Stroitel`nye Materialy №4

Table of contents

A.A. SEMYONOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), General Manager ( “GS-Expert”, OOO (18, office 207, the 1st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Lane, 125047, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Ceramic Wall Materials Market: Results of 2014 and Forecast for 2015
The state of the ceramic wall materials market in 2014 is analyzed. The increase in the capacity of the industry is again noted. It is shown that the increase in output is accompanied by positive dynamics of growth. The structure of ceramic wall materials and its characteristic changes during the last two years are presented. It is noted that the devaluation of the ruble in the end of 2014 has a positive impact on the structure of export-import supplies of ceramic wall materials. Negative and positive factors, which influence on the demand, are listed. Depending on the realized scenario of economic development the production of ceramic wall materials in 2015 is predicted within the range of 7.7–8.1 milliard pieces of conditional brick.

Keywords: statistics, Rosstat, analysis of market, ceramic wall materials, brick, large-size blocks, clinker.

1. Semyonov A.A. The State of the Russian Market of Ceramic Wall Materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 9–12.
2. Somov N.V. Problems of Development of Russian Silicate Industry. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 3, pp. 48–49.
3. Vishnevsky A.A., Grinfeld G.I., Kulikova N.O. Analysis of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Market of Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 7, pp. 40–44.
4. Begoulev S.A. Development of Production under Crisis Conditions, the Brick Union «Pobeda LSP» as an Example. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 4, pp. 12–13.
5. Ananev A.I., Lobov O.I. Ceramic brick and its place in the construction of modern buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo. 2014. No. 10, pp. 62–64.
6. Gavrilov A.V., Grinfeld G.I. A Brief Review of History, Conditions and Prospects of Clinker Brick Market in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 20–22.
7. Baranov A.O., Pavlov V.N., Tagaeva T.O. Troubling Prospects: Forecast of the Russian Economy Develop ment for the Period 2015–2017. ECO. 2014. No. 12, pp. 15–35.

B.F. GORBACHEV, Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), E.V. KRASNIKOVA, Research Associate Central Research Institute for Geology of Industrial Minerals (4, Zinina Street, Kazan, 420097, Tatarstan, Russian Federation) State and Possible Ways of Development of Raw Material Base of Kaolins,

Refractory and High-Melting Clays in the Russian Federation The state of the raw material base of kaolin and kaolinite clays in the Russian Federation is considered. The dynamics of reserves and production over the past 10 years, compara- tive provision with reserves among Federal districts and degree of development, possibilities of improvement in the efficiency of geological exploration for increasing the share of the most demanded and deficit sorts – eluvial white free-milling kaolins, low-iron bauxites and allites, plastic refractory and high-melting white-burning clays – in the structure of explored reserves are presented. The actuality of development and implication of progressive technologies of improving the quality (grades of quality) of produced natural raw materials are substantiated.

Keywords: kaolin, kaolinite clay, refractory clay, white-burning and high-melting clay, reserves, extraction of raw materials, enrichment.

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D.V. KROLOVETSKY, R.N. GRYZUNOV Voronezh Rudoupravleniye: Development of the Company and Expansion of Latnenskiye Clays for Ceramic Brick

N.G. GUROV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Director General ( OAO «JuzhNIIstrom» (105/1, Nansena Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344038, Russian Federation)

Porcelain Stone from the Karachay-Cherkess Republic is a New Prospective Raw Component for Building Ceramic Production It is substantiated that development of the wall ceramic materials aimed at improving the quality of products, expansion of assortment and application fields requires complication of raw material compositions. It is shown that high-melting, white burning clays, which are traditionally used for improving the qualitative characteristics of brick , are not always used at operating factories, kilns of which can’t ensure the working temperature over 1050°C. The raw materials of the Marinskoye deposit of modified (refined and kaolinized) granite-porphy- ries, which can be successfully used in the technology of ceramic brick with the purpose to obtain the high-quality products of light tones including the clinker brick, are presented. The deposit has been explored by YuzhNIIstrom. The Reserves Committee of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic has approved explored reserves of porcelain-stone and put them on record in 2014. Main characteristics of raw materials are presented.

