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Stroitel`nye Materialy №5

Stroitel`nye Materialy №5
May, 2015

Table of contents

V.F. STROGANOV, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry) (svf08@mail.ru), E.V. SAGADEEV, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry) (sagadeev@list.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Biodeterioration of Building Materials
Problems of bio-deterioration are actual for all types of building materials. Bio-corrosion is the process of materials destruction under the effect of micro-organisms, first of all, mould fungi and products of their metabolism – one, two, tribasic carboxylic acids. Existing methods of the study of bio-deteriorated building materials with the use of micro-organism strains are very complicated and labor-intensive. In this regard, to investigate processes of bio-deterioration of building materials the method for simulating processes of bio-corrosion in slight ly aggressive media of organic acids is proposed. The kinetic laboratory unit which makes it possible to simulate the process of bio-deterioration of polymeric and mineral building materials, has been developed. Experimental studies of physical-chemical characteristics of epoxy polymers were conducted. Main parameters of bio-stability of mineral building materi- als samples have been defined. It is shown that one of prospective methods for protection of mineral building materials against the effect of biologically active media is the use of epoxy-polymeric coatings.

Keywords: bio-deterioration, epoxy polymers, cement-sand mortar, aggressive medium, simulation of bio-corrosion processes.

References
1. Allsopp D., Seal K. J., Gaylarde Ch. C. Introduction to biodeterioration. 2 nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2004. 252 p.
2. Handbook of biodegradable polymers. Editor Catia Bastioli. Shawbury, United Kingdom: Rapra Technology Limited. 2005. 549 p.
3. Ehrenstein G.W., Pongratz S. Resistance and stability of polymers. Munich, Cincinnati: Hanser Publishers. 2013. 1436 p.
4. Silva M.R., Naik T.R. Biodeterioration of concrete struc tures in coastal zone. Third International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies. Kyoto. Japan. 2013, pp. 418–425.
5. Morgulec E.N., Prokopchuk N.R., Goncharova I.A. Study the biological stability of film-forming agents and enamels based on them. Trudy belorusskogo gosudarstven nogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta. Serija 4: himija, tehnologija organicheskih veshhestv i biotehnologija. 2008. Vol. 1. Iss. XVI, pp. 214–217. (In Russian).
6. Sabadaha E.N., Prokopchuk N.R. Goncharova I.A. Influence of the fungal metabolites on physical and me- chanical properties of paint coatings. Trudy belorusskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta. Serija 4: himija, tehnologija organicheskih veshhestv i biotehnologija. 2010. Vol. 1. Iss. XVIII, pp. 306–309. (In Russian).
7. Morgulec E.N., Prokopchuk N.R., Goncharova I.A. Effect of the pigments and waterborne film-formers for paint coat ings biostability. Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. 2009. Vol. 53. No. 2, pp. 65–68. (In Russian).
8. Zemskov S.M., Kaznacheev S.V., Morozova A.N. Biodegradation of polymer materials and products. Ogarev-online. Razdel “Tehnicheskie nauki”: scientific in ternet-journal. 2013. No. 13. http://journal.mrsu.ru/arts/ biopovrezhdeniya-polimernykh-materialov-i-izdelijj (date of access 29.11.2014). (In Russian).
9. Patent RF № 2471188. Sposob ispytanii stroitel’nykh ma terialov na biostoikost’ [The test method of construction materials on biostability at the request number]. Stroga nov V.F., Kukoleva D.A. Declared 21.10.11. Published 27.12.12. Bulletin No. 36. (In Russian).
10. Stroganov V.F., Sagadeev E.V. Vvedenie v biopovrezhde nie stroitel’nykh materialov: monografiya [Introduction to the biodeterioration of construction materials: mono graph]. Kazan: KSUAE. 2014. 200 p.
11. Irzhak V.I. Arkhitektura polimerov [The architecture of the polymers]. Moscow: Nauka. 2012. 368 p.
12. Akhmetshin A.S., Stroganov V.F., Kukoleva D.A., Habibullin I.G., Stroganov I.V. Influence of water and aqueous carboxylic acids on properties of epoxide poly mer materials // Polymer Science. Ser. D. 2009. Vol. 2. No. 4, pp. 204–208.

A.M. SULEYMANOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (sulejmanov@kgasu.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Actual Tasks in Prediction of Durability of Polymeric Building Materials
It is shown that at present there are no methodology, methods and standards which make it possible to accurately predict the durability and guaranteed time of operation of materials, products and structures, aging and destruction of which under the impact of operational factors, bring significant damage to the economy. It is noted that polymeric building materials vary greatly in mechanisms of aging and destruction. To develop a theoretical base for the new generation of standards for engineering methods for predicting the durability and service time of polymeric building materials the analysis of the issue has been made, the scientific problem has been structured, ways of further investigations in this field have been outlined.

Keywords: aging and destruction, prediction of service time, polymeric building materials, accelerated laboratory testing.

References
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2. Günter Schmitt, Michael Schütze, George F. Hays,Wayne Burns, En-Hou Han, Antoine Pourbaix, Gretchen Jacobson. Global needs for knowledge dissemination, research, and development in materials deterioration and corrosion control. World Corrosion Organization. 2009. 44 p. http://www.corrosion.org/wco_media/whitepaper. pdf (date of access 23.04.2015).
3. Kablov Ye.N. Corrosion or life. Nauka i zhizn’. 2012. No. 11. http://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/21322/ (date of access 23.04.2015). (In Russian).
4. Eremin K.I., Alekseeva Ye.L., Matveyushkin S.A., Berezkina Yu.V. Expertise, monitoring, electronic certi fication of buildings and structures. ENI «Edinaya stroi ekspertiza» http://www.expertiza-kazan.ru/partners/ weld/?id=20 (date of access 23.04.2015). (In Russian).
5. Kupriyanov V.N., Ivantsov A.I. To the question of dura bility of multilayer enclosing structures. Izvestiya KazGASU. 2011. No. 3 (17), pp. 63–70. (In Russian).
6. Ivantsov A.I., Kupriyanov V.N., Safin I.Sh. Natural re searches operational impacts on the facade systems with dif ferent types of effective insulation. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 29–32. (In Russian).
7. Kupriyanov V.N., Ivantsov A.I. To the determination of optimal longevity of mass housing’s enclosing structures. Izvestiya KazGASU. 2013. No. 2 (24), pp. 118–125. (In Russian).
8. Kupriyanov V.N., Safin I.Sh., Shamsutdinova M.R. Influence of construction fence on the condensation of moisture vapor. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 29–31. (In Russian).
9. Suleymanov A.M., Pomerantsev A.L., Rodionova O.Ye. Prediction durability of materials by projective mathe matical methods // Izvestiya KazGASU. 2009. No. 2 (12), pp. 274–278. (In Russian).
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R.K. NIZAMOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (Nizamov@kgasu.ru), L.A. ABDRAKHMANOVA1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (laa@kgasu.ru), A.I. BURNASHEV
2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (airatbyr@yandex.ru), V.G. KHOZIN1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (khozin@kgasu.ru)
1 Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation) 2 OOO «Transinzhkom» (2, Spartakovskaya Street, Kazan, 420107, Russian Federation)

