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Stroitel`nye Materialy №6

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V.A. EZERSKIY1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (wiz75micz@rambler.ru); N.V. KUZNETSOVA 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (nata-kus@mail.ru), A.I. DUBROVIN2 , Student
1 Bialystok University of Technology (95а, Wiejska Street, Bia ystok, 15-351, Poland)
2 Tambov State Technical University (106, Sovetskaya Street, Tambov, 392000, Russian Federation)

Improvement of Fine Concrete Properties with the Help of Complex Mineral Additives
To reduce material and energy consumption of concrete products manufacturing, it is necessary to develop the formulation and introduce technologies of production of multi-component fine concretes with the use of industrial waste. The introduction of steelmaking slag and micro-silica in cement mix makes it possible to optimize the granulometric composition of fill ers, and, in case of using the plasticizing additive, to improve the structure of composite material. Results of the experimental determination of compressive strength, water absorption, density of the samples of the cement composite material depending on the percentages of components are presented. In case of increasing the content of steelmaking slag in the com position of a fine filler by 0–30%, the increase in the strength of samples by 22% is observed. The introduction of 20% of micro-silica and addition of the superplasticizer C-3 to 3% by weight of the binder positively influence on the strength characteristics. Formulations and strength characteristics of fine concrete compositions suitable for the manufacture of wall blocks are presented.

Keywords: resource saving, mineral additive, steelmaking slag, micro-silica.

References
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3. Gorshkov V.S. Alexandrov S.E., Ivashchenko S.I., Gorshkov I.V. Kompleksnaya pererabotka i ispol’zovanie metallurgicheskikh shlakov v stroitel’stve [Complex processing processing and use of metallurgical slag in construction]. Ed. by V.S. Gorshkov. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1985. 272 p.
4. Veshnjakova L.A., Frolova M.A., Eisenstadt A.M., Lesovik V.S., Mikhailov O.N., Macha T.A. Evaluation of energetic state of raw material for production of building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 10. pp. 56–55. (In Russian).
5. Korneev E.V. Study of steelmaking slag for the purpose of secondary use. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 8, pp. 62–63. (In Russian).
6. Koshkin A.G., Korovkin M.O., Urazova A.A., Eroshkina N.A. Study the effectiveness of supplements based on microsilica. Sovremennye nauchnye issledovaniya i innovatsii: scientific Internet-journal. 2014. No. 12 http://web. snauka.ru/issues/2014/12/42177 (date of access 20.04.2015). (In Russian).
7. Korovkin M.O., Kalashnikov V.I., Eroshkina N.A. Effektivnost’ superplastifikatorov i metodologiya ee otsenki [The effectiveness of superplasticizers and methodology to assess it]. Penza: Publishing House of the VPO «PGASA». 2012. 144 p.
8. Kalashnikov V.I. Gulyaev E.V., Valiev D.M. Influence of the type of super- and hyperplasticizers on the reotechnological properties of cement-mineral suspensions, powder mixed concrete and mechanical properties of concrete. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel’stvo. 2011. No. 12, pp. 40–45. (In Russian).
9. Kalashnikov V.I. Gulyaev E.V. Influence of the type and dosage of super-plasticizer on the properties of cement slurries reotehnologicheskie, baa-ton mixtures and powder- activated concrete. Tsement i ego primenenie. 2012. No. 2, pp. 66–72. (In Russian).
10. Gryzlov V.S. Formirovanie struktury shlakobetonov [Cinderblock structure formation]: Monograph. Cherepovets: CSU. 2011. 274 p.

M.V. KOROBKOVA, Engineer (marina-koro@nm.ru) Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (4, 2 nd Krasnoarmeiskaya Street, St. Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation)

Tests of Concrete Samples with Damping Additives on Dynamic Strength

Results of experiments on replacement of a part of the sand filler with an equivalent volume of damping additives with the purpose to study the changes in concrete properties caused under the action of dynamic loads are presented. Foam polystyrene, foam glass, crushed brick, and claydite are used as additives. Sample-cubes were subjected to the impact of differ ent dynamic loads, after that their strength were measured and compared with results obtained for the control sample. The impact strength of samples of the compositions obtained was also tested at the vertical dynamic impact machine. On the basis of experimental studies, the possibility of increasing the impact strength of concrete due to introducing damping com ponents in the composition of concrete mix is shown. At that, there was some reduction in other properties of concretes obtained. The optimum additive and its amount for application in concrete mixes subjected to dynamic loads have been determined.

Keywords: damping additives, low stiffness components, impact strength, fine concrete.

References
1. Adam G. Bowland, Richard E. Weyers, Finley A. Charney, Norman E. Dowling, Thomas M. Murray, Andrei Ramniceanu. Effect of vibration amplitude on concrete with damping additives. Materials Journal. 2012. Vol. 109. No. 3, pp. 371–378.
2. Yeh J. Advanced Civil, Urban and Environmental Engineering. Southampton: WIT Press, 2014. 813 p.
3. Lotoshnikova E.O. Physical and chemical researches micro and macrostructures of rigid pressing concrete with the damping additives of cindery microspheres. Electronic scientific magazine Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona. 2013. No. 4. http://ivdon.ru/magazine/archive/n4y2013/2092. (date of access 14.02.2014).
4. Tkachenko G.A., Erofeev V.P., Erofeev A.P. Concretes of higher crack resistance for production of road articles. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 10. pp. 57–59. (In Russian).
5. Damdinova D.R., Pavlov V.E., Alekseev E.M. Foam glass as the base for facing materials with controlled porous structure. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 1, pp. 44–46. (In Russian).
6. Lukutcova N.P., Pykin A.A., Chudakova O.A. Modifying of fine-grained concrete by micro and nanodimensional particles of a shungit and dioxide of the titan. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2010. No. 2, pp. 67–70. (In Russian).
7. Arulraj G.P., Adin A., Kannan T.S. Granite Powder Concrete. IRACST – Engineering Science and Technology: An International Journal (ESTIJ). 2013. Vol. 3. No. 1, pp. 193–199.
8. Fennis S.A.A.M., Walraven J.C., Uijl J.A. Compactioninteraction packing model: regarding the effect of fillers in concrete mixture design. Materials and Structures. 2013. Vol. 46. Iss. 3, pp. 463–478.
9. Babkov V.V., Mohov V.N., Davletshin M.B., Parfyonov A.V., et all. Modified concrete with high impact strength. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2002. No. 5, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
10. Bespaev A.A., Dzharylsasynov S.Sh. Strength and deformability of high-strength cement concrete under dynamic loading. International Scientific Conference «Mechanics and construction of transport buildings». Almaty. 2010, pp. 229–232. (In Russian).
11. Bragov A.M., Lomunov A.K., Konstantinov A.Y., Lamzin D.A. Research of mechanical properties of finegrained concrete under dynamic loading. Privolzhskij nauchnyj zhurnal. 2014. No. 4, pp. 8–17. (In Russian).
12. Balandin V., Kochetkov A., Krylov S., Sadyrin A., Feldgun V. Experimentally and theoretically investigating the processes of impact and penetration of bodies into concrete obstacles. Proceedings Fib Symposium. Engineering a Concrete Future: Technology, Modeling and Construction. Tel-Aviv. 22–24 April. 2013, pp. 601–604.
13. Pantileenko V.N. Povyshenie dolgovechnosti betona konstruktsii dlya neftegazopromyslovogo stroitel’stva: Monografiya [Increase of durability of concrete for oil and gas construction: Monograph]. Uhta: UGTU. 2001. 91 p.

