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Stroitel`nye Materialy №1

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A.V. RUDENSKY, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (uda0704@yandex.ru), S.A. TARAKANOV, Engineer OOO «NIIMosstroy» (8, Vinnitskaya Street, 119192, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Improving the Technology of Road Asphalt Concrete Mixes Manufacturing by Using Pre-Prepared Granules of Asphalt Binder Concentrate A promising trend in the technology of road asphalt-concrete mixes production based on the preliminary preparation of granules of asphalt binder concentrate followed by mixing them with hot crushed stone and sand in the asphalt-mixing plant and introduction of additional quantities of bitumen in the mixer and final mixing of the mixture is considered. This technol- ogy makes it possible to improve the homogeneity and quality of the asphalt-concrete mix, strength, water resistance, and operating life of the asphalt-concrete as well as savings of up to 10% of bitumen. The list of technological equipment necessary for realizing the process of preparation of granules of asphalt binder concentrate is presented.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, asphalt binder, technology, granulating.

References
1. Korolev I.V. Puti ekonomii bituma [Ways to save bitu men]. Moscow: Transport. 1986. 148 p.
2. Rudenskii A.V. Modern method of asphalt concrete design based on properties of its asphalt mastic component. Trudy Rosdornii. 2009. Vol. 21/1, pp. 201–207. (In Russian).
3. Rudenskii A.V. Investigation of the role of bituminous mastics composed of asphalt concrete. Trudy Rosdornii. 2013. Vol. 29/1, pp. 217–225. (In Russian).

E.V. KOTLYARSKY 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), O.A. VOEYKO 1 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (olga_voeyko@mail.ru); N.S. LEBEDEV 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Moscow State Automobile and Road Technical University (64, Leningradsky Avenue, 125319, Moscow, Russian Federation)
2 Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (46, Kostyukova Street, 308012, Belgorod, Russian Federation)

Impact of Aggressive Environment on Change in Surface Strength of Asphalt Concrete The nature of a mineral material, chemical durability of bitumen, its quantity in the mix, compacting load, and other factors strongly influence on the durability of asphalt concrete in the aggressive environment of anti-icing materials. The work covers issues of the effect of anti-icing materials on the change in the surface strength of asphalt concrete.

Keywords: anti-icing materials, bitumen, asphalt-concrete.

References
1. Kotlyarskii E.V. Improving the durability of coatings of highways by optimizing the structure of asphalt. Doctor Diss. (Engineering). Belgorod. BGTU. 2012. (In Russian).
2. Kotlyarskii E.V., Voeiko O.A. Dolgovechnost’ dorozh nykh asfal’tobetonnykh pokrytii i faktory, sposobstvuy ushchie razrusheniyu struktury asfal’tobetona v protsesse ekspluatatsii [Durability of road asphalt concrete pave ment and the factors contributing to the destruction of the structure of asphalt concrete in service]. Moscow: Tekhpoligraftsentr. 2007. 136 p.
3. Kotlyarskii E.V., Voeiko O.A. Influence of anti-reagents on the properties of bitumen and asphalt. Nauka i tekhnika v dorozhnoi otrasli. 2008. No. 4, pp. 39–41. (In Russian).
4. Kotlyarskii E.V. On the necessity of taking into account the operating conditions in the structural layers of asphalt concrete pavement. Collection of articles and reports an nual scientific session of the association of researchers blacktop. MADI. 2009, pp. 61–72. (In Russian).
5. Kotlyarskii E.V. The role of the operational impacts of a change in the parameters of asphalt concrete pavement. Collection of articles and reports annual scientific session of the association of researchers blacktop. MADI. 2010, pp. 107–117. (In Russian).
6. Kotlyarskii E.V. Changing the characteristics of the as phalt pavement depending on the operational impact. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2010. No. 1, pp. 53–59. (In Russian).

I.M. BARANOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (emitpb@mail.ru), General Manager; Yu.M. EGOROV2, Leading Researcher
1 OOO «NTTS EMIT» (Structure 2, 13, Ostapovsky Drive, Moscow, 109316, Russian Federation)
2 MKB «Gorizont» (7, Energetikov Street, Dzerzhinsky, 140091, Moscow Region, Russian Federation)

New Composite Mineral-Polymers and Thermoplast-Concrete for Using in Road and Special Construction Results of the study of physical-technical properties of mineral-polymers and thermoplast-concrete under development, as well as the data on changes in the strength properties of these concretes depending on the content of the polymer component in their compositions, are presented. In the course of the analysis of results it is established that the increase in the content of polymer binder in composite composition is accompanied by the decrease in compressive strength and by increase in bending resistance. Along with this, there is an increase in the concrete elasticity which as the ratio of Rbending/Rcompression has the following values for concretes with the compressive strength of 75–85 MPa – 0.20-0.23 and for concretes with the compressive strength of 45-55 MPa – 0.40-0.50. It is also established that elastic mineral-polymer-concretes with their closed porosity in comparison with cement concretes have smaller values of water absorption, smaller decrease in the strength in the course of humidification and significantly higher frost-resistance.

Keywords: mineral-polymers, thermoplast-concrete, polymer binder, composites, concrete.

References
1. Baranov I.M. Composite mineral-polymer construction materials on the basis of acrylic copolymer. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 2, pp. 68– 74 (In Russian).
2. Baranov I.M. Gypsum polymeric composite materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 8, pp. 25–29. (In Russian).