Problems of Production and Prospects of Application of Polyvinyl-Chloride Wood-Polymer Composites in Construction High-filled wood-polymer composites (WPC) are among the most promising composite materials on the basis of polyvinyl-chloride for building technology. Outstanding challenges of the efficient processing of filled polyvinyl-chloride composites related to the structural features of PVC are considered on the basis of the analysis of scientific research results and mar- ket development as well as on the basis of own investigations. Main technical advantages of polyvinyl-chloride WPC for construction purposes in comparison with WPC on the basis of polyolefins are presented.

Keywords: PVC, wood-polymer composite, binding agents, nano-modification.

References
1. Klesov A.A. Drevesno-polimernye kompozity [Wood polymer composites]. Saint-Peterburg: Nauchnye os novyi tekhnologii, 2010. 736 p.
2. Kokta B.V. Composites of Polyvinyl Chloride-Wood Fibers. Vinyl Tech.1990.Vol. 12. No. 3, pp. 146–153.
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4. Korshun O.A. Ekologicheski chistye drevesnonapolnen nye plastmassy. Stroitel’nyeMaterialy [Construction Materials]. 1997. No. 5, pp. 8–11. (In Russian).
5. Burnashev A.I., Ashrapov A.Kh., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Nizamov R.K. Primenenie v retsepture drevesno-polim ernogo kompozita nanomodifitsirovannogo polivini lkhlorida. Izvestiya KGASU. 2013. No. 2 (24), pp. 226– 232. (In Russian).
6. Burnashev A.I., AshrapovA.Kh.,Abdrakhmanova L.A., Nizamov R.K. Struktura i svoistva modifitsirovannogo drevesno-polimernogo kompozita. Stroitel’nyeMaterialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3. pp. 104–106. (In Russian).
7. Abdrakhmanova L.A., Burnashev A.I., Nizamov R.K., Khozin V.G. Nanomodifikatsiya drevesnoi muki krem nezolyami. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve: scientific Internet-journal. 2012. No. 3, pp. 56–67. http://www. nanobuild.ru/magazine/nb/Nanobuild_3_2012.pdf (date of access 19.03.15). (In Russian).
8. Nizamov R.K., Abdrahmanova L.A., Burnashev A.I. Wood-polymer composites of building purposes based on polyvinylchloride. Internationale Baumstofftagung Bauhaus-Universität Weimar. Tagungsbericht. 2012. BAND 2, pp. 1329–1333.
9. Burnashev A.I., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Nizamov R.K., Khozin V.G., Kolesnikova I.V., Fakhrutdinova F.Kh. Nanomodifitsirovannaya drevesnaya muka – effektivnyi napolnitel’ polivinilkhloridnykh kompozitsii. Stroitel’nyeMaterialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 72–74. (In Russian).
10. Patent RF 2465292. Sposob polucheniya drevesno-po limernoi kompozitsii na osnove zhestkogo polivinilkhlo rida [A method for produc-ing wood-based polymercom- position based on rigid PVC]. Burnashev A.I., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Nizamov R.K., Kolesnikova I.V., Khozin V.G. Declared 27.04.2011. Published 27.10.2012. Bulletin No. 30. (In Russian).

R.A. IBRAGIMOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (rusmag007@yandex.ru), V.S. IZOTOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (v_s_izotov@mail.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Influence of Mechanical-Chemical Activation of a Binder on Physical-Chemical Properties of Heavy-Weight Concrete Data on the influence of mechanical-chemical activation of the binder on the physical-mechanical properties of cement mortar and concrete are presented. The optimal time of mechani cal-chemical activation in a rotor-pulsation apparatus has been established. It is shown that the activation of the binder leads to a significant improvement in the strength of cement composites, especially at early stages of hardening, which is important for monolithic construction. Thus, in the first days of hardening the compressive strength is increased by 249%, at the grade age – by 66% in comparison with the control composition. The mechanical-chemical activation of cement suspension leads to the formation of a more finely crystalline structure of cement stone that makes it possible to increase the durability and strength of composites obtained.

Keywords: mechanical-chemical activation, rotor-pulsation apparatus, concrete, cement composites.

References
1. Morozov N.M., Stepanov S.V., Khozin V.G. Uskoritel of curing of concrete on the basis of galvanic slime. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyi zhurnal. 2012. No. 8 (34), pp. 67– 71. (In Russian).
2. Urkhanova L.A., Sodnomov A.E. Regulation of physical and mechanical properties of composite materials mechano chemical activation binders. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 11, pp. 42–44. (In Russian).
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8. Ibragimov R.A., Pimenov S.I., Izotov V.S. Vliyanie mekhanokhimicheskoi aktivatsii vyazhushchego na svoistva melkozernistogo betona. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyi zhurnal. 2015. No. 2 (54), pp. 63–69. (In Russian).
9. Sajedi F. Effect of curing regime and temperature on the compressive strength of cement-slag mortars. Construction and Building Materials. 2012. Vol. 36, pp. 549–556.
10. Solov'ev V.I., Tkach E.V., Serova R.F., Tkach S.A., Toimbaeva B.M., Seidinova G.A. Research of porosity of the cement stone modified by complex organomineralny modifiers. Fundamental'nye issledovaniya. 2014. No. 8, pp. 590–595. (In Russian).