Keywords: clay raw material, white-burning clays, quartz-feldspar rocks, granite-porphyries, ceramic brick, burning kiln.

1. Semyonov A.A. The State of the Russian Market of Ceramic Wall Materials. Stroitel’nye Msterialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 9–12. (In Russian).
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4. Storozhenko G.I., Stolboushkin А.Yu., Mishin М.P. Prospects of domestic production of ceramic brick on the base of coal washing waste. Stroitel’nye Msterialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 57–61. (In Russian).
5. Naumov A.A., Trishhenko I.V., Gurov N.G. On the is sue of improving quality and diversification of ceramic brick for operating factories of semi-dry pressing. Stroitel’nye Msterialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 17–19. (In Russian).
6. Zhenzhurist I.A. Prospective directions of nano-modifica tion in building ceramics. Stroitel’nye Msterialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 36–39 (In Russian).
7. Talpa B.V. Prospects of development of mineral-raw material base for manufacture of wall ceramics becom- ing light color after burning in the South of Russia. Stroitel’nye Msterialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).
8. Vasyanov G.P., Gorbachev B.F., Krasnikova E.V., Sadykov R.K. The Use of Clayey Brick Raw Materials of the Republic of Tatarstan for Construction Complex. Stroitel’nye Msterialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 17–21. (In Russian).

A.D. PETELIN1, Director General, V.I. SAPRYKIN1, Chief Geologist, V.A. KLEVAKIN2, Chief Executive (, E.V. KLEVAKINA3, Engineer
1 «Cheljabinskoe rudoupravlenie» ZAO NP (9, Sovetskaja Street, Settlement Uvel’skij, 457000, Cheljabinskaja Region, Russian Federation);
2 «NANO KERAMIKA» OOO (18 A, 50 let SSSR Street, Pervoural’sk, 623100, Sverdlovskaja Region, Russian Federation);
3 Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin (19, Mira Street, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russian Federation)

Features of the Use of Nizhneuvelsky Deposit Clays in Production of Ceramic Brick High plasticity, white-burning clay of the Nizhneuvelsky Deposit and Uprunskaya group of deposits produced by ZAO NP “Chelyabinskoye Rudoupravleniye” is presented. Chemical, mineralogical, and granulometric compositions of clay are presented; main commercial grades obtained by means of selective mining, mixing and averaging at special storehouses are described. It is shown that the use of white-burning clay in the technology of ceramic brick makes it possible to produce a wide range of light tone products, acid-proof articles, clinker brick.

Keywords: white-burning clay, chemical composition, mineralogical composition, granulo-metric composition, selective extraction, averaging storehouse, ceramic brick, 3D coloring, clinker brick.

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B.V. TALPA1, Candidate of Sciences (Geological and Mineralogical) (, A.V. KOTLYAR2, Engineer
1 Southern Federal University (40, Zorge Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation
2 The Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisti-cheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russian Federation)

Mineral-Raw Material Base of Lithified Clay Rocks of the South of Russia for Production of Building Ceramics The characteristic on chemical mineralogical structure and structural features of lithoidal firm argillous raw material of the South of Russia to which argillitopodobny clays, soapstones, clay slates, aleurolites and transitional versions between these types of breeds belong is given. Justification of a special set of clay minerals as a part of these raw materials that is caused by education conditions is given. Ceramic and technological properties are given. Here it is emphasized that they are caused both by structure, and by extent of crushing of raw materials. High prospects of use of data the litifitsirovannykh of clay breeds kaolinite-hydromicaceous structure for production of the wide nomenclature of ceramic materials are shown: front brick, brick construction brick, road brick brick, tile, front ceramic plates, and at input in composition of furnace charge burning out and the poroobrazuyushchikh of additives of ceramic stones of high efficiency with brand on durability to M200.

Keywords: clay, soapstone, minerals, ceramics, brick.