V.V. EFREMENKOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), First Deputy Director (stromizmeritel@rambler.ru) ZAO «Stromizmeritel’» (59E, Gordeevskaya Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603116, Russian Federation)

Improvement of Bitumen Dosing Systems for Manufacturing Asphalt-Concrete Mixes Issues of improving systems of hot bitumen dosing are considered. The design of the modernized bitumen batcher containing the vertical cylindrical element located inside the receiving container and connected with the S-shaped strain meter is presented. The principle of bitumen dosing in the upgraded batcher is in the measurement and scaling of bitumen weight dis- placed by the vertical cylindrical element when filling in the receiving container. The possibility of additional calculation of the density of the dosing material, which is carried out using the vertical cylindrical element of an improved form is shown. The measured value of the concrete density inside the receiving container of the batcher is used for the adaptive control over dosing. It is noted that the use of presented schemes of bitumen weight measurement simplifies the process of modernization of existing batchers and reduces the costs of recon- struction of operating asphalt-concrete plants.

Keywords: asphalt-concrete mix, bitumen, batcher, vertical cylindrical element, scaling.

References
1. Efremenkov V.V., Kondratiev D.G., Ruchkin V.V. Development and making of technological equipment for production of building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 5, pp. 87–89. (In Russian).
2. Efremenkov V.V., Babanin V.A. ZAO «Stromizmeritel» – a complex approach to designing, reconstruction and construction of building materials enterprises. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 6, pp. 8–89. (In Russian).

A.A. KETOV1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (alexander_ketov@mail.ru); A.V. TOLMACHEV2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomol’skii Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 OOO “TeploStek” (46, Varshavskoe Highway, Moscow, 115230, Russian Federation)

Foamed Glass: Technological Realities and the Market The development of foamed glass technology is discussed in the article. It is shown that the gap between scientific developments and the practice of foamed glass manufacture, as a building material, has the principal character that does not allow, in the foreseeable future, to hope for the development of foamed glass manufacture technologies as well as organiza- tion of enterprises which are able to produce the competitive material in the field of industrial and civil construction. The market non-competitiveness of foamed glass produced accord- ing to the classical powder technology from the special glass is substantiated. Assumptions about technical solutions and technology trends that will make it possible to produce the material in demand at the building materials market are made.

Keywords: foamed glass, technology, market competitiveness.

References
1. Ketov A.A., Puzanov I.S., Saulin D.V. Tendencies of development of technology of a foamglass. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 9, pp. 28– 31. (In Russian).
2. Demidovich B.K. Penosteklo [The Foamglass]. Minsk: Nauka i tekhnika.1975. 248 p.
3. Demidovich B.K. Proizvodstvo i primenenie penostekla [Production and use of foamglass]. Minsk: Nauka i tekh- nika. 1972. 301 p.
4. Patent RF 2332364. Sposob izgotovleniya dolgovechnogo penostekla [Way of production of a durable foamglass]. Klimov A.A., Klimov D.A., Klimov E.A., Klimova T.V. Declared 17.01.2006. Published 27.08.2008. Bulletin No. 24. (In Russian).
5. Manevich V.E., Subbotin K.Yu. Regularities of forma- tion of a foamglass. Steklo i keramika. 2008. No. 5, pp. 18–20. (In Russian).
6. Vaisman Ya.I., Ketov A.A., Ketov P.A. Receiving the made foam materials on the basis of synthesizable silicate glasses. Zhurnal prikladnoi khimii. 2013. Vol. 86. No. 7, pp. 1016–1021. (In Russian).
7. Patent RF 2272005. Sposob polucheniya penostekla [Way of receiving foamglass]. Leonidov V.Z., Dudko M.P., Zinov’ev A.A. Declared 01.12.2003. Published 27.06.2005. Bulletin No. 18. (In Russian).
8. Patent RF 2272005. Sposob polucheniya kalibrovannogo granulirovannogo penostekla [Way of receiving the cali- brated granulated foamglass]. Dudko M.P., Zinov’ev A.A., Leonidov V.Z. Declared 20.10.2004. Published 20.03.2006. Bulletin No. 8. (In Russian).
9. Patent RF 2255058. Sposob polucheniya shikhty dlya proizvodstva penostekla [Way of receiving furnace charge for production of a foamglass]. Leonidov V.Z., Dud- ko M.P., Zinov’ev A.A. Declared 20.11.2003. Published 27.06.2005. Bulletin No. 18. (In Russian).
10. Patent RF 2255057. Sposob polucheniya syr’evoi smesi dlya proizvodstva penostekla [Way of receiving raw mix for production of a foamglass]. Leonidov V.Z., Dud- ko M.P., Zinov’ev A.A. Declared 20.11.2003. Published 27.06.2005. Bulletin 18. (In Russian).
11. Patent RF 2278846. Sposob polucheniya poristogo napol nitelya – kalibrovannogo mikrogranulirovannogo penoste kla [Way of receiving a porous filler – the calibrated mi crogranulated foamglass]. Leonidov V.Z., Dud ko M.P., Zinov’ev A.A. Declared 11.05.2005. Published 27.06.2006. Bulletin 18. (In Russian).
12. Patent RF 2255059. Sposob polucheniya penostekla [Way of receiving foamglass]. Leonidov V.Z., Dudko M.P., Zinov’ev A.A. Declared 20.11.2003. Published 27.06.2005. Bulletin 18. (In Russian).
13. Kaz’mina O.V., Vereshchagin V.I. Methodological Principles of Synthesis of Foam-Glass-Crystal Materials According to Low-Temperature Technology. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 41– 45. (In Russian).
14. Shlegel’ I.F. Whether the hollow brick is effective? Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 6, pp. 41–43. (In Russian).