V.S. IZOTOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (v_s_izotov@mail.ru), A.D. MUHAMETRAHIMOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (muhametrahimov@mail.ru), A.R. GALAUTDINOV, Engineer Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Study of Influence of Active Mineral Additives on Rheological and Physical-Mechanical Properties of a Gypsum-Cement-Pozzolanic Binder The diversity of active mineral additives of different origin, mineral composition, dispersion degree and activity, including those which are by-products of industry, makes necessary to study their properties and peculiarities of interaction with gypsum-cement compositions. The studies conducted made it possible to establish the hydraulic activity of mineral additives studied, their influence on the rheological and physical-mechanical properties of a composite binder as well as to determine their optimal content in the mix composition. It is shown that introducing the optimal quantities of studied active mineral additives makes it possible to obtain stable gypsum-cement-pozzolanic systems and improve operational properties of products on their base that results in increasing the bending ultimate strength from 2 up to 48%, compressive strength – from 4 up to 49% and makes it possible to expand the area of their application when manufacturing the wide range of building products.

Keywords: gypsum-cement-pozzolanic binder, active mineral additives, ettringite, hydraulic activity.

References
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6. Krylova A. V. Effective modifiers of cement systems based on man-made waste. Nauchnyy vestnik Voronezhskogo GASU. Fiziko-khimicheskiye problemy i vysokiye tekhnologii stroitel’nogo materialovedeniya. 2012. No. 5, pp. 61–63. (In Russian).
7. Khaliullin M.I., Altykis M.G., Rachimov R.Z. Compositional anhydrite binder increased water resis tance. Stroitel’nye Materialy. [Construction Materials] 2000. No. 12, pp. 34–35. (In Russian).
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10. Kukina O.B. Influence of mechanical activation on the siliceous components on their adsorption capacity. Nauchnyy vestnik Voronezhskogo GASU. Fiziko khimicheskiye problemy i vysokiye tekhnologii stroitel’nogo materialovedeniya. 2013. No. 2 (7), pp. 28–33. (In Russian).
11. Patent RF 2500633. Organomineral’nyy modifikator dlya fibrotsementnykh kompozitsiy [Organic mineral modifier for fiber cement compositions]. Izotov V.S., Muhamet rahimov R.H. Declared 04.05.12. Published 12.10.13. Bulletin No. 34. (In Russian).
12. Ferronskaya A.V. Gipsovyye materialy i izdeliya. Proizvodstvo i primeneniye. [Plaster materials and prod ucts. Production and use.]. Moscow: ASV. 2004. 488 p.

R.Z. RAKHIMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Corresponding Member of RAACS, (rahimov@ksaba.ru), N.R. RAKHIMOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (rahimova.07@list.ru), A.R. GAIFULLIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Properties of Cement Stone with Glinite Additives The expansion of the base of mineral additives in binding substances and materials on their basis can be achieved due to the use of natural pozzolans and activated clays. In recent decades a high pozzolanic activity of metakaolin, the product of thermal activation of kaoline clays, was revealed. But the scarcity of deposits and reserves of kaolin clays prevents its wide-scale pro duction and application. In connection with this, the last years many countries develop the use of pozzolans produced by means of thermal activation of everywhere widespread poly-mineral clays with various content of kaolin or without it. Comparative studies of the influence of addition of glinite from polymineral, not-containing kaolinite clay, which is calcined at 400–800 оC and milled up to the specific surface of 200–800 m 2 /kg, and high-quality meta-kaolin to Portland cement on the compression strength, water absorption and coefficient of cement stone soft- ening have been carried out. It is revealed that the addition of 5–10% of glinite on the basis of non-kaolinite clay, calcined at a certain temperature and milled up to different specific sur faces, to Portland cement can lead to a higher improvement of physical-technical properties of cement stone than corresponding content of meta-kaolin additives.

Keywords: рortland cement, clay, material, calcination, glinite, milling, additive, stone.

References
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R.R. KASHAPOV, Engineer (ramires120490@mail.ru), N.M. KRASINIKOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), N.M. MOROZOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (khozin@ksaba.ru) Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Influence of a Complex Additive on Cement Stone Hardening* The efficiency of using the semi-product of chemical production, a soda-sulfate mix (SSM), containing compounds which are potentially able to accelerate the cement hardening, is shown. As a result of the conducted study, the synergism of impact of accelerating pairs, included in the composition of the complex additive (SSM and widely used ones), on the reduction of cement hardening time, development of plastic strength of the cement paste, temperature of cement paste hydration and kinetics of gain in strength of cement stone both in the first hours of hardening and on the 28 th day, has been revealed.

Keywords: complex additive, super-plasticizer, accelerator, synergism.

References
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10. Moskvin V.M. Ivanov F.M., Alekseev S.N., Guzeev E.A. Korroziya betona i zhelezobetona, metody ikh zashchity. [Corrosion of concrete and reinforced concrete, methods for their protection]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1980. 536 p.
11. Izotov V.S., IbragimovR. A. Influence of the new com plex additive on the basic properties of cement composi tions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 6, pp. 63–65. (In Russian).
12. Cockroaches O.V., Pronin T.V. Rational use of multi functional additives in technology winter concreting. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 2, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
13. Mironov S.A., Malinin L.A. Uskorenie tverdeniya betona [Acceleration of hardening concrete]. 2 nd ed. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1964. 348 p.
14. Butt Y.M., Timashev V.V. Praktikum po khimicheskoi tekh nologii vyazhushchikh materialov [Workshop on chemical technology binders]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1973. 482 p.
15. Tarakanov O.V., Tarakanova E.O. Effect of hardening accelerators to form the initial structure of cementations materials. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2009. No. 2, pp. 56–64. (In Russian).

A.S. BOCHARNIKOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), M.A. GONCHAROVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (magoncharova@lipetsk.ru), A.V. KOMARICHEV, Engineer Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, 398600, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)

Composite Materials on the Basis of Cement-Water Activated Systems for Injecting Compaction of Concrete of Enveloping Structures* Results of the optimization of composite materials on the basis of activated systems are presented. Results of the two-stage magnetic treatment of water and water systems of cement- backfill compositions are shown. The use of the two stage magnetic field treatment of water and cement blend makes it possible to significantly improve the quality of injective concrete compaction.

Keywords: activated system, magnetic treatment, injecting compaction, cement-backfill composition.