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A.G. ASHMARIN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), L.G. ILJUHINA2, Director General, V.V. ILJUHIN3, Director General, V.V. KURNOSOV 4, Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics), Director, V.I. SINJАNSKIJ5 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Director General
1 «VNIIStrom im. Petra Petrovicha Budnikova» ZAO (117, K. Marksa Street, Kraskovo City Settlement, Lyuberetskiy Area, Moscow Region, 143981, Russian Federation);
2 «Stroykeramika» OOO (2a, Kirova Street, Atrat Village, Alatyrskiy Region, Republic Chuvashiya, 429841, Russian Federation);
3 «KOMAS» OAO (8a, Martovskaya Street, Aprelevka, Narofominskiy Area, Moscow Region, 436360, Russian Federation);
4 «Elektroavtomat» OAO (19a, Khmelnitskogo Street, Alatir Area, Republic Chuvashiya, 429820, Russian Federation);
5 «AVIS-N» OOO (2a, Shkolnaya Street, Kraskovo City Settlement, Lyuberetskiy Area, Moscow Region, 143981, Russian Federation) Innovative Projects of Producing Structural and Thermal Efficient Ceramic Materials from Local Raw Materials

Innovative design solutions of producing ceramic products for different purposes and scientific fundamentals of regulating the process of the shortened cycle of thermal treatment of ceramic wall products of compressing molding have been developed. A special tunnel kiln of continuous operation for single-row brick burning has been developed. Modern energy and resource saving technologies are used both in production of structural and heat-efficient brick and in production of heat-efficient blocks on the basis of local siliceous rocks and expanding agents.

Keywords: production of ceramic products,

1. Kotlyar V.D., Kozlov A.V., Kotlyar A.V., Terekhina Y.V. Argillite-type clays of the South of Russia – promising raw material for clinker brick manufacturing. Nauchnoe obozrenie. 2014. No. 7–3, pp. 847–850. (In Russian).
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3. Stolboushkin A.Y., Stolboushkina O.A., Ivanov A.I., Syromyasov V.A., Plyas M.L. Wall ceramic materials of matrix structure from cleaning rejects of coaly argillites. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitelstvo. 2013. No. 2–3 (650–651), pp. 28–36. (In Russian).
4. Kamalova Z.A., Medyanik Yu.V., Ermilova E.Yu., Rakhimov R.Z., Stoyanov O.V. Assessment of possibility of use of clay and silicic pigments of RT for coloring of con struction materials. Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2014. No. 16, pp. 37–40. (In Russian).
5. Ashmarin G.D., Kondratenko V.A., Lastochkin V.G., Pavlenko A.P. Ceramic Ecological Heat-Efficient Walls – the Reality of Contemporary Construction. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Constraction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 10–11. (In Russian).
6. Patent 2397068 RF. Tekhnologicheskaya liniya dlya proiz vodstva keramicheskikh stroitel’nykh izdelii metodom kompressionnogo formovaniya [The technological line for production of ceramic construction products by method of compression formation]. Ashmarin G.D., Kurnosov V.V., Lastochkin V.G. Published B.I. No. 23. 2010.
7. Patent 2406049 RF. Tunnel’naya pech’-sushilka [Tunnel furnace dryer]. Ashmarin G.D., Kurnosov V.V., Belya ev S.E., Lastochkin V.G. Published B.I. No. 34. 2010.
8. Patent 2440946 RF. Syr’evaya smes’ dlya izgotovleniya keramicheskikh teploeffektivnykh stenovykh izdelii [Raw mix for production of ceramic heateffective wall prod ucts]. Ashmarin G.D., Ilyukhin V.V., Ilyukhina L.G., Ashmarin D.G. Published B.I. № 3 (27.01.12).
9. Patent 2515107 RF. Syr’evaya smes’ dlya izgotovleniya keramicheskikh izdelii [Raw mix for production of pot tery] Ashmarin G.D., Ilyukhin V.V., Ilyukhina L.G., Ashmarin D.G. Published B.I. No. 13. 2014.
10. Lastochkin V.G., Ashmarin G.D., Kurnosov V.V., Belya ev S.E. Justification of efficiency of compression formation of ceramic construction materials. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Constraction Materials]. 2011. No. 2, pp. 8–9. (In Russian).
11. Ashmarin G.D., Lastochkin V.G., Ilyukhin V.V., Tat’yanchikov A.V. Innovative technologies of highly ef fective ceramic construction products on the basis of sili ceous breeds. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Constraction Materials]. 2011. No. 7, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).
12. Lastochkin V.G., Ilyukhin V.V., Ashmarin G.D., Sinyanskii V.I., Kurnosov V.V. Technology of a ceramic brick of compression formation with the reduced cycle of heat treatment. Stroitel`nye Materialy [Constraction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 42–43. (In Russian).

