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Stroitel`nye Materialy №7

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T.V. KUZNETSOVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (tvkouzn@mail.ru), A.P. NEFED’EV2, Engineer, D.Yu. KOSSOV1, Engineer
1 D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (9, Miusskaya sq., 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 «Sinergo» Group of Companies (14, structure 6, floor 4, off. 12, Rustaveli Street, 127254, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Kinetics of Hydration and Properties of Cement with Metakaolin Addition
Results of the study of the influence of metakaolin on the kinetics of hydration and technical properties of Portland cement are presented. It is shown that as a result of active interaction of meta-kaolin with Са(ОН)2, released during the hydration of Portland cement, the activation energy of the hydration process is reduced by 21.3% in comparison with this characteristic of common Portland cement without additives. Addition of metakaolin to Portland cement improves its properties.

Keywords: portland cement, hydration, hardening, mineral additives, frost-resistance, sulfate resistance.

References
1. Uchikawa H. Influence of mineral additives on hydration and structure formation. 1986. Proceedings of 8 th International Congress on Cement Chemistry. Rio, 1986. Vol. 1, pp. 250–280.
2. Bucci R.Outlines on additions and composite cements. Proceedings of 8 th International Congress on Cement Chemistry. Rio, 1986. V. 1, pp. 185–198.
3. Regourd M. Characteristics and activation of blended components. Proceedings of 8 th International Congress on Cement Chemistry. Rio, 1986. V. 1, pp. 199–209.
4. Gusev B.V., In Ien-lan S., Kouznetsova T.V. Cementy i beto ny – tendentsiya rasvitiya [Cements and concretes – tendency of development]. Moscow: Nauchniy mir. 2012. 136 p.
5. Kouznetsova T.V., Krivoborodov Y.R. Role of mineral and chemical additieves at cement manufacture. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2014. No. 1, pp. 18–21. (In Russian).
6. Gusev B.V. Concrete science – fundamental and practi cal ways of development. II Vserossiiskaya (Mezhdu narodnaya) konferentsiya po betonu i zhelezobetonu. [II The all Russian (International) conference on con crete and reinforced concrete]. Moscow: NIIZHB. 2005, pp. 17–24. (In Russian).
7. Gamaliy E.A., Trofimov B.Y., Kramar L.Y.Structure and properties of cement paste with silika fume and polykar borsilate plastisize. Vestnik of South-Ural State University. Ceries Building and Architecture. 2009. No. 16, pp. 29–35.
8. Mansour M., Abadla M., Jauberthie R. Messaoudene I. Metakaolin as a pozzolan for high performance mortar. Cement, Wapno, Beton. 2012. No. 2, pp. 102–108.
9. Nefedev A.P., Krivoborodov Y.R., Kossov D.Y. Usage of metakaoline at cement production. Tudy III Mezhduna rodnoi konferentsii po betonu i zhelezobetonu [Proceedings of III International conference on concrete and reinforced concrete]. Moscow: MGSU. 2014. V. VI, pp. 122–128.

M.G. MENZhULIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), G.I. KORShUNOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (Korshunov_gi@spmi.ru), P.I. AFANAS’EV 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (afan_@mail.ru); A.A. BUL’BAShEV2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (abulbashev@maxam.net), I.A. BUL’BAShEVA 3, Master (ines-77@yandex.ru)
1 National Mineral Resources University (University of Mines) (2, 21-line, Vasil’evskiy Ostrov, Saint Petersburg, 199106, Russian Federation)
2 «Maxam Rusiya», OOO (33, office 4.4, Pokrovka Street, Moscow, 105062, Russian Federation)
3 Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (6, Miklukho-Maklaya Street, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation)

Physical basis mechanism of rock failure
This article describes methods that allows on the basis theory breakdown of an arbitrary estimate parameters shock wave on wall borehole of the explosive cavity, with the polytropic compression of real gas. The methods determining parameters of stress waves, based on consideration phase transitions in the process of static stress unload. Estimation effective use emulsion explosives and watergel explosives at mechanism of rock failure.

Keywords: emulsion explosives and watergel explosives, phase transitions, changes polymorphic modification

References
1. Efremov E.I., Ponomarev A.V. Technology of formation downhole explosive charges breaking and watered rocks // Vzrivnoe delo. 2007. Issue 5, pp. 33–40. (In Russian).
2. Zel’dovich Y.B., Raiser Y.P. Fizika udarnykh voln i vyso kotemperaturnykh gidrodinamicheskikh yavlenii [Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena]. Moscow: Nedra, 1966. 686 p.
3. Stanyukovich K.P. Neustanovivsheesya dvizhenie sploshnoi sredy [Unsteady motion continuous medium]. Moscow: Nauka. 1971, 856 p.
4. Kuksenko V.S. Diagnosis and prognosis of large-scale destruction objects // Phizika tverdogo tela. 2005. Vol. 47. No. 5, pp. 788–-792. (In Russian).
5. Yakobashvili O.P. Seismicheskie metody otsenki sostoyaniya mas sivov gornykh porod na kar’erakh [Seismic methods for assessing the state of rocks in quarries]. Moscow: IPKON RAN, 1992, 260 p.
6. Menzhulin M.G., Afanasiev P.I., Kazmina A.Y. Calculation of energy dissipation based on the determina tion induced fracture propagation stress wave explosive // Vzrivnoe delo. 2013. No. 109/66, pp. 73–79. (In Russian).
7. Menzhulin M.G. Model of phase transitions on the sur face cracks in rock failure // Phizicheskaya Mezomekhanika. 2008. Vol. II. No. 4, pp. 75–80. (In Russian).