References
1. Bocharnikov A.S. Dispersnoarmirovannye kompozi cionnye materialy na osnove cementnyh vjazhushhih dlja konstrukcij zashhitnyh sooruzhenij [Dispersnoarmiro vannye composite materials based on cement binders for the construction of protective structures]. Lipetsk: LSTU. 2004. 39 p.
2. Bocharnikov A.S. Seal of defects contact metal-concrete structures in magnetic tracks. Proceedings of the universi ties. North Caucasus region. Izvestiya vuzov. Severo Kavkazskii region. Tekhnicheskie nauki. 2005. Vol. 3, pp. 89–94. (In Russian).
3. Bocharnikov A.S., Glazunov A.V. Magnets for sealing tre-communities in the concrete at the contact with the products of metal magnetic sealing materials. Proceedings of the International Congress. Science and innovation in construction. Risk assessment and safety in construction. Voronezh: VGASU. 2008. Vol. 3, pp. 77–79. (In Russian).
4. Erofeev V.T., Mitin E.A., Matvievskiy A.A. Composite building materials on activated water mixing. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2007. No. 11, pp. 56–57. (In Russian).
5. Yerofeyev V.T., Mitin E.A., Matvievskiy A.A. Durability of cement composites activated water. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2008. No. 7, рр. 51–52. (In Russian).
6. Fokin G.A., Folimagina O.V. Research of influence of a vikhredinamichesky field on properties of water of a zat voreniye and plaster test. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Stroitel’stvo. 2011. No. 4, рр. 29–35. (In Russian).
7. Fokin G.A., Folimagina O.V. Increase of efficiency of materials on the basis of the plaster zatvoreniye knitting by activation of water a vikhredinamichesky field. Regional’naya arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 1, рр. 51–55. (In Russian).
8. Kasatkin V.I., Fedosov S.V., Akulova M.V. Influence mechanomagnetic activation of aquatic systems on con crete properties. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2007. No. 11. pp. 58–59. (In Russian).

A.N. LUGOVOY, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Head of Engineering Department, A.G. KOVRIGIN, Engineer, Head of Technical Support Group OOO «Biysk Zavod Stekloplastikov» (60/1, Leningradskaya Street, Biysk, Altai Krai, 659316, Russian Federation)

Three-Layer Reinforced Concrete Wall Panels with Composite Flexible Ties The use of new materials in construction, such as composite flexible ties for three-layer reinforced concrete wall panels, requires a careful examination of operational characteristics of these materials. To meet the requirements of the building code for safe operation of buildings it is necessary to make a technical assessment of new materials with the determination of operation coefficients under conditions of aggressive media impact, long-term mechanical impacts and other factors simulating actual operating conditions. For ties SPA 7.5 of the Biysk zavod stekloplastikov, the operation coefficients have been determined; new methods for calculation of the number of ties and rules of their installation are proposed on the basis of these coefficients.

Keywords: large panel housing construction, composite flexible ties, requirements of technical documentation, factors of working conditions, complex of technical assessment of com posite flexible ties, methods for calculation of number of ties.

References
1. Nikolaev S.V. Modernization of Base of Large-Panel Housing Construction is a Locomotive of Social Housing Construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
2. Nikolaev S.V. Revival of large-panel housing construction in Russia. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 2–8. (In Russian).
3. Sapacheva L.V., Yumasheva E.I. Large Panel Building Construction Remains the Most Rapid and Cost-Effective. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 10, pp. 2–8. (In Russian).
4. Lugovoy А.N., Kovrigin A. G. Composite Flexible Bracings for Three-Layered Thermal Efficient Panels. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 32–33. (In Russian).
5. Lugovoy А.N. Enhancement of Energy Efficiency of Enclosing Structures. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 22–24. (In Russian).

E.I. YUMASHEVA, Engineer (yumasheva_ei@mail.ru) OOO RIF “Stroymaterialy” (9, structure 3, Dmitrovskoye Highway, 127434, Moscow, Russian Federation)

German Manufacturers in Russia: Historical Analogues and Continuity of Traditions On the example of entrepreneurial activity of A. Knauf in Russia in the XIX century and the company “KNAUF” managed by Nikolaus and Baldvin Knauf, representatives of the dynasty, in the XXI century, the continuity of traditions of German business activity - manufacture of high quality production, introduction of new technologies, staff training, social responsibility – is shown.

Keywords: Germans in Russia, entrepreneurship, energy efficiency, ecological safety, social responsibility, Knauf, gypsum finishing materials, resource center, gypsum-fibre sheet, element of precast sub-floor, dry building mixes.

References
1. Nemtsy Rossii. Entsiklopediya. Тom 1 [Russian Germans. Encyclopedia. Vol. 1] Moscow: ERN. 1999. 832 p.
2. Los L.M. “KNAUF” Group: 20 years of investments in Russia – lessons and prospects. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 73–75. (In Russian).
3. Keller A. Der deutsch-russische Unternehmer Andreas Knauf im Ural. Quaestio Rossica. 2013. No. 1, pp. 144–159.
4. Moiseev A.P. The Germans in the South Urals. Chelyabinsk: Igor Rosin Publishing. 2013. 240 p.

V.P. BLAZHKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Head of Division of Structures for Residential and Public Buildings (blagko45@mail.ru) M.Yu. GRANIK, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Head of Laboratory of Decorative and Modified Concretes Technology OAO «TSNIIEP zhilykh i obshchestvennykh zdaniy (TSNIIEPzhilishcha)» (9, structure 3, Dmitrovskoye Highway, 127434, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Flexible Basalt-Plastic Ties for Using in Three-Layer Panels of External Walls Results of the experimental study of bearing capacity of flexible basalt-plastic ties on pulling out from concrete are presented. The general methodology of conducting the experimental study is presented. Experimental forming of fragments of the external layer made of concretes of different classes with different types of basalt-plastic flexible ties and methods for their grouting in concrete were made. The main types of destruction in the course of pulling out from concrete are considered. Results obtained in the course of strength tests of experimental samples have been analyzed. The optimal working loads for using these ties have been determined. Conditions of the application of ties for three-layer wall panels have been formulated.