I.A. ZHENZHURIST, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) ( Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

Efficiency of Micro-Wave Treatment of Clay Compositions when Selecting the Charge in Technology of Ceramics
Results of the study of microwave treatment of clay compositions with the UHF field when selecting the charge on the basis of low-melting loams of Kalininskoye and Khlystovskoye deposits and a modifying component are presented. The influence of the treatment of the clay composition with the UHF field on the strength property of burned products is shown. Compositions on the basis of galvanic sludge containing derivatives of aluminum oxide and additives containing derivatives of calcium oxide and magnesium – chalk and cake – waste of soda production were tested as a modifier. At the specified ratio of components for each composition of the modifying agent after the treatment of the prepared composition with the UHF field it is possible to obtain the significant improvement of strength of burned samples. Using the method of thermal and X-ray phase analyses, the difference in behavior of masses treated and untreated with the UHF field for compositions on the basis of Kalininskaya clay is shown. The connection of increasing the strength of burned samples with an increase in the fraction of a phase of sillimanite Al2SiO5 and the decrease of the crystallite size up to 30 nm is noted.

Keywords: clay compositions, alumocontaining galvanic sludge, chalk, cake – waste of soda production, UHF field, strength of burned products.

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A.I. IVANOV 1 , Engineer (, A.Yu. STOLBOUSHKIN 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (; G.I. STOROZHENKO 2 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (
1 Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirov Street, Kemerovo Region, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)
2 «Baskey Keramik», OOO (1b, Stepana Razina Street, Chelyabinsk Region, Chelyabinsk, 454111, Russian Federation)

Principles for Creation of Optimal Structures of Ceramic Semidry Pressed Brick The principles for creation of optimal structures of ceramic semidry pressed brick are formulated. It is found out that for low- and moderate-plasticity clay raw material its refinement to class -0.3+0 mm is required. Best grain packaging of the grinded fine raw material during compaction is achieved due to its preliminary aggregation. It is established that the rational granulometric composition of a press powder is ensured by material granulation in the turbo impeller mixer-granulators. Experimentally and in the industrial conditions it is confirmed that the bricks produced from fine grinned granulated material have a uniform, defect-free texture of s ceramic crock, providing an increase (in 1,3–1,5 times) in physical and mechani cal properties of products. A new method for obtaining an effective wall ceramics with uniformly distributed system of freeze resistant macropores incorporated into the wall waterproof glass crystalline framework formed on their surface is offered.

Keywords: optimal structure, ceramic brick, semidry pressing, granulation, effective wall ceramics.

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7. Kondratenko V.A., Peshkov V.N., Slednev D.V. Modern technology and equipment for production of semidry pressing ceramic brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2003. No. 2, pp. 18–19. (In Russian).
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9. Grubacic V. Company BEDESCHI: second century in the lead of machine manufacturing for the ceramic indus try. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 4, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).
10. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Ivanov A.I., Zorya V.N. et al. Features of granulation of anthropogenic and natural raw materials for wall ceramic. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 5, pp. 85–89. (In Russian).
11. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Stolboushkina O.A., Berdov G.I. Optimization of parameters of pressing of granulated an thropogenic and natural raw materials for ceramic brick production. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 4, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).