A.D. ORLOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (aorlov2004@yandex.ru) Central Research Institute of Construction Structures named after V.A. Kucherenko (6, Institutskaya Street, Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation)

Optimization of One-Stage Technology of Granulated Foam Glass on the Basis of Low-Temperature Synthesis of Glass Phase Basic principles of the development and optimization of foam-glass and foam glass crystalline materials by the method of low-temperature synthesis of a glass phase on the basis of siliceous opal-crystobalite rocks are considered. A brief comparative review of basic technologies of granulated foam glass manufacturing is presented. Total expenditure for alkali-con- taining raw components as well as total technological energy consumption for foaming and drying are offered as criteria of the optimality of foam glass one stage technologies. The description and substantiation of the developed optimized one-stage technology of granulated foam glass based on producing raw granules (batch) by means of granulating the fine ground siliceous component with the sodium-containing binding mortar on the basis of silicates and other water-soluble sodium salts are given. Main properties of obtained granulated foam materials and technical-economical advantages of the developed technology are presented.

Keywords: granulated foam glass, opal-crystobalite rocks, foam glass-ceramic, low-temperature synthesis of glass phase, diatomite, tripoli, gaize, zeolite.

References
1. Davidyuk A.N. Legkie konstruktsionno-teploizolyatsion- nye betony na steklovidnykh poristykh zapolnitelyakh. [Lightweight construction-insulating concrete on glassy porous aggregates]. Moskow: Krasnaya Zvezda. 2008. 208 p.
2. Orlov D.L. Operational properties of foamed glass and directions of development of its production. Reports of the international scientific-practical conference «Effective heat and sound insulating materials in modern construction and housing and communal services». November 8–10, 2006. Moscow. MGSU. (In Russian).
3. Kaz’mina O.V., Vereshchagin V.I., Semukhin B.S., Abiyaka A.N. Low-temperature synthesis of granulated batches for foamglass materials based on siliceous components. Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 10, pp. 5–8. (In Russian).
4. Nikitin A.I., Storozhenko G.I., Kazantseva L.K., Vereshchagin V.I. Heat-insulating materials and products on the basis of tripolis of Potanin deposit. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 8, pp. 34– 37. (In Russian).
5. Melkonyan R.G. Amorfnye gornye porody i steklovare nie [Amorphous rocks and glass production]. Moskow: «NIA Priroda». 2002. 266 p.
6. Patent RF 2513807 Sposob polucheniya teploizolyatsion nykh blokov [A method for producing heat-insulating blocks]. Vaskalov V.F., Orlov A.D., Vedyakov I.I. Decla red 23.07.2012. Published 20.04.2014. Bulletin No. 11. (In Russian).

Ya.I. VAISMAN1, Doctor of Sciences (Medicine), Professor; Yu.A. KETOV2, MA Student (ketov1992@list.ru)
1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomol’skii Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 Perm State National Research University (15, Bukireva Street, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)

Mass Transfer of Silicate Solution during the Process of Raw Granules Drying in Technology of Granulated Foamed Glass The influence of sodium silicate solution mass transferring inside raw granules of foamed glass during the drying process was investigated. It is shown that the transfer of dissolved components to the surface of the granules takes place during the drying. Admixing of components facilitating the sol-gel conversion of the silicate solution and solidification of granules into the initial composition prevents the migration of Na + ions and opens up new technological possibilities.

Keywords: solution mass transferring, granulated foamed glass.
References
1. Demidovich B.K. Proizvodstvo i primenenie penostekla [Production and use of foamglass]. Minsk: Nauka i tekh- nika.1972. 304 p.
2. Copyright certificate SSSR №1033465. Sposob polucheni- ya granulirovannogo penostekla [Way of receiving the granulated foamglass]. Demidovich B.K., Novikov E.S., Iodo S.S., Petrovich V.A. Published 07.08.83. Bulletin No. 29. (In Russian).
3. Pogrebinskii G.M., Iskorenko G.I., Kanev V.P. The granulated foamglass as perspective heat-insulating mate- rial. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2003. No. 3, pp. 28–29. (In Russian).
4. The certificate on useful model RF 10169. Sposob izgo- tovleniya granulirovannogo penostekla iz stekloboya [Complex technological production line of the granulated foamglass from a cullet]. Iskorenko G.I., Kanev V.P., Pogrebinskii G.M. Declared 15.12.98. Published 16.06.99. (In Russian).
5. Patent RF 2162825. Sposob izgotovleniya granulirovanno go penostekla iz stekloboya [Way of production of the granulated foamglass from a cullet]. Iskorenko G.I., Ka- nev V.P., Pogrebinskii G.M. Declared 30.12.1998. Published 10.02.2001. (In Russian).
6. Patent RF 2453510. Sposob polucheniya penosteklyannykh izdelii [Way of receiving penosteklyannykh of products]. Kapustinskii N.N., Ketov P.A., Ketov Yu.A. Declared 14.10.2010. Published 20.06.2012. Bulletin No. 17. (In Russian).

L.V. SAPACHEVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (ladavs@rambler.ru), S. YU. GOREGLYAD, Engineer-Technologist OOO RIF «Stroymaterialy» (9, Building 3, Dmitrovskoe Highway, 127434, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Foam Glass for Eco-Friendly Construction in Russia Information about the beginning of the production of loose-fill foam glass in Russia is provided. It is shown that the use of foam glass makes it possible to build energy saving, eco- friendly buildings. Main characteristics of the foam glass gravel of 140 kg/m 3 density are presented. The technology of loose-fill foam glass production is described. According to the manufacturer the use of foam glass as loose-fill heat insulation, under the foundation slab for example, makes it possible to reduce the construction budget at this stage of works by 35%. The economy is realized due to reducing the cost of earth works and foundation base works.