Keywords: three-layer reinforced concrete panels of external walls, façade layer, flexible ties, tie-hangers, tie-spreaders, basalt-plastic, molded sleeve made of corrosion-resistant steel, extraction of ties, strength tests, embedment depth, energy efficiency, energy saving

References
1. Ostretsov V.M., Magay A.A., Voznyuk A.B., Gorelkin A.N. Flexible System of Panel Housing Construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 8, pp. 8–11. (In Russian).
2. Nikolaev S.V. Revival of large-panel housing construction in Russia. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 2–8. (In Russian).
3. Tikhomirov B.I., Korshunov A.N. The line of bezopalubochny formation – efficiency plant with flexible technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 22–26. (In Russian).
4. Sokolov B.S., Mironova Yu.V., Gataullina D.R. Ways of Overcoming of Crisis Situation in Large-Panel Housing Construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 4–6. (In Russian).
5. Yumasheva E.I., Sapacheva L.V. The house-building industry and the social order of time. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2014. No. 10, pp. 3–11. (In Russian).
6. Yarmakovsky V.N., Kostin A.N., Fotin O.V., Kondyu rin A.E. Thermal Efficient External Walls of Buildings Built with the Use of Monolithic Polysterene Concre- te with High-Porous and Plasticized Matrix. Stroitel' nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2014. No. 6, pp. 18–24. (In Russian).
7. Savin V.K. Energoekonomika [Power economy]. Moscow: Lazur. 2011. 415 p. (In Russian).
8. Karpenko N.I., Yarmakovsky V.N, Shkolnik Ya.Sh. State and using perspectives of by-products in building industry. Ecologiya i promishlennost Rossii. 2012. No. 10, pp. 50–55. (In Russian).
9. Umniakova N.P. Rising of energo-effective buildings to reduce the action for sustainable. Vestnik MGSU. 2011. No. 3, pp. 221–227. (In Russian).

A.V. MONASTYREV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); A.V. ZHELTOUKHOV2, General Director
1 Non-commercial Partnership of Lime Manufacturers (73, Lenina Street, 394001, Voronezh, Russian Federation)
2 OAO «Izvestkovyy Zavod» (61, Babushkina Street, Sterlitamak, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)

Experience in Reconstruction of Domestic Shaft Kiln at OAO «Izvestkovyy Zavod» Features of the lime raw material causing the low productivity and quality of shaft burning kilns at OAO «Izvestkovyy Zavod» (Republic of Bashkortostan) are presented. Processes taking place in the kiln are shown. Results of the monitoring of the shaft kiln operation with tuyere gas burners GFI are given.

Keywords: shaft kilns, lime, lime stone, tuyere gas burners.

References
1. Monastyrev A.V., Galiakhmetov R.F. Pechi dlya proiz vodstva izvesti [Kilns for production of lime]. Voronezh: Istoki. 2011. 392 p.
2. Monastyrev A.V. Whether always it is necessary to buy the equip ment of foreign firms for limy production. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, pp. 4–8. (In Russian).

V.B. PETROPAVLOVSKAYA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); T.B. NOVICHENKOVA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); A.F. BURIANOV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); I.V. OBRAZTSOV1 , Engineer (sunspire@list.ru); K.S. PETROPAVLOVSKY1, Master (raikiri@inbox.ru)
1 Tver State Technical University (22, Afanasiya Nikitina Embankment, 170023, Tver, Russian Federation)
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoye Hwy , 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Simulation of Gypsum Composites Structures

To study the possibility of reducing the power consumption during the manufacture of gypsum materials, a potential for activating the structure formation process by means of selection of an optimal granulometric composition is investigated. The simulation of the topological structure of the gypsum system of hydration hardening was carried out. The system created by spheres of two sizes located in the hexagonal structure was selected as an object for research. With the help of three-dimensional simulation, a quantitative assessment of the packed array of spherical particles was obtained. Results of the study of differential and integral curves of particles distribution in disperse gypsum systems are presented. On the basis of results of their analysis with due regard for results of the computer simulation, the study of real gypsum mixes of different grinding fineness was conducted. The optimal granulometric composi- tion of the bi-disperse raw mix has been defined with the help of the developed software complex of structural-simulation modeling of disperse systems which are used in the technology of building composite materials.

Keywords: disperse system, structure, simulation, gypsum, contacts, durability.

References
1. Rumyantsev B.M., Fedulov A.A. Prospects for the use of gypsum materials in building construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 1, pp. 22– 25. (In Russian).
2. Chernysheva N.V., Kharkhardin A.N. El’yan Issa Zhamal Issa, Drebezgova M.Yu. Calculation and selection of high-density grain composition of aggregate and concrete on a gypsum composite binders. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2014. No. 2, pp. 43–48. (In Russian).
3. Kharkhardin A.N. Structural topology disperse systems of interacting micro- and nanoparticles. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2011. No. 5, pp. 119–125. (In Russian).
4. Kharkhardin A.N. Structural topology dispersed materi als dry and wet grinding methods. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2011. No. 8–9, pp. 112–117. (In Russian).
5. Gavrilova N.N., Nazarov V.V., Yarovaya O.V. Mikroskopicheskie metody opredeleniya razmerov chas- tits dispersnykh materialov [Microscopic methods for the determination of particle size of dispersed materials]. Мoscow: RHТU. 2012. 52 p.
6. Kharkhardin A.N., Suleimanova L.A., Strokova V.V. The topological properties of polydisperse mixtures and their constituent fractions based on the results of sieve analysis and laser granulometry. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 11–12, pp. 114–124. (In Russian).
7. Petropavlovskaya V.B., Belov V.V., Novichenkova T.B. Maloenergoemkie gipsovye stroitel’nye kompozity [Low power gypsum building composites]. Тver: ТvGTU, 2014. 136 p.
8. Garkavi M.S. The evolution of structural states hardening cementitious systems. Architecture. Building. Education: Papers of scientific conference. Magnitogorsk. 2013. pp. 185–192. (In Russian).
9. Belov V.V., Petropavlovskaya V.B., Poleonova Yu.Yu., Obraztsov I.V. Getting high unburned gypsum materials based on man-made waste using mathematical and com puter modeling of the raw mix. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. 2013. Vol. 31. Book. 2. Stroitel’nye nauki, pp. 563–570. (In Russian).
10. Belov V.V., Obraztsov I.V. Komp’yuternoe mode lirovanie i optimizirovanie sostavov stroitel’nykh kom pozitov [Computer simulation and optimization formu lations building composites]. Тver: ТvGTU. 2014. 124 p.