G.V. KUZNETSOVA, Engineer (kuznetzowa.gal@yandex.ru),
N.N. MOROZOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Carbonate Powders in Production of Silica Brick with Straight Lime *

The study of using mineral powders of natural and artificial origin in the production of silica brick has been conducted. Mineral powder from natural carbonate material and precipitated calcium carbonate, waste of sugar production, were considered as studied waste. Comparison of the fractional composition of precipitated calcium carbonate with natural mineral pow der shows the closeness of the ratio of fractions of the precipitated calcium carbonate and natural mineral powder. Powders differ in the form of particles: precipitated calcium carbon ate is presented as spherical polycrystalline calcite intergrowths and natural mineral powder – as fragments of calcite crystals. The production of silicate brick with clear alluvial sand, containing 0–2% of particles with size less than 0.16 mm, leads to an increase in lime consumption. The study shows that carbonate-containing materials increase the raw strength, but waste pollution affects the autoclave strength.

Keywords: calcium carbonates, waste, sediment, powder, strength.

References
1. Trufanov D.V. Improvement of Technology of Lime Production from Chalk of High Purity with Wet Method. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 11, pp. 92–24. (In Russian).
2. Balabko P.N., Slavyanskii A.A., KhusnetdinovaT.I., Golovkov A.M., Cherkashina N.F., Karpova D.V., Vyborova O.N. Using the filter cake (defecate) in plant. AgroEkoInfo (elektronnyi zhurnal). 2013. No. 1. (date of access 13.07.2015). (In Russian).
3. Korneev V.I., Bogoyavlenskaya G.A. The conversion of calcite “Akron” in the composition of dry mixes. Conference Reports BALTIMIX. Sankt-Peterburg. 2004. (In Russian).
4. Kuznetsova G.V. A Lime Binder for Wall Silicate Products from Chippings of Rock Crushing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 34–37. (In Russian).
5. Kuznetsova G.V., Morozova N.N. Influence of Components of a Lime-Siliceous Binder on Cohesion of Molding Material for Pressing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 12, pp. 69–71. (In Russian).
6. Khavkin L.M. Tekhnologiya silikatnogo kirpicha [Technology of sand-lime brick]. Moscow: Ekolit. 2011. 128 p.

N.L. POLEYKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (pdn13@land.ru), S.N. LEONOVICH, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Foreign Academician of RAACS Belarusian National Technical University (65, Nezavisimosti Avenue, Minsk, 220013, Belarus)

Physical-Mechanical Characteristics of Concrete with Cubiform Crushed Stone
Requirements for concretes regarding their operational qualities, areas of application, physical-technical properties, terms of durability expand the area of economic application of fillers of various types. Considering that fillers occupy up to 80% of the concrete volume and their cost reaches 50% of the cost of concrete and reinforced concrete products, it becomes clear that the correct selection of fillers and the most rational application of them have a great impact on properties of the concrete mix of concrete and reinforced concrete structures, technical-economic efficiency of producing building products made of precast, monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete in whole. The article presents comparative results of tests of ordinary and cubiform crushed stones, studies of basic physical-technical properties of concrete with cubiform granite crushed stone (compression strength, split-tensile strength, frost- resistance, waterproofness, water adsorption, and coefficient of resistance to air permeability). As a result of comparative studies conducted, it is established that the use of cubiform crushed stone as a large-size filler is reasonable for concretes of structures operating under conditions of central and eccentric compression.

Keywords: concrete, cubiform crushed stone, concrete structures, precast reinforced concrete.

References
1. Starchukov D.S. Concrete of the accelerated curing with additives of strong substances of the inorganic nature. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2011. No. 14, pp. 22–24. (In Russian).
2. Zager I. Yu., Yashinkina A.A., Andropova L.N. Comparative assessment of products of crushing of rocks of fields of nonmetallic construction materials of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 5, pp. 84-86. (In Russian).
3. Dobshits L.M., Magomedeminov I.I. Determination of frost resistance of large filler for heavy concrete. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2012. No. 4, pp. 6–19. (In Russian).
4. Petrov V.P., Tokareva S.A. Porous fillers from industry waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 46–50. (In Russian).

K.B. SAFAROV, Engineer (sk90@mail.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

The Use of Reactive Aggregates for Producing Concretes Resistant to Aggressive Media
The necessity to study fillers, which have the reactive ability to alkalis of cement stone, is caused by the absence, in some regions, of inert materials which meet requirements of norma tive-technical documentation for producing concretes resistant to aggressive media. An analysis of available literature data shows the need for assessment of the possibility to use local inert materials in the course of construction of the Rogun HPS in Tajikistan. To prevent the reactive capacity of inert materials of Rogun deposits and to use them as fillers for concrete, fly ash and micro-silica were considered as active mineral additives. The composition of concrete in which 15% of cement was replaced by fly ash and 5% – by micro-silica was select- ed; this significantly reduced the reactive capacity of inert materials and confirmed the possibility of their efficient application.

Keywords: reactive capacity of fillers, fly ash, micro-silica, corrosion.

References
1. Eroshkina N.A., Korovkin M.O., Timchuk E.I. Risk assessment of alkaline corrosion of geopolymer concrete. Sovromenniye nauchniye issledovaniya i innovacii. 2015. No. 3. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2015/03/50853 (date of access 15.06.15). (In Russian).
2. Royak, G.S., Granovskaya, I.V., Strzhalkovskaya, N.V., Milenin, D.A. Fly ash in concrete for mitigating the consequences of the reaction of cement alkalis with silica in aggregates. Cement. Beton. Suhie smesi. 2014. No. 4–5 (36), pp. 80–90. (In Russian).
3. Rozental N.K, Rozental А.Н., Lyubarskaya G.V. Corrosion of concrete by reacting alkalis with silica aggregates. Beton i Zhelezobeton. 2012. No. 1, pp. 50–60. (In Russian).
4. Shtark I., Vikht B. Dolgovechnost' betona. Pod red. P. Krivenko [The durability of concrete (trans. from German.). Ed. A.P. Krivenko]. Kiev: Oranta. 2004. 301 p.
5. Rojak G.S. Vnutrenyaya korroziya betona [Internal corrosion of concrete]. Moscow: CNIIS. Moscow. 2002. 156 p.
6. Lindgard Jan, Thomas Michael D. A., Sellevold Erik J. Pedersen Bard, Andic-Cakir Ozge, Justnes Harald, Ronning Terhe F. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) – performance testing: Influence of specimen pre treatment, exposure conditions and prism size on alkali leaching and prism expansion. Cement and Concrete Research. 2013. No. 53, pp. 68–90.
7. Rossella Pignatelli, Claudia Comi, Paulo J.M. Monteiro. A coupled mechanical and chemical damage model for concrete affected by alkali-silica reaction. Cement and Concrete Research. 2013. No. 53, pp. 196–210.
8. M.D.A. Thomas. The effect of supplementary cementing materials on alkali–silica reaction. Cement and Concrete Research. 2011. No. 41, pp. 1224–1231.
9. J.W. Pan, Y.T. Feng, J.T. Wang, Q.C. Sun, C.H. Zhang, D. R. J. Owen, Modeling of alkalisilica reaction in concrete. Frontier of Structural Civil Engineering. 2012. No. 6. pp. 1–18.
10. Lindgard Jan, Thomas Michael D. A., Sellevold Erik J. Pedersen Bard, Andic-Cakir Ozge, Justnes Harald, Ronning Terhe F. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) – performance testing: Influence of specimen pre treatment, exposure conditions and prism size on concrete porosity, moisture state and transport properties. Cement and Concrete Research. 2013. No. 53, pp. 145–167.
11. Rozental N.K. Korrozionnaya stoykost cementnih betonov nizkoy i osobo nizkit pronicayemosti [Corrosion resistance of cement concrete of low and very low permeability]. Мoscow: 2006. 419 p.