Keywords: energy efficiency, high-tech construction, eco-friendly design, green construction, foam glass.

References
1. Davidyuk A.N., Nesvetaev G.V. Effective Materials and Structures to Decide the Problem of Power Saving in Buildings. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2010. No. 3, pp. 16–20. (In Russian).
2. Stakhovskaya N.E., Chervony A.I. Foam Glass from Unsorted Scrap Glass. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 11, pp. 24–28. (In Russian).
3. Davidyuk A.A. Bearing capacity of anchor fastening and flexible basalt-plastic ties in masonry made of lightconcrete blocks with glassy binders. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2013. No. 1, pp. 41–43. (In Russian).
4. Remizov A.N. On Stimulation of Environmentally Sustainable Architecture and Building Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 39–43. (In Russian).

Yu.E. VASILIEV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (vas@mail.ru), A.V. ILYUKHIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.M. KOLBASIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.I. MARSOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), DIN AN NIN, Engineer Moscow State Automobile and Road Technical University (64, Leningradsky Avenue,125319 Moscow, Russian Federation)

Technological Capabilities of Batchers with Capacity Regulation A principle of control using the capabilities of microprocessor technique due to the replacement of the traditional feedback loop with standard regulator by a microprocessor device, which realizes the algorithmic principle of regulation, is offered. In this scheme the information from sensors of mass and belt velocity is transmitted to the microprocessor at the outlet of which the control action on the change in the belt velocity is produced according to the set algorithm.

Keywords: continuous batcher, control system, automation, feedback.

References
1. Mars E.V. Model of batchers of continuous action with the opened systems of measurement of an expense. Collection of scientific works «Automation of engineering technology, machin ery and equipment». Moscow: MGSU. 2007. (In Russian).
2. Mars E.V. A new generation of continuous dosing devices. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. 2003. No. 1, pp. 129–131. (In Russian). v3. Libenko A.V., Maher A.R. Compensation of errors at coher ent management of multicomponent dispensing. Collection of scientific works «Innovative technologies in transport and in dustry». Moscow: MADI. 2007, pp. 117–120. (In Russian).
4. Mars E.V., Solodnikov S.E., Kuznetsov M.N. Design features dispensers integrators continuous flow. Collection of scientific works «Automation of technological processes in the construction of». Moscow: MADI. 2007, pp. 17–20. (In Russian). v5. Libenko A.V., Larkin I.Yu. Automatic control of homo geneity dosed components of the concrete mix. Collection of scientific works. Section «Construction». RIA. 2005. Vol. 1, pp. 151–156. (In Russian).
D.E. BARABASH 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (barabash60170@yandex.ru), Yu.B. POTAPOV 1 , Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), S.P. CHERNUKHIN 1 , Engineer; V.V. VOLKOV 2 , Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics)
1 Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (84, 20-letiya Oktyabrya Street, 394006, Voronezh, Russian Federation)
2 Air Force Military Training and Research Center “Air Force Academy” (54A, Starykh Bolshevikov Street, 394064 Voronezh, Russian Federation)

Predictive Appraisal of Working Capacity of Building Polymeric Elastomers by SHF-Resonance Method Basic rules of the SHF-resonance method making it possible to appraise the dynamics of changes of amplitude-frequency characteristics of building polymeric composites of elastomer category are presented. The design concept and the principle of operation of the proposed SHF-resonance unit are given. The quantitative and qualitative combinations of factors destructively influencing on the polymer base of building composites are substantiated. Regression equations reflecting the dynamics of changes of amplitude-frequency characteristics depending on the time of destructive impacts and the stretch ratio of building composite samples have been obtained.

Keywords: resonance, degradation, elastomers, amplitude-frequency characteristics, building polymeric composite

References
1. Barabash D.E., Volkov V.V. Acoustic effects of the rein forced polymeric compositions. Nauchnoe obozrenie. 2006. No. 1, pp. 22–25. (In Russian).
2. Barabash D.E., Sidorkin O. A., Volkov V.V. Forecasting of change of properties of hermetics in the conditions of multicyclic loadings Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavede nii. Stroitel’stvo. 2006. No. 6 (570), pp. 32–36. (In Russian).
3. Crete T.B. Shift of a wave in the resonator with cubic nonlinearity. Acoustics of non-uniform environments. Akustika neodnorodnykh sred. Yearbook RAE. 2011. Vol. 12, pp. 58–69. (In Russian).
4. Barabash D.E., Chernuhin S.P., Volkov V.V. The Estimation of degradation of hermetics a frequency-reso nant method. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova. 2013. No. 6, pp. 24–28. (In Russian).

V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering). E.S. ZYKOVA, Engineer (barblzka@mail.ru), V.Kh. FAKHRUTDINOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry), A.R. GIZDATULLIN, Engineer Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, 420043, Kazan, Russian Federation)

Influence of Alkaline Environment of Concrete on Epoxide Binders and Polymer-Composite Reinforcement The stability of various types of epoxide binders (epoxy-anhydrate and epoxy-amine) for polymer-composite reinforcement (PCR) in the alkaline environment of the concrete (simulated with the help of water-cement suspension) at 23°C and 80°C has been studied. It is established that the sorption of water solution Ca(OH)2 is accompanied by destruction of polymers and leads to the plasticization and, as a result, to the decrease in micro-hardness and to the increase in bending resistance. It is also established that epoxy-amine binders are more resistant to the alkaline environment than epoxy-anhydrate. Nano-modification of binders increases the stability of the PCR in the concrete and its durability.

Keywords: epoxide binders, alkaline environment, polymer-composite reinforcement, micro-hardness.