S.N. LEONOVICH1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (SLeonovich@mail.ru); D.V. SVIRIDOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry) (info@bsu.by), G.L. SHCHUKIN 2, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry), P.I. RADYUKEVICH3 , Director (zaoparad@bk.ru); A.L. BELANOVICH2, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry), V.P. SAVENKO 2, Senior staff scientist, S.A. KARPUSHENKOV2 , Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry)
1 Belarusian National Technical University (65, Nezavisimosti Avenue, Minsk, 220013, Belarus)
2 Belarusian State University (14, Leningradskaya Street, Minsk, 220030, Belarus)
3 «Parad» ZAO (14, Minina Street, Minsk, 220014, Belarus)

Composition of a Dry Mix for Non-Autoclaved Foam Concrete of Natural Hardening

A dry mix composition for manufacturing the non-autoclaved foam concrete of natural hardening on the basis of Portland cement, foaming agent Ufapore, quickening and plasticizing agent Tsitrat-T, microsilica MK-85, sulfate-aluminate additive PCAM, basalt fiber, and polymeric powder Vinappas-8034 has been developed. In the course of mixing the dry mix with water at B/T 0,4–0,6, subsequent mechanical swelling (2000 rpm), and foam mass hardening, the non-autoclaved concrete of 400–800 kg/m 3 density (depending on B/T), 1,1–3,4 MPa strength, low water absorption (50–60%) and without shrinkage cracks is formed. Its mechanical properties are very close to autoclaved concrete properties.

Keywords: dry mix, non-autoclaved foam concrete, additives, shrinkage cracks, durability.

References
1. Leonovich S.N., Sviridov D.V., Belanovich A.L., Shchu-\ kin G.L., Savenko V.P., Karpushenkov S.A. Extension of life mortars. Stroitel’nie Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 10, pp. 74–77. (In Russian).
2. Patent BY 18077. Sposob polucheniya uskoritelya tverdeni ya dlya betonov i stroitel’nih rastvorov [A method for pro ducing a hardening accelerator for concrete and morta]. Savenko V.P., Shchukin G.L., Leonovich S.N., Sviridov D.V., Belanovich A.L., Radyukevich P.I., Karpushenkov S.A. Declared 12.04.2012. Published 30.04.2014. Bulletin No. 2. (In Russian).
3. Velichko E.G., Komar A.G. Prescription and technological problems of the foam concrete. Stroitel’nie Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 3, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).
4. Udachkin I.V. Key issues in the development of the produc tion of foam concrete. Stroitel’nie Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 3, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
5. Urhanova L.A. The use of secondary raw materials for the production of foam concrete. Stroitel’nie Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 1, pp. 34–35. (In Russian).
6. Bezrukova T.F. Dobavki v yacheistii beton [Additives in cellular concrete]. Moscow: VNIIESM. 1990. 37 p.
7. Serdyuk V.P., Vahitov S.G. Intensification of structure formation and hardening of porous concrete. Promishlennost’ stroitel’nih materialov. Seriya 8. Promishlennost’ avtoklavnih materialov i mestnih vya zhushchih. 1983. Vol. 11, pp. 13–15. (In Russian).
8. Vasilevskaya N.G., Engzhievskaya I.G., Kalugin I.G. The cement compositions reinforced by a disperse basalt fiber. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2011. No. 3, pp. 153–158. (In Russian).
9. Vasilevskaya N.G., Engzhievskaya I.G., Kalugin I.G. Management of structure of cellular fibrous concrete. Izvestiya Vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2010. No. 11–12, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).
10. Golukov S.A. Modification of tile adhesives particulate poly meric powders VINNAPAS. Stroitel’nie Materialy [Cons truction Materials]. 2004. No. 3, pp. 47–49. (In Russian).

G.I. BERDOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); M.A. ELESIN2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (ema0674@mail.ru), E.V. UMNOVA 2, Engineer (ele-na00@kanal7.ru)
1 Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (113, Leningradskaya Street, Novosibirsk, 630008, Russian Federation)
2 Norilsk Industrial Institute (7, 50 Let Oktyabrya, Norilsk, 663310, Russian Federation)

Cellular Slag Portland-Cement Concrete with Lime-Sulfur Sealing Compound

The use of the lime-sulfur sealing compound facilitates activation of slag Portland-cement when producing the cellular concrete of non-autoclaved hardening with aluminum powder or hydrazine. When the aluminum powder is used as a gas developing agent, the high speed of strength gain by 30–40% is determined by the formation of a fast crystallizing phase – thiosulfate-containing hydroaluminates. The introduction of this sealing compound in combination with 1,4% of hydrazine ensures the improvement of strength by 50–70% and the strength-density ration from 0,8–0,9 up to 1,2–1,29 in comparison with haydite concrete mixed with water. Relatively higher technical indicators in experiments with the use hydrazine are due to the full recovery of ion Fe(II) in the iron hydroxide and increase in its concentration in the hardening mass which, in turn, facilitates the fullness of recrystallization of primary calcium hydrosilicates.

Keywords: cellular concrete, slag Portland-cement, lime-sulfur sealing compound, hydrazine, gas developing agent.

References
1. Sakharov G.P., Skorikov E.P. Non-autoclave energy ef ficient porobeton natural hardening. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2005. No. 7, pp. 49–54. (In Russian).
2. Leont’ev E.N., Kokovin O.A. On the issue of non-auto claved cellular concrete. Tekhnologiya betonov. 2007. No. 5, pp. 50–52. (In Russian).
3. Aminev G.G. Low-cement not autoclave cellular con crete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2005. No. 12, pp. 50–51. (In Russian).
4. Salimgareev F.M., Naiman A.N. New approach to manufacturing techniques of wall blocks from cellular concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2002. No. 3, pp. 12–13. (In Russian).
5. Trambovskii V.P. Cellular concrete in modern construction. Tekhnologiya betonov. 2007. No. 2, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).
6. Ezhov V.B. Traditional material on service of modern construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2002. No. 4, pp. 24–25. (In Russian).
7. Elesin M.A. Studying of kinetics of dissolution of sulfur in calcium hydroxide. Zhurnal prikladnoi khimii. 1996. Vol. 69, No. 7, pp. 1069–1072. (In Russian).
8. Elesin M.A. Pavlov A.V., Berdov G.I., Mashkin N.A. Research of the mechanism of hydration transformation of a Portland cement in calcium polysulfide solution. Zhurnal prikladnoi khimii. 2002. Vol.75, No. 6, pp. 903–907. (In Russian).
9. Nizamutdinov A.R., Umnova E.V., Botvin’eva I.P., Elesin M.A. Influence of the concentration of sulfur in highly mineralized a mixing liquid on rheological proper ties and setting times of the concrete mixtures. Perspektivy nauki. 2012. No. 10 (37), pp. 53–57. (In Russian).
10. Mashkin N.A. Elesin M.A., Nizamutdinov A.R., Botvin’eva I.P. Hydrochemical modifying of concrete mixes dilution in lime and sulfur liquor. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 6, pp. 16–21. (In Russian).
11. Moskalenko I.G., Elesin M.A. Gas concrete from metal lurgy by-products. Collection of scientific works “Resources, Technologies, Market of Construction Materials”. Penza: PGUAiS. 2006. pp. 28–30. (In Russian).