M.S. YELSUFYEVA, Еngineer, V.G. SOLOVYEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering),A.F. BURYANOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), M.R.NURTDINOV, Еngineer, V.A.KAKUASHA, Еngineer Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

The estimation of long-term changes in the properties of steel fiber reinforced concretes with expanding producing agents
This article is about the results of two-year studies of influence of expanding producing agents on the deformations, strength and operational properties of the steel fiber reinforced con- crete. It is found that the effect from introducing expanding producing agents is significantly reduced over time and final values of shrinkage of steel fiber reinforced concretes are 0,102–0,451 mm/m, and shrinkage of the control compositions without expanding additives are within 0,732–0,764 mm/m. Also found the compositions of steel fiber reinforced con- cretes in which the deformations after two years are stayed positive with value 0,036–0,092 mm/m. Measured values of the elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio of two-year steel fiber concretes which are 29800–38600 MPa and 0,15–0,22 respectively. The maximal elastic modulus values registered in compositions with positive strains at two-years old, that confirms the hypothesis about the formation of prestressed fiber carcass in the matrix of composite material in specific conditions.

Keywords: Steel fiber reinforced concrete, expanding additives, volumetric presstression, elastic modulus, shrinkage, strength, Poisson’s ratio.

References
1. Solovyev V.G., Buryanov A.F., Yelsufyeva M.S. Features of the production of steel fibre concrete products and designs. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 18–21. (In Russian).
2. Elsuf’eva M.S., Solovyev V.G., Bur’yanov A.F. Applying of expanding additives in the concrete reinforced steel fi ber // Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 60–63. (In Russian).
3. Titov M.Y. Concretes with increased strength on the basis of expanding additives. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 2, pp. 84–86. (In Russian).
4. Krasnovskii R.O., D.E. Kapustin, Rogachev K.V. The de- pendence of shrinkage of steel fiber reinforced concrete with cement-sandy matrix from the type of fiber and reinforce ment ratio // Internet-vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Polythematicheskaya. 2013. Vol. 4 (29). http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/ attachments KrasnovskiyKapustinRogachev-2013_4(29).pdf (In Russian).

E.V. KOROLEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (KorolevEV@mgsu.ru), director, scientific and educational center «Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology»; M.I. VDOVIN 2, Engineer (ords@list.ru); A.I. AL’BAKASOV3 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (post@mail.osu.ru); A.S. INOZEMTCEV 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (InozemcevAS@mgsu.ru)
1 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)
2 «OrenburgRemDorStroy» GUP (1/1, 60 let Oktyabrya Street, Orenburg 460021, Russian Federation)
3 Orenburg State University (13, Pobedy Avenue, Orenburg, 460018, Russian Federation)

Basic Properties of Impregnating-Bridging Compositions to Inhibit the Alkali-Silicate Reactions
The basic demands of impregnating-bridging compositions to inhibit the alkali-silicate reactions and to prevent deformations of concrete and destruction of constructions are identi fied in the paper based on analysis of the impregnation kinetics of capillary-porous body. The results of studies of changes in properties of solution of lithium nitrate and lithium carbonate from them concentration, kind and amount of surface-active substance are presented. Assessment of efficiency of studied impregnating-bridging compositions was per formed by calculation of complex parameter. Selection of the optimal content of the compositions was made. The most effective composition is Li2CO3 (c=1.25%) with 0.0001% nonionic surfactant ALM-7s.

Keywords: alkaline corrosion, alkali-silica reaction, impregnating-bridging composition, model of a porous-capillary body, Poiseuille equation.