References
1. Mett’yuz F., Rolings R. Kompozitnye materialy. Mekhanika i tekhnologiya [Composite materials. Mechanics and Technology]. Moscow: Tekhnosfera. 2004. 408 p.
2. Li Kh., Nevill K. Spravochnoe rukovodstvo po epoksid- nym smolam [Reference guide on epoxy resins]. Moscow: Energiya.1973. 92 p.
3. Kochnova Z.A., Zhavoronok E.S., Chalykh A.E.. Epoksidnye smoly i otverditeli: promyshlennye produkty [Epoxy resins and curing agents: industrial products]. Moscow: Peint-Media. 2006. 200 p.
4. Kerber M.L., Vinogradov V.M., Golovkin G.S. Polimer- nye kompozitsionnye materialy: struktura, svoistva, tekh- nologiya: uchebnoe posobie [Polymer composite materi- als: structure, properties, technology] Saint Petersburg: Professiya. 2008. 560 p.
5. Starovoitova I.A., Khozin V.G., Suleimanov A.M., Khalikova R.A., Zykova E.S., Abdulkhakova A.A., Murtazina A.I., Khadeev E.P. Uniaxially oriented fiber reinforced plastics: analysis of the status, problems and prospects of development. Izvestiya KSUAE. 2012. No. 4 (22), pp. 332–339. (In Russian).
6. Khozin V.G., Starovoitova I.A., Maisuradze N.V., Zykova E.S., Khalikova R.A., Korzhenko A.A., Trinee- va V.V., Yakovlev G.I. Nanomodification of polyme- ric binders for structural composites. Stroitel’nye Mate- rialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 2, pp. 4–10. (In Russian).
7. Tynnyi A.N. Prochnost’ i razrushenie polimerov pri vozdeistvii zhidkikh sred [Strength and fracture of poly- mers when exposed to liquid environments]. Kiev.: Naukova dumka. 1975. 205 p.
8. Zuev Yu.S. Razrushenie polimerov pod deistvem agres- sivnykh sred [Polymer degradation under the action aggressive environments]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1972. 232 p.
9. Khozin V.G., Morozova N.N., Sal’nikov A.V. Concrete at the turn of the third millennium. Material of the 1st National Conference on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. 9–14 Sept. 2001. Vol. 2, pp. 1298–1300. (In Russian).

A.E. BURDONOV, Engineer (slimbul@rambler.ru), V.V. BARAKHTENKO, Engineer, E.V. ZELINSKAYA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (zelinskaelena@mail.ru), N.A. TOLMACHEVA, Engineer Irkutsk National Research State Technical University (83, Lermnontov Street, Irkutsk, 664074, Russian Federation)

Heat Insulating Material on the Basis of Thermo-Reactive Resins and Waste of Heat Power Industry Foamed heat insulating materials notable for their technical and operation characteristics have been obtained. The fly ashes of OAO “Irkutskenergo” of different chemical compositions is used as fillers of polymeric compositions; modified phenol-formaldehyde resins of different brands are used as a binder. The maximum content of fly ash in the material is 55 wt.%. Structural features of the foam material are considered. When the content of the filler is over 30%, pseudo-crystallites of various shapes with round and oval pores of different sizes are observed. Depending on the content of fly ash in the composition, the diameter of cells changes: when the filling is 30%, the diameter of cells is 2–200 mkm, 35% – 5–300 mkm, 40% – 5–400 mkm. The results show that the developed heat insulating material has following characteristics of combustibility – G1, V2, D1, T1 that makes it possible to say that it can be safely used as a contemporary insulation material. Results of the study allow us to draw conclusions about prospects of using this material in building industry.

Keywords: thermo-reactive resins, fly ash, heat insulation, composite materials.

References
1. Kostyukova E.O., Zielinskaya E.V., Barakhtenko V.V., Burdonov A.E., Malewskaya N.,A., Shutov F.A. Reuse of industrial waste PVC as raw material for new construction material in the Irkutsk region. Promyshlennoe proizvodstvo i ispol’zovanie elastomerov. 2010. No. 2, pp. 30–36. (In Russian).
2. Shibaeva G.N. Finishing composite materials with improved sanitary-technical properties. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 6, pp. 74–75. (In Russian)
3. Pekar’ S.S., Khashirov S.Y., Mikitaev A.K. New poly- meric composite materials based on polypropylene with improved physical and mechanical properties. Naukoemkie tekhnologii. 2011. Vol. 12. No. 10, pp. 79– 81. (In Russian).
4. Burdonov A.E., Barakhtenko V.V., Zielinskaya E.V., Suturina E.O., Burdonova A.V., Golovnin A.V. Physical and mechanical properties of composite materials based on waste products with different formulations. Inzhenerno- stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2012. No. 9 (35), pp. 14–22.(In Russian).
5. Alentyev A.Y., Yablokov M.Y. Svyazuyushchie dlya po- limernykh kompozitsionnykh materialov [Contact for polymer composites]. Moscow: MGU. 2010.70 p.
6. Lipatov Y.S. Fizicheskaya khimiya napolnennykh polim- erov [Physical chemistry of filled polymers]. Moscow: Khimiya. 1977. 304 p.
7. Burnashev A.I., Ashrapov A.H., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Nizams R.K. Structure and properties of a modified wood-polymeric composite on the basis of polyvinylchlo- ride. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 104–106. (In Russian).
8. Burnashev A.I., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Nizams R.K., Khozin V.G., Kolesnikova I.V., Fakhrutdinova V.H. Nanomodified wood flour-effective filler PVC composi- tions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 9, pp. 72–74. (In Russian).
9. Ziryanov V.V., Ziryanov D.V. Zola unosa – tekhnogen- noe syr’e [Fly ash technogenic raw materials]. Moscow: «Mask». 2009. 320 p.
10. Kostyukova E.O., Zielinskaya E.V., Barakhtenko V.V., Shutov F.A. Technology for producing innovative build- ing material – «porous synthetic wood» («Vinizol») in the Irkutsk region. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2010. No. 8, pp. 162–165. (In Russian).
11. Samuseva M.N., Shishelova T.I. Ash and slag – an alter- native to natural materials. Fundamental’nye issledova- niya. 2009. No. 2, pp. 75–76. (In Russian).