V.D. KOTLYAR, Doctor of Science (Engineering) (, Yu.V. TEREKHINA (, Engineer, A.V. KOTLYAR, Engineer ( Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (162, Sotcialisticheskaya Street, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)

Features of Properties, Application and Requirements for Clinker Brick There shown an importance of introducing certain standards of building and paving brick in terms of peculiarities of their usage. The main groups of factors conditioning the necessity of the development of governing documents are stated: the field of arch brick usage, demands for providing the brand of the products according to the compressive and bending, divid ing the arch brick into two groups according to the absorption of water, demands for brick mortar, development of classification according to shape and size. The problems of modern methods of testing clinker products for frost resistance. It is proved that the introduction of separate regulations on the building and paving brick will increase demand and expand the scope of the application of such products by designers, architects, and builders. It is proposed to establish a working group to develop proposed regulations and the organization of fur ther public discussion of the proposed versions of the standards.

Keywords: сlinker, standard, application, strength, water absorption, frost resistance.

1. Dudenkova G.Ya. Introduction of GOST 530–2012 «Ceramic Brick and Stone. General Technical Specifications». Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 20–22. (In Russian).
2. Avgustinik A.I. Keramika [Ceramics]. Leningrad: Stroyizdat. 1975. 592 p.
3. Lapunova K.A. Historical aspects of the design of wall ceramics products. Dizain. Materiali. Tehnologia. 2010. No. 1 (12), pp. 89–94. (In Russian).
4. Lisenko E.I. Tehnologia keramicheskih materialov i izdelii [The technology of ceramic materials and prod ucts]. Rostov-on-Don: RGSU. 1998. 126 p.
5. Gavrilov A.V., Grinfeld G.I. A brief review of history, conditions and prospects of clinker brick market in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4, pp. 20–22. (In Russian).
6. Russia’s first production line of clinker bricks ready for commercial operation. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 68–70. (In Russian).
7. Korepanova V.F., Grinfel’d G.I. Production of clinker brick at Nikol’sky Brick Factory of LSR Group. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 10–13. (In Russian).
8. Lapunova K.A., Kotlyar V.D. Mold design architectural wall ceramics in the historical aspect. Vestnik MGSU. 2009. No. 4, pp. 148–153. (In Russian).
9. Lapunova K.A., Kotlyar V.D., Terekhina Y.V. Figured ceramic brick on the basis of silica clay: classification and production. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 12, pp. 17–19. (In Russian).
10. Bridgewater A., Bridgewater D. Arki, lavochki, fontani, prudi, borduri, dorojki i drugie konstrukcii iz kirpicha [Arches, benches, fountains, ponds, curbs, walkways and other structures made of brick]. M.: Club semeinogo ot diha. 2012. 144 p.

V.A. GURIEVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, V.V. DUBINETSKY, Engineer, K.M. VDOVIN, Engineer Orenburg State University (13, Pobedy Avenue, 460018, Orenburg, Russian Federation)

Drilling Slurry in Production of Building Ceramic Products Mineralogical and granulometric compositions of anthropogenic raw materials, drilling slurry of the Pashiyskoye deposit and clay raw materials of the Buzuluk deposit, have been stud- ied. Developed two-component systems, depending on the composition of raw charge “clay – drilling slurry” and burning conditions, confirm the prospectivity of using the drilling slurry of the Pashiyskogo deposit of the Buzuluk District in production of ceramic brick M75, M100 according to the standard practice as well as make it possible to utilize the anthropogenic raw materials and obtain the products of III–IV class of danger that are safe for population.

Keywords: anthropogenic raw materials, drilling slurry, clays, building ceramics, class of danger.