O.A. KOROL, Engineer, (mrkorol.oleg@gmail.com) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Studies and Science-Intensive Developments in the Field of Energy Efficient Construction

Energy efficient multi-layer enclosing structures, which make it possible to ensure the required level of heat protection of buildings and reliability of external walls and ceilings, are used widely in the practice of modern construction. Among known structural concepts of enclosing structures it is possible to select walls, ceilings, and coverings manufactured with the use of durable heat insulation concretes. Such enclosing structures can be made in the form of curtain or self-bearing wall panels, multi-layer blocks masonry, monolithic external walls, ceiling slabs and coverings. A feature of some these structures is the availability of a monolithic connection between structural and heat insulation layers provided at manufacture of the structure during the single technological cycle. To improve strength characteristics of the contact zone of layers of the structure, a number of technical solutions, providing the strength ening of the layer contact zone by introducing reinforcing glass meshes, disperse reinforcement with steel or glass fiber, introducing the additional filler into the contact layer during the process of layer-by-layer fabrication of structures at the factory, have been developed.

Keywords: enclosing structures, external walls, coverings, heat insulation concretes, multi-layer structures, energy efficiency.

References
1. Davidyuk A.A. Assessment of influence of heat conductivity inclusions on reduced resistance to heat transfer of external multilayer walls on the basis of light concretes with vitreous fillers. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 24–27. (In Russian).
2. Ibragimov A.M., Fedosov S.V., Gnedina L.Yu. Problems of three-layer enclosing structures. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
3. Ibragimov A.M., Lavrinovich S.S. Physical-mathematical statement of a problem of non-stationary heat transfer through multilayer enclosing structure in the course of its heat-moisture treatment. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 31–33. (In Russian).
4. Korol’ E.A., Mostovoi D.I. Innovative technologies and design solutions for the roofing works. Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki. 2014. No. 11–12(78), pp. 404–406. (In Russian).
5. Korol’ E.A., Pugach E.M., Khar’kin Yu.A. Influence of manufacturing factors on the formation of layer connection in the multilayer exterior wall. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 3, pp. 67–75. (In Russian).
6. Korol’ E.A., Khar’kin Yu.A. Tekhnologiya vozvedeniya mnogosloinykh naruzhnykh sten s teploizolyatsionnym sloem iz betona nizkoi teploprovodnosti [Construction technology of multilayer external walls with heat-insulating layer made of low heat conductivity concrete]. Moscow: NTO PMU. 2014. 126 p. (In Russian).
7. Umnyakova N.P. Durability of three-layered walls with brick facing that provides high thermal protection. Vestnik MGSU. 2013. No. 1, pp. 94–100. (In Russian).
8. Umnyakova N.P., Butovskii I.N., Chebotarev A.G. Development of the regulation methods of heat shield of energy efficient buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 19–23. (In Russian).
9. Korol’ E.A., Khar’kin Yu.A. Construction technology of multilayer monolithic external walls with heat-insulating layer made of low heat conductivity concrete. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 32–35. (In Russian).
10. Patent RF 23000609. Sposob izgotovleniya mnogosloinogo stroitel’nogo bloka [Manufacturing method of a multilayer construction block]. Korol’ E.A., Slesarev M.Yu., Telichenko V.I. Declared 15.12.2005. Published 10.06.2007. Bulletin No. 16. (In Russian).
11. Patent RF 2307902. Sposob izgotovleniya mnogosloinoi stroitel’noi paneli [Manufacturing method of a multi-layer construction panel]. Korol’ E.A., Nikolaev A.E. Declared 15.12.2005. Published 10.10.2007. Bulletin No. 28. (In Russian).
12. Patent RF 2307903. Sposob izgotovleniya mnogosloinogo stroitel’nogo izdeliya [Manufacturing method of a multilayer construction product]. Korol’ E.A., Slesarev M.Yu., Telichenko V.I. Declared 15.12.2005. Published 10.10.2007. Bulletin No. 28. (In Russian).
13. Patent RF 2430833. Sposob izgotovleniya mnogosloinykh stroitel’nykh izdelii [Manufacturing method of a multilayer construction products]. Korol’ E.A., Zenkin V.A., Pugach E.M., Khar’kin Yu.A. Declared 15.03.2010. Published 10.10.2011. Bulletin No. 28. (In Russian).
14. Patent RF 2434742. Sposob izgotovleniya elementov mnogosloinykh ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsii [Manufacturing method of multi-layer enclosing structures components]. Korol’ E.A., Pugach E.M., Khar’kin Yu.A., Zenkin V.A., Bykov E.N. Declared 25.05.2010. Published 27.11.2011. Bulletin No. 33. (In Russian).
15. Patent RF 2440892. Sposob izgotovleniya elementov mnogosloinykh ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsii [Manufacturing method of multi-layer enclosing structures components]. Korol’ E.A., Pugach E.M., Khar’kin Yu.A., Zenkin V.A., Bykov E.N. Declared 18.08.2010. Published 27.01.2012. Bulletin No. 3. (In Russian).

V.S. SEMENOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (science-isa@yandex.ru), T.A. ROZOVSKAYA, Engineer Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Improvement of Energy Efficiency of Enclosing Structures with the Use of Lightweight Masonry Mortars
When arranging one-layer enclosing structures made of efficient small-piece articles, it is necessary to use «warm» mortars. Existing lightweight mortars have insufficient grade strength and not always ensure the homogeneity of the enclosing structure due to the relatively high average density. The efficient reliving filler for such mortars is hollow ceramic micro-spheres. The development of lightweight masonry mortars with hollow ceramic microspheres is presented. Optimal compositions have been developed, their main properties have been determined. The influence of the percentage of hollow ceramic micro-spheres in the mix composition on the micro-structure of masonry mortar, its physical-mechanical and tech nological properties has been studied. Lightweight masonry mortars with hollow ceramic micro-spheres, which make it possible to improve the energy efficiency of enclosing structures, have been obtained.

Keywords: brick mortars, lightweight mortars, hollow ceramic micro-spheres, dry building mixes, energy efficiency, enclosing structures.

References
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12. Tikhonov Yu.M., Kolomiets V.I. Selection of compositions, properties and applications of light dry building mixtures based on expanded perlite and vermiculite. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2006. No. 3, pp. 83–88. (In Russian).
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15. Oreshkin D.V., Belyaev K.V., Semenov V.S. High quality construction and grouting mortars with hollow glass microspheres. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo. 2010. No. 10, pp. 56–58. (In Russian).
16. Semenov V.S., Oreshkin D.V., Rozovskaya T.A. The properties of lightweight mortars with hollow glass microspheres and antifreeze additives. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo. 2013. No. 3, pp. 9–11. (In Russian).
17. Klochkov A.V., Pavlenko N.V., Strokova V.V., Belentsov Yu.A. On the question about the use of hollow glass microspheres for thermal-structural masonry mortars. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2012. No. 3, pp. 64–66. (In Russian).
18. Oreshkin D.V., Belyaev K.V., Semenov V.S. Thermophysical properties, porosity and vapour permeability of light-weight cement mortars. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 8, pp. 51–54. (In Russian).
19. Inozemtsev A.C., Korolev E.V. Hollow microspheres - an effective filler for high-strength lightweight concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo. 2013. No. 10, pp. 80–83. (In Russian).
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23. Teryaeva T.N., Kostenko O.V., Ismagilov Z.R., Shikina N.V., Rudina N.A., Antipova V.A. Physico-chemical properties of alumiNo.silicate hollow microspheres. Vestnik Kuzbasskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2013. No. 5, pp. 86–90. (In Russian).
24. Sapelin A.N. The sorption properties of wall materials with microspheres. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo. 2013. No. 3, pp. 101–103. (In Russian).