References
1. Brykov A.S., Voronkov M.Ye. Alkali-silica reactions, al kaline corrosion of Portland cement concretes and poz- zolanic additives – corrosion inhibitors. Tsement i ego primenenie. 2014. No. 5, pp. 87–94. (In Russian).
2. Stanton Т.Е. Expansion of concrete through reaction between cement and aggregate. Proc. Amer. Soc. Civil Engineers. 1940. Vol. 66. No. 10, pp. 1781–1811.
3. Bogue R.H. The chemistry of Portland cement. NY.: Reinhold publishing corporation, 1947. 572 p.
4. Kühl H. Zement-Chemie. В. 3., 1951.
5. Stark J., Freyburg E., Seyfarth K., Giebson C., Erfurt D. 70 Jahre AKR und keine Ende in Sicht. International Baustofftagung IBAUSIL. Weimar, 2009.
6. Moskvin V.M., Ivanov F.M., Alekseev S.N., Guze ev E.A. Korroziya betona i zhelezobetona, metody ikh zashchity [Corrosion of concrete and reinforced con crete, methods of protection]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1980. 536 p.
7. Rozental’ N.K., Chekhnii G.V., Lyubarskaya G.V., Rozental’ A.N. Protection of concrete on the reactive ag gregate against internal corrosion // Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 3, pp. 68–71. (In Russian).
8. Helmuth R., Stark D., Diamond S., Moranville-Re gourd M. Alkali-Silica Reactivity: An Overview of Research. SHRP-C-342: Strategy Highway Research Program. National Research Council, Washington, DC. 1993.
9. Swamy R.N. Alkali-aggregate reaction – the bogeyman of concrete // Concrete technology past, present and future. ACISP-144. 1994, pp. 105–139.
10. Moskvin V. M, Royak G.S. Kompozitsiya dlya antikor rozionnoi zashchity [Corrosion of concrete under the action of alkali cement on silica filler]. Moscow: Gosstroiizdat. 1962. 164 p.
11. Fournier B., Bérubé M.A., Folliard K.J., Thomas M.D.A. Report on the diagnosis, prognosis and mitigation of alkali silica reaction (ASR) in transportation structures. FHWAHIF-09-004, Federal Highway Administration. 2010.
12. Bérubé M.A., Tremblay C. Chemistry of pore solution expressed under high pressure – influence of various pa rameters and comparison with hot-water extraction method. 12 th International Conference on AAR in Concrete , Beijing, China. 2004, pp. 833–842.
13. Pleau R., Bérubé M.A., Pigeon M., Fournier B., Raphaël S. Mechanical Behavior of Concrete Affected by AAR. 8 th International Conference on AAR in Concrete . Kyoto, Japan. 1989, pp. 721–726.
14. Villeneuve, V., Fournier, B. and Duchesne, J. Determi nation of the damage in concrete affected by ASR – the Damage rating Index (DRI). 14th International Conference on AAR in Concrete, Austin, Texas. 2012.
15. Korolev E.V., Smirnov V.A., Zemlyakov A.N. The iden tification of tumors caused by alkali-silica reaction. Vestnik MGSU. 2013. No. 6, pp. 109–116. (In Russian).
16. Grishina A.N., Zemlyakov A.N., Korolev E.V., Okhotnikova K.Yu., Smirnov V.A. Identification of the cor rosion in cement composites by means of statistical model ing. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 4, pp. 87–97. (In Russian).
17. Stark D. Handbook for the Identification of Alkali-Silica Reactivity in Highway Structures. SHRP-C-315, TRB National Research Council. 1991. 49 p.
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20. Patent WO 2013006662. Lithium-based concrete admix tures for controlling alkali-silica reactions with enhanced set-time control / STOKES, David B, Declared 05.07.2012. Published 10.01.2013.
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22. Patent WO 2004089844. Product for treating reinforced concrete constructions / LUTZ, Theophil, Markus, CHEVRET, Christian, Declared 30.03.2004. Published 21.10.2004.
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25. Feng X., Thomas M.D.A., Bremner T.W., Balcom B.J., Folliard K.J. Studies on lithium salts to mitigate ASR- induced expansion in new concrete: a critical review. Cement and Concrete Research. 2005. Vol. 35, pp. 1789–1796.
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D.V. ORESHKIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (dmitrii_oreshkin@mail.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Theoretical Justification for the Use of Soft-Leaved Wood in Construction
The article considers problems of the raw material base for producing building materials. The traditional heat-insulating materials are analyzed. The aim of this work is to justify the pos sibility of expanding the raw material base of building materials through the use of soft-leaved wood which is little used now. Shortcomings of the soft-leaved wood structure that hinder its use in construction are considered. It is established that the high porosity and low strength preclude its use as a structural material without special treatment. It is justified that the high porosity is a positive factor for producing heat-insulating materials from soft-leaved wood; this factor reduces the heat conductivity coefficient and ensures high steam and air per meability. Heat-insulating materials made of soft-leaved wood fully meet the requirements for ecology and comfort of living.

Keywords: building materials, wood, heat conductivity, raw material base, comfort.

References
1. Lesovik V.S. Architecturnaya geonika. Zhilichnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing construction]. 2013. No. 1, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
2. Oreshkin D.V. Problems of Building Materiology and Production of Building Materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 11, pp. 6–8. (In Russian).
3. Oreshkin D.V. Light-Weight and Superlight Cement Mortars for Construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 6, pp. 34–37. (In Russian).
4. Oreshkin D.V., Belyaev K.V., Semenov V.S. Thermophysical Properties, Porosity and Vapour Permeability of Light-Weight Cement Mortars. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 8, pp. 51–54. (In Russian).
5. Nekrasov N.K. Thermal-insulating materials: their prop erties. Tehnologii stroitel’stva. 2003. No. 2 (24), pp. 32– 35. (In Russian).
6. Lukash A.A., Plotnikov V.V., Botagovsky M.V. Cellular Wall Panels Made of Timber Materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 2, pp. 72– 73. (In Russian).
7. Lukash A.A., Lukuttsova N.P. Corrugated Cardboard Plate – Efficient Heat Insulating Material. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 10, pp. 24–29. (In Russian).
8. Bobrov Ju.L., Ovcharenko E.G., Shojhet B.M., Petuho va E.Ju. Teploizoljacionnye materialy i konstrukcii [Heat-insulating materials and structures]. Moscow. INFRA–M. 2003. 268 p.
9. Stark N.M., Rowlands E.R. Effects of wood fiber charca teristics on mechanical properties of wood/polyproplyene composites. Wood and Fiber Science. 2003. No. 35 (2), pp. 167–174

A.I. NIZHEGORODOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (nastromo_irkutsk@mail.ru) Irkutsk National Research State Technical University (83, Lermontov street, Irkutsk, 664074, Russian Federation)

The Production and Application of Polystyrene-Vermiculite Mixes
The article deals with the production, composition and application of polystyrene-vermiculite mixes obtained by mixing the components of the grains of blown-out vermiculite and prills of foamed polystyrene. The article presents the physical material properties such as packed density, thermal conductivity, slope of repose, internal friction, density and conductivity in a packed volume-intensive state. The technological shrinkage of solid masses PVM in a three-layer walls and criteria of reasonable results of experiments that provides unshrinkable operation of PVM for the whole service life period is considered. It provides the composition of polystyrene vermiculite concrete and its behavior. The aspects of the possible application of heat insulating concretes based on PVM are examined.