M.A. KALITINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (mkalitina@bk.ru), A.V. KAZ’MINA1, Candidate of Sciences (Pedagogy), O.A. MATVEEVA 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), T.A. MAZIKOVA2 , Engineer
1 Russian State Social University ( 4, building 1, Wilhelm Pieck Street, 129226, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Peter the Great Military Academy of Strategic Rocket Forces (9, Kitaygorodskiy proezd Moscow, 109074, Russian Federation)

Choice of Solution for Capturing and Utilizing Dust Emissions Characteristics of filtering materials made of metallic fabrics, metal-ceramic foil, metal fiber felt, polyether fabric with MikroTEX PTFE membrane, perforated metal foil for dust capturing at producing building materials have been studied. Results of the study of hydraulic and filtration properties of filtering materials are presented; efficiency of their dynamic regeneration is determined. The calculated dependences for assessing and forecasting the most important operation parameters of filters are obtained. Advantages and disadvantages of filtering materials are considered; the expediency of using metal-ceramic foil to clean emissions from dust is substantiated.

Keywords: ecology, dust capturing, filtering material, hydraulic resistance, regenerating ability.

References
1. Tshovrebov E.S., Velichko E.G. Environmental protec tion and health of the person in the process of the circula tion of building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2014. No. 5, pp. 99–100. (In Russian).
2. Krasovitsky Yu.V., Lobacheva N.N., Romanyuk E.V., Piglovsky N.V., Galiakmetovh R.F. Features of opera tion of dust catchers at manufacture of building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 63–65. (In Russian).
3. Krasovitsky Yu.V., Panov S. Yu., Romanyuk E.V., Gasanov Z.S., Makarova Yu.I., Manukovskaya V.P. Rational measurement of humidity, temperature and air inflows in dust-gas ducts in the course of building materi als production. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2012. No. 1, pp. 22–24. (In Russian).
4. Krasovitsky Yu.V., Panov S. Yu., Romanyuk E.V., Arkhangelskaya E.V., Gasanov Z.S. Coagulation of the dis persed phase in the dust and gas flows in the production of construction materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2012. No. 4, pp. 66–68. (In Russian).
5. Sergina N.M., Azarov D.V., Gladkov E.V. System of in ertial dust catching in construction materials industry. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materiаls]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 86–89. (In Russian).
6. Voronin S. A., Katsnelson B. A., Seleznyova E.A. Organization fractional air pollution monitoring sus- pended particles in Russia. Gigiena i sanitariya. 2007. No. 3, pp. 60–63. (In Russian).
7. Friedland S. V. Promyshlennaya ekologiya. Osnovy in zhenernykh raschetov [Industrial ecology. Fundamentals of engineering calculations]. M: Kolos. 2008. 176 p.

Yu.G. BORISENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (borisenko2005@yandex.ru), O.A. BORISENKO, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.O. KAZARYAN, Engineer (sam23otr@mail.ru), M.Ch. IONOV, Candidate of Sciences (Economics) North-Caucasus Federal University (2, Kulakova Street, 355028, Stavropol, Russian Federation)

Influence of Fine-Disperse Screenings of Expanded Clay Crushing on Structure and Properties of Stone Mastic Asphalt Concrete

The influence of various highly porous mineral fillers on the properties and sorption activity of asphaltic binders and asphalt concretes based on them was analyzed. The application of fine-disperse screenings of expanded clay crushing as a stabilizing additive to the stone mastic asphalt (SMA) makes it possible to significantly reduce the rate of bitumen draining into the stone mastic asphalt concrete mix (SMAM), improve mechanical properties, heat resistance, and water resistance of the material. As a result, laboratory studies have established the improvement of crack resistance, frost resistance and shear stability of SMA modified with high-disperse screenings of expanded clay crushing due to the change in the asphalt binder structure and reduction of temperature stresses in the coating material. It is shown that the inclusion of powder porous material additives into the composition of SMAM improves the structural and mechanical properties of SMA. It was established experimentally that the modification of stone mastic asphalt concretes with finely dispersed porous materials can signifi cantly improve the durability of SMA.

Keywords: stone mastic asphalt, highly dispersed screenings, expanded clay crushing, stabilizing additive, road surfacing.

References
1. Vysotskaya M.A., Kuznetsov D.K., Barabash D.E. Features of structure bitumen-mineral compositions with the use of porous materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 1–2, pp. 68–71. (In Russian).
2. Vysotskaya M.A., Kuznetsov D.K., Fedorov M.U. Assessment of quality of bituminous composites using porous fillers. Dorogi i mosty. 2012. No. 27, pp. 241–250. (In Russian).
3. Svintitskih L.E., Shabanov T.N., Klyus A.A., Agei kin V.N. Effect of dispersion on the properties of exfoli ated vermiculite asphalt binder and asphalt concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 9, pp. 32–33. (In Russian).
4. Inozemcev S.S., Korolev E.V. Selecting a mineral carrier nanosized additives for asphalt concrete. Vestnik MGSU. 2014. No. 3, pp. 158–167. (In Russian).
5. Soldatov A.A., Borisenko J.G. The surface structure of porous powders based on expanded clay crushing screen ings and their adsorption activity. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 6, pp. 36–38. (In Russian).
6. Kalgin Y.I. Dorozhnye bitumomineral’nye materialy na osnove modifitsirovannykh bitumov [Road bituminous materials based on modified bitumen]. Voronezh: Voronezh State University Press. 2006. 272 p.