I.Ya. KISELYOV, Doctor of Sciences (ikiselyov@ bk.ru) Research Institute of Building Physics of RAAСS (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)

Equilibrium Sorption Humidity of Cellular Concretes and Its Polymolecular-Adsorbed and Capillary-Condensed Components
Equilibrium sorption humidity of building materials largely determines the progress of processes of heat- and moisture transfer through external enclosing structures of buildings and, consequently, the thermal resistance of these structures under the real conditions of operation. Therefore, when calculating the thermal resistance of structures, the information about the equilibrium sorption humidity of structures and its components at positive and negative temperatures is needed. The study of the sorption humidity process is conducted on the example of cellular concretes. The humidification of cellular concretes with vaporous moisture at temperatures from +35°C up to -10°C takes place mainly due to the phenomenon of polymolecular adsorption. The phenomenon of capillary condensation plays a prominent role in this process only at the values of relative air humidity close to 1 (100%).

Keywords: cellular concretes, equilibrium sorption humidity, polymolecular-adsorbed component, capillary-condensed component.

References
1. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Theoretical preconditions for calculation of reduced resistance to heat transfer of enclosing structures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 12, pp. 4–12. (In Russian).
2. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V.V. Prospects for increasing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in Russia. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. No. 3. Vol. 1, pp. 192–200. (In Russian).
3. Umnyakova N.P. Sorption of water steam of mineral wool heat insulation in operating ventilated facades. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 50–52. (In Russian).
4. Umnyakova N.P., Butovskiy I.N., Chebotarev A.G. Development of the regulation methods of heat shield of energy efficient buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 19–23. (In Russian).
5. Kiselyov I.Ya. The method of calculation of the equilibrium sorption humidity of building materials for positive and negative temperatures. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitelstvo. 2011. No. 3, pp. 101–104. (In Russian).
6. Brunauer C. Adsorbcia parov i gazov. T1. Fizicheskaia adsorbcia [Adsorption of gases and vapors. Part. 1. Physical adsorption]. Moscow: GIIL. 1948. 784 p.
7. Greg S., Sing L. Adsorbciya, udelnaya poverchnoct, poristost [Adsorption specific surface area, porosity]. Moscow: MIR. 1984. 527 p.
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V.S.ROYFE, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (roife@mail.ru) Research Institute of Building Physics of RAAСS (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)

Some Problems of Determining the Moisture Content of Enclosing Structures Materials of Buildings
Some problems of the experimental determination of moisture content of enclosing structures materials by non-destructive dielkometric method both in the process of building products fabrication and in the process of operation of buildings with the help of capacitance sensors of a surface type are considered. The scheme of test conducting with a moisture meter of IVTP-12-1 type is presented. One of the ways to minimize measurements errors, which depend on the surface quality of the controlled structure, is shown.

Keywords: enclosing structures, non-destructive methods of control, dielkometric method, moisture meter.

References
1. Gagarin V.G., Pastushkov P.P. Quantitative assessment of energy efficiency of energy saving measures. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 7–9. (In Russian).
2. Rojfe V.S. Pilot studies of a moist condition of construction de-signs. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. Vol. 3. No. 2, pp. 104–108. (In Russian).
3. Pastushkov P.P., Lushin K.I., Pavlenko N.V. Absence of problem of condensate formation on the inner surface of walls with fastened heat insulation. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 6, pp. 42–44. (In Russian).
4. Patent RF № 82311 Komplekt ekspress-izmeritelya vlazhnosti i teploprovodnosti tverdykh materialov [Package express moisture meter and the thermal conductivity of solid materials] / Royfe V.S. Declared 05.04.2011. Published 16.07.2012.

S.A. TIHOMIROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (sergtihomirov@yandex.ru), A.L.TIHOMIROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.G.SHEINA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Rostov State Building University (162,Socialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on- Don, 344022, Russian Federation )

Thermal Non-Destructive Method for Control over Conditions of Building Structures of Underground Heating Mains
Normative methods for the technical diagnostic of building, including heat insulating, structures of underground heating mains are considered. The thermal non-destructive method for diagnostics of trenchless heat lines is proposed, an algorithm of implementing the proposed method in practice is given. Ways of the solution of problems at the main stages of control conducting, such as the measurement of factual temperatures of soil surface (covering) over the laying with the use of thermal imaging equipment and the mathematical simulation of temperature fields of heating mains for different conditions of building structures and technological regimes, are described. The mathematical description of the heat transfer process in the «heating line – soil» system is given. The comparison of factual thermograms, obtained as a result of experimental approbation of the proposed method, with the results of numeri cal simulation is made.

Keywords: diagnostics, heating main, thermal imager, temperature field.

References
1. Kovalevsky V.B. Energy Efficiency ductless heat networks strip. Novosti teplosnabzheniya.2014. No. 5, pp. 45–48. (In Russian)
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S.I. EVTUSHENKO, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Professor, T.A. KRAKHMAL’NY, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), M.P. KRAKHMAL’NAYA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.S. EVTUSHENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Platov South Russian State Polytechnic University (Novocherkassk Polytechnic Institute) (132, Prosvescheniya Street, 346428, Novocherkassk, Rostov Region, Russian Federation)

Monitoring System of Small Reinforced Concrete Bridgeworks as a Factor of Increasing Their Durability
Problems of the present condition of small reinforced concrete highway bridgeworks as well as disadvantages of existing methods for maintenance and control of bridge crossings are reflected. The description of the monitoring system of conditions of bridgeworks developed by authors, which make it possible, in real scale of time, to conduct measurements and automate the process of data transmission by wireless communication, is presented. The structural block-scheme of the system is also presented.

Keywords: bridgework, operational service, monitoring of technical condition, durability and operational reliability, measuring system.

References
1. Bandurin M.A. Problems of residual life assessment is long maintained water spending constructions. Inzhenernyi vestnik Dona. 2012. No. 3, pp. 29-34. (In Russian).
2. Volosukhin V.A., Krakhmal’nyi T.A., Evtushenko S.I., Krakhmal’naya M.P. Defekty i povrezhdeniya stroitel’nykh konstruktsii mostov na meliorativnykh kanalakh Rostovskoi oblasti [Defects and damage to the building of bridges in the drainage canals of the Rostov region]. Novocherkassk: Yuzhno-Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi politekhnicheskii universitet imeni M.I. Platova. 2013. 126 p.
3. Mailyan L.R., Skibin G.M., Shutova M.N. Ostatochnyi resurs tipovykh ob”ektov gornorudnoi i ugol’noi promyshlennosti i metody ego opredeleniya [Residual resource objects typical mining and coal industry and methods of its determination]. Rostov-na-Donu: Rostovskii gosudarstvennyi stroitel’nyi universitet. 2010. 150 p.
4. Volosukhin V.A., Bandurin M.A. Features of the application of simulation of emergency bridge crossings through carrying water during operational monitoring. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Severo-Kavkazskii region. Seriya: Tekhnicheskie nauki. 2012. No. 5, pp. 82-86. (In Russian).
5. Patent RF 2448225. Sistema monitoringa sostoyaniya treshchin i stykov zdanii i sooruzhenii [The system of monitoring the state of cracks and joints of buildings and structures]. Krakhmal’naya M.P., Krakhmal’nyi T.A., Evtushenko S.I. Declared 01.10.2010. Published 20.04.2012. Bulletin No. 4. (In Russian).
6. Patent RF 2344369. Datchik ugla naklona odnoploskostnoi [Inclination sensor coplanar]. Zotov M.V., Tishchenko S.G., Evtushenko S.I., Rudov N.V. Declared 09.10.2006. Published 20.01.2009. (In Russian).