A.O. ADAMTSEVICH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. EREMIN, Engineer, (aleks.eremin@gmail.com), A.P. PUSTOVGAR, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), S.A. PASHKEVICH, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Research in Influence of External Factors on Properties of Portland-Cement under Conditions of Long-Term Storage The reduction in the activity of Portland-cement under the impact of pre-hydration caused by environmental factors is considered. With the use of experimental methods the influence of adsorption moisture on the kinetics of heat emission and phase composition of Portland-cement stored in hermetic and non-hermetic containers has been studied. It is established that under normal conditions (21±1°C and 55±5% of humidity) the effect of pre-hydration causes a decrease in the concentration of active components of cement and an increase in the concentration of amorphous phase, Portlandite and calcium carbonates (aragonite and calcite). It is revealed that phases C3S and hemihydrates gypsum are most affected by the adsorption moisture. The peculiarities of changes in the heat flow and total heat emission at early stages of the hydration of the samples stored under different conditions during the year were studied using the method of isothermal calorimetry. It is established that only a slight decrease of activity is observed for the samples stored under hermetic conditions, but at the same time the activity of analogous samples stored under non-hermetic conditions reduces proportionally to the time of storage.

Keywords: conditions of storage, Portlandcement, isothermal calorimetry, prehydration, phase composition.

References
1. Richartz V.W. Effects of Storage on the Properties of Cement. ZKG. 1973. No. 2, pp. 67–74.
2. Bazhenov Yu.M. Tekhnologiya betona [Technology of concrete]. Мoscow: АSV. 2007. 528 p.
3. Theisen K., Johansen V. Prehydration and strength de- velopment of Portland cement. Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 1975. No. 9, pp. 787–791.
4. Adamtsevich A., Eremin A., Pustovgar A., Pashkevich S., Nefedov S. Research on the Effect of Prehydration of Portland Cement Stored in Normal Conditions, Applied Mechanics and Materials. Trans Tech Publications. 2014. Vol. 670–671, pp. 376–381.
5. Dubina E., Plank J., Wadse L., Black L., Kenig H. Investigation of the long-term stability during storage of cement in dry mix mortars. Part 1. Prehydration of clinker phases, free lime and sulfate phases under different relative humidities (RH). ALITinform. 2011. No. 3, pp. 38–45. (In Russian).
6. Dubina E., Plank J., Investigation of the long-term stabil- ity during storage of dry mix mortars. Part 2. Influence of Moisture Exposure on the Performance of Self-levelling mortars (SLU). ALITinform. 2012. No. 4–5, pp. 86–99. (In Russian).
7. Mchedlov-Petrosyan O.P. Teplovydelenie pri tverdenii vya- zhushchikh veshchestv i betonov [Heat emission hardening binders and concretes]. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 1984. 224 p.
8. Usherov-Marshak A.V. Kalorimetriya tsementov i bet- onov [Calorimetry cements and concretes]. Khar’kov: Kolorit. 2002. 184 p.
9. Adamtsevich A.O., Pashkevich S.A., Pustovgar A.P. Using calorimetry to predict the strength of increase ac- celerated hardening cement systems. Inzhenerno- stroitel’nyi zhurnal. 2013. No. 3, pp. 36–42. (In Russian).
10. Taylor J.C. Computer Programs for Standardless Quantitative Analysis of Minerals Using the Full Powder Diffraction Profile. Powder Diffraction. 1991. No. 6, pp. 2–9.
11. Le Saoûtetal G. Application of the Rietveld method to the analysis of anhydrous cement. Cement and Concrete Research. 2011. Vol. 41, pp. 133–148.

A.V. USHEROV-MARSHAK, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (usherov@yandex.ua) National University of Construction and Architecture (40, Sumskaya Street, 61002, Kharkiv, Ukraine)

Cement and Concrete Today. A View from Poland The main directions of development of modern cement- and concrete sciences are presented. On the basis of the results of the conference “Days of Concrete” (Poland, October, 2014) main changes in some European standards for concrete and cement are considered. New books on concrete science, written by Polish authors, are announced.

Keywords: cement, concrete, sustainable development, energy saving, resource saving, monograph.