1. Kuvykin N.A. Bubnov A.G., Grinevich V.I. Opasnye promyshlennye otkhody. [Hazardous industrial waste]. Ivanovo: Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology. 2004. 148 p.
2. Zhukov A.A. The results of inspection and enforcement activities in terms of waste production and consumption of Rosprirodnadzor in the Orenburg region in the first 9 months and challenges for the IV quarter of 2012. Orenburg: Management Rosprirodnadzora, 2012. 6 p.
3. Pichugin E.A. Assessing the impact of drill cuttings on the environment. Molodoi uchenyi. 2013. No. 9, pp. 122–124. (In Russian).
4. Ksandopulo S.Yu., Popova G.G., Kas’kov A.S., Moisee va Ya.Yu., Litvinova S.M. Geochemical monitoring of processes from storage of oily waste. Gornyi informatsion no-analiticheskii byulleten’. 2012. No. 4, pp. 285–292. (In Russian).
5. Poligon po utilizatsii i pererabotke otkhodov bureniya i neftedobychi: Printsipial’nye tekhnologicheskie resheniya. Kn. 3. Razrabotka printsipial’nykh tekhnologicheskikh reshenii po obezvrezhivaniyu i utilizatsii burovykh shlamov i neftezagryaznennykh peskov. Pod red. Savel’eva V.N. [The landfill disposal and recycling of drilling and oil pro- duction: Fundamental technological solutions. Vol. 3. Development of fundamental technology solutions for the disposal and recycling of oil-contaminated drill cuttings and sand]. Surgut: NGDU. 1996. 101 p.
6. Deneko Yu. On the problem of recycling of drilling waste. Neft’ i gaz Sibiri. 2014. No. 1 (14), pp. 29–30. (In Russian).
7. Maksimovich V.G., Bukov N.N. Neutralization sludge and cleaning neftevod oil fields of Krasnodar region. Proceedings of the XI International Workshop on Magnetic Resonance (Spectroscopy, Tomography and Ecology). Rostov-on-Don. 2013. 120 p. (In Russian).
8. Aminova A.S., Gaibullaev S.A., Dzhuraev K.A. The use of sludge – a rational way of recycling. Molodoi uchenyi. 2015. No. 2, pp. 124–126. (In Russian).
9. Oreshkin D.V., Semenov V.S., Chebotaev A.N., Perfi lov V.A., Lepilov V.I., Lukina I.G. Application of bore mud for manufacture of efficient wall materials. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2012. No. 11, pp. 38–40. (In Russian).
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M.V. PLESHKO, Engineer (, M.S. PLESHKO, Doctor of Science (Engineering) ( Rostov State Transport University (2, Rostovskogo Strelkovogo Polka Narodnogo Opolcheniya Square, Rostov-na-Donu, 344038, Russian Federation)

Development of a New Composition of Engobe on the Basis of Cryolite and Anorthosite The need for using the engobe for manufacturing ceramic tiles according to the technology of rapid single firing with the use of red-burning raw materials is demonstrated. A new coating composition with improved characteristics of decorative and physical-mechanical properties has been developed; artificial technical cryolite instead of expensive frit is used in it and Turkish feldspar and alumina are partially replaced with anorthosite. Optimum formulation has been selected on the basis of the complex of laboratory study; it includes feldspar MAN/19, zirconium silicate NATA/4, Vladimirovskaya clay VKS-2, technical alumina of G-0 brand (UAZ-SUAL), Glukhovetsky kaolin KN-83, anorthosite, artificial technical cryolite, and quartz sand VS-050-1. The use of the developed composition makes it possible to ensure high qualitative indexes of the ceramic coating at low self-cost of initial raw materials.

Keywords: ceramic tale, engobe, frit, cryolite, anorthosite.

1. Solodskij N.F., Shamrikov A.S. Raw materials and ways to improve the efficiency of production of building ce ramics. Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 1, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).
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7. Golenko A.A. Development of angoba for veneering ce ramic tiles single-fired. Tehnicheskie nauki. 2010. No. 1, pp. 88–91. (In Russian).
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10. Bubnova T.P., Garanzha A.V. Features of technological mineralogy anorthosite - raw materials, multi-purpose. New methods of technological mineralogy in the evaluation of metallic ores and industrial minerals: a collection of sci entific articles. According to the materials of III Russian seminar on technological mineralogy. Petrozavodsk. 2009, pp. 94–97. (In Russian).
11. Skamnickaja L.S., Bubnova T.P. Composites on the basis of anorthosites and their properties. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 1, pp. 64–69. (In Russian).