V.P. GUSEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)(gusev-43@mail.ru), A.V. SIDORINA, engineer Research Institute of Building Physics of RAAСS (21, Lokomotivniy Driveway, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation)

Аcoustic Сharacteristics of Сoatings for Ducts and Process Pipes
The characteristic of the duct of the air supply systems, air conditioning and process piping of refrigeration systems as sources of increased noise radiated into the surrounding space are represented. For protection it uses different zvukoizoliruyuschie coating, the effectiveness of which depends on many parameters. Discusses the physical and mathe matical model of their standard designs and new experimental data concerning the influence of positive and negative temperature on the efficiency of combined coatings of elas tomeric materials.

Keywords: ventilation ,cooling systems, noise protection, ducts , process pipe

References
1. Gusev V.P., Ledenev V.I. M.J. Leshko Calculation and design of sound air seply ,conditioning and air heating systems. Reference book edited by I. L. Shubin. M: NIISF RAASN, 2013, 80 p.
2. Gusev, V.P. From the experience of noise control engineering systems equipment. AVOK, 2012. No. 2, pp. 38–42, No. 3, pp. 38–43. (In Russian).
3. Gusev, V.P., Ledenyov V. I. Assessment of noise impact on the environment ventilation equipment installed in outdoor areas. AVOK. 2014. No. 3, pp. 70–74. (In Russian).
4. Gusev V.P. Evaluation of the sound power of equipment in plenums. AVOK. 2009. No. 3, pp. 32–39. (In Russian).
5. Gusev, V.P., Sidorina A.V. The Calculation and design of noise protection transit air ducts of HVAC systems. AVOK. 2013. No. 2, pp. 94–100. (In Russian).
6. Gusev, V.P., Sidorin A.V. Noise Insulation of air ducts of ventilation systems coatings using elastomeric and fibrous materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 37–39.
7. Gusev, V.P., Leshko M.J., Sidorina A.V. Protection from aircraft noise elements of ventilation systems and air conditioning. Proceedings of the conference - IV academic readings “Topical issues of building physics: energy saving, reliability, environmental safety” dedicated to the memory of G.L. Osipov .Moscow, MGSU, July 3–5 2012.
8. Terekhov, A.L., Study and reduction of noise at compressor stations of main gas pipelines. M. “IRC Gazprom”. 2002 305 p.

A.I. ANTONOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.I. LEDENEV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), E.O. SOLOMATIN1, engineer (blacwit@inbox.ru), I.L. SHUBIN 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (niisf@niisf.ru)
1Tambov State Technical University (109 Sovetskaja Street, Tambov, 392000, Russian Federation)
2Scientific and Research Institute of Building Physics of RAACS (21, Lokomotivny Passage, 127238, Moscow, Russian Federation)

The Сalculation of Noise When Designing Soundproofed Compartment Technological Equipment
The principles of calculating the direct sound from the soundproofed compartment technological equipment civil and industrial buildings. Shows the features soundproofed compart ment as the secondary volume of noise sources affecting the spread of the sound energy emitted by them. The method of calculation of the direct sound from the soundproofed com partment, more accurately takes into account features of the radiation of sound energy housing. The housings in the method are regarded as sources with large uneven their sound radi ation surfaces.

Keywords: soundproofed compartment, the noise, the calculation of the noise, level of the direct sound

References
1. Gusev V.P., Sidorina A.V. Protection against noise sewage systems in residential and public buildings. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 11, pp. 12–15. (In Russian).
2. Gusev V.P. From the experience of noise control equipment engineering systems. AVOK: Ventilyatsiya, otoplenie, konditsionirovanie vozdukha, teplosnabzhenie i stroitel’naya teplofizika. 2012. No. 2, pp. 38–45. (In Russian).
3. Kochkin A.A. Soundproofing of vibrodampering elements layered translucent walling. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 40. (In Russian).
4. Kochkin A.A. Designing acoustic laminated vibrodampering panels based on gypsum sheets. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. No. 3–1, pp. 93–96. (In Russian).
5. Grebnev P.A., Monich D.V. Investigation of properties of multilayer soundproof enclosures with rigid filler. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 50–51. (In Russian).
6. Gusev V.P. Increasing the accuracy of calculations of acoustic engineering systems – direct way to optimize their attenuation. Protecting the public from high noise exposure: Proceedings of the III All-Russian Scientificpractical conference with international participation. St. Petersburg. 2014, pp. 692–698. (In Russian).
7. Gusev V.P., Matveeva I.V., Solomatin E.O. Computer modeling of noise from various sources in the urban environment. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo. 2014. No. 8, pp. 25–28. (In Russian).
8. Osipov G.J., Judin E. Ja. Snizenie shuma v zdanijah I zhilyh rajonah [Decrease in noise in buildings and residential areas]. Moscow: Stroizdat. 1987. 558 p.

A.A. ZAYTSEVA, engineer (zaytseva.a@polyplastic.ru), E.I. ZAYTSEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.F. KOROVYAKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering). Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

Improving the Energy Efficiency Due To Heat Insulation of Pipelines
One of the most prospective ways to solve the problem of rational using energy resources is the creation of materials for heat insulation of pipeline when they are laid in unheated prem ises of the building. Effective gas concrete on the basis of liquid glass, modifying additives, crushed and ground broken glass, aluminum powder, sodium hydroxide, and sodium fluoro- silicate is proposed to be used as such a material. This heat insulation meets the requirements of fire safety, durability, operation reliability. Its use makes it possible to improve the energy efficiency of pipelines and have a stable ecological and economic effect due to the use of solid domestic waste.

Keywords: energy efficiency, broken glass, gas concrete, pipelines.

References
1. Uhova T.A. Prospects for the development of production and application of cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005.No 1, pp. 18–21. (In Russian)
2. G.P. Sakharov. Foamed concretes in post-crisis period. Nauchno-prakticheskij Internet-zhurnal «Nauka. Stroitel’stvo. Obrazovanie». 2011. № 1. http://www.nso-journal.ru/public/ journals/1/issues/2011/01/8.pdf (date use the site 25.05.2015)
3. Grigorova Ju.A. Recycling of a cullet in production of heat-insulating materials. Sovremennye nauchnye issledovanija i innovacii.2014.No 8. http://web.snauka.ru/issues/ 2014/08/37026 (date use the site 25.05.2015)
4. Nikulin F.E. Utilization and cleaning of industrial wastes. L.: Sudostroenie. 2004 , 232 p.
5. Zaytseva E.I., Porous insulation material on the basis of cullet. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Moskva. 1998, 165p. (In Russian)
6. Patent RF 2263085. Syr’evaja smes’ dlja izgotovlenija teploizoljacionnogo materiala [Raw mix for production of heat-insulating material] Gevorkyan V.A., Korovyakov V.F., Dallakyan D.V., Declared 17.07.2003. Published 27.10.2005. (In Russian).

L.A. URKHANOVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (urkhanova@mail.ru), S.A. LKHASARANOV 1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (solbon230187@mail.ru); V.E. ROZINA 2, Engineer (vikt.rozina@yandex.ru); S.L. BUYANTUEV1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 East Siberia State University of Technology and Management (40V, Klyuchevskaya Street, Ulan-Ude, 670013, Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Irkutsk State Technical University (83, Lermnontova Street, Irkutsk, 664074, Russian Federation)

Fine Basalt-Fibrous-Concrete with Nano-Silica
Issues of the disperse reinforcement of cement and concrete with thin basalt fiber produced by the centrifugal-blown method are considered. The assessment of corrosion resistance of basalt fiber in the composition of the cement matrix is made. To improve the corrosion resistance of basalt fiber in the composition of fibrous-cement composites, the nano-silica obtained with the help of the electron accelerator is used. Indexes of heat emission of cement pastes with various content of nano-silica have been defined. Fibrous concrete with improved physical-mechanical and operational characteristics has been obtained with the use of basalt fiber and nano-disperse silica.

