results of tests of compositions of concrete mixes for slump retention vs. time and changing the air entrainment when agitat ing in the truck-mounted mixer are presented. Ii is shown that expanding agents in cement composites create the dense structure, reduce the permeability including diffusion, which prevents the corrosion of concrete and steel reinforcement.

Keywords: monolithic construction, non-shrink concrete, expanding agent, crack resistance of concrete, water tightness.

References
1. Lesovik V.S. Technogenic metasomatism in construction materials science. International collection of scientific pa pers. Construction Materials. Novosibirsk. 2015, pp. 26–30. (In Russian).
2. Lesovik V.S. Geonika (geomimetika). Primery realizatsii v stroitel’nom materialovedenii: monografiya [Geonick- name (Geomimetics) Examples of implementation in building materials]. Belgorod: BGTU. 2014. 206 p.
3. Lesovik V.S. Intelligent building composites for 3D addi tive technology [electronic resource]. Scientific-practical conference devoted to the 85th anniversary of the Honored Worker of Science, Academician RAASN, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Yuri Mikhailovich Bazhenov, “Effective construction composites”. Belgorod. 2015. 7 p. (In Russian).
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5. Abramyan S.G., Akhmedov A.M., Khalilov V.S., Umantsev D.A. The development of monolithic con struction and modern formwork systems. Vestnik volgo gradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2014. No. 36 (55), pp. 231–239. (In Russian).
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8. Davidson N.G. Vodonepronitsaemyi beton [Waterproof concrete]. Leningrad: Lenizdat. 1965. 96 p.
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10. G.P.A.G. van Zijl, F.H. Wittmann. Durability of strain hardening fibre-reinforced cement-based composites (SHCC). RILEM. 2011, pp. 9–39.
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12. Lesovik V.S., Zagorodnuk L.H., Shkarin A.V., Beli kov D.A., Kuprina A.A. Creating effective insulation so lutions, taking into account the law of affinity structures in constraction materials. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2013. Vol. 24. No. 11, pp. 1496–1502.
13. Gridchina A.A., Titova L.A. Prospects for the use of con crete on the basis of expanding additives in modern mono lithic construction. Teoreticheskie i prikladnye aspekty sovremennoi nauki. 2014. No. 2–1, pp. 17–19. (In Russian).

Yu.V. ISAEVA, Engineer (djuli_ya@mail.ru), E.G. VELICHKO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (pct44@yandex.ru), A.Sh. KASUMOV, Engineer Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26 Yaroslavskoe Avenue, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Structure Optimization of Ultra-Light Cement Mortar with Due Regard for Geometrical and Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Components

Results of the development of lightweight and ultra-light slurries having a low density with sufficient strength due to optimizing their structure with due regard for the geometric and physical-mechanical characteristics of components are presented. As a filler in these mortars, it is proposed to use hollow glass microspheres and as a binder – ultrafine cement. Because the hollow glass microspheres are more than 10 times lighter than cement, the increase in their share in the volume solution will reduce its average density. At that, it is neces sary that the microspheres are characterized by maximally dense packing and are surrounded by a dense matrix, that is, their volume fraction in the bulk solution would be maximal. It is expected to achieve this fact by reducing the thickness of layers of the cement matrix, which is achieved by more fine dispersing the cement particles, or replacing the Portland cement by a new high efficient mineral binder – «Mikrodur». As a result of optimization of the structure with due regard for the geometric and physical-mechanical characteristics of compo nents and their energy states, lightweight and ultra-light cement mortars with high construction and technical properties have been be obtained.

Keywords: cement mortar, optimal structure, density, strength, hollow glass microspheres; ultrafine binder.

References
1. Oreshkin D.V., Belyaev K.V., Semenov V.S. Thermal properties, porosity and water vapor permeability of light- weight mortars. Stroitel’stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more. 2010. No. 8, pp. 51–55. (In Russian).
2. Belyaev K.V., Makarenkova U.V., Oreshkin D.V.,Y.V. Simulation and development of optimal structure of super- light cement mortar. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 5, pp. 42–43. (In Russian).
3. Belov V.V., Obraztsov I.V., Kulyaev P.V Methodology of design of optimal structures of cement concretes. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 17–18. (In Russian).
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8. Volzhensky A.V., Popov L.N. Smeshannye portlandtse menty povtornogo pomola i betony na ikh osnove [Mixed Portland cement re-grinding and concrete on their basis]. Moscow: State Publishing House of Literature on con struction, architecture and building materials. 1961. 107 p.
9. Velichko E.G. Stroenie i osnovnye svoistva stroitel’nykh materialov [Structure and basic properties of building materials]. Moscow: 2014. LKI. 497 p.
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2021