References
1. Lea F., Desch C. The chemistry of cement and concrete. London. Edw. Arnold, 1935. 48 p.
2. Li F. Khimiya tsementa i betona [Chemistry of cement and concrete]. Moscow: Gosstroizdat. 1961. 645 p.
3. Ramachandran V., Fel’dman R., Boduen Dzh. Nauka o betone. Fiziko-khimicheskoe betonovedenie [The sci- ence of the concrete. Physico-chemical сoncrete sci- ence]. Moscow: Stroizdat. 1986. 278 p.
4. Aitchin P.-C. Cements of yesterday and today: concrete of tomorrow. Cement and concrete research. 2000. Vol. 30. No. 9, pp. 1349–1359. v5. Kurdovski W. Chemia cementy i betonu [Chemistry of cement and concrete]. Warszawa: PWIV. 2010. 728 p.
6. Kurdovski W. Cement and concrete. Chemistry. New York, London: Springer. 2014. 699 p.
7. Days of concrete. Tradition and modernity. Conference. Krakow: Polskicement. 2014. 1144 p. (In Polish).
8. PN-EN 206:2014–04. Concrete – specifications, perfor mance, production and conformity.
9. Cement, kruszywa, beton. Rogzaje, wlasciwosci, zastoso- wanie [Cement, aggregates, concrete. Types, properties, application]. Edited by Zb. Giergicznego. Chlorula. 2015. 399 p.
10. Gergichny Zb. Zola unosa v sostave tsementa i betona [Fly ash in the cement composition and concrete]. Saint- Petersburg: 2004. 189 p.
11. Bajorek Cr. ets. Beton – wymagania, wlasciwosci, produk cja i zcodnosc [Concrete – requirements, properties, production and conformity]. Krakow: SOBT. 2014. 181 p.

M.A. GONCHAROVA Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (magoncharova@lipetsk.ru), A.V. KOPEYKIN, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.V. KROHOTIN, Engineer Lipetsk State Technical University (30, Moskovskaya Street, 398600, Lipetsk, Russian Federation)

Optimization of Methods for Determining Mineralogical Composition of Converter Slags Results of the optimization of determination of converter slag mineralogical compositions are presented. Petrographic studies of slags and their X-ray structural analysis have been conducted and presented. Special attention is paid to the method of atomic-force microscopy, which shows that minerals composing the material possess inherent unique characteris- tics of the surface texture. In case of further studies the experience obtained will be able to significantly alleviate the problem of determining the belite in the structure of other kinds of metallurgic slags. Information about morphological features of compositions of various minerals helps to use this method as an independent one for determining the mineralogical com- position of materials under investigation.

Keywords: converter slags, petrographic studies, X-ray structural analysis, hydration activity, mineralogical composition

References
1. Goncharova M.A. Sistemy tverdenija i stroitel’nye kom- pozity na osnove konverternyh shlakov [System harden- ing and building composites based on converter slag]. Voronezh: VGASU, 2012. 136 p. (In Russian).
2. Goncharovа M.A., Chernyshev E.M. Formation systems hardening of composites based on man-made materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 5, pp. 60–64. (In Russian).
3. Kudeyarova N.P., Gostisheva M.A. Hydration activity of steel slag minerals in autoclave conditions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009. No. 8, pp. 34– 35. (In Russian).
4. Bondarenko G.V., Gryzlov V.S., Kaptyushina A.G. Procedure for the preparation of multicomponent min- eral binder based on man-made industrial chemicals. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2012. No. 3, pp. 26–29. (In Russian).
5. Bondarenko G.V., Kaptyushina A.G. Use of waste in construction materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construc- tion Materials]. 2008. No. 2, pp. 38–40. (In Russian).
6. Kalachev VV, Gunners OY, Gubanov LN Technogenic waste industry – resource base for mineral slag composite binders. Proceedings of the V International scientific and technical conference. Volgograd. 2009. Part 1, pp. 114– 120. (In Russian).
7. Artamonova A.V. Binders based electric steelmaking slag. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 5, pp. 11–13. (In Russian). 8. Hazeev D.R., Gordina A.F., Maeva I.S., Yakovlev G.I., Buryanova A.F. The influence of technogenic particulate waste on the structure and properties of composites based on calcium sulfate. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 6, pp. 6–7. (In Russian).

N.A. MITINA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), V.A. LOTOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), A.V. SUKhUShINA, MA Student National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation)

Mixing Liquid for a Magnesia Binder Results of obtaining magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2 by the method of carbonization of suspensions from different magnesia powder under the carbon dioxide pressure are present- ed. It is established that optimal conditions for obtaining the water solution of magnesium bicarbonate with high concentration are CO2 pressure of 9 atm and an initial suspension on the basis of caustic brucite. The use of the water solution of magnesium bicarbonate as mixing liquid for magnesia cements makes it possible to obtain the hydraulic magnesia binder of high water resistance capable to solidify both on air and in the water.

Keywords: mixing liquid, carbon dioxide, carbonization, magnesia binder.

References
1. Volzhenskii A.V., Burov Yu.S., Kolokol'nikov V.S. Mineral'nye vyazhushchie veshchestva (tekhnologiya i svoistva) [Mineral binders (technology and properties)]. M.: Stroiizdat. 1979. 480 p.
2. Orlov A.A., Chernykh T.N., Kramar L.Ya. Magnesium oxychloride boards: problems of production, use and prospects of development. Stroitel'nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 3, pp. 48–52. (In Russian).
3. Shand Mark A. Chemistry and technology of magnesia. Hardcover. 2006. 266 p.
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5. Svit T.F. Thermogravimetric study of the products of hydration and hardening of magnesium sulfate binders Polzunovskii vestnik. 2010. No. 3, pp. 100–103. (In Russian).
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7. Zimich V.V., Kramar L.Ya., Chernykh T.N., Pudovikov V.N., Perminov A.V. Features of influence of additives iron hydroxide sol on structure and properties of magnesia stone. Vestnik YuUrGU. Series «Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura». 2011. Vol. 13. No. 35, pp. 25–32. (In Russian).
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10. Cole W.F., Demediuk T. X-Ray, thermal, and dehydration studies on magnesium oxychlorides. Australian Journal of Chemistry. 1955. Vol. 8(2), pp. 234–251.
11. Patent RF 2404144 Magnezial'noe vyazhushchee [Magnesia binder] Lotov V.A, Lotova L.G. Declared 31.07.2009. Published 20.11.2010. Bulletin No. 32. (In Russian).
12. Lotov V.A., Mitina N.A. Preparation of water-resistant magnesia astringent Tekhnika i tekhnologiya silikatov.