Keywords: disperse reinforcement, fibrous concrete, Portland-cement, basal fiber, nano-silica, heat emission during hydration.

References
1. Pukharenko Y.V. Restoration and construction: the potential fiber reinforced materials and products. Sovremennye problemy v nauke i obrazovanii. 2012. No. 4. URL: www.science-education.ru/104-6582 (Date of access 25.02.2015). (In Russian).
2. Banthia N., Bindiganavile V., Jones J., Novak J. Fiberreinforced concrete in precast concrete applications: Research leads to innovative products. PCI Journal. 2012. Vol. 3, pp. 33–46.
3. Rybin V.A., Utkin А.V., Baklanova N.I. Alkali resistance, microstructural and mechanical performance of zirconiacoated basalt fibers. Cement and Concrete Research. 2013. Vol. 53, pp. 1–8.
4. Borovskikh I.V., Khozin V.G. Changing the length of basalt fiber with its distribution in the composite binder of high strength fiber concretes. Izvestiya Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo archinecturno-stoitel’nogo universiteta. 2009. No. 2 (12), pp. 233-237. (In Russian).
5. Buchkin A.V., Stepanova V.F. Fine-grained concrete with high corrosion resistance, fiber reinforced by thin basalt fiber. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo. 2013. No. 1, pp. 47–49. (In Russian).
6. Babaev V.B., Strokova V.V., Nelyubova V.V., Savgir N.L. The question of alkali resistance of basalt fiber in cement system. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo technologicheskogo universiteta imeni V.G. Shukhova. 2013. No. 2, pp. 63–66. (In Russian).
7. Buyantuev S.L., Kondratenko A.S. The study of physical and chemical properties of mineral fibers obtained by an electromagnetic technological reactor. Vestnik Vostochno Sibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta technologii i upravleniya. 2013. No. 5 (44), pp. 123–129. (In Russian).
8. Buyantuev S.L., Mognonov D.M., Badmaev B.B., Pashinski S.G., Malykh A.V. Mini-plant manufacture of heat-insulating materials from basalt based on the electromagnetic melting unit with low rate energy consumption. Vestnik Vostochno Sibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta technologii i upravleniya. 2012. No. 1 (36), pp. 139–144. (In Russian).
9. Urkhanova L.A., Lkhasaranov S.A. Nanomodified construction materials using raw materials of Transbaikalia. Vestnik Vostochno-Sibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta technologii i upravleniya. 2011. No. 1 (36), pp. 139–144. (In Russian).
10. Urkhanova L.A., Bardakhanov S.P., Lkhasaranov S.A. Concrete of improved strength on the basis of a composite binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 1, pp. 33–34. (In Russian).
11. Butt Y.M., Sychev M.M., Timashev V.V. Khimicheskaya tekhnologiya vyazhushchikh materialov [Chemical technology of binders]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1980. 472 p.
12. Urkhanova L., Lkhasaranov S., Rozina V. Increased corrosion resistance of basalt reinforced cement compositions with nanosilica. Nanotehnologii v stroitel’stve: scientific Internetjournal. 2014. Vol. 6. No. 4, рр. 13–27. http://nanobuild.ru/ ru_RU/ (date of access 25.02.2015). (In Russian).

A.A. VISHNEVSKY, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), G.I. GRINFEL’D, Executive Director, A.S. SMIRNOVA, Assistant Executive Director National Association of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Manufacturers (40, Oktyabr’skaya Embankment, 193091, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Production of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete in Russia
The production of autoclaved aerated concrete in Russia continues to be in active progress. Every year new lines of AAC are commissioned, operating factories increase manufacturing volumes. This ensures the annual growth of capacities for manufacturing AAC by 3–5% per year in average. As a result, the output of this material grows, and in 2014 the total volume of AAC manufactured was 12,9 mil. m 3. At that, the manufactured production qualitatively changes. Small wall blocks of 400–600 kg/m3 density with precise geometric sizes and improved physical-mechanical characteristics have replaced reinforced panels of 700–800 kg/m 3 density. Enterprise-members of NAAC make a major contribution to these results of the industry. At present, the Association unites about a half of capacities for manufacturing AAC – the total capacity of NAAC members is 7,3 mil. m 3 /y. In 2014 23 factory-members of NAAC produced 6,4 mln. m 3 of AAC (49,6% of total output.)

Keywords: autoclaved aerated concrete, wall blocks, energy efficiency.

References
1. Vylegzhanin V.P., Pinsker V.A. Gas Concrete in Housing Construction and Perspectives of Its Production and Use in the Russian Federation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 1, pp. 4–8. (In Russian). 2. Dombrovskii A.V. Production of cellular concrete. Overview. VNIIESM. 1983. Vol. 2, pp. 76. (In Russian).
3. Korovkevich V.V., Pinsker V.A., etc. Maloetazhnye doma iz yacheistykh betonov. Rekomendatsii po proektirovaniyu, stroitel’stvu i ekspluatatsii [Low-rise houses of aerated concrete. Recommendations for the design, construction and operation]. Leningrad: LenZNIIEP. 1989. 284 p.
4. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfeld G.I., Kulikova N.O. Analysis of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Market of Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 49–44. (In Russian).
5. Vishnevskii A.A., Grinfel’d G.I., Smirnova A.S. Results of the enterprises for manufacture of autoclaved aerated concrete in 2013. Tekhnologii betonov. 2014. No. 4, pp. 44–47. (In Russian).

R.A. PLATOVA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)(decolor@hotbox.ru), Yu.T. PLATOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), T.M. ARGYNBAEV 2 , General Director, Z.V. STAFEEVA 2 , Deputy Director for production
1 Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (36, Stremyanny Passage, 117997, Moscow, Russian Federation)36, per. 36, Moscow, 117997, Russia
2 OOO «Plast Rifey» (1, Magnitogorsky Tract, Plast, 457020, Chelyabinskay Oblast, Russian Federation)

White Metakaolin: Factors Influencing on Coloring and Evaluating Methods
Results of color characteristics of the white metakaolin of ZAO «Plast Rifey» measured according to recommendations of the International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, CIE) are presented. White metakaolin has high values of chromaticity and lightness corresponding to yellowish-red tone simultaneously. The lightness of metakalin is determined by the content of kaolinite in the kaolin composition, dispersion of particles, and temperature of thermal treatment. It is shown that the content of iron oxides is a significant factor which determines the value of whiteness index WISO, but it is not dominating. It is established that the higher pozzolanic activity of metakaolin within the temperature range of 600–950 оC, the higher values of redness а* CIEL*a*b*. The gradation of metakaolin according to the whiteness index and color characteristics CIEL*a*b*.is presented, the data are recommended to include in the normative document.

Keywords: kaolin, metakaolin, whiteness, coordinates of color, pozzolanic activity.