Keywords: polystyrene-vermiculite mix (PVM), blown-out vermiculite, foamed polystyrene, shrinkage of solid masses PVM, polystyrene vermiculite concrete.

References
1. Popov N.A. Proizvodstvo I primenenye vermikulita [Production and use of vermiculite]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1964. 128 p.
2. Podoliak F. Comparative Efficiency of Kilns for Vermiculite. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1973. No. 7, pp. 9–11. (In Russian).
3. Nizhegorodov A.I. Tekhnologiya i oborudovaniye dlya pererabotki vermikulita: optimalnoye fraktsionirovaniye, elektricheskii obzhig, do’obogashcheniye [Technologies and equipment for the vermiculite to be processed: opti mum fractioning, electrical burning, vermiculite dressing to the necessary concentration]. Irkutsk: IrGTU. 2011. 172 p.
4. Nizhegorodov A.I. The Field Experience of Process Equipment and Systems for the Processing of Vermiculite Concentrates and Conglomerates. Ogneupory i tekh nicheskaya keramika. 2014. No. 9, pp. 62–64. (In Russian).
5. Podoliak F.S. Vermiculite in Building: survey by F. Podoliak. Moscow: Stroyizdat.1966. 87 p.
6. Nizhegorodov A.I. Vermikulit i vermikulitovye tekhnolo gii: issledovaniya, proizvodstvo, primenenie [Vermiculite and Vermiculite Methods: Research, Production, Application] Irkutsk: Biznes Stroy Publishing. 2008. 96 p.
7. Emelyanov S.G., Nemchinov Y.I., Mar’enkov N.G., Kolchunov V.I., Yakovenko I.A. Features of Calculation of Seismic Stability of Large-Panel Buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 12, pp. 64–70. (In Russian).
8. Khozin V.G., Khokhryakov O.V., Bituev A.V., Urgkha nova L.A. Efficiency of Application of Fly Ash of Gusinoozerskaya SDPP (State District Power Plant) in the Concrete Mix of Low Water Requirements. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 7, pp. 76–78. (In Russian).

B.A. BONDAREV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.B. BONDAREV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), P.V. BORKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (borkovpv@mail.ru), R.Yu. SAPRYKIN, Engineer, V.A. ZHARIKOV, Engineer Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moscovskaya Street, 398600, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)

Adhesion Strength and Durability of Protective Coatings Made of Polymeric Composite Materials in Elements of Structures of Bridgeworks
The problem of ensuring the durability of structures of transport works made of concrete and reinforced concrete under conditions of their intensive destruction in the course of opera tion is considered. Results of the on-site inspections of bridgeworks are presented. The most common defects, reasons for their appearance influencing on the durability of urban auto mobile bridges are given. The impact of sand-salt mixes and other aggressive reagents, which reduce the durability of transport works, has been studied. As a solution, it is proposed to use protective coatings on the basis of polymeric composite materials on surfaces of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. Results of the study of adhesion strength and cyclic durability of concrete samples with protective coatings of various thicknesses on the basis of methods of mathematical planning of the experiment are presented.

Keywords: polymeric composite material, durability, protective coating, adhesion strength

References
1. Rapoport P.B., Rapoport N.V., Kochetkov A.V., Vasi l’ev Yu.E., Kamenev V.V. Durability of composite mate rials based on monomer furfuraceous. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 5, pp. 38–41. (In Russian).
2. Ovchinnikov I.I. Dolgovechnost’ zhelezobetonnykh kon struktsii transportnykh sooruzhenii. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 60–62. (In Russian).
3. Artamonova T.A., Savchenkova G.A., Shashun’ki na O.V. Sealing materials series Abris ® to protect transportation facilities. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 3, pp. 70–74. (In Russian).
4. Bondarev A.B., Borkov P.V., Bondarev B.A., Zhari kov V.A. Repair and restoration of structural elements of transport facilities using polymer composite materials. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno- stroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektu ra. 2015. № 39 (58), pp. 17–25. (In Russian).
5. Borkov P.V., Korneev A.D., Bondarev B.A., Melesh kin M.F. The durability of composite materials based on the monomer furfurolatsetonovogo . Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 5, pp. 64–65. (In Russian).
6. Bondarev B.A., Borkov P.V., Komarov P.V., Bonda rev A.B. Experimental studies of the cyclic durability of polymer composite materials. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2012. № 6. ; URL: www.science education.ru/106-7974 (date of access: 08.07.2015).
7. Bocharnikov A.C., Goncharova M.A., Glazunov A.V. Epoxy based sealants with a ferromagnetic filler. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 1, pp. 66–67. (In Russian).
8. Livshits Ya.D., Vinogradskii D.Yu., Rudenko Yu.D. Avtodorozhnye mosty: (Proezzhaya chast’) [Highway bridge (roadway)]. Kiev: Budivel’nik. 1980. 160 s.
9. Karabutov N.N., Bondarev B.A., Shmyrin A.M. The synthesis of mathematical models to study the properties polimerobetona in the automated diagnostics pavements. Pribory i sistemy. Upravlenie, kontrol’, diagnostika. 2006. № 4, pp. 27–30. (In Russian).
10. Bondarev B.A., Bondarev A.B., Saprykin R.Yu., Korvyakov F.N. The method of structural diagrams and vibrocreep polymer composite materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 74–77. (In Russian).
11. Kozhin V.V. The work of complex centrally compressed by the action of the prisms repeatedly applied loads. Mezhvuzovskii sbornik nauchnykh trudov MIIT(a). 1985. V. 76, pp. 102–105. (In Russian).