S.A. SENKOV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (energots@rambler.ru), N.S. SEMEYNYKH1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (semeyn@mail.ru); G.I. YAKOVLEV 2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), (jakowlew@udm.net), I.S. POLYANSKIH2 , Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
1 Perm State National Research Polytechnic University (29, Komsomolskiy Avenue, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation)
2 Izhevsk State Technical University named after M.T. Kalashnikov (7, Studencheskaya Street, Izhevsk, 426069, Russian Federation)

Adhesion Properties of a Gypsum Binder in the Presence of Potassium-Silicate Cement A possibility of improving adhesion properties of gypsum binder systems when potassium-silicate cement is used in combination with organic substances-modifiers is considered. The influence of each selected component on basic properties of gypsum finishing mixes is defined. The addition of potassium-silicate cement increases the alkalinity of gypsum solution medium, intensifies processes of solution and colloiding of calcium sulfate hemihydrates, accelerates the setting time of the mass and reduces its water-retaining capacity. Gypsum binder with the addition of potassium-silicate cement has high adhesion strength to the ceramic base. Powder organic substances (modifiers) which make it possible to regulate pro- cesses of setting and hardening of gypsum solutions with the addition of potassium-silicate cement have been selected. High adhesion strength of mortars with an organic-mineral modifier to the ceramic base ensures the significant economy of the gypsum binder in the composition of finishing mixes.

Keywords: gypsum finishing mixes, potassium-silicate cement, adhesive substance, adhesion properties.

References
1. Bazhenov Yu.M., Korovyakov V.F., Denisov G.A. Tekhnologiya sukhikh stroitel’nykh smesei [Technology of dry construction mixes]. Moscow: ASV. 2003. 96 p. v2. Ferronskaya A.V. Korovyakov V.F., Baranov I.M. ets. Gips v maloetazhnom stroitel’stve. [Gypsum is a low-rise building]. Moscow: ASV. 2008. 240 p.
3. Semeinyh N.S., Sazhina O.V. Composite gypsum binder for dry construction mixtures. Construction, architecture. Theory and practice: Theses of reports of graduate students, young scientists and students at scientific and practical con ference of construction faculty. Perm: PGTU. 2008, pp. 36–43. (In Russian).
4. Golubev V.A., Semeinyh N.S., Senkov S.A., Cheremnyh I.N. The curing process and structure of potassium-sili cate cement. Construction, architecture. Theory and prac- tice: Theses of reports of graduate students, young scientists and students at scientific and practical conference of construction faculty. Perm: PGTU. 2007, pp. 24–25. (In Russian).
5. Bezborodov V.A., Belan V. I., Meshkov P. I., etc. Sukhie smesi v sovremennom stroitel’stve. [Dry mixes in modern construction]. Edited by Belan V.I. Novosibirsk. NGAU. 1998. 94 p.

V.A. LOTOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (valotov@tpu.ru), Sh.A. KНABIBULIN, Master of Engineering and Technology National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation)

The Use of a Modified Liquid Glass Binder in Production of Building Materials * A liquid glass binder possessing the ability to harden volumetrically, high water resistance, and good adhesion to various surfaces has been developed. Portland cement is used as an additive-hardener. Ethyl silicate, which play the role of a peptizer-retarder of setting, is included in the composition of the binder. The binder after hardening and drying represents sub- microcrystalline calcium and natrium-calcium hydrosilicates evenly distributed in the volume of the water-insoluble siliceous xerogel. Optimal component composition of the binder: liq- uid glass – 83 %wt, Portland cement – 8.5 %wt, ethyl silicate – 8.5 %wt. On the basis of the developed binder, composite materials with different fillers have been obtained. The com- pressive strength of samples on the basis of crushed sand is 67 MPa.

Keywords: liquid glass, Portland cement, ethyl silicate.

References
1. Vasilik G.Yu. The cement industry of Russia in 2013. Tsement. 2013. No 6, pp. 20–33. (In Russian).
2. Borsuk P.A, Lyass A.M. Zhidkie samotverdeyushchie smesi [Liquid self-hardening mixes]. M.: Mashinostroenie.1979. 255 p. v3. Sychev M.M. Neorganicheskie klei [Inorganic glues]. Leningrad: Khimiya. 1986. 152 p.
4. Samoylenko V. V, Firsov V. V. Structure formation of porous heat insulating material from liquid-glass compo- sition of cold hardening. Glass and Ceramics. 2011. No. 8, pp. 14–16. v5. Lotov V.A., Kutugin V.A. Formation of a porous struc- ture of foam silicates based on liquid-glass compositions. Glass and Ceramics. 2008. №1-2, pp. 6–10.
6. Usova N.T., Lotov V.A., Lukashevich O.D. Warproof auto- claveless silicate building materials on the basis of sand, solu- ble glass compositions and mud of water purifications. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta. 2013. No. 2, pp. 276–284. (In Russian).
7. Korneev V.I., Danilov V.V. Zhidkoe i rastvorimoe steklo [Liquid and soluble glass]. Saint-Petersburg: Stroiizdat. 1996. 216 p.
8. Patent RF 2132817. Sposob polucheniya zhidkogo stekla gidrotermal’nym metodom [Way of receiving liquid glass hydrothermal method]. Lotov V.A., Vereshchagin V.I., Kosintsev V.I., Pasechnikov Yu.V. Declared 17.02.1998. Published 10.07.1999. Bulletin No. 19. (In Russian).
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