References
1. Snellings R., Mertens G., Elsen J. Supplementary Cementitious Materials. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 2012. Vol. 74, pp. 211–278.
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3. Tironi A., Trezza M., Scian A., Irassar E. Kaolinitic calcined clays: Factors affecting its performance as pozzolans. Construction and Building Materials. 2012. Vol. 28. No. 1, pp. 276–281.
4. Platova R.A., Argynbaev T.M., Stafeeva Z.V. Influence of Dispersion of Kaolin from Zhuravliny Log Deposit on Pozzolan Activity of Metakaolin. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 2, pp. 75–80. (In Russian).
5. Wаng M., Guo N., He P., Yu J. Formation mechanism and its pozzolanic activity of metakaolin. Key Engineering Materials. 2014. Vol. 602–603, pp. 620–623.
6. Tironi A., Trezza M., Scian A., Irassar E. Assessment of pozzolanic activity of different calcined clays. Cement and Concrete Composites. 2013. Vol. 37. pp. 319–327.
7. Bouzidi N., Siham A., Concha-Lozano N., Gaudon P., etс. Effect of chemico-mineralogical composition on color of natural and calcined kaolins. Color Research & Application. 2014. Vol. 39. No. 5, pp. 499–505.
8. Gamiz E., Melgoza M., Sanchez-Maranon M., Martin- Garcia J.M., Delgado R. Relationships between chemico- mineralogical composition and color properties in selected natural and calcined Spanish kaolins. Applied Clay Science. 2005. Vol. 28. No. 1–4, pp. 269–282.
9. Platova R.A., Platov Yu.T. Instrumental Specification of Colour Characteristic of Building Materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 66–72. (In Russian).
10. Castelein O., Aldon L., Olivier-Fourcade J. etс. 57Fe Mössbauer study of iron distribution in a kaolin raw material: influence of the temperature and the heating rate. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 2002. Vol. 22. No. 11, pp. 1767–1773.
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12. Scheinost A.C., Schwertmann U. Color Identification of Iron Oxides and Hydroxysulfates. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 1999. Vol. 63. No. 5, pp. 1463–1471.

S.V. DUGUEV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (info@bspigment.ru), V.B. IVANOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), K.Zh. SATVALDINOV, Technologist OOO «Bi. El.Spectr» (10, Erino Village, Ryazanovskoye Settlement, 142102, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Practical Aspects of Import Substitution of Pigmenting Materials in Building Industry of Russia
In the current economic situation there is no need and reason to reject foreign technologies, but the desire to reduce dependence on the import in general should be one of the reasons to introduce innovative developments. The end of 2014 and beginning of 2015 were marked by the onset of another crisis and increase in prices including for pigments both of import and domestic manufacture. OOO «Bi. El. Spectr» produces and supplies to the Russian market pigments of its own development (BES-pigment) since 2004. This type of pigments relates to fine-disperse powder composite materials produced with the use of the technology of solid-state synthesis. The essence of this technology is that a layer of coloring agent (organic or mineral pigment) is applied on the particle of optically neutral cheap filler (micro-calcite, for example) of a few mcm size with the help of mechanical-chemical treatment. As a result, the whole system acquires the properties and characteristics of the pigment. A combination of several pigments makes it possible to produce powders of various colors and shades. Since the mass of cheap filler is over 80% in the composition, the cost of the synthetic pigment obtained is substantially lower that its analogs.

Keywords: mechanical-chemical activation, composite pigments, solid-state synthesis, dry pigmented suspensions.

References
1. Patent RF 2175338. Sposob polucheniya organomineral’nykh pigmentov [The method for producing organic-pigments]. Duguev S.V., Ivanova V.B. Declared 05.05.1999. Published 27.10.2001. (In Russian).
2. Duguev S.V., Ivanova V.B. The Use of Modified Pigments and Dry Suspensions on Their Base in Production of Coloured Silicate Brick. Stroitel’nyeMaterialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 12, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).
3. Patent RF 2147594. Sposob polucheniya poroshkoobraznoi kraski [The process for preparing a powder paint]. Declared 25.11.1998. Published 10.04.2000. (In Russian).
4. Duguev S.V., Ivanova V.B., Pridachin K.A. The powder paint is water-borne “AKVAMIKS” – a new product on the Russian market. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2000. No. 10, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).
5. Patent RF 2168474. Sposob polucheniya tsvetnykh tsementov [The method for producing colored cement]. Duguev S.V., Ivanova V.B., Pridachin K.A., Sulimenko L.M. Declared 12.10.2000. Published 10.06.2001. (In Russian).

N.I. KOZHUKHOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kozhuhovanata@yandex.ru), E.V. VOYTOVICH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. CHEREVATOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), I.V. ZHERNOVSKY, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), D.A. ALEKHIN, Engineer Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation)

Heat-Resistant Cellular Materials on the Basis of Composite Gypsum-Silica Binders
In the course of the research, characteristics of foam concrete materials on the basis of gypsum and nano-structured binders have been studied; compositions of the foam concrete on the basis of a composite gypsum-silica binder ensuring lower values of heat conductivity of composites at higher strength characteristics have been developed. Features of the micro structure as well as phase transformations taking place during the high-temperature treatment of the developed composite binder have been studied. It is revealed that the improvement of heat-resistance of the gypsum-silica cellular system is due to the formation of sub-crystal, prismatic generations of hydrosulphsilicate phases, hydroxylellestadite supposedly, under the impact of high temperature treatment. A method for producing the foam concrete mass which ensures the uniform distribution of the foam mass in the binding system as well as homogeneity of the porous structure of hardened cellular composite is proposed.

Keywords: composite gypsum-silica binder, foam concrete, production method, thermophysical characteristic.

References
1. Zhernovsky I.V., Cherevatova A.V., Voitovich E.V., Ksenofontov A.D. Heat Resistance of Composite Binder of CaO-SO3-SiO2-H2O System. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 57–61. (In Russian).
2. Bessonov I.V., Shigapov R.I., Babkov V.V. Heat- Insulating Foamed Gypsum in Low-Rise Construction. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 9–13. (In Russian).
3. Petropavlovskaya V.B., Buryanov A.F., Novinchenkova T.B. Low Power Intensive Gypsum Materials and Products Based on Industrial Waste. Stroitel’nye materialy. [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 7, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
4. Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Voytovich E.V. Features of Phase Formation in a Composite Nanostructured Gypsum Binder. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
5. Cherevatova A.V., Zhernovsky I.V., Strokova V.V. Mineral’nye nanostrukturirovannye vjazhushhie. Priroda, tehnologija i perspektivy primenenija [Mineral nanostructured binders. Nature, technology and prospective of application]. Saarbrucken: LAM LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH&Co. KG. 2011. 170 pp.
6. Dashitsirenov D.D., Zayakhanov М.Е., Urkhanova L.A. Effective foam concrete based on effusive rocks. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 4, pp. 50–51. (In Russian).
7. Z. Bazelova, L. Pach, J. Lokaj The effect of surface active substance concentration on the properties of foamed and nonfoamed gypsum. Ceramics – Silikáty. 2010. No. 54, pp. 379–385.
8. Dashitsirenov D.D., Zayakhanov М.Е., Urkhanova L.A. Effective foam concrete based on effusive rocks. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 4, pp. 50–51. (In Russian).
9. Pavlenko N.V., Cherevatova A.V., Strokova V.V. Features of rational pore structure formation in foam concrete on the base of nanostructured binder. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 10, pp. 33–36. (In Russian).
10. Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Pavlenko N.V., Miroshnikov E.V., Shapovalov N.A. Estimation of efficiency of nanostructured binder application when lightweight cellular composite production. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova. 2011. No. 4, pp. 48–51. (In Russian).
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S.V. ANISIMOVA, Candidate of sciences (Chemistry), A.E. KORSHUNOV, Engineer(korshunov@gmail.com), A.A. ZEKIN, Student Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (65, Ilyinskaya Street, 603950, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation)

Possibility of Wood Waste Processing in the Course of Gypsum Articles Manufacture
A possibility to produce gypsum articles with the use of wood waste (WW) of laminate sawing as filler is substantiated. The introduction of WW into the composition of gypsum paste causes an increase in water demand of the system due to the hydrophilicity of a timber component. To ensure the molding processability and operational properties of articles produced, it is necessary to use hyperplasticizers and regulators of setting time. It is shown that introducing 15% of WW into compositions with building gypsum makes it possible to manufacture articles with lowered density (up to 1040 kg/m 3 ) while maintaining high strength characteristics. For assessing heat insulation properties and strength of samples in water saturated state, indicators characteristic for produced gypsum products have been established.