V.N. MORGUN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (morgun_vlad@bk.ru); L.V. MORGUN 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (konst-lvm@yandex.ru), A.V. VISNAP2 , Bachelor
1 Academy of Architecture and Arts of the Southern Federal University (105/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russian Federation)
2 Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)

The Use of Reinforcement in Products Made of Fiber-Foam-Concretes
The analysis of the building complex problems demonstrates that multilayer wall structures possess some operational shortcomings which limit their operation reliability. Therefore, enclosing wall structures is reasonable to produce single-layer. The use of fiber-foam-concrete for these purposes makes it possible not only to expand the nomenclature of large-size energy-saving building products, but also forecast the successful application of glass-plastic reinforcement for their manufacturing.

Keywords: fiber-foam concrete, glass-plastic reinforcement, metal reinforcement, one-layer enclosing structures.

References
1. The federal law No. 261-FZ of November 23, 2009. “About energy saving and increase of power effectiveness”.
2. Kopsov E.V., Tarasevich B.P., Suleimanov A.M. Construction and projects of houses: it is impossible to build triplex walls and to live in them! Materials “A round table in the Republic of Tatarstan” of 25.05.2012. http:// rekonstroy-oskol.ru/a73522-stroit-trehslojnye-steny. html (date of access 04.02.2015). (In Russian).
3. Pinsker V.A., Vylegzhanin V.P. Aerocrete in housing con struction with its maximal use. Cellular concretes in the modern construction-2007. Materials of the international scientific and practical conference. SPb. 2007, pp. 8–21. (In Russian).
4. Livshits D. V., Ponomarev O. I., Frolov A. A., Lomo va L. M. Features of monolithic buildings with facades from the facilitated laying. StroiPROFIl’. 2009. No. 6, pp. 53–58. (In Russian).
5. Morgun V.N., Morgun L.V., Bogatina A.Yu., Smirno va P.V. Achievements and problems of modern large-panel housing construction Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 41–45. (In Russian).
6. Yoo-Jae, K. and J. Hu. Mechanical properties of fiber reinforced lightweight concrete containing surfactant. Advances in Civil Engineering. 2010. No. 1, pp. 1–8.
7. Patent RF 106636. Plita perekrytiya [Overlapping plate] Nabokov S.M., Nabokova Ya.S., Chumakin E.R. Declared 11.03.2011. Published 20.07.2011. Bulletin No. 20. (In Russian).
8. Shakhova L.D. Tekhnologiya penobetona (teoriya i prak tika). [Technology of foam concrete (theory and prac tice)] Moscow: ASV. 2010. 246 p.

A.D. LOMAKIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences, (lomakin0840@mail.ru) TSNIISK named after V.A. Koucherenko AO RCC “Stroitel’stvo” (6–1, Institutskaya Street, 109428, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Protection of the large-span bearing glued wooden constructions
In article are considered the questions of safety of large-span bearing glued wooden constructions (GWC) during storage on a building site and when carrying out installation works. Presented the results of long observations for change of moisture conditions glued massive elements when exhibiting in the open air. It is shown that for stabilize the moisture condition of the GWC in exploitation process, it is necessary to use paint coatings with low vapor- and water permeability. Substantiated the measures of complex protection of large-span GWC from wetting, biologic damage and fire. Proposed measures to protect constructions from cracking and delamination during the building and exploitation. Noted the importance of using swelling-up flame retardants for the protection of constructions against fire, that reduce structural fire safety GWC, and compatible with bio- and waterproof. Paid attention to the neces- sity for adherence of technology of GWC’s protective processing at manufacturing plants.

Keywords: glued construction, shrinkage crack, delamination, paint coating.

References
1. Koval’chuk L.M. Proizvodstvo derevyannykh kleenykh konstruktsii [Glued wooden structures production]. Moscow: RIF «Stroimaterialy». 2005. 334 p.
2. Turkovskii S.B., Pogorel’tsev A.A., Preobrazhenskaya I.P. Kleenye derevyannye konstruktsii s uzlami na vkleennykh sterzhnyakh v sovremennom stroitel’stve (sistema TsNIISK) [Glued wooden structures with nodes on the rods glued in modern construction (system CNIISK)]. Moscow: RIF «Stroimaterialy». 2013. 300 p.
3. Lomakin A.D. Monitoring humidity condition glued wooden structures. Industrial and civil construction in modern conditions. Collection of scientific works. International Scientific and Technical Conference. Moscow: MGSU. 2011, pp. 84–87. (In Russian).
4. Slavik Yu.Yu., Lomakin A.D. Monitoring of covering buildings with a framework of long-span glued wooden structures. Collection of scientific works «Modern construc tions of metal and wood» Part 2. Odessa: 2008, pp. 32–40. (In Russian).
5. Lomakin A.D. Protection carrying glued wooden struc tures. Derevoobrabatyvayushchaya promyshlennost’. 2007. No. 3, pp. 15–18. (In Russian).
6. Sumenko V.A, Lomakin A.D., Pogorel’tsev A.A. Design skeletons of plywood center Luge «Sledge» for the 2014 Olympics in Sochi. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 10, pp. 47–49. (In Russian).
7. Ustrekhov A.I., Garashchenko N.A. Indicators of struc tural fire danger derevokleenyh designs protected intu mescent coatings, and the prospects for their use Montazhnye i spetsial’nye raboty v stroitel’stve. 2006. No. 6, pp. 12–16. (In Russian).
8. Lomakin A.D., Ustrekhov A.I. Fire-Protection of timber glued structures for building and facilities. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Building Construction]. 2013. No. 5, pp. 36–40. (In Russian).

A.A. FEDULOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (fedulov.alexey@mail.ru) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Floors for Residential and Public Buildings
The need for development of the uniform terminology and methods for determining physical-technical properties of self-leveling mortar mixes is substantiated. Designs of floors for res- idential and public buildings, modern materials for arrangement of different layers of the floor are considered. Concepts and definitions of floor layers, methods for testing self-leveling mortar mixes for arrangement of subfloors are proposed.