A.M. GAYSIN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); R.R. GAREEV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering); V.V. BABKOV 1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); I.V. NEDOSEKO1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering); S.Ju. SAMOHODOVA, engineer
1 Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (1, Kosmonavtov Street, Ufa, 450062, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation)
2 OOO “NTO Interstroyservice” (11, Svetlaya Street, Ufimsky District, 450520, Republic of Bashkortostan)

Twenty Year Experience in Application of High-Hollow Vibro-Pressed Concrete Blocks in the Republic of Bashkortostan The experience in manufacturing and application of high-hollow vibro-pressed wall concrete blocks under conditions of the Republic of Bashkortostan is considered. Advantages of this material in comparison with traditional small-size wall products are shown.

Keywords: vibro-pressing technique, high-hollow wall concrete block, efflorescence, hollow masonry, complex masonry, energy efficiency.

1. Samarin V.S., Babkov V.V., Egorkin N.S. Prospects of Large Panel Housing Construction in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 12–15. (In Russian).
2. Babkov V.V., Gaysin A.M., Gareev R.R., Kolesnik G.S. etc. The heateffective designs of external walls of build ings applied in practice of design and construction of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2006. No. 5, pp. 43–47. (In Russian).
3. Isсhuk M.K. The reasons of defects of external walls with a front layer from a bricklaying. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
4. Babkov V.V., Gafurova E.A., Rezvov O.A., Asyanova V.S., Lomakina L.N. Composition of Products of Salt Stains Formation from External Walls on the Basis of Vibropressed Concrete Products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 11, pp. 74–77. (In Russian).
5. Nedoseko I.V., Babkov V.V., Aliev R.R., Kuz’min V.V. Application of a constructional and heat-insulating ex panded-clay concrete gravel in low construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 26–28. (In Russian).

A.M. KIRILLOV, Doctor of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics) (, M.A. ZAVYALOV (, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Sochi State University (26A, Sovetskaya Street, 354000, Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russian Federation)

Interpretation of Asphalt Concrete Properties in Road Pavement The consideration of issues related to asphalt concrete road pavement confirms the fact that the pavement itself and its elements are complex systems. The analysis of road pavement conditions is a multifactor task and these factors, in most cases, have a scholastic character. Currently known methods and technologies for monitoring and control over conditions of road pavement have their own limits of applicability. An integral approach making it possible to interpret main deformation and energetic processes taking place at various stages of the operation of asphalt concrete road pavement is proposed. The approach used makes it possible to diagnose the changes in the functional state of asphalt concrete pavement. Scientific hypotheses about the influence of asphalt concrete porosity on its heat capacity and about the prospectivity of the use of the mathematical model of the cusp catastrophe theory for describing the material creep have been formulated.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, road pavement, operational condition, synergetic properties, bifurcation point.