Keywords: gypsum articles, gypsum binder, wood waste, organic filler, hyperplasticizer.

References
1. Yumasheva E.I. Russian Gypsum Industry Entered the European Level of Technology and Quality. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 11, pp. 36–38. (In Russian).
2. Bur’yanov A.F. Effective gypsum materials for the device interior partitions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 8, pp. 30–34. (In Russian).
3. Yatsun I.V., Vetoshkin Yu.I., Shishkina S.B. The use of waste wood processing industries in the production of construction materials with specific properties. Lesotekhnicheskii zhurnal. 2014. No. 3, pp. 220–229.
4. Korotaev E.I., Simonov V.I. Proizvodstvo stroitel’nykh materialov iz drevesnykh otkhodov [Production of building materials from wood waste]. Moscow: Lesnaya promyshlennost’. 1972. 144 p.
5. Il’ichev V.A., Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovsky V.N. About Development of Building Materials Production on the Basis of Secondary Industrial Products (SIPs). Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 4, pp. 36–42. (In Russian).
6. Khasanshin R.R., Safin R.R., Kainov P.A. Research of operational properties of cement-bonded boards based on thermally modified wood raw material. Izvestiya KGASU. 2014. No. 4, pp. 298–302. (In Russian).
7. Pustovgar A.P., Bur’yanov A.F., Vasilik P.G. Features of the Use of Hyperplasticizers in Dry Building Mixes. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 12, pp. 62–65. (In Russian).
8. Patent RF 2416581. Modifikatory dlya gipsovykh suspenzii i sposob ikh primeneniya [Modifiers for the gypsum slurry and the method of their application]. Lettekman Dennis M., Sheik Maikl P., Lyu Tsinsya, Uilson Dzhon V., Rendall Braian, Blekbern Devid R. Declared 13.06.2006. Published 20.04.2011. Bulletin No. 11. (In Russian).
9. Patent RF 2448921. Kompleksnaya modifitsiruyushchaya dobavka dlya betonnykh rastvorov [Integrated builder for concrete solutions]. Dolgorev V.A. Declared 05.07.2010. Published 27.04.2012. Bulletin No. 12. (In Russian).

N.A.GAL’TSEVA, Master, A.F. BUR’YANOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), E.N. BULDYZHOVA, Master, V.G. SOLOV’EV, Candidate of Scieces (Engineering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

The Use of Synthetic Calcium Sulfate Anhydrite for Production of Filling Mixtures
Results of the study of using the synthetic calcium sulfate anhydrite, produced at the interaction of concentrated H2SO4 and flour limestone, for preparation of formulation of filling mix tures of a anhydrate-slag-cement type with maximum reducing the part of blast-furnace slag and cement suitable for stowing of the mined-out space of mines are presented. Optimal compositions of filling mixtures on the basis of the modified anhydrite binder with 2,5–5% of Portland cement and 0,5–2% of potassium sulphate from the mass of raw material grinded up to the specific surface of 4500 cm 2/g have been determined; they meet all the requirements for filling mixtures concerning technological and physical-mechanical properties.

Keywords: synthetic anhydrite, filling mixture, additive.

References
1. Fisher H.-B., Vtorov B.B. Influence of activators of hardening on the properties of natural anhydrite. II International Conference on Chemistry and Technology of cement. Survey reports. Vol. 2 Moscow 2000, рp.53–61
2. Naftal’ M.N., Ilyukhin I.V., Shestakova R.D., Kozlov A.N. Alternate the direction of utilization of sulfur gases and pyrometallurgical production. Tsvetnye metally. 2009. No. 8, pp. 41–47. (In Russian).
3. Grinevitch A.V., Kiselev A.A., Kuznetsov E.M., Bur’yanov A.F. Synthetically produced calcium sulfate anhydrite of concentrated sulfuric acid and ground limestone. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 11, pp. 16–19. (In Russian).
4. Patent RF 2445267. Sposob polucheniya sul’fata kal’tsiya [The method of producing calcium sulfate]. Grinevitch A.V., Kiselev A.A., Bur’yanov A.F., Kuznetsov E.M., Moshkova V.G. Declared 23.07.2010. Published 20.03.2012. Bulletin No. 8. (In Russian).
5. Belov V.V., Bur’yanov A.F., Yakovlev G.I. etc. Modifikatsiya struktury i svoistv stroitel’nykh kompozitov na osnove sul’fata kal’tsiya [Modification of the structure and properties of composites based on building calcium sulfate]. Мoscow: De Nova. 2012. 196 p.
6. Kozlov N.V., Panchenko A.I., Bur’yanov A.F., Solov’yov V.G. The microstructure of gypsum binder increased water resistance. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 72– 75. (In Russian).

V.B. PETROPAVLOVSKAYA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.V. BELOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), T.B. NOVICHENKOVA 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.F. BURIANOV 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Yu.Yu. POLEONOVA 1 , Engineer, K.S. PETROPAVLOVSKY 1 , Master
1 Tver State Technical University
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Resource Saving Unburned Gypsum Composites
The article presents results of the study of possibilities to obtain unburned gypsum composites with the use of resource saving technique on the basis of gypsum waste of ceramic pro duction and waste of basalt fiber production. The introduction of a basalt modifying additive into the composition of the raw mix makes it possible not only to improve the physical- mechanical properties of gypsum composite but also significantly reduce the cost of articles and involve valuable anthropogenic raw materials in the production.

Keywords: disperse system, structure, gypsum, production waste, basalt fiber.

References
1. Petropavlovskaya V.B., Belov V.V., Novichenkova T.B. Regulating properties unburned gypsum materialsю. Stroitel′nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 8, pp. 14–15. (In Russian).
2. Petropavlovskaya V.B., Novichenkova T.B., Poleonova Y.Y., Bur’yanov A.F. Modified Gypsum Unburned Composites. Stroitel′nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 5, pp. 76–78. (In Russian).
3. Petropavlovskaya V.B., Belov V.V., Novichenkova T.B., Bur’yanov A.F., Pustovgar A.P. Optimization of internal structure of disperse systems of not hydration hardening. Stroitel′nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2010. No. 7, pp. 22–23. (In Russian).
4. Petropavlovskaya V.B., Belov V.V., Bur’yanov A.F. Hardening crystallization system based powders dihydrate gypsum. Stroitelnye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 12, pp. 46–47. (In Russian).
5. Moreva I.V., Medyanik V.V., Sokolova Y.A. On the question of a comprehensive activation of components in the preparation of gypsum binders. Izvestiya Vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2008. No. 8, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).
6. Belov V.V., Bur’yanov A.F., Yakovlev G.I., Petropavlovskaya V.B., Fisher Kh.-B., Maeva I.S., Novichenkova T.B Modifikatsiya struktury I svoistv stroitel’nykh kompozitov na osnove sul’fata kal’tsiya [Modification of the structure and properties of composites based on building calcium sulfate]. Мoscow: De Nova. 2012. 196 p.
7. Khezhev Kh.A., Pukharenko Y.V. Gypsum concrete composites reinforced with basalt fibers. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2013. No. 2, pp. 152–156. (In Russian).
8. Ryazapov R.R., Mukhametrakhimov R.Kh., Izotov V.S. Dispersionreinforced construction composite materials based on gypsum binder. Izvestiya KGASU. 2011. No. 3, pp. 145–149. (In Russian).