Keywords: floor, flooring underlay, mobility of mortar mix, loss of mobility, floor dry mixes

References
1. CNR [Construction norms and rules] 2.03.13–88. Floors. Gosstroy Russii. Moscow: TSPP. 2004.
2. Individual’nye elementnye smeinye normy raskhoda ma terialov i zatrat truda na otdelku pomeshchenii komple kinymi sistemami KNAUF [ Individual element smeiny consumption rates of materials and costs of work of fin ishing of rooms by komplekiny systems of KNAUF]. Vol. 3. Moscow: RIF “Stroymaterialy”. 2006.
3. Fedulov A.A, Rumyantsev B.M, Gorbunov G.I., Ivashchenko V.D., Iskhakov A.S. Methods of determina tion of quality засыпок for the combined bases of floors. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2002. No. 10, pp. 9–11. (In Russian).

A.P. PUSTOVGAR1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); T.N. SKVORTSOV2, Master; S.V. NEFEDOV 1, Engineer, I.S. IVANOVA1 , Master (ivanova1907@gmail.com)
1 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye shosse, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 OOO «KNAUF GYPSUM» (139, Tsentralnaya Street, 143400, Krasnogorsk, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation)

Assessment of Impact of Various Types of Edges on Strength of Joints of Gypsum Building Slabs

The impact of edges of «semicircular and thinned from the face side» (PLUK), «modified and thinned from the face side» (UK Pro), and «thinned from the face side» types on the strength of joints of gypsum building slabs at different variants of joints execution – with the use of two types of putty as well as without use and with the use of reinforcing tape in the course of filling – are considered. Methods and criterion of the assessment of joints strength of gypsum building slabs have been developed and substantiated. It is proposed to consid er the «deflection at the time of formation of the first crack» parameter, the value of which should be not less than 1 mm for 350 mm of the slab as a main criterion of resistance of the filled butt joint of gypsum building slabs to crack formation. It is established that the use of gypsum building slabs with the PLUK edge makes it possible to obtain the joint with the highest strength, and the use of the reinforcing tape gives an increased reserve of strength to the butt joint.

Keywords: gypsum building slabs, reinforcing tapes, butt joint strength

References .
1. Pustovgar A.P. Experience in application of gypsum binders in construction. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 81–85. (In Russian).
2. Karni J., Karni E. Gypsum in construction: origin and properties. Materials and Structures. 1995. Vol. 28, рр. 92–100.
3. Holcroft N.,Shea А. Heat of Sorption and Moisture Buffering Properties of Building Insulation Materials. InCIEC 2013 International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference. Kuching, Malaysia. 2014, рр. 649–661.
4. Pustovgar A.P., Gagulaev A.V. Thermophysical parame ters of enclosing structures with modified foam gypsym concrete. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 8, pp. 34–37. (In Russian).
5. Gypsum Association 2015. Using Gypsum Board for Walls and Ceilings. http://www.gypsum.org/technical/ using-gypsum-board-for-walls-and-ceilings/using- gypsum-board-for-walls-and-ceilings (date of access 27.04.2015).
6. Burgard D. What’s the Difference: Paper and Fiberglass Mesh Drywall Tape. Fine Homebuilding. 2012. Issue 232, рр. 36.
7. Arsenault P.J. Acoustical Control with Gypsum Board // Architectural Record's Continuing Education Centre. 2012. http://continuingeducation.construction.com/ article.php?L=140&C=958 (date of access 27.04.2015).
8. Kolarkar P., Mahendran M. Experimental studies of gypsum plasterboards and composite panels under fire conditions. Fire and Materials. 2014. Vol. 38, рр. 13–35.
9. Frangi A., Schleifer V., Fontana M., Hugi E. Experimental and numerical analysis of gypsum plasterboards in fire. Fire Technology. 2010. Vol. 46, рр. 149–167.

P.P. PASTUSHKOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)(pavel-one@mail.ru); A.V. ZHEREBTSOV2, Head of Technical Department
1 Scientific-Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow Russian Federation)
2 OOO «PENOPLEX» SPb (31, Mayakovskogo Street, 191014, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation)

About Efficiency of Using Extruded Foam Polystyrene in Enclosing Structures of First and Socle Floors
Thermal and mycological problems arising in the course of operation of the first and socle floors of buildings are described. The efficiency of using the extruded foam polystyrene in enclosing structures with the purpose to solve problems described is analyzed. Numerical calculations of non-stationary humidity conditions of enclosing structures with the use of extruded foam polystyrene under climatic conditions of various cities of the Russian Federation have been done. Values of the operational humidity in the layer of extruded foam polysty rene for various variants of structures have been calculated. A comparison on the values of operational humidity for analogous structures with the mineral wool and molded foam poly- styrene (foam plastic) is presented. The dependence of heat conductivity on the operational humidity is described. The influence of humidity conditions on the values of energy efficien cy of heat insulating materials has been investigated. The issue of loss of biological stability of damp layers of heat insulation has been studied.

Keywords: humidity conditions, heat insulating materials, operational humidity, energy efficiency, bio-stability.

References
1. Pastushkov P.P. Influence of humidity conditions walling with external plaster layer on the energy efficiency of thermal insulation materials. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Moscow. 2013. 169 p. (In Russian).
2. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V., Kryshov S.I., Ponoma rev O.I. Thermal protection of external walls of buildings with facing brickwork. AVOK: Ventilyatsiya, otoplenie, konditsionirovanie vozdukha, teplosnabzhenie i stroitel’naya teplofizika. 2009. No. 5, pp. 48–56. (In Russian).
3. Pastushkov P.P, Grinfel’d G.I., Pavlenko N.V., Bespa lov A.E., Korkina A.V. Calculated certain operating humidity of AAC in different climatic zones of construc- tion. Vestnik MGSU. 2015. No. 2, pp. 60–69. (In Russian).
4. Gagarin V.G. Thermal and physical problems of modern wall walling multi-storey buildings. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2009. No. 5, pp. 297–305. (In Russian).
5. Pastushkov P.P., Lushin K.I., Pavlenko N.V. No problem of condensation on the interior surface of the walls with bonded insulation. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 6, pp. 42–44. (In Russian).
6. Gagarin V.G., Pastushkov P.P. Quantitative evaluation of energy saving measures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 7–9. (In Russian).