T.A. DROZDYUK, Engineer (t.drozdyuk@narfu.ru), A.M. AIZENSHTADT, Doctor of Sciences (Chemistry) (a.isenshtadt@narfu.ru), A.S. TUTYGIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), M.A. FROLOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) Northern (Arctic) Federal University (NAFU) named after M.V. Lomonosov (22, Severnaya Dvina Embankment, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation)

Inorganic Binding Agents for Mineral Wool Heat Insulation
The possibility of replacing the phenol-formaldehyde resins by mineral binders for producing the mineral wool heat insulation is considered. As a mineral binder, it is proposed to use the saponite-containing material (SCM) extracted by the method of electrolytic coagulation from the pulp of the tailing damp of industrial ore-dressing of the Lomonosov Diamond Deposit (Arkhangelsk Oblast). Optimal regimes of mechanical activation of SCM at the planetary ball mill PM-100 for manufacturing the binder for mineral wool heat insulating materials have been selected. The assessment of binding properties of SCM was made by calorimetric investigations, which showed that the specific enthalpy of SCM hydration is comparable with the value of hydration heat of the main clinker mineral (dicalcium silicate). The tests of prototypes of mineral wool heat insulation with the mineral binder show that they have good heat insulation property and are not destroyed under the effect of high temperature, at that, this material is environmentally friendly.

Keywords: mineral binder, mineral wool heat insulation, saponite, environmental friendliness, heat insulation, energy efficiency.

References
1. Gorlov Yu. P. Tekhnologiya teploizolyatsionnykh i akus ticheskikh materialov i izdelii [Technology of thermal insulation and acoustic materials and products]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1989. 384 p.
2. Kardashov D. A. Sinteticheskiye klei [Synthetic adhe sives]. Moscow: Chemistry. 1976. 504 p.
3. Tutygin A.S., Aisenstadt M.A., Aisenstadt A.M., Makhova T.A. Influence of the nature of the electrolyte in the coagulation process saponite-containing slurry. Geoekologiya. 2012. No. 5, pp. 379–383. (In Russian).
4. Korshunov A. A. Geo-ecological study of storage and use of tailings kimberlite ores (for example, diamond deposits named after Lomonosov). Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Arkhangelsk. 2010. 125 p. (In Russian).
5. Abramovskaya I.R., Aisenstadt A.M., Lesovik V.S., Veshnyakova L.A., Frolova M.A., Kazlitin S.A. Calculation of energy consumption rocks – as raw mate rial for the production of building materials. Promyshlennoye i grazhdanskoye stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 10, pp. 23–25. (In Russian).
6. Lesovik V.S. Povysheniye effektivnosti proizvodstva stroitel’nykh materialov s uchetom genezisa [Improving the efficiency of the production of building materials with regard to the genesis]. Moscow: ASV. 2006. 526 p.
7. Glaser A.M. Amorphous and nanocrystalline structures: similarities, differences, mutual transitions. Rossiiskii khi micheskii zhurnal. 2002. Vol. XLVI. No. 5, pp. 57–63. (In Russian).
8. Strokova V.V., Cherevatova A.V., Zhernovski I.V., Voitovych E.V. Peculiarities of phase formation in a com posite nanostructured gypsum binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 7, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
9. Rakhimbaev I.Sh. Dependence of the strength of the ce ment matrix of concrete hydration heat. Cand. Diss. (Engineering). Belgorod. 2012. 133 p. (In Russian).

V.A.LOTOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), V.A. KUTUGIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (kutugin@tpu.ru), Tomsk Polytechnic University (30,av. Lenin, Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation)

Use of Thermal Porization of Mixtures When Obtaining Plates from Exfoliated Vermiculite
A method of manufacturing plates from exfoliated vermiculite and liquid sodium glass, when thermal porization of mixture in a closed volume is offered. As a result of the implementa tion of this method in the product matrix of sodium silicate foam is formed by ligaments, internal particles of exfoliated vermiculite. Products obtained by the developed technology is significantly lighter and stronger, and the manufacturing process shorter.

Keywords: exfoliated vermiculite, vermiculite plates technology, fire-resistant insulation materials

References
1. Akhtyamov R.Ya. Vermiculite – raw materials for the production of refractory heat-insulating materials. Ogneupory i tekhnicheskaya keramika. 2009. No. 1–2, pp. 58–64. (In Russian).
2. Patent RF 2169717. Sostav syr’evoi smesi i sposob izgo tovleniya ognezashchitnogo konstruktsionno-otdelochno go materiala [The composition of feed mixture and method of making fire-retardant construction- finishing material]. Gorshkov N.I., Katkova E.N., Yanko E.A. Declared 03.05.2000 Published 27.06.2001 (In Russian).
3. Patent RF 2126776. Sostav syr’evoi smesi i sposob izgotov leniya teploizolyatsionnykh plit [The composition of feed mixture and a method for manufacturing insulation boards]. Brzhezanskii V.O., Molokov V.F., Pavshenko Yu.N. Declared 16.07.1998. Published 27.02.1999 (In Russian).
4. Lotov V.A., Kutugin V.A. Formation of a porous structure of foam silicates based on liquid-glass com positioins. Steklo i keramika. 2008. No. 1, pp. 6–10. (In Russian).
5. Popov N.A. Proizvodstvo i primenenie vermikulita [Production and use of vermiculite] Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1964. 152 p.
6. Lotov V.A. The use of aqueous solutions of sodium sili cate in extinguishing fires. Steklo i keramika. 2011. No. 7, pp. 32–34. (In Russian).
7. Kutugin, V., Lotov, V., Pautova, Y., Reshetova, A. Perspective technologies for production of thermal insu lating materials with hard cellular structure. Proceedings 7 th International Forum on Strategic Technology. Tomsk. 2012. Vol. 1, pp. 244–247. (In Russian).
8. Patent RF 2520280. Sposob polucheniya vspenennogo materiala i shikhta dlya ego izgotovleniya [A method of producing foamed material and mixture for its manu facturing]. Lotov V.A., Kutugin V.A., Declared 24.01.2013, Published 20.06.2014. Bulletin No. 17. (In Russain).
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