A.F. BUR’YANOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), E.N. BULDYZHOVA, Master, N.A.GAL’TSEVA, Master, V.G. SOLOV’EV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Hwy, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Dry Building Mixes on the Basis of a Multiphase Gypsum Binder
Properties of mixes on the basis of gypsum are largely determined by the composition and condition of the matrix structure, therefore their quality directly depends on the binder which is used in the dry mix composition. Aging is the process of improving and stabilizing properties of gypsum binders. The work presents the prospect of using the aging process in the production of dry building mixes on the basis of the multiphase gypsum binder.

Keywords: multiphase gypsum binder, dry building mixes, artificial aging

References
1. Nekrasov S.A., Garkavi M.S., Buldyzhova E.N. Dry building mixes on the basic of stabilized gypsum binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 7, pp. 32–33. (In Russian).
2. Altykis M.G. Experimental and theoretical fundamentals of composites and multiphase gypsum binders for dry construction mixtures and materials. Dr. Diss. (Engineering). Kazan. 2003. 435 p. (In Russian).
3. Fisher H.-B., Nowak S., Ostradetskiy I. Absorbing ability of calcium sulfate hemihydrates Innovations and modeling in building materials. Collection of scientific papers. Tver. 2014, pp. 128–134. (In Russian).
4. Garkavi M., Nekrasova S., Melchaeva O., Garkavi S., Fischer H.-B., Nowak S. Thermodynamic explanation of rational conditions of the “aging” of plaster binder. 18 ibausil. Internationale Baustofftagung. Weimar. 2012, pp. 1-0741-0748.

Yu.V. TOKAREV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (tokarev_01@list.ru), E.O. GINCHITSKY1, Bachelor (umbertu2002@gmail.com), G.I. YAKOVLEV 1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.F. BUR’YANOV2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (7, Studencheskaya Street, 426069, Izhevsk, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Efficiency of Modification of a Gypsum Binder with Carbon Nanotubes and Additives of Various Dispersity
The influence of one-layer carbon nanotubes (OCNT) with additives of different dispersity on physical-mechanical properties and structure of gypsum stone has been studied with the use of mechanical tests, IR spectral method and REM. OCNT in combination with additives of various nature and dispersity differently impacts on physical-mechanical characteristics of the gypsum binder. The best results with the formation of dense structure with a great number of crystalline hydrates are obtained when OCNT (0.002%) and Portland cement are used, this is confirmed by the IR-analysis and REM. An insignificant improvement of mechanical characteristics is reached when OCNT, microsilica, and metakaolin are used. Probably, it is connected with the irregularity of particles distribution in the gypsum matrix volume. It is necessary to note that when modifiers, introduced jointly or separately, are used, new forma tions that differ in shape and size from control samples are generated.

Keywords: gypsum binder, one-layer carbon nanotubes, Portland cement, microsilica, metakaolin.

References
1. Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzheenko A., Bur’yanov A.F., etc. Applying multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersions in producing autoclaved silicate cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 25–29. (In Russian).
2. Pavlеnko N.V., Bukhalo A.B., Strokova V.V., Nelubova V.V., Sumin A.V. Nanocrystalline components based modified binder for cellular composites. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 20–24. (In Russian).
3. Garkavi M.S., Nekrasova S.A., Troshkina E.A. Kinetics of contact formation in nano-modified gypsum materials Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 38–40. (In Russian).
4. Izryadnova O.V., Gordina A.F., Yakovlev G.I., Fisher H.-B. Regulation morphology crystalline structure of gypsum matrix and ultra nanodispersnymi additives. Izvestiya KGASU. 2014. No. 3, pp. 108–112. (In Russian).
5. Nurtdinov M.R., Solov’ev V.G, Bur’yanov A.F. Fine Concretes Modified with AlOOH and Al2O3 Nanofibers. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 2, pp. 68–71. (In Russian).
6. Khuzin A.F., Gabidullin M.G., Badertdinov I.R., etc. Complex additives based on carbon nanotubes for highstrength concrete accelerated hardening. Izvestiya KGASU. 2013. No. 1, pp. 221–226. (In Russian).
7. Inozemtsev A.S., Korolev E.V. Structuring and properties of the structural high-strength lightweight concretes with nanomodifier BisNanoActivus. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1, 2, pp. 33–37. (In Russian).
8. Khaliullin M.I., Rakhimov R.Z, Gaifullin A.R. Influence of complex builder on the composition, structure and properties of the artificial stone, based on composite gypsum binder. Izvestiya KGASU. 2014. No. 3, pp. 148–155. (In Russian).
9. Yakovlev G.I., Polyanskikh I.S. (Maeva), Tokarev Yu.V., Gordina A.F. Assessing the impact of ultrafine dust and carbon nanosystems on the structure and properties of gypsum binders. Intellektual’nye sistemy v proizvodstve. 2013. No. 1, pp. 185–188. (In Russian)..

P.G. VASILIK1, Engineer (vasilik@eurohim.ru), R.V. KALASHNIKOV2, Engineer, A.F. BUR’YANOV3, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), H.-B. FISHER4, Doctor-Engineer
1 ZAO «EUROHIM-1» (2a, Trofimova Street, 115432, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 «GK «UNIS» (5a, 1-ya Mashinostroyeniya Street, 115088, Moscow, Russian Federation)
3 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)
4 Weimar University of Civil Engineering (Geschwister-Scholl-Strasse, 8, Weimar, 99423 DE)

Research in Reasons for Crack Initiation in Materials on the Basis of a Gypsum Binder
Reasons for the crack initiation in various types of dry building mixes on the basis of gypsum binders are considered. The impact of soluble anhydride on the main properties and shrinkage of materials with a multiphase gypsum binder is analyzed. Various chemical additives for deceleration of setting time influencing on the processes of nucleation of gypsum crystals are studied. The efficiency of different types of polyols in the formulation of putties on the basis of multiphase gypsum as well as the influence of different amounts of the solu ble anhydrite on the putty crack resistance are studied.

Keywords: dry building mixes, soluble anhydrite, crack resistance, shrinkage

References
1. Vasilik P.G., Golubev I.V. Cracks in the plaster. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2003. No. 4, pp. 14–16. (In Russian).
2. Butt Yu.M., Timashev V.V. Praktikum po khimicheskoi tekhnologii vyazhushchikh materialov [Workshop on chemical technology of binders]. Moskow: Vysshaya shkola. 1973. 504 p.
3. Fischer H.-B., Stark J. Haftung von Gipsputz an glatten Betonflächen. ZKG. 2005. No. 12, pp. 79–92.
4. Fischer H.-B. Gipsputzhaftung auf Beton. Ibausil, Tagungsband. Weimar. 2003, pp. 1007–1028.
5. Gathemann B., Henning O., Eggert O., Fischer H.-B. Untersuchungen zum Haftverbund von Fliesen auf Untergründen aus verschiedenen Gipsarten in Feuchträumen. ZKG. 2000. No. 11, pp. 648-656.
6. Fischer H.-B., Vtorov B., Stark J. Haftbrücken im System Gipsputz auf Beton. ZKG. 2002. No. 12, pp. 79–86.
7. Gontar’ Yu.V., Chalova A.I., Bur’yanov A.F. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi na osnove gipsa i angidrita [Dry building mixtures based on gypsum and anhydrite]. Moscow: De-Nova. 2010. 214 p.
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