1. Gotovtsev V.M., Shatunov A.G. Nanotechnologies in production of asphalt concrete. Fundamental’nye issledo- vaniya. 2013. No. 1, pp. 191–195. (In Russian).
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5. Bakhrakh G.S. Design of nonrigid road clothes by crite rion of fatigue cracking // Nauka i tekhnika v dorozhnoi otrasli. 2008. No. 2, pp. 32–34. (In Russian)
6. Leonovich I.I., Melnikova I.S. The analysis of the rea sons of emergence of cracks in pavement and criterion of their crack resistance. Stroitel’naya nauka i tekhnika. 2011. No. 4, pp. 37–41. (In Russian).
7. Korochkin A.V. Calculation of rigid road clothes tak ing into account influence of the moving vehicle. Nauka i tekhnika v dorozhnoi otrasli. 2011. No. 2, pp. 8–10. (In Russian).
8. Zavialov M.A., Zavialov A.M. Energy balance of pave ment. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2005. No. 6, pp. 61– 64. (In Russian).
9. Zavialov M.A., Zavialov A.M. Thermal capacity of as phalt concrete. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2009. No. 7, pp. 6–9. (In Russian).
10. Zavialov M.A., Zavialov A.M. Post-construction peri od of life cycle of asphalt pavement: synergetic tenden cies of properties of material. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2011. No. 10, pp. 34–35. (In Russian).
11. Prigogine I. Konetsopredelennosti. Vremya, khaos, inoviezakonyprirodi [The end of definiteness. Time, chaos and new laws of the nature]. Izhevsk. 2001. 208 p.
12. Zavialov M.A. Termodinamicheskaya teoriya zhiznen nogo cikla dorozhnogo asphaltobetonnogo pokritiya [Thermodynamic theory of asphalt pavement life cy cle]. Omsk. 2007. 283 p.
13. Mandelbrot B. Fraktalnaya geometriya prirody [Fractal geometry of the nature]. Moscow: Institute of com puter researches. 2002. 656 p.
14. Kiryukhin G.N. Thermofluctuation and fractal model of durability of asphalt concrete. Dorogi i mosty. 2014. Vol. 31, pp. 247–268. (In Russian).
15. PetrovYu.V., Gruzdkov A.A., Bratov V.A. The struc tural and time theory of destruction as the process proceeding at the different large-scale levels. Fizicheskaya mezomekhanika. 2012. No. 2, pp. 15–21. (In Russian).

N.O. KOPANITSA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (, A.V. KASATKINA, Engineer, Yu.S. SARKISOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (2, Solyanaya Square, 634003, Tomsk, Russian Federation)

New Organic-Mineral Additives on the Basis of Peat for Cement Systems The method for synthesizing a new efficient organic-mineral additive for cement systems is proposed. Studies of modes of obtaining the additive under conditions of limited access of air are presented. It is shown that in case of introducing the additive on the basis of peat, produced at 600 оC, into the cement system, the significant improvement of strength and hydro-physical characteristics of cement stone is achieved. Results of the X-ray structure phase analysis show that the product, generated during the process of peat treatment at 600 оC, contains various phases in the nano-disperse state, including fullerenes and other forms of nano-carbon which change the kinetics and mechanism of the interaction of cement with water and subsequently lead to improving the strength, water resistance and frost resistance of the cement stone.

Keywords: additives, cement, thermal activation, dispersion, strength, peat, nano-disperse.

1. Kuzmich N. P. Increasing of resource base of the building complex through the use of local raw materials and energy effective technologies. Problemy sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2012. No. 2, pp. 325–328. (In Russian).
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4. Misnikov O.S., Belugin G.P. Properties of hydro phobically modified cements and related materials. Modern technologies of dry mixes in construction: Proceedings of the 7th International scientific and technical conference. Saint-Petersburg: Alit. 2005, pp. 28–30. (In Russian).
5. Misnikov O.S., Timofeev A.E., Chertkov E.Yu. Waterproofing of mineral dispersed materials by additives based on peat. Trudy Instorfa. 2010. No. 2 (55), pp. 15– 33. (In Russian).
6. Kopanitsa N.O., Kudyakov A.I., Sarkisov Yu.S., Kasatkina A.V. Influence of thermomodified peat on properties of cement systems. Research, nano-saving technologies in the building materials industry: Collection of reports. Belgorod. 2010, pp. 65–68. (In Russian).
7. Sarkisov Yu.S., Kopanitsa N.O., Kasatkina A.V. Some aspects of the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in construction. Vestnik TGASU. 2012. No. 4, pp. 226– 234. (In Russian).
8. Urhanova L.A., Lhasaranov S.A., Bardakhanov S.P. Modified concrete with nano-disperse additives. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 52–55. (In Russian).
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10. Guvalov A.A., Kabus A.V., Usherov-Marshak A.V. Influence of an organo-mineral additive on early hydration of cement. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 9, pp. 94–95. (In Russian).
El_podpiska СИЛИЛИКАТэкс KERAMTEX elibrary interConPan_2021