V.E. DANILOV, Engineer, (v.danilov@narfu.ru), А.М. AYZENSTADT, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry) (a.isenshtadt@narfu.ru), M.A. FROLOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry), M.A. TUROBOVA, Student, A.M. KARELSKIY, Student Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (22, Severnaya Dvina Embankment, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation)

Producing of Organomineral Filler on the Basis of Wooden Bark and Basalt for Development of Composite Materials
Possibility and basis of technology of reinforcing of wooden bark by basalt for obtaining a filler for structural heat insulation are considered. As a filler, it is proposed to use the bark of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L), obtained from the dump of the lumber factory, and basalt sifting – waste of mineral wool production. Optimal dimensional characteristics of raw materials were selected. True density, coefficient and time of swelling, optimal composition of test samples were defined. Conclusions regarding the influence of time of wooden bark dispersion on its porous structure were drawn. Data about surface, sizes and amount of pores in the dry milled bark before and after the process of reinforcing by nano-sized particles of basalt were obtained. Fundamentals of technology, quality control and effective ways of reinforcing the bark by nano-sized particles of basalt for subsequent using as the filler for structural heat insulation were developed.

Keywords: organomineral filler, composite material, structural heat insulation, wooden bark, reinforcing of wood matrix.

References
1. Yatsun I.V., Sinegubova E.S., Pyatkova P.O. Cellular slabs from waste wood. Woodworking: technologies, equipment and management of the XXI Century: Proceedings of the IX Eurasian international symposium. 23–25 September 2014. Ekaterinburg. Pp. 115–117. (In Russian).
2. Koren’kova S.F., Sidorenko Yu.V. Binary fillers for building materials. Mezhdunarodnyi zhurnal prikladnykh i fundamental’nykh issledovanii. 2014. No. 6, pp. 39–40. (In Russian).
3. Kain G., Barbu M. C., Teischinger A., Musso M., and Petutschnigg A. Substantial bark use as insulation material. Forest Products Journal. 2013. No. 62 (6), pp. 480–487.
4. Stenin A.A., Aizenshtadt A.M., Shinkaruk A.A., Makho va T.A. Formation of fireproof properties of wood build ing materials with the use of high disperse basalt filler. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 47–50. (In Russian).
5. Stenin A.A., Aizenshtadt A.M., Shinkaruk A.A., Demi dov M.L., Frolova M.A. A Mineral modifier of a surface for protection of wood building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 10, pp. 51–54. (In Russian).
6. Aizenshtadt A.M., Makhova T.A., Frolova M.A., Tuty gin A.S., Stenin A.A., Popova M.A. Designing of compo sition of nano- and microstructured construction com posite materials. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 10, pp. 14–18. (In Russian).
7. Demidov M.L., Aisenstadt A.M. New approach in the creation of environmentally friendly building materials based on the highly dispersed mineral-reinforced wooden matrix. Journal of International Scientific Publications: Ecology and Safety. 2014. Vol. 8, pp. 146–151.
8. Tsyvin M.M. Ispol’zovanie drevesnoi kory [Use of wood en bark]. Мoscow: Lesnaya promyshlennost’. 1973. 96 p.
9. Polishchuk A.I., Rubinskaya A.V. Chemical aggressivity filler plant origin in relation to cement. New materials and technologies in mechanical engineering: Proceedings of the 16 th International Scientific Conference. 2012. http://sci- ence-bsea.narod.ru/2012/mashin_2012_16/polyshuk_ xim.htm (date of access 15.05.2015). (In Russian).
10. Babaev V.B., Strokova V.V., Nelubova V.V. Basalt fiber as a component for micro reinforcing of cement compos ites. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo techno logicheskogo universiteta imeni V.G. Shukhova. 2012. No. 4, pp. 58–61. (In English).

V.A. VOYTOVICH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), I.N. KHRYAPCHENKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (irina-xr@mail.ru) Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (65, Ilyinskaya Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603600, Russian Federation)

Trends in Application of Hydrophobisators in Construction
Dampening of building materials and structures causes the reduction of their lifetime and deterioration of hygienic and sanitary conditions in premises. The application of hydrophobi sators is one of prospective trends to ensure the growth of quality indicators in the construction industry. The authors are analyzing the spheres of efficient utilizing of hydrophobisa tors in construction. These are hydrophobization of concrete and reinforced concrete structures, sand-lime and ceramic bricks. Nowadays, the hydrophobization of Portland cement, mortars for plastering, products made of mineral wool, wood, magnesia binders is very actual. Protection of cement bonded particle boards, which are widely utilized as a stay-in- place form in monolithic housing construction with hydrophobisators, makes it possible to significantly improve their operational properties. The authors have determined the high efficiency of hydrophobization application for products with gypsum binder – gypsum plasterboard, gypsum-fiber tongue-and-groove slabs, and absolutely new for Russia gypsum- chip plates.

Keywords: hydrophobization of building products and structures, hydrophobisators

References
1. Nikishkin V.A. Under influence of organosilicon hydr phobisators. Avtomobilnye dorogi. 2011. No. 7, pp. 62–65. (In Russian).
2. Lukinski O.A. “Breathing” hermetization of walls. Integral. 2010. No. 1, pp. 108–109. (In Russian).
3. Babkov V.V., Gafurova E.A., Rezvov A.P., Mo hov A.V. Bloom problems on surface walls from vibro pressed concrete blocks and methods of defense. Inzhenerno-stroitelnyiу zhurnal. 2012. No. 7, pp. 14– 22. (In Russian).
4. Shilova M. A. Hydrophobisators are an effective defense of building and structure facades. Stroyinform. 2006. No. 7, pp. 194–195. (In Russian).
5. Voytovich V.A., Khryapchenkova I.N., Yavorsky A.A. Hydrophobization as a method of improving lifetime of buildings. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 12, pp. 15–18. (In Russian).
6. Ristavletov R.A., Temirkulov T.T., Shyntemirov K.S. Influence of water-repellent agents on quality of gas concrete. Tekhnologii betonov. 2010. No. 9–10, pp. 44–46. (In Russian